TIEMPOS VERBALES EN INGLÉS
To talk about a habit or something that happens regularly.
How often do you see your grandparents?.
To talk about a state.
She doesn't like coffee.
To talk about something which is always true. Babies cry when they're hungry.
To talk about a future, timetabled event.
The train leaves at 9:30 tonight.
To talk about what is happening now, at this moment.
What are you doing?.
To talk about a temporary situation, or activity happening around now.
He's learning English.
To talk about future plans or arrangements.
I'm seeing her tonight.
To talk about change in progress.
My father's becoming very bad-tempered.
To talk about a finished action in the past, often with a time adverbial.
He left school in 1994.
To talk about something that happened regularly in the past.
She went out every night.
To talk about a past situation.
I went to Oxford University.
To talk about an action which was in progress at a particular moment in the past.
I was watching television at 9:30.
To describe a situation or the background to a scene.
It was raining and he was carrying an umbrella.
To describe an interrupted action in the past.
We were watching the news when you rang.
The past continuous is often used after while and as.
While we were playing, it started to rain.
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
For an action that happened before another action in the past.
When we got to the station, the train had already left.
For an action that happened before a certain time in the past.
By 4000 they had walked almost 20 kilometres.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
To talk about experiences in one's life.
Have you ever been to America? I've never flown.
To talk about the present result of a past action.
Ann has gone out.
To talk about an action which began in the past and which continues in the present.
She has had the same car since 1993.
PRESENT PERFECT CONT.
To talk about an action which began in the past and which continues in the present. It is often used for temporary actions and situations.
She's been working here since June.
To emphasise that an activity is unfinished. Compare this with the present perfect simple which often indicates a finished action.
I've been reading the book (= I haven't finished it).
I've read the book (= I've finished it).
To make a prediction about the future.
I think it will rain tomorrow.
To talk about a decision made at the moment of speaking.
I'm tired; I'll go to bed.
To make an offer.
“I'm hungry” - “I'll get you something to eat”.
USES (Going to):
To make a prediction where there is some evidence now.
Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain.
To talk about plans where the decision has been made before speaking. It normally expresses a degree of intention.
She's going to study French.
USES (Future continuous):
To indicate that an action will be in progress at a particular moment in the future.
I will be working all day tomorrow
USES (Future perfect):
To say that an action will be finished by a certain time in the future.
They'll have known each other for twenty years in June.
INFINITIVE WITH `TO' AND `-ING' FORM
Ininitive with TO
Infinitive with -ING
Infinitive with TO:
Afford, Agree, Appear, Arrange, Ask, Attempt, Choose, Decide, Demand, Deserve, Expect, Help, Hope, Intend, Learn, Manage, Need, Offer, Plan, Pretend, Promise, Refuse, Seem, Threaten, Want, Wish, Would like, Would love, Would hate, Would prefer.
The -ING form is used:
Admit, Avoid, Be used to, Can't help, Can't stand, Consider, Deny, Dislike, Don't mind, Enjoy, Finish, Imagine, Keep, Look forward to, Miss, Practise, Regret, Suggest.
Verb + not + to …
Verb + prep + verb
Verb + object + infinitive:
Advise, Allow, Ask, Encourage, Expect, Force, Get, Help, Invite, Persuade, Remind, Teach, Tell, Warn, Would like, Would love, Would hate, Would prefer.
Example: Smoking is bad for you.
Verbs followed by To or -ING
Begin, Continue, Hate, Like, Love, Start.
Not the same meaning:
Forget, Go on, Remember, Stop, Try
THE is used for talking about concrete things. Examples:
The name of the street
The best player
Can you tell me the time?
The first floor
The city centre
The nearest bank
The same street
The fire brigade
The left, …
To play the piano, …
To go to the cinema
“ “ the theatre
“ “ the bank
“ “ the post office
“ “ the doctor
“ “ the station
“ “ the airport
“ “ the city centre
Go to work, be at work, start work, finish work.
Go to school, be at school, start school, leave school.
Go to university, be at university.
Go to hospital, be in hospital.
Go to prison, be in prison.
Go to church, be in/at church.
Go to bed, be in bed.
Go home, Be at home.
I like music.
I like meat.
Life isn't possible without water.
I hate exams.
The isn't used with sports, academy subjects, languages, …
They don't use THE with television, breakfast, lunch, dinner, next/last + …, …
First conditional: If + Present, will. Will is substitutable for may, can, should, … or a imperative.
Is used to talk about a situation that is true or may become true.
If you go to the party, you'll enjoy it.
Second conditional: If + past simple, would. After If, they use were (not was). Would is substitutable like Will.
Is used to talk about a situation that is unreal or unlikely to happen.
If you went to the party, you'd enjoy it.
Third conditional: If + past perfect, would have. Would have is substitutable for might/could have.
Is used to describe an imaginary event or situation in the past.
If you had gone to the party, you would have enjoyed it.
SHOULD / OUGHT TO
They are used to:
To give advice.
To make suggestions.
To talk about what is a good or the correct thing to do.
To express a future possibility.
Example: You should go to bed. You ought to go to the dentist twice a year.
REPORTED STATEMENTS, QUESTIONS, COMMANDS
Present simple Past simple
Present continuous Past continuous
Past simple Past perfect simple
Present perfect simple Past perfect simple
Will / won't Would / wouldn't
Can / can't Could / couldn't
This, these That, those
Now, today Then, that day
Next week The next week
Tomorrow The next day
Yesterday The day before
Last week The week before
“That” can be omitted after “Say” or “Tell”.
In reported questions, we use the first word, and after that, we put the subject, and after the subject, qe put the verb. Example: Why are you crying / She asked why they were crying. If there isn't a question word, we use “if” or “whether”. Example: Are you English? / She asked if / whether we were English.
In reported commands, the affirmative structure is Subject + Verb + Object. Example: Sit down / He told her to sit down.
In reported commands, the negative structure is Subject + Verb + Object + Not + Infinitive with To. Example: Don't shout me / She told him not to shout at her. We can use other verbs instead of tell: persuade, advise, warn, remind, …
Defining relative clauses: They give more information about the subject. Examples:
The woman who caused the accident went to prison. / This is the gun which was found. / Where is the man who found it?
This is the police whose arm was broken in the attack.
The linking words are: who (person), which (things), that (all), whose (things which belong to the subject), whom (a quien.)
Non-defining relative clauses: They don't give more information about the subject. Examples:
Lord Lucan, who disappeared in 1974, is said to have killed his wife.
WISH / IF ONLY
Wish / If only + past simple: Desire for something to change in the present. If only was better-looking.
Wish / If only + could: Desire for something to change in the present. I wish she could come this evening.
Wish / If only + would: To complain about people or things. I wish you would stop doing that. If only the film would end.
Wish / If only + past perfect: To talk about a regret about the past. I wish I had seen the film. If only we hadn't broke the CD player.
VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE WITH TO
Verbs: Ask, beg, enable, expect, force, get, help, invite, mean (=intend), order, persuade, remind, teach, tell, train, want, warn, would hate, would like, would love. Examples: I want you to take my photo. She told me not to say anything.
Note: Make and Let can be used in same construction but without To: He made them wait.
VERBS NOT USED IN CONTINUOUS TENSES
Verbs of thinking: Believe, Forget, Know, Remember, Understandig.
Verbs of liking and disliking: Hate, Like, Love, Prefer.
Verbs of being and possession: Be, Own.
MAY / MIGHT
Affirmative forms: may / might. Negative forms: may not / might not.
They use them to talk about future possibility and to make predictions.
Examples: The sky's grey; it might rain. They may come, but they aren't sure.
SHALL FOR OFFERS
For making offers in the affirmative: We'll help you with your homework.
For offers that are questions: Shall I buy you a newspaper?
EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
Some: Affirmative sentences and questions that you expect Yes as answer. Countable nouns.
Any: Negative sentences and questions. Countable nouns.
A few: Countable nouns.
Little: Uncountable nouns.
Many: Interrogative and negative sentences. Countable nouns.
Much: Interrogative and negative sentences. Uncountable nouns.
A lot of: Affirmative sentences. Countable and uncountable nouns.
Infinitive Past tense Past participle Infinitive Past tense Past participle
BE WAS / WERE BEEN LEND LENT LENT
BECOME BECAME BECOME LET LET LET
BEGIN BEGAN BEGUN LOSE LOST LOST
BITE BIT BITTEN MAKE MADE MADE
BLOW BLEW BLOWN MEAN MEANT MEANT
BREAK BROKE BROKEN MEET MET MET
BRING BROUGHT BROUGHT PAY PAID PAID
BUILD BUILT BUILT PUT PUT PUT
BURN BURNT BURNT READ READ READ
BUY BOUGHT BOUGHT RIDE RODE RIDDEN
CATCH CAUGHT CAUGHT RING RANG RUNG
CHOOSE CHOSE CHOSEN RISE ROSE RISEN
COME CAME COME RUN RAN RUN
COST COST COST SAY SAID SAID
CUT CUT CUT SEE SAW SEEN
DO DID DONE SELL SOLD SOLD
DRAW DREW DRAWN SEND SENT SENT
DRINK DRANK DRUNK SET SET SET
DRIVE DROVE DRIVEN SHAKE SHOOK SHAKEN
EAT ATE EATEN SHINE SHONE SHONE
FALL FELL FALLEN SHOOT SHOT SHOT
FEED FED FED SHOW SHOWN SHOWN
FEEL FELT FELT SHUT SHUT SHUT
FIGHT FOUGHT FOUGHT SING SANG SUNG
FIND FOUND FOUND SINK SANK SUNK
FLY FLEW FLOWN SLEEP SLEPT SLEPT
FORGET FORGOT FORGOTTEN SPEAK SPOKE SPOKEN
FREEZE FROZE FROZEN SPEND SPENT SPENT
GET GOT GOT SPREAD SPREAD SPREAD
GIVE GAVE GIVEN STAND STOOD STOOD
GO WENT GONE STEAL STOLE STOLEN
GROW GREW GROWN STICK STUCK STUCK
HANG HUNG HUNG STRIKE STRUCK STRUCK
HAVE HAD HAD SWIM SWAM SWUM
HEAR HEARD HEARD TAKE TOOK TAKEN
HIDE HID HIDDEN TEACH TAUGHT TAUGHT
HIT HIT HIT TEAR TORE TORN
HOLD HELD HELD TELL TOLD TOLD
HURT HURT HURT THINK THOUGHT THOUGHT
KEEP KEPT KEPT THROW THREW THROWN
KNOW KNEW KNOWN WAKE WOKE WOKEN
LEAD LED LED WEAR WORE WORN
LEARN LEARNT LEARNT WIN WON WON
LEAVE LEFT LEFT WRITE WROTE WRITTEN
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
Never - Hardly ever - Sometimes - Often - Usually - Always
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
Good Better The best
Bad Worse The worst