US (United States) Code. Title 49. Subtitle VII: Aviation programs. Part A. Subpart III. Chapter 443: Insurance

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos). Legislación federal estadounidense # Transportation. Air commerce and safety

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publicidad

-CITE-

49 USC CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-MISC1-

Sec.

44301. Definitions.

44302. General authority.

44303. Coverage.

44304. Reinsurance.

44305. Insuring United States Government property.

44306. Premiums and limitations on coverage and claims.

44307. Revolving fund.

44308. Administrative.

44309. Civil actions.

44310. Ending effective date.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in title 10 section 9514.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44301 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44301. Definitions

-STATUTE-

In this chapter -

(1) "American aircraft" means -

(A) a civil aircraft of the United States; and

(B) an aircraft owned or chartered by, or made available to -

(i) the United States Government; or

(ii) a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or

possession of the United States, or a political subdivision

of the State, territory, or possession.

(2) "insurance carrier" means a person authorized to do

aviation insurance business in a State, including a mutual or

stock insurance company and a reciprocal insurance association.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1168.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44301 49 App.:1531. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1301, 72 Stat.

800; restated Nov. 9, 1977,

Pub. L. 95-163, Sec. 1(a),

91 Stat. 1278.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In this section, the text of 49 App.:1531(3) is omitted as

surplus because the complete name of the Secretary of

Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a

section.

In clause (1)(B)(i), the words "United States Government" are

substituted for "United States or any department or agency thereof"

for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the

United States Code.

In clause (1)(B)(ii), the words "the government of" are omitted

for consistency in the revised title.

In clause (2), the words "insurance company" are omitted as being

included in "insurance carrier". The words "means a person" are

added because they are inclusive. The words "group or association"

are omitted as being included in "person". The word "State" is

substituted for "State of the United States" to eliminate

unnecessary words.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44302 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44302. General authority

-STATUTE-

(a) Insurance and Reinsurance. - (1) Subject to subsection (c) of

this section and section 44305(a) of this title, the Secretary of

Transportation may provide insurance and reinsurance against loss

or damage arising out of any risk from the operation of an American

aircraft or foreign-flag aircraft.

(2) An aircraft may be insured or reinsured for not more than its

reasonable value as determined by the Secretary in accordance with

reasonable business practices in the commercial aviation insurance

industry. Insurance or reinsurance may be provided only when the

Secretary decides that the insurance cannot be obtained on

reasonable terms from an insurance carrier.

(b) Reimbursement of Insurance Cost Increases. -

(1) In general. - The Secretary may reimburse an air carrier

for the increase in the cost of insurance, with respect to a

premium for coverage ending before October 1, 2002, against loss

or damage arising out of any risk from the operation of an

American aircraft over the insurance premium that was in effect

for a comparable operation during the period beginning September

4, 2001, and ending September 10, 2001, as the Secretary may

determine. Such reimbursement is subject to subsections (a)(2),

(c), and (d) of this section and to section 44303.

(2) Payment from revolving fund. - A reimbursement under this

subsection shall be paid from the revolving fund established by

section 44307.

(3) Further conditions. - The Secretary may impose such further

conditions on insurance for which the increase in premium is

subject to reimbursement under this subsection as the Secretary

may deem appropriate in the interest of air commerce.

(4) Termination of authority. - The authority to reimburse air

carriers under this subsection shall expire 180 days after the

date of enactment of this paragraph.

(c) Presidential Approval. - The Secretary may provide insurance

or reinsurance under subsection (a) of this section, or reimburse

an air carrier under subsection (b) of this section, only with the

approval of the President. The President may approve the insurance

or reinsurance or the reimbursement only after deciding that the

continued operation of the American aircraft or foreign-flag

aircraft to be insured or reinsured is necessary in the interest of

air commerce or national security or to carry out the foreign

policy of the United States Government.

(d) Consultation. - The President may require the Secretary to

consult with interested departments, agencies, and

instrumentalities of the Government before providing insurance or

reinsurance or reimbursing an air carrier under this chapter.

(e) Additional Insurance. - With the approval of the Secretary, a

person having an insurable interest in an aircraft may insure with

other underwriters in an amount that is more than the amount

insured with the Secretary. However, the Secretary may not benefit

from the additional insurance. This subsection does not prevent the

Secretary from making contracts of coinsurance.

(f) Extension of Policies. -

(1) In general. - The Secretary shall extend through August 31,

2003, and may extend through December 31, 2003, the termination

date of any insurance policy that the Department of

Transportation issued to an air carrier under subsection (a) and

that is in effect on the date of enactment of this subsection on

no less favorable terms to the air carrier than existed on June

19, 2002; except that the Secretary shall amend the insurance

policy, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary may

prescribe, to add coverage for losses or injuries to aircraft

hulls, passengers, and crew at the limits carried by air carriers

for such losses and injuries as of such date of enactment and at

an additional premium comparable to the premium charged for

third-party casualty coverage under such policy.

(2) Special rules. - Notwithstanding paragraph (1) -

(A) in no event shall the total premium paid by the air

carrier for the policy, as amended, be more than twice the

premium that the air carrier was paying to the Department of

Transportation for its third party policy as of June 19, 2002;

and

(B) the coverage in such policy shall begin with the first

dollar of any covered loss that is incurred.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1168; Pub. L.

105-137, Sec. 2(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2640; Pub. L. 107-42,

title II, Sec. 201(a), Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 234; Pub. L.

107-296, title XII, Sec. 1202, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2286.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44302(a) 49 App.:1532(a)(1) Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

(less words between 85-726, Sec. 1302(a), 72

1st and 3d commas), Stat. 801; restated Nov. 9,

(3). 1977, Pub. L. 95-163, Sec.

2, 91 Stat. 1278; Oct. 31,

1992, Pub. L. 102-581, Sec.

401(b), 106 Stat. 4897.

49 App.:1537(a) Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

(last sentence 85-726, Sec. 1307(a) (last

words between 2d sentence words between 2d

and 3d commas). and 3d commas), 72 Stat.

804; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L.

98-443, Sec. 9(b), 98 Stat.

1706.

44302(b) 49 App.:1532(a)(1)

(words between 1st

and 2d commas), (2).

44302(c) 49 App.:1532(a)(1)

(words between 2d

and 3d commas).

44302(d) 49 App.:1541. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1311, 72 Stat.

806.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "Subject to

subsection (b) of this section" are added, and the words "American

aircraft or foreign-flag aircraft" are substituted for "aircraft"

in 49 App.:1532(a), for clarity. The words "in the manner and to

the extent provided by this subchapter" are omitted as unnecessary.

The words "Insurance shall be issued under this subchapter only to

cover any risk from the operation of an aircraft . . . such

aircraft is" are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (B),

the word "places" is substituted for "points" for consistency in

the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "An aircraft may be insured or

reinsured for not more than" are substituted for "and such stated

amount shall not exceed" in 49 App.:1537(a) for clarity and because

of the restatement. The words "its reasonable value" are

substituted for "an amount . . . to represent the fair and

reasonable value of the aircraft" to eliminate unnecessary words.

The words "Insurance or reinsurance may be provided only" are added

because of the restatement. The word "conditions" is omitted as

being included in "terms".

In subsection (b), the words "The Secretary may provide insurance

or reinsurance under subsection (a) of this section only with the

approval of the President" are substituted for "with the approval

of the President" for clarity and because of the restatement. The

words "The President may" are substituted for "The President shall"

because the authority of the President is discretionary.

In subsection (c), the words "the Secretary to consult . . .

before providing insurance or reinsurance under this chapter" are

substituted for "and after such consultation . . . as" because of

the restatement. The words "departments, agencies, and

instrumentalities" are substituted for "agencies" for consistency

in the revised title and with other titles of the United States

Code.

In subsection (d), the words "However, the Secretary may not

benefit from the additional insurance" are substituted for "in that

event, the Secretary shall not be entitled to the benefit of such

insurance" for clarity.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec.

(b)(4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107-42, which was

approved Sept. 22, 2001.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec.

(f)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107-296, which was

approved Nov. 25, 2002.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107-296 added subsec. (f).

2001 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(a)(1),

substituted "subsection (c)" for "subsection (b)" and "foreign-flag

aircraft." for "foreign-flag aircraft - " and struck out subpars.

(A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) in foreign air commerce; or

"(B) between at least 2 places, all of which are outside the

United States."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(a)(3), added subsec. (b).

Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(a)(2), (4), redesignated

subsec. (b) as (c), in first sentence inserted ", or reimburse an

air carrier under subsection (b) of this section," before "only

with the approval", and in second sentence inserted "or the

reimbursement" before "only after deciding" and "in the interest of

air commerce or national security or" before "to carry out the

foreign policy". Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(a)(2), (5), redesignated

subsec. (c) as (d) and inserted "or reimbursing an air carrier"

before "under this chapter". Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(a)(2), redesignated subsec.

(d) as (e).

1997 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105-137 substituted "as determined

by the Secretary in accordance with reasonable business practices

in the commercial aviation insurance industry." for "as determined

by the Secretary."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25,

2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107-296, set out as an Effective

Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

-EXEC-

PROVISION OF AVIATION INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER

SERVICE

Determination of President of the United States, No. 94-39, July

26, 1994, 59 F.R. 38551, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and

laws of the United States, including 3 U.S.C. 301 and 49 U.S.C.

44302, I hereby:

(1) determine that continuation of authorized humanitarian

relief air services to Haiti is necessary to carry out the

foreign policy of the United States;

(2) approve provision by the Secretary of Transportation of

insurance against loss or damage arising out of any risk from the

operation of an aircraft in the manner and to the extent provided

in 49 U.S.C. 44301-44310, whenever he determines that such

insurance cannot be obtained on reasonable terms and conditions

from any company authorized to conduct an insurance business in a

State of the United States;

(3) delegate to the Secretary of Transportation, in

consultation with the Secretary of State, the authority vested in

me by 49 U.S.C. 44302(b) [now 44302(c)], for purposes of

responding to the current crisis in Haiti; and

(4) delegate to the Secretary of Transportation, in

consultation with the Secretary of State, the authority vested in

me by 49 U.S.C. 44306(b) [now 44306(c)] for purposes of

responding to the current crisis in Haiti.

The Secretary of Transportation is directed to bring this

determination immediately to the attention of all air carriers

within the meaning of 49 U.S.C. 40102(a)(2), and to arrange for its

publication in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.

PROVISION OF AVIATION INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER

SERVICE IN DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS

Determination of President of the United States, No. 01-29, Sept.

23, 2001, 66 F.R. 49075, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Transportation

By virtue of the authority vested in me by 49 U.S.C. 44302, et

seq., I hereby:

(1) determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air

service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national

security, and the foreign policy of the United States;

(2) approve provision by the Secretary of Transportation of

insurance to U.S.-flag air carriers against loss or damage

arising out of any risk from the operation of an aircraft, and/or

reimbursement of insurance cost increases, in the manner and to

the extent provided in Chapter 443 of 49 U.S.C., whenever he

determines that such insurance cannot be obtained on reasonable

terms and conditions from any company authorized to conduct an

insurance business in a State of the United States; and

(3) delegate to the Secretary of Transportation the authority,

vested in me by 49 U.S.C. 44306(b) [now 44306(c)], to extend this

determination for additional 60-day periods, when he finds that

the continued operation of aircraft to be insured or reinsured is

necessary in the interest of air commerce or the national

security, or to carry out the foreign policy of the United States

Government.

You are directed to bring this determination immediately to the

attention of all air carriers within the meaning of 49 U.S.C.

40102(2), and to arrange for its publication in the Federal

Register.

George W. Bush.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 44303, 44305 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44303 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44303. Coverage

-STATUTE-

(a) In general. - The Secretary of Transportation may provide

insurance and reinsurance, or reimburse insurance costs, as

authorized under section 44302 of this title for the following:

(1) an American aircraft or foreign-flag aircraft engaged in

aircraft operations the President decides are necessary in the

interest of air commerce or national security or to carry out the

foreign policy of the United States Government.

(2) property transported or to be transported on aircraft

referred to in clause (1) of this section, including -

(A) shipments by express or registered mail;

(B) property owned by citizens or residents of the United

States;

(C) property -

(i) imported to, or exported from, the United States; and

(ii) bought or sold by a citizen or resident of the United

States under a contract putting the risk of loss or

obligation to provide insurance against risk of loss on the

citizen or resident; and

(D) property transported between -

(i) a place in a State or the District of Columbia and a

place in a territory or possession of the United States;

(ii) a place in a territory or possession of the United

States and a place in another territory or possession of the

United States; or

(iii) 2 places in the same territory or possession of the

United States.

(3) the personal effects and baggage of officers and members of

the crew of an aircraft referred to in clause (1) of this section

and of other individuals employed or transported on that

aircraft.

(4) officers and members of the crew of an aircraft referred to

in clause (1) of this section and other individuals employed or

transported on that aircraft against loss of life, injury, or

detention.

(5) statutory or contractual obligations or other liabilities,

customarily covered by insurance, of an aircraft referred to in

clause (1) of this section or of the owner or operator of that

aircraft.

(b) Air Carrier Liability for Third Party Claims Arising Out of

Acts of Terrorism. - For acts of terrorism committed on or to an

air carrier during the period beginning on September 22, 2001, and

ending on December 31, 2003, the Secretary may certify that the air

carrier was a victim of an act of terrorism and in the Secretary's

judgment, based on the Secretary's analysis and conclusions

regarding the facts and circumstances of each case, shall not be

responsible for losses suffered by third parties (as referred to in

section 205.5(b)(1) of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) that

exceed $100,000,000, in the aggregate, for all claims by such

parties arising out of such act. If the Secretary so certifies, the

air carrier shall not be liable for an amount that exceeds

$100,000,000, in the aggregate, for all claims by such parties

arising out of such act, and the Government shall be responsible

for any liability above such amount. No punitive damages may be

awarded against an air carrier (or the Government taking

responsibility for an air carrier under this subsection) under a

cause of action arising out of such act.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1169; Pub. L.

107-42, title II, Sec. 201(b)(1), Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 235;

Pub. L. 107-296, title XII, Sec. 1201, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat.

2286.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44303 49 App.:1533. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1303, 72 Stat.

801; restated Nov. 9, 1977,

Pub. L. 95-163, Sec. 3, 91

Stat. 1279.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In this section, before clause (1), the words "persons, property,

or interest" are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the word

"property" is substituted for "Cargoes" and "air cargoes" for

consistency in the revised title. In clause (2)(B) and (C), the

words "its territories, or possessions" are omitted as unnecessary

because of the definition of "United States" in section 40102(a) of

the revised title. In clause (2)(C)(ii), the word "contract" is

substituted for "contracts of sale or purchase", and the words

"putting . . . on" are substituted for "is assumed by or falls

upon", to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2)(D), the word

"place" is substituted for "point" for consistency in the revised

title. In subclause (i), the words "a State or the District of

Columbia" are substituted for "the United States" for clarity and

consistency because the definition of "United States" in section

40102(a) of the revised title is too broad for the context of the

clause. The definition in section 40102(a) includes territories and

possession and would therefore overlap with subclauses (ii) and

(iii). In subclause (iii), the words "2 places in the same

territory or possession of the United States" are substituted for

"any point in any such territory or possession and any other point

in the same territory or possession" for clarity. In clauses (3)

and (4), the word "individuals" is substituted for "persons" as

being more appropriate. The words "captains" and "pilots" are

omitted as being included in "officers and members of the crew".

-COD-

CODIFICATION

The text of section 201(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107-42, which was

transferred and redesignated so as to appear as subsec. (b) of this

section and amended by Pub. L. 107-296, was based on Pub. L.

107-42, title II, Sec. 201(b)(2), Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 235,

formerly included in a note set out under section 40101 of this

title.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Pub. L. 107-296 designated existing provisions as subsec.

(a), inserted heading, transferred and redesignated the text of

section 201(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107-42 so as to appear as subsec. (b),

in heading substituted "Air Carrier Liability for Third Party

Claims Arising Out of Acts of Terrorism" for "Discretion of the

Secretary", and in text substituted "the period beginning on

September 22, 2001, and ending on December 31, 2003, the Secretary"

for "the 180-day period following the date of enactment of this

Act, the Secretary of Transportation" and "this subsection" for

"this paragraph". See Codification note above.

2001 - Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(b)(1)(A), inserted ", or

reimburse insurance costs, as" after "insurance and reinsurance" in

introductory provisions.

Par. (1). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(b)(1)(B), inserted "in the

interest of air commerce or national security or" before "to carry

out the foreign policy".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25,

2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107-296, set out as an Effective

Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 44302 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44304 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44304. Reinsurance

-STATUTE-

To the extent the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to

provide insurance under this chapter, the Secretary may reinsure

any part of the insurance provided by an insurance carrier. The

Secretary may reinsure with, transfer to, or transfer back to, the

carrier any insurance or reinsurance provided by the Secretary

under this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1169; Pub. L.

107-42, title II, Sec. 201(c), Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 235.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44304(a) 49 App.:1535(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1305, 72 Stat.

802; Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L.

95-163, Sec. 4(a), 91 Stat.

1279.

44304(b) 49 App.:1535(b).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), the words "may reinsure any part of the

insurance provided by an insurance carrier" are substituted for

"may reinsure, in whole or in part, any company authorized to do an

insurance business" for clarity and consistency with source

provisions restated in this subchapter and the definition of

"insurance carrier" in section 44301 of the revised title. The

words "transfer to, or transfer back to" are substituted for "cede

or retrocede to" for clarity.

In subsection (b), the word "same" is omitted as being included

in "similar". The words "on account of the cost of" are omitted as

surplus. The word "providing" is substituted for "rendered" and

"furnished" because it is inclusive. The words "except for" are

substituted for "but such allowance to the carrier shall not

provide for" to eliminate unnecessary words.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-42 struck out subsec. (a) designation and

heading "General Authority" and struck out subsec. (b) which read

as follows:

"(b) Premium Levels. - The Secretary may provide reinsurance at

premiums not less than, or obtain reinsurance at premiums not

higher than, the premiums the Secretary establishes on similar

risks or the premiums the insurance carrier charges for the

insurance to be reinsured by the Secretary, whichever is most

advantageous to the Secretary. However, the Secretary may make

allowances to the insurance carrier for expenses incurred in

providing services and facilities that the Secretary considers good

business practice, except for payments by the carrier for the

stimulation or solicitation of insurance business."

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44305 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44305. Insuring United States Government property

-STATUTE-

(a) General. - With the approval of the President, a department,

agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may

obtain -

(1) insurance under this chapter, including insurance for risks

from operating an aircraft in intrastate or interstate air

commerce, but not including insurance on valuables subject to

sections 17302 and 17303 of title 40; and

(2) insurance for risks arising from providing goods or

services directly related to and necessary for operating an

aircraft covered by insurance obtained under clause (1) of this

subsection if the aircraft is operated -

(A) in carrying out a contract of the department, agency, or

instrumentality; or

(B) to transport military forces or materiel on behalf of the

United States under an agreement between the Government and the

government of a foreign country.

(b) Premium Waivers and Indemnification. - With the approval

required under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of

Transportation may provide the insurance without premium at the

request of the Secretary of Defense or the head of a department,

agency, or instrumentality designated by the President when the

Secretary of Defense or the designated head agrees to indemnify the

Secretary of Transportation against all losses covered by the

insurance. The Secretary of Defense and any designated head may

make indemnity agreements with the Secretary of Transportation

under this section. If such an agreement is countersigned by the

President or the President's designee, the agreement shall

constitute, for purposes of section 44302(c), a determination that

continuation of the aircraft operations to which the agreement

applies is necessary to carry out the foreign policy of the United

States.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1170; Pub. L.

105-137, Sec. 3, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2640; Pub. L. 107-42,

title II, Sec. 201(e), Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 236; Pub. L.

107-217, Sec. 3(n)(6), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44305 49 App.:1534. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1304, 72 Stat.

802; Oct. 31, 1992, Pub. L.

102-581, Sec. 401(a), 106

Stat. 4897.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In this section, the words "a department, agency, or

instrumentality" are substituted for "Any department or agency" for

clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles

of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "obtain insurance under this

chapter" are substituted for "procure from the Secretary any of the

insurance provided under this subchapter" to eliminate unnecessary

words. The words "overseas air commerce" are omitted for the

reasons given in the revision note for section 40101.

In subsection (b), the words "or the head of a department,

agency, or instrumentality designated by the President" are

substituted for "and such other agencies as the President may

prescribe" as being more precise and for consistency in the revised

title. The words "when the Secretary of Defense or the designated

head agrees" are substituted for "in consideration of" for clarity.

The words "any designated head" are substituted for "the agreement

of . . . such agency" and "such other agencies" for clarity and

because of the restatement.

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107-217 substituted "sections

17302 and 17303 of title 40" for "sections 1 and 2 of the

Government Losses in Shipment Act (40 U.S.C. 721, 722)".

2001 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107-42 substituted "44302(c)" for

"44302(b)".

1997 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-137 inserted at end "If such an

agreement is countersigned by the President or the President's

designee, the agreement shall constitute, for purposes of section

44302(b), a determination that continuation of the aircraft

operations to which the agreement applies is necessary to carry out

the foreign policy of the United States."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 44302, 44309 of this

title; title 10 section 9514.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44306 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44306. Premiums and limitations on coverage and claims

-STATUTE-

(a) Premiums Based on Risk. - To the extent practical, the

premium charged for insurance or reinsurance under this chapter

shall be based on consideration of the risk involved.

(b) Allowances in Setting Premium Rates for Reinsurance. - In

setting premium rates for reinsurance, the Secretary may make

allowances to the insurance carrier for expenses incurred in

providing services and facilities that the Secretary considers good

business practices, except for payments by the air carrier for the

stimulation or solicitation of insurance business.

(c) Time Limits. - The Secretary of Transportation may provide

insurance and reinsurance under this chapter for a period of not

more than 1 year. The period may be extended for additional periods

of not more than 1 year each only if the President decides, before

each additional period, that the continued operation of the

aircraft to be insured or reinsured is necessary in the interest of

air commerce or national security or to carry out the foreign

policy of the United States Government.

(d) Maximum Insured Amount. - The insurance policy on an aircraft

insured or reinsured under this chapter shall specify a stated

amount that is not more than the value of the aircraft, as

determined by the Secretary in accordance with reasonable business

practices in the commercial aviation insurance industry. A claim

under the policy may not be paid for more than that stated amount.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1170; Pub. L.

105-137, Sec. 2(b), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2640; Pub. L. 107-42,

title II, Sec. 201(d), Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 235; Pub. L.

107-71, title I, Secs. 124(b), 147, Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 631,

645; Pub. L. 107-296, title XII, Sec. 1203, Nov. 25, 2002, 116

Stat. 2287.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44306(a) 49 App.:1532(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1302(b), (c),

72 Stat. 801; restated Nov.

9, 1977, Pub. L. 95-163,

Sec. 2, 91 Stat. 1279.

44306(b) 49 App.:1532(c).

44306(c) 49 App.:1537(a) Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

(last sentence less 85-726, Sec. 1307(a) (last

words between 2d sentence less words between

and 3d commas). 2d and 3d commas), 72 Stat.

804; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L.

98-443, Sec. 9(b), 98 Stat.

1706.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), the words "To the extent" are substituted for

"insofar as" for consistency.

In subsection (b), the word "initial" is omitted as surplus. The

words "The period" are substituted for "Such insurance or

reinsurance", and the words "the President decides . . . that the

continued operation of the aircraft to be insured or reinsured is

necessary to carry out the foreign policy of the United States

Government" are substituted for "the President makes the same

determination with respect to such extension as he is required to

make under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section for the

initial provision of such insurance or reinsurance", for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "or reinsured" are added for

consistency. The words "to be paid in the event of total loss" are

omitted as unnecessary because of the last sentence. The words "A

claim under the policy may not be paid for more than that stated

amount" are substituted for "the amount of any claim which is

compromised, settled, adjusted, or paid shall in no event exceed

such stated amount" to eliminate unnecessary words.

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107-296 made technical correction to

directory language of Pub. L. 107-71, Sec. 147. See 2001 Amendment

note below.

2001 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(d)(2), added subsec.

(b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub.L. 107-71, Sec. 147, as amended by Pub. L.

107-296, substituted "1 year" for "60 days" in two places.

Pub. L. 107-71, Sec. 124(b), which directed the insertion of "in

the interest of air commerce or national security or" before "to

carry out foreign policy", was executed by making the insertion

before "to carry out the foreign policy" to reflect the probable

intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c).

Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107-42, Sec. 201(d)(1), redesignated subsec.

(c) as (d).

1997 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-137 substituted "as determined by

the Secretary in accordance with reasonable business practices in

the commercial aviation insurance industry." for "as determined by

the Secretary."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 107-296, title XII, Sec. 1203, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat.

2287, provided that the amendment made by section 1203 is effective

Nov. 19, 2001.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44307 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44307. Revolving fund

-STATUTE-

(a) Existence, Disbursements, Appropriations, and Deposits. - (1)

There is a revolving fund in the Treasury. The Secretary of the

Treasury shall disburse from the fund payments to carry out this

chapter.

(2) Necessary amounts to carry out this chapter may be

appropriated to the fund. The amounts appropriated and other

amounts received in carrying out this chapter shall be deposited in

the fund.

(b) Investment. - On request of the Secretary of Transportation,

the Secretary of the Treasury may invest any part of the amounts in

the revolving fund in interest-bearing securities of the United

States Government. The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale

or redemption of, the securities shall be deposited in the fund.

(c) Excess Amounts. - The balance in the revolving fund in excess

of an amount the Secretary of Transportation determines is

necessary for the requirements of the fund and for reasonable

reserves to maintain the solvency of the fund shall be deposited at

least annually in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(d) Expenses. - The Secretary of Transportation shall deposit

annually an amount in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts to

cover the expenses the Government incurs when the Secretary of

Transportation uses appropriated amounts in carrying out this

chapter. The deposited amount shall equal an amount determined by

multiplying the average monthly balance of appropriated amounts

retained in the revolving fund by a percentage that is at least the

current average rate payable on marketable obligations of the

Government. The Secretary of the Treasury shall determine annually

in advance the percentage applied.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1170.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44307(a) 49 App.:1536(a), Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

(b). 85-726, Sec. 1306(a)-(d), 72

Stat. 803.

44307(b) 49 App.:1536(f). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, 72 Stat. 731, Sec.

1306(f); added Aug. 9, 1975,

Pub. L. 94-90, Sec. 1(a), 89

Stat. 439.

44307(c) 49 App.:1536(c).

44307(d) 49 App.:1536(d).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1), the first sentence is added for clarity.

The last sentence is substituted for 49 App.:1536(a) (last

sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the

revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "The amounts appropriated and

other amounts received in carrying out this chapter" are

substituted for "Moneys appropriated by Congress to carry out the

provisions of this subchapter and all moneys received from

premiums, salvage, or other recoveries and all receipts in

connection with this subchapter" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words "any part" are substituted for "all

or any part" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "held in the

revolving fund" are omitted as surplus. The words "deposited in"

are substituted for "credited to and form a part of" for

consistency.

In subsection (d), the words "The Secretary of Transportation

shall deposit annually an amount in the Treasury" are substituted

for "Annual payments shall be made by the Secretary to the Treasury

of the United States", the words "The deposited amount shall equal

an amount determined by multiplying" are substituted for "These

payments shall be computed by applying to", and the words "a

percentage that is at least the current average rate payable on

marketable obligations of the Government" are substituted for "a

percentage" and "Such percentage shall not be less than the current

average rate which the Treasury pays on its marketable

obligations", for clarity.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 44302 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44308 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44308. Administrative

-STATUTE-

(a) Commercial Practices. - The Secretary of Transportation may

carry out this chapter consistent with commercial practices of the

aviation insurance business.

(b) Issuance of Policies and Disposition of Claims. - (1) The

Secretary may issue insurance policies to carry out this chapter.

The Secretary may prescribe the forms, amounts insured under the

policies, and premiums charged. Any such policy may authorize the

binding arbitration of claims made thereunder in such manner as may

be agreed to by the Secretary and any commercial insurer that may

be responsible for any part of a loss to which such policy relates.

The Secretary may change an amount of insurance or a premium for an

existing policy only with the consent of the insured.

(2) For a claim under insurance authorized by this chapter, the

Secretary may -

(A) settle and pay the claim made for or against the United

States Government;

(B) pay the amount of a binding arbitration award made under

paragraph (1); and

(C) pay the amount of a judgment entered against the

Government.

(c) Underwriting Agent. - (1) The Secretary may, and when

practical shall, employ an insurance carrier or group of insurance

carriers to act as an underwriting agent. The Secretary may use the

agent to adjust claims under this chapter, but claims may be paid

only when approved by the Secretary.

(2) The Secretary may pay reasonable compensation to an

underwriting agent for servicing insurance the agent writes for the

Secretary. Compensation may include payment for reasonable expenses

incurred by the agent but may not include a payment by the agent

for stimulation or solicitation of insurance business.

(3) Except as provided by this subsection, the Secretary may not

pay an insurance broker or other person acting in a similar

capacity any consideration for arranging insurance when the

Secretary directly insures any part of the risk.

(d) Budget. - The Secretary shall submit annually a budget

program for carrying out this chapter as provided for wholly owned

Government corporations under chapter 91 of title 31.

(e) Accounts. - The Secretary shall maintain a set of accounts

for audit under chapter 35 of title 31. Notwithstanding chapter 35,

the Comptroller General shall allow credit for expenditures under

this chapter made consistent with commercial practices in the

aviation insurance business when shown to be necessary because of

the business activities authorized by this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1171; Pub. L.

104-316, title I, Sec. 127(e), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3840; Pub.

L. 105-137, Sec. 4, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2640.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44308(a) 49 App.:1537(c) Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

(1st sentence). 85-726, Sec. 1307(a) (1st

sentence), (c), (d), 72

Stat. 803, 804.

44308(b)(1) 49 App.:1537(a)

(1st sentence words

before 6th comma).

49 App.:1537(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1307(b), 72

Stat. 804; Nov. 9, 1977,

Pub. L. 95-163, Sec. 5(a),

91 Stat. 1280.

44308(b)(2) 49 App.:1537(a)

(1st sentence words

after 6th comma).

44308(c)(1) 49 App.:1537(d)

(1st, 3d sentences).

44308(c)(2) 49 App.:1537(d)

(2d, last

sentences).

44308(c)(3) 49 App.:1537(c)

(last sentence).

44308(d) 49 App.:1537(f) Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

(1st sentence). 85-726, Sec. 1307(f), 72

Stat. 804; Jan. 2, 1975,

Pub. L. 93-604, Sec. 702, 88

Stat. 1964.

44308(e) 49 App.:1537(f)

(last sentence).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), the words "may carry out this chapter" are

substituted for "in administering this subchapter, may exercise his

powers, perform his duties and functions, and make his

expenditures" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), the word "insurance" is added for clarity.

The words "rules, and regulations" are omitted as unnecessary

because of 49:322(a). The words "as he deems proper" and "subject

to the following provisions of this subsection" are omitted as

surplus. The words "and change" and "fix, adjust, and change" are

omitted as being included in "prescribe". The words "under the

policies" are added for clarity. The word "charged" is substituted

for "provided for in this subchapter" for consistency in this

subchapter.

In subsection (b)(2), before clause (A), the words "the

Secretary" are added because of the restatement. In clause (A), the

words "adjust and . . . losses, compromise and" are omitted as

included in "settle and pay the claim". The word "made" is

substituted for "whether" for clarity. In clause (B), the word

"entered" is substituted for "rendered" because it is more

appropriate. The words "in any suit" are omitted as surplus. The

words "or the amount of any settlement agreed upon" are omitted as

being included in "settle and pay the claim".

In subsection (c)(1), the words "and when practical shall" are

substituted for "and whenever he finds it practical to do so shall"

to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "his" is omitted as

surplus. The words "The Secretary may use" are substituted for "may

be utilized" for consistency. The words "The services of" are

omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "pay reasonable compensation" are

substituted for "allow . . . fair and reasonable compensation" for

consistency in the revised title. The words "an underwriting agent"

are substituted for "such companies or groups of companies", and

the words "the agent writes" are substituted for "written by such

companies or groups of companies as underwriting agent", for

clarity. The word "payment" is substituted for "allowance" for

consistency.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "intermediary" and "fee or other"

are omitted as surplus. The word "for" is substituted for "by

virtue of his participation in" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the word "prepare" is omitted as being

included in "submit". The words "for carrying out this chapter" are

substituted for "in the performance of, and with respect to, the

functions, powers, and duties vested in him by this subchapter" for

consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "under

chapter 91 of title 31" are substituted for "by the Government

Corporation Control Act, as amended (59 Stat. 597; 31 U.S.C. 841)"

in section 1307(f) of the Act of August 23, 1958 (Public Law

85-726, 72 Stat. 804) because of section 4(b) of the Act of

September 13, 1982 (Public Law 97-258, 96 Stat. 1067).

In subsection (e), the words "under chapter 35 of title 31" are

substituted for "in accordance with the provisions of the

Accounting and Auditing Act of 1950" in section 1307(f) of the Act

of August 23, 1958 (Public Law 85-726, 72 Stat. 804) because of

section 4(b) of the Act of September 13, 1982 (Public Law 97-258,

96 Stat. 1067). The words "Provided, That . . . the Secretary may

exercise the powers conferred in said subchapter, perform the

duties and functions" are omitted as surplus. The words

"Notwithstanding chapter 35" are added for clarity. The words

"Comptroller General" are substituted for "General Accounting

Office" because of 31:702.

AMENDMENTS

1997 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105-137, Sec. 4(a), inserted after

second sentence "Any such policy may authorize the binding

arbitration of claims made thereunder in such manner as may be

agreed to by the Secretary and any commercial insurer that may be

responsible for any part of a loss to which such policy relates."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105-137, Sec. 4(b), struck out "and" at

end of subpar. (A), added subpar. (B), and redesignated former

subpar. (B) as (C).

1996 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104-316 substituted "for audit" for

". The Comptroller General shall audit those accounts".

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44309 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44309. Civil actions

-STATUTE-

(a) Losses. -

(1) Actions against united states. - A person may bring a civil

action in a district court of the United States or in the United

States Court of Federal Claims against the United States

Government when -

(A) a loss insured under this chapter is in dispute; or

(B)(i) the person is subrogated under a contract between the

person and a party insured under this chapter (other than

section 44305(b)) to the rights of the insured party against

the United States Government; and

(ii) the person has paid to the insured party, with the

approval of the Secretary of Transportation, an amount for a

physical damage loss that the Secretary has determined is a

loss covered by insurance issued under this chapter (other than

section 44305(b)).

(2) Limitation. - A civil action involving the same matter

(except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be

brought against an agent, officer, or employee of the Government

carrying out this chapter.

(3) Procedure. - To the extent applicable, the procedure in an

action brought under section 1346(a)(2) of title 28, United

States Code, applies to an action under this subsection.

(b) Venue and Joinder. - (1) A civil action under subsection (a)

of this section may be brought in the judicial district for the

District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which the

plaintiff or the agent of the plaintiff resides if the plaintiff

resides in the United States. If the plaintiff does not reside in

the United States, the action may be brought in the judicial

district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district

in which the Attorney General agrees to accept service.

(2) An interested person may be joined as a party to a civil

action brought under subsection (a) of this section initially or on

motion of either party to the action.

(c) Time Requirements. - When an insurance claim is made under

this chapter, the period during which, under section 2401 of title

28, a civil action must be brought under subsection (a) of this

section is suspended until 60 days after the Secretary of

Transportation denies the claim. The claim is deemed to be

administratively denied if the Secretary does not act on the claim

not later than 6 months after filing, unless the Secretary makes a

different agreement with the claimant when there is good cause for

an agreement.

(d) Interpleader. - (1) If the Secretary admits the Government

owes money under an insurance claim under this chapter and there is

a dispute about the person that is entitled to payment, the

Government may bring a civil action of interpleader in a district

court of the United States against the persons that may be entitled

to payment. The action may be brought in the judicial district for

the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which any

party resides.

(2) The district court may order a party not residing or found in

the judicial district in which the action is brought to appear in a

civil action under this subsection. The order shall be served in a

reasonable manner decided by the district court. If the court

decides an unknown person might assert a claim under the insurance

that is the subject of the action, the court may order service on

that person by publication in the Federal Register.

(3) Judgment in a civil action under this subsection discharges

the Government from further liability to the parties to the action

and to all other persons served by publication under paragraph (2)

of this subsection.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1172; Pub. L.

105-277, div. C, title I, Sec. 110(c)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat.

2681-587.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

44309(a) 49 App.:1540 (1st Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

sentence less 85-726, Sec. 1310, 72 Stat.

19th-70th words, 3d 805.

sentence).

44309(b)(1) 49 App.:1540 (1st

sentence 19th-70th

words, 2d sentence).

44309(b)(2) 49 App.:1540 (4th

sentence).

44309(c) 49 App.:1540 (last

sentence).

44309(d) 49 App.:1540

(5th-8th sentences).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), the words "A person may bring" are substituted

for "may be maintained" for clarity. The words "a civil action" are

substituted for "suit" because of rule 2 of the Federal Rules of

Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words "A civil action . . .

(except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be

brought" are substituted for "and this remedy shall be exclusive of

any other action", and the words "involving the" are substituted

for "by reason of", for clarity. The words "carrying out this

chapter" are substituted for "employed or retained under this

subchapter", and the words "in an action" are substituted for "for

suits in the district courts", for consistency. The words "applies

to" are substituted for "shall otherwise be the same as that

provided for" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "an action

under this subsection" are substituted for "such suits" for

consistency.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "A civil action under subsection

(a) of this section may be brought" are added for clarity. The

words "the plaintiff or the agent of the plaintiff resides" are

substituted for "the claimant or his agent resides" for consistency

in the revised title. The words "if the plaintiff resides in the

United States" are added for clarity. The words "notwithstanding

the amount of the claim" are omitted as obsolete because

jurisdiction under 28:1331 no longer depends on the amount of the

claim. The words "and any provision of existing law as to the

jurisdiction of United States district courts" are omitted as

obsolete.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "interested person" are

substituted for "All persons having or claiming or who might have

an interest in such insurance" to eliminate unnecessary words. The

word "either" is omitted as surplus. The words "to a civil action

brought under subsection (a) of this section" are added for

clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "during which, under section 2401 of

title 28, a civil action must be brought under subsection (a) of

this section" are substituted for "within which suits may be

commenced contained in section 2401 of title 28 providing for

bringing of suits against the United States" for clarity. The words

"from such time of filing" are omitted as surplus. The words "60

days after the Secretary of Transportation denies the claim" are

substituted for "the claim shall have been administratively denied

by the Secretary and for sixty days thereafter" for clarity.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "a civil action of interpleader"

are substituted for "an action in the nature of a bill of

interpleader" because of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28

App. U.S.C.). The words "persons that may be entitled to payment"

are substituted for "such parties" for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2), the words "in which the action is brought"

are added for clarity. The words "The order shall be" are added

because of the restatement. The words "the court may order service

on that person" are substituted for "it may direct service upon

such persons unknown" as being more precise.

In subsection (d)(3), the words "in a civil action under this

subsection" are substituted for "in any such suit" for clarity.

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-277 amended heading and text of

subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A

person may bring a civil action in a district court of the United

States against the United States Government when a loss insured

under this chapter is in dispute. A civil action involving the same

matter (except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be

brought against an agent, officer, or employee of the Government

carrying out this chapter. To the extent applicable, the procedure

in an action brought under section 1346(a)(2) of title 28 applies

to an action under this subsection."

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 44310 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart iii - safety

CHAPTER 443 - INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 44310. Ending effective date

-STATUTE-

The authority of the Secretary of Transportation to provide

insurance and reinsurance under this chapter is not effective after

December 31, 2003.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1173; Pub. L.

105-85, div. A, title X, Sec. 1088(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat.

1921; Pub. L. 105-137, Sec. 5(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2641;

Pub. L. 105-277, div. C, title I, Sec. 110(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998,

112 Stat. 2681-588; Pub. L. 106-6, Sec. 6, Mar. 31, 1999, 113 Stat.

10; Pub. L. 106-31, title VI, Sec. 6002(f), May 21, 1999, 113 Stat.

113; Pub. L. 106-181, title VII, Sec. 711, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat.

160.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

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44310 49 App.:1542. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L.

85-726, Sec. 1312, 72 Stat.

806; July 20, 1961, Pub. L.

87-89, 75 Stat. 210; June

13, 1966, Pub. L. 89-447, 80

Stat. 199; Sept. 8, 1970,

Pub. L. 91-399, 84 Stat.

837; Aug. 9, 1975, Pub. L.

94-90, Sec. 2, 89 Stat. 439;

July 31, 1976, Pub. L.

94-374, 90 Stat. 1065; Nov.

9, 1977, Pub. L. 95-163,

Sec. 6, 91 Stat. 1280; Oct.

14, 1982, Pub. L. 97-309,

Sec. 3, 96 Stat. 1453; Oct.

30, 1987, Pub. L. 100-148,

101 Stat. 878; Oct. 31,

1992, Pub. L. 102-581, Sec.

402, 106 Stat. 4897.

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The words "is not effective after" are substituted for "shall

expire at the termination of" for clarity and consistency in the

revised title.

AMENDMENTS

2000 - Pub. L. 106-181 substituted "after December 31, 2003." for

"after August 6, 1999."

1999 - Pub. L. 106-31 substituted "August 6, 1999" for "May 31,

1999".

Pub. L. 106-6 substituted "May" for "March".

1998 - Pub. L. 105-277 substituted "March 31, 1999" for "December

31, 1998".

1997 - Pub. L. 105-137 substituted "December 31, 1998" for

"September 30, 2002".

Pub. L. 105-85 substituted "September 30, 2002" for "September

30, 1997".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2000 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 106-181 applicable only to fiscal years

beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-181,

set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENTS

Pub. L. 105-137, Sec. 5(b), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2641,

provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this

section] takes effect on October 1, 1997."

Pub. L. 105-85, div. A, title X, Sec. 1088(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111

Stat. 1921, provided that: "This section [amending this section]

shall take effect as of September 30, 1997."

CONTINUATION OF AVIATION INSURANCE LAWS

Pub. L. 102-581, title IV, Sec. 404, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat.

4898, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law,

the provisions of title XIII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958

[now this chapter] and all insurance policies issued by the

Secretary of Transportation under such title, as in effect on

September 30, 1992, shall be treated as having continued in effect

until the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 31, 1992]."

-End-