Hockey sobre hielo

Deporte de invierno. Historia. Reglamento. Pista. Equipamiento. Stick. Puck. Wayne Gretsky

  • Enviado por: Enrique Encinas
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 15 páginas
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EL HOCKEY

SOBRE HIELO

INTRODUCCIÓN

Probablemente, si eres español, nunca hayas jugado al hockey sobre hielo, puede que ni siquiera hayas visto un solo partido y que no conozcas lo apasionante que es este deporte y cuáles son sus reglas. El hockey sobre hielo, según lo definen las enciclopedias, es la modalidad más rapida, espectacular y a veces peligrosa (sobre todo en el terreno profesional) de las tres habituales que se practican en el mundo. Popularizado en Canadá, es el deporte colectivo por excelencia en los Juegos olimpicos de invierno desde 1920. La vertiginosidad del juego y el esfuerzo a que obliga a los jugadores, provoca cambios constantes. Los arbitros conceden bastante libertad a los jugadores, y muchos choques estan permitidos. Pero sancionan con rigor las faltas.

Vertiginosidad, concentración, rapidez de reflejos, lucha, coraje, conciencia de equipo... son las caracteristicas esenciales de este deporte. Quizás con todo lo dicho hasta aquí ya estés pensando que este puede ser tu deporte favorito.

HISTORIA

El hockey sobre hielo,probablemente deriva del bandy, un deporte que se desarrolló en Inglaterra a finales del siglo XVIII y que ahora sólo se practica en los Países Bálticos, Suecia, Rusia y el resto de países derivados de la antigua Unión de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas (URSS). El hockey sobre hielo moderno lo inventaron en 1853 o en 1860 los soldados ingleses destinados en Canadá. Las reglas las establecieron los estudiantes de la McGill University, en Montreal, Quebec, en 1879, y para finales de la década de 1880 había ya establecidos en Canadá varios equipos o clubes y ligas. Se cree que este deporte se jugó por primera vez en Estados Unidos en 1893. A comienzos del siglo XX el juego se había extendido a Europa. Hoy el hockey sobre hielo se practica en más de 30 países, sobre todo en Estados Unidos, Escandinavia y la antigua URSS. Es el deporte nacional de Canadá.

EL HOCKEY

Juego lleno de acciones de gran dureza, el hockey sobre hielo está considerado como uno de los deportes más rápidos.

LA PISTA

Se juega sobre hielo natural o artificial en una pista con unas dimensiones estándar de 61 m por 25,5 m con los ángulos rematados. La pista está rodeada por una valla de unos 1,22 m de alto. Dos porterías de 1,22 m de alto por 1,83 m de ancho están situadas en los extremos de la pista a no más de 4,57 m de los límites de la misma. La zona de juego está dividida por dos líneas azules en tres áreas iguales. Una línea roja divide la pista por la mitad. La zona más cercana a la portería de un equipo es la zona de defensa, la zona central se llama zona neutral y la zona más alejada de la portería es la zona de ataque. La pista tiene cinco círculos de enfrentamiento, cada uno con un radio de 4,6 m, uno en el centro y dos en cada zona de defensa.

EL EQUIPAMIENTO

Cada equipo consta de un máximo de seis jugadores por tiempo: un central, dos atacantes, dos defensas y un portero. Cada jugador lleva un palo (stick) metálico o de madera (por lo general de fresno u olmo), de una longitud no superior a 152 cm con una pala de 7,6 cm de ancho y 32 cm de largo como máximo. Los jugadores llevan protectores acolchados debajo de la ropa y guantes rígidos en las manos; los cascos son opcionales en el hockey profesional. Los porteros pueden llevar sticks más anchos y protectores adicionales, entre los que se incluye una máscara metálica para la cara. Los patines de hockey sobre hielo son diferentes de los que se usan en otras modalidades de patinaje sobre hielo. La cuchilla es más delgada y corta, con el extremo delantero plano y la bota es más baja y dura.

EL JUEGO

Se consigue un gol cuando el puck o tejo, un disco duro de goma vulcanizada de 2,5 cm de grosor y 7,6 cm de diámetro, se introduce en la portería de los rivales.

El juego comienza con un saque neutral cuando el árbitro lanza el disco a la pista entre los dos centrales rivales. Si un jugador se mete en la zona de ataque antes de que lo haga el puck se produce un fuera de juego o fuera de lugar y se decreta un saque neutral en el punto más cercano a donde se produjo la infracción. La forma principal de defensa es cargar: un jugador atacante es empujado o golpeado por un defensor de tal manera que pierda el control del puck. Las sustituciones de jugadores durante el juego son frecuentes.

El juego se divide en tres periodos de veinte minutos, con cambio de campo al final de cada periodo. Según las reglas internacionales, si al concluir los tres periodos reglamentarios el resultado es un empate, se juegan diez minutos de tiempo extra, durante los cuales el juego finalizará inmediatamente después de anotar un gol; si transcurrido el tiempo extra el partido sigue empatado, se concederá el empate como resultado final.

LAS FALTAS

Se producen faltas por sujetar, empujar, trabar con el stick, desarrollar agresividad innecesaria o pegarse. El infractor es enviado al banquillo de las faltas por un tiempo de dos minutos si la infracción es leve; y allí permanecerá durante cinco minutos si la infracción es grave. Los equipos no pueden sustituir a los jugadores penalizados, excepto en las faltas de conducta, que están penalizadas con diez minutos y se producen por discusiones o juego sucio. Ningún equipo puede tener una desventaja superior a dos jugadores al mismo tiempo. Cuando un equipo tiene una ventaja de uno o dos jugadores se dice que está en superioridad. Las reglas internacionales, administradas por la Federación Internacional de Hockey sobre Hielo (fundada en 1908), determinan que el juego esté controlado por dos árbitros.

Términos Importantes

Estan extraidos de un documento en ingles, no he sabido realmente como traducir la mayoria de los terminos, luego he preferido dejarlos tal y como estan, para que por traducirlos mal se malinterpretara el significado.


Altercation

Any physical interaction between two or more opposing players that results in a penalty

Assist

An assist is credited to a player who helps set up a goal. Assists are awarded to the last man to handle the puck immediately preceding the goals. There is a maximum of two assists per goal

Attacking Zone

When you are on the attack, your attacking zone is between your opponent's blue line and the goal line

Back Check

Forwards in their offensive zone skate back quickly to their own defensive zone to protect their goal and keep the opponent from shooting

Blocker

A goalie's glove that goes on the hand that holds the stick

Blue Line

Two lines running across the width of the rink, one on either side of the red line. The area between the blue lines is called the neutral zone.

Boarding

Violently checking an opponent into the boards from behind. Boarding is illegal and merits a penalty

Boards

The walls around a hockey rink which are made of fiberglass measuring about 42 inches high and topped off by synthetic glass to protect the spectators while giving them a good view of the action.

Body Check

A body check is where you use your body against an opponent who has possession of the puck. Legal body checking must be done only with the hips or shoulders and must be above the opponent's knees and below the neck. Unnecessarily rough body checking is penalized.

Box

A defensive alignment often used by a team defending against a power play

Breakaway

A player in control of the puck has a breakaway when the only opponent between him and opposition's goal is the goalie.

Breakout

The play used by the attacking team to move the puck out of it;s own zone and up the ice toward the opponent's goal.

Catcher

The goalies glove which looks like a fancy baseball catcher's mitt, that goes on the non-stick hand.

Center

In a traditional alignment with three forwards, the center plays between the left and right wings.

Changing on the fly

When players from the bench substitute for players on the ice, while the clock is running.

Charging

Taking more than three strides before deliberately checking an opponent.

Clearing the Puck

When the puck is passed, knocked, or shot away from the front of the goal net or other areas.

Crease

The semi-circular area in front of each goal is called the crease. If any offensive player is in the goal crease when a goal is scored, the goal is not allowed. The crease is painted blue on the ice.The goal crease is designed to protect the goalies from interference by attacking players. The area marked on the ice in front of the penalty timekeeper's seat is for the use of the referee.

Cross Checking

Hitting an opponent with the shaft of the stick while both hands are on the stick and no part of the stick is on the ice.

Defending Zone

When the other team is on the attack, the defending zone is the are a between your goal line and your blue line.

Defensemen

Two defensemen usually try to stop the opponent's play at their own blue line. The defensemen block shots and also clear the puck from in front of their goal. Offensively, defensemen take the puck up the ice or pass the puck ahead to the forwards; they then follow the play into the attacking zone and help keep it there.

Deke

A deke is a fake by a player in possession of the puck in order to get around the opponent or to make a goalie move out of position. To deke, you move the puck or apart of your body to one side and then in the opposite direction. ("Deke" is taken from "decoy")

Delay of game

This is called when a player purposely delays the game. Delay of game is commonly called when a goalies shoots the puck into the stands with the puck deflecting off a skater or the glass. Delay of game also occurs when a player intentionally knocks goalpost out of its stand (usually in an attempt to prevent a goal from being scored).

Delayed off-side

In this situation, an attacking player has preceded the puck into the offensive zone (normally a case for off-side), but the defending team has gained possession of the puck and can bring it out of their defensive zone without any delay or contact with an opposing player.

Diamond

A defensive alignment often used by a team defending against a power play.

Dig

An attempt to gain possession of the puck in the corners of the rink.

Directing the Puck

Changing the course of the puck in a desired direction by using the body, skate, or stick

Dive

When a player exaggerates being hooked or tripped in an attempt to draw a penalty

Elbowing

Using the elbow to impede or disrupt the opponent.

Empty net goal

A goal scored against an opponent that has pulled the goalie from the crease to add an extra attacker.

Face-off

The action of an official dropping the puck between the sticks of two opposing players to start play.

Fisticuffs

When a player throws a punch (closed fist) and makes contact with an opponent.

Five-hole

The area in the opening between a goalie's leg pads.

Flat pass

A pass where the puck remains on the surface of the ice.

Flex

Hockey sticks come in different degrees of flex - medium, stiff, and extra stiff. A stronger player, who hits more powerful shots, usually wants a stiffer stick.

Flip Pass

A pass where the puck is lifted so that it goes over an opponent or his stick.

Forecheck

Forwards forecheck by hurrying into the opponent's defensive zone to either keep the puck there or take it away.

Forward

The center and wings are traditionally considered to be the forwards.

Freezing the puck

A player freezes the puck by holding it against the boards with the stick or skates. A goalie freezes the puck (when the opposition is threatening to score) by either holding the puck in the glove or trapping it on the ice. Note A delay of game penalty can be called if the goalie freezes the puck when the opposition is not threatening.

"G"

An abbreviation for "goals"

Game suspension

When a player, coach, or manager receives a game suspension, that person can't participate in the next scheduled game.

Goal

A goal is achieved when the entire puck crosses the goal line and enters the net. You can't deliberately kick it in or bat at it with a glove, although a goal is counted when a puck deflects off a player (but not off an official). A goal is worth one point.

Goal Judge

A goal judge sits behind each goal (off-ice) and signals when the puck has crossed the red goal line by turning on a red light above his station. The referee can ask the goal judge's advice on disputed goals, but the referee has final authority and can overrule the goal judge.

Goaltender

The goaltender's main job is to keep the puck from entering the goal net. The goaltender is also known as the goalie, the goal keeper, or the netminder.

"GP"

An abbreviation for "games played"

Hat trick

A player who scores three goals in one game achieves a "hat trick".

Head butting

Using the head while delivering a body check (head first) in the chest, head, neck, or back area; or using the head to strike an opponent.

Heel of the stick

The point where the shaft of ht stick and the bottom of the blade meet.

High sticking

Carrying the stick above the shoulder to use against the opponent.

Holding

Using your hands on an opponent or the opponent's equipment to impede your opponent's progress.

Hooking

Applying the blade of the stick to any part of an opponent's body or stick and pulling or tugging with the stick in order to disrupt that opponent.

Icing

An infraction called when a player shoots the puck from his side of the red line across the opponent's goal line. Play is stopped when an opponent (other than the goalie) touches the puck. The face-off is held in the offending team's end of the ice. A team that is short-handed can ice the puck without being penalized.

Injury potential penalties

Injury potential penalties include checking from behind, head butting, spearing, board checking, charging, cross checking, elbowing.kneeling, high sticking, hold the face mask, slashing and roughing. A linesman may report these infractions occurring behind the play to the referee (following the next stoppage of play) if the referee did not see them.

Interference

Making body contact with an opponent who does not have possession of the puck. Interference is also called when a player is standing in the crease or otherwise make contact with the goaltender.

Kneeing

Using the knee in an effort to impede or foul and opponent.

Linesman

Two linesmen are used to call offside, offside passes, icing and handle all face-offs not occurring at center ice. Although they don't call penalties, they can recommend to the referee that a penalty be called.

Neutral zone

The central ice area between the two blue lines (neither defending nor the attacking zone).

Off-ice (minor) official

These officials include the official scorer, game timekeeper, penalty timekeeper, and the two goal judges. The referee has full control of all game officials and final decision.

Offside

A team is offside when a player crosses the attacking blue line before the puck does. A face-off then takes place just outside that blue line (in the offending player's defensive zone). The determining factor in most offside situations is the position of the skates Both skates must be completely over the blue line ahead of the puck for the play to be offside.

Offside pass

An offside pass (also known as a "two-line pass) occurs when a member of the attacking team passes the puck from behind his own defending blue line to a teammate across the center red line. If the puck precedes the player across the red line, the pass is legal. Also, an attacking player may pass the puck over the center red line and the attacking blue line to a teammate if the puck precedes that teammate across the blue line. The face-off after an offside pass takes place at the spot where the pass originated.

One-timer

Shooting the puck immediately upon receiving it without stopping it first. A one-timer is an effective way to beat the goalie before he can slide from one side of the crease to another.

Penalty

A penalty is the result of an infraction of the rules by a player of team official. A penalty usually results in the removal of the offending player (or team official) for a specified period of time. In some cases, the penalty maybe the awarding of a penalty shot on goal or the actual awarding of a goal.

Penalty killing

When a team is shorthanded and attempts to prevent the opposition from scoring, this activity is known as "penalty killing.

Penalty-killing unit

The group of players brought in by a shorthanded team in order to defend against a power play.

Penalty shot

A penalty shot is awarded to an offensive player who - on a breakaway- is illegally checked or impeded. The puck is placed at the center face-off spot, and the player has a free try at the opposing goal with no other defenders on the ice besides the goalie.

"PIM"

An abbreviation for "penalties in minutes" (penalty minutes accumulated).

Point

The point is the area just inside the opposition's blue line close to the boards on either side of the rink. A defenseman usually occupies the area when his team is in control of the puck in the opposition's defensive zone.

Poke check

Trying to knock the puck away from an opponent by stabbing at it with the blade of the stick.

Possession of the puck

The last player or goalie to make contact with the puck is the one who has possession. This definition includes a puck that is deflected off a player of any part of his equipment.

Power play

When a team has more players on the ice than the opposition due to one or more penalties against the opposing team.

"Pts."

An abbreviation for "total points".

Pulling of a goalie

A team that is losing will sometimes take their own goalie off the ice and use another forward This situation occurs most frequently near the end of the game when a team is behind and needs some emergency offense.

Red line

The line that divides the rink into two equal parts. This area is center ice.

Referee

The referee supervises the game, calls the penalties, determines if goals are scored, and handles face-off's at center ice at the start of each period and after goals. The referees has the final decision over all of the officials.

Roughing

Engaging in fisticuffs (fighting) or shoving.

Save

A shot blocked by the goalie - a shot that otherwise would have gone into the net!

Shadow

When a player covers an opponent one-on-one everywhere on the ice in order to limit the effectiveness of this opponent.

Shorthanded

A shorthanded team is below the numerical strength of it's opponents on the ice. When a goal is scored against a shorthanded team, the penalty that caused the team scored against to be shorthanded is terminated, and both teams are again at equal strength.

Slap shot

A slap shot occurs when the player swings the stick back and then quickly forward, slapping the puck ahead with a forehand shot.

Slashing

When a player swings the stick at a n opponent. Slashing merits a penalty, whether contact is made or not. Tapping an opponent's stick is not slashing.

Slot

The prime scoring area up the middle of the ice, between the face-off circles. When you "clear the slot", you shove an opposing player out of the area in front of your goal.

Smothering the puck

When a goalie or other players fall on the puck. Smothering is legal when done by the goalie or accidentally by another player.

Sniper

A player who is a pure goal scorer and who doesn't hit other players or the boards all that much.

Spearing

Poking or attempting to poke an opponent with the tip of the blade of the stick while holding the stick with one or both hands.

Splitting the defense

When a player in possession of the puck goes between two opposing defender while attacking.

Stick checking

Using the stick or its blade to poke or strike an opponent's stick or puck in an attempt get possession of the puck.

Stickhandeling

A term for carrying the puck along the ice with the stick.

Sweater

A term used to designate a hockey jersey.

Sweep check

Using the entire length of the stick with a sweeping motion along the surface of the ice in order to dislodge the puck from an opponent. A team that is shorthanded on a power play often employs a sweep check.

Team official

A person responsible for the operation of a team, such as a coach, manager or trainer.

Trap

Traps are defensive formations designed to minimize the opposition's scoring opportunities and keep it's offense from functioning. The idea is to trap the puck in the neutral zone, halting the opponents and regaining control of the puck.

Tripping

Using a stick, arm, or leg to cause an opponent to trip or fall.

Turnover

Just as in basketball or football, you can make a turnover in hockey by losing control of the puck to the opposing team.

Two-line pass

An offside pass (that actually crosses two lines).

Wings

The left wing and the right wing (also known as forwards) move up and down the sides of the fink. Offensively, they skate on each side of the center, exchanging passes with him, while trying themselves for a shot on goal and/or a rebound of a shot from the point. Defensively, they watch the opponent's wings.

Wrist shot

A wrist shot is used to shoot the puck off the blade of the stick with a flicking motion of the wrist.

Zamboni

The vehicle used to prepare the rink's ice surface before the game, and after each period. The Zamboni scrapes a thin layer off the ice, heats the ice, and puts down a fresh layer of heated water that freezes to form a new layer of ice.

¿DONDE PUEDES PRACTICAR HOCKEY HIELO EN ESPAÑA ?

·MADRID:
Boadilla .... 91-6331100
Leganés .... 91-6871111
Majadahonda .... 91-6386655
Pronto en Hortaleza

·CATALUÑA:
Barcelona
Vielha
Puigcerda .... 972-880243
·

PAIS VASCO:
San Sebastián
Vitoria .... 945-284284

·ARAGON:
Jaca .... 974-355174

LA LIGA ESPAÑOLA

Todos los resultados de la primera división española podras encontrarlos aquí a lo largo de la liga.

Majadahonda 3 Jaca 4
Vitoria 2 Barcelona 6
Puigcerdá 4 Txuri Urdin 4

Pugcerdá 2 Jaca 2
Barcelona 4 Majadahonda 4
Vitoria 1 Txuri Urdiñ 11

Majadahonda 2 Puigcerda 4
Vitoria 1 Jaca 16
Barcelona 2 Txuri Urdiñ 6

Jaca 6 Barcelona 5
Puigcerdá 13 Vitoria 2
Majadahonda 7 Txuri Urdiñ 5

Barcelona 4 Puigcerdá 4
Txuri Urdiñ - Jaca
Vitoria - Majadahonda


PERSONAJE IMPORTANTE

Wayne Gretsky

Wayne Gretsky se retiró del Hockey sobre hielo profesional el pasado 18 de abril de 1999 al terminar el partido entre los Rangers de Nueva York (su último equipo) y los Pinguinos de Pittsburgh. El Sr. Gretsky nació en Brantford , Ontario en 1961y tuvo una carrera de veinte años en la National Hockey League. Para ustedes que no conocen el juego muy bien, Gretsky en Hockey es el equivalente a Michael Jordan en Baloncesto, Pelé en Soccer, Ali en Boxeo, Yamashita en Judo; el mejor jugador de Hockey sobre hielo en la historia del juego:

1487 partidos

894 goles

1963 asistencias

2857 puntos

Hart Trophy (mejor jugador) - 9 veces

Art Ross Trophy (lider goleador) - 10 veces

Hockey sobre hielo

All Star Team - 9 veces

Hockey sobre hielo