4. RELATIVE CLASUSES. Frases relativas

A) They give more information about a noun. Dan más información sobre el nombre.

- My uncle who is a doctor lives in Miami.

B) They start with relative pronoun or adverb. Empiezan con un adverbio o un pronombre relativo.

B.1.There is three relative pronouns. Hay tres pronombres relativos.

  • Who (Quien): Is used for persons. Se usan para personas.

  • Which (Cual): Is used for thing. Se usan para cosas.

  • That (Ese/este): Is used for both. Se usan para ambas.

B.2. There are three relative adverbs. Hay tres advervios relativos.

  • Where (Donde): Is used for places. Se usan para designer lugares.

  • When (Cuando): Is used for time. Se usan para designar el tiempo.

  • Why (Por qué): Is used for reasons. Se usan para designar rezones.

    • The reasons why I came is…

C) The relative pronoun or adverb (Who, which…) is always inmediatly after noun.

Los pronombres y adverbios relativos van inmediatamente seguidos del nombre.

D) The relative clauses can be: Las frases relativas puenden ser:

D.1. Defining (Especificativas)

- My uncle who is a doctor live in Miami. (You have ten uncles)

D.2. Non- Defining (Explicativa)

- Mu uncle, who is a doctor, live in Miami (You have une uncle)

Note: Si el pronombre o el advervio relativo va seguido por un pronombre (Yo, tú, él…) o un nombre (María, Clara…) se pude suprimir. The car that I Bought is red = The car I bought is red.

5. THE PASSIVE. La pasiva.


- Affirmative. Afirmativo.

  • We make the passive with the verb TO BE and the past participle. Hacemos la pasiva con el vervo TO BE y el participio.

  • We can use the passive in any tenses. We change de verb to be: Podemos usar la pasiva en todas las freses cambiando el verbo TO BE.

Past: The car was stolen

Present perfect: Someone has been arrested

Present: Thousands of cars are stolen.

Will: The crime will be solved

Would: fewer crime would be commited

- Negative: Negativo.

  • We make the negative with the auxiliary verb + not. Hacemos el negativo con el verbo auxiliar más el not.

Past: The car wasn't stolen

Present Perfect: Someone hasn't been arrested

Present: Thousands of cars aren't stolen.

Will: The crime wont' be solved.

Would: Fewer crime wouldn't be commited

- Interrogative. Interrogativo.

Past Was The car stolen?

Present Perfect: Has someone been arrested?

Present: Are thousands of cars stolen?

Will: Will the crime be solved?

Would be: Would fewer crimes be commited?

6. CONDITIONALS: Condicionales.

  • First conditional:

  • - Form:

    - If + present + main clauses (Sentences with present, will, modal, imperative)

    Si + presente + otra frase (Frases con: presente, will, verbo modal e imperativo)

    - Uses:

    - We used it for predict the results of a real or probable actions.

    Los usamos para predecir el resultado de una accion real o probable.

  • Second condicional:

  • - Form:

    - If + past + main clause (Sentences with would + ing)

    Si + pasado + otra frase (Frase con el would y el verbo en ing)

    - Uses:

    - We used it to describe a unreal or imaginary situations.

    Lo usamos para describer una situación real o imaginaria.

    Note: These conditionals refer to the present or the future. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. Estos condicionales se refieren al futuro o al presente. La diferencia entre ambos es como de problable es la acción o situación.

    7. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOS. Presente perfecto continuo.

  • Simple: Simple.

  • - Form: Forma.

    - Affirmative: Afirmativo.

    - Subjects + have/has + present participle.

    Sujeto + have/has + presente participle.

    - Negative: Negativo.

    - Subjects + have/has + not + present participle.

    Sujeto + have/has + not+ presente participle.

    - Interrogative: Interrogativo.

    - Have/has + subjects + present participle.

    Have/has + sujeto + presente participle.

  • Continuos: Continuo

  • - Form: Forma.

    - Affirmative: Afirmativo.

    - Subject + have/has + been + ing.

    Sujeto + have/has + been + vervo en ing.

    I have been reading a very good novel.

    - Negative: Negativo.

    - Subject + have/has not + been + ing

    Sujeto + have/has not + been + verbo en ing.

    She hasn't been having a rest.

    - Interrogative: Interrogative.

    - Have/has + subject + been + ing?

    Have/has + sujeto + been + verbo en ing?

    Have you been waiting long?

    - Uses: Usos.

    - Describe an activity that is still incomplete. Describe una escena incomplete.

    - Focus on the process of an activity.

    - Emphasize the duration of an activity. Describe la duración de una actividad.

    8. QUESTIONS FORMS; INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Formas de las preguntas; preguntas indirectas.

  • QUEST: Preguntas:

  • A.1. Yes/No: Si/No.

    - Have you got a mobile?

    Can you play the guitar? Respuestas de Si o no.

    Are you Spanish?

    Do you like coffee?

    - Form: Forma: auxiliary verb + subject + verb

    verbo auxiliary + sujeto + verbo

    A.2. Open questions: Preguntas abiertas.

    - What is your name?

    Where do you live? Siempre empiezan por un pronombre

    Who is your favourite film? Interrogativo y van seguidos del auxiliar.

    How can you said that?

    - Form: Forma: Interrogative pronoun + auxiliary verb + subject + verb

    Pronombre interrogativo + verbo auxiliar + sujeto + verbo

    B) OPEN QUESTIONS. Preguntas abiertas.pO

    B.1.First kind. Primer Tipo

    - Form: Forma: Interrogative pronoun + auxsiliary + subject + verb

    Pronombre interrogativo + verbo auxiliar + sujeto + verbo

    - Where do you live?

    - When did Peter arrive?

    B.2. Second Kind. Segundo tipo.

    - Form: Forma: Interrogative pronoun + verb.

    Pronombre interrogativo + verbo.

    • Who wrote “El ocho”?

    • What building is the highest?

  • INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Preguntas indirectas.

  • C.1. An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. Una pregunta indirecta es una pregunta que esta en otra pregunta.

    I can't remember what your dog's name is.

    C.2. We don't use a question mark (?) with this questions. No usamos la marca de pregunta (¿?) con estas preguntas.

    C.3. Form: Forma:

    - Indirect questions verb + questions word(s) + subject + verb.

    Verbo de las preguntas indirectas + palabras de la pregunta + sujeto + verbo

    I don't know where he lives.

    C.4. Indirect questions verbs. Verbos de las preguntas indirectas.

    - To Know. Saber: I don't know where he lives.

    - To wonder. Preguntarse: I wonder how much money they have got.

    - To remember: Recordar/Acordarse: I can't remember what his name is.

    - To have no idea. No tener idea: I have no idea what time the cinema starts.

    - To ask. Preguntar(se): I'll ask what time the bus arrives.

    - To imagine. Imaginar(se): I can't imagine why she left.

    - To decide. Decidir(Se): I can't decided whitch is my perfect boy ;-P

    C .5. Cuando una pregunta de si o no, se puede hacer de forma indirecta, se añade if o whether.

    Should I buy the cumputer I can't deciced Whether/if I should buy the computer.

    Note: Whether is like If!!!!!

    10. MODAL VERBS. Verbos modales

  • They are auxiliary verbs. They are ALWAYS followed by an infinitive without to (Except in ought to). Shorts answers are not in infinitve. Son verbos auxiliaries. SIEMPRE van seguidos de un infinitivo sin el To (Excepto en ought to). Las respuestas cortas no llevan el verbo en infinitivo.

  • They are the same in all persons. They have one single form. No plurals, no futures… Son iguales en todas las personas. Solo tienen una forma. No hay plurales, no hay futuros…

  • Form. Forma.

  • C.1. Affirmative. Afirmativo.

    Subject + modal verb + verb in infinitive.

    Sujeto + verbo modal + verbo en infinitivo.

    I can play the piano.

    C.2. Negative. Negativo.

    Subject + modal verb + not + verb in infinitive.

    Sujeto + verbo modal + not + verbo en infinitivo.

    You can't go to Madrid this afternoon.

    C.3. Interrogative. Interrogativo.

    Modal verb + subject + verb in infinitive.

    Verbo modal + sujeto + verbo in infinitivo.

    Can we take this book?

  • Modal verbs: Verbos modales.

    • Can: Poder

    • Could: Pude, podia, podría.

    • May: Puedo, puede que

    • Might: Puede que

    • Shall

    • Will Futuro

    • Would: Condicional

    • Should: Debería

    • Ough to: Debería

    • Must: Debo

    • Have to: Tener que

    • Be able to: Ser capaz de, poder Semimodales

    • Needn't: No hace falta que

  • Ability. Habilidad.

  • E.1. Can and could are used to describe ability. Can y could se usan para describer una habilidad.

    E.2. Can and Could become Be able to in some sentences. Can y Could se pueden sustituir por Be able to en algunas frases.

    E.3. Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past, though could is more common. Could y was/were able to pueden ser utilizadas para describer habilidades en pasado, pero Could es más ultilizado.

    E.4. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past, we use was/were able to or managed to. Para describer una habilidad en una occasion en el pasado, podemos usar was/were able to o manager to.

  • Obligation. Obligación.

  • F.1. Must and need are used to describe abligation and necessity. Have to is also used. Must and need son usados para describir una ocligación o una necesidad. Have to también se utiliza.

    F.2. Have to is not a modal verb, but it is also used to describe strong obligation. Must is used to describe obligation that comes “from the speaker”. Have to is used to describe a general obligation, which comes from “outside” the speaker. Have to no es un verbo modal, pero es utilizado también para describir fuertes obligaciones. Must se usa para describir obligaciones que provienen del hablante, mientras que have to se usa para describir una obligación general, que proviene de otra persona que no es el hablante.

  • Advice. Advertencia.

  • G.1. Should and ought to are used to give advice, or to say what we think is the best thing to do. Should and ought to se usan para hacer una advertencia o para decir cual creemos que es la mejor opción para hacer.

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    Enviado por:Cris
    Idioma: inglés
    País: España

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