Sociología y Trabajo Social
All post-war radical right-wing movements are commonly
referred to as "Neo-fascist". They share an attitude
of extreme militant nationalism and a belief in
authoritarian government. They are hostile to
minorities and most are xenophobes. Neo-fascism
continues to have significant following today in many
countries. These movements hope that a cultural
transformation will create the necessary conditions to
achieve a radical political change.
When the Second World War ended many people think that
the ideals of fascism and Nazism will disappear
forever. But the War left society with a feeling of
restlessness that increased with the Cold War and
these violent ideals returned. Other three very
important causes of the peak of neofascism are:
2. Desemployement .
3. Nationalist feeling.
1. It is the main cause. During the 1950s the low
birth rate made the European countries to
demand cheaper workmen. Some sectors rejected the
immigrants because they accused them of the growth of
2. This cause is related to the first one. In the
80’s and the 90´s the desemployement rose
considerably (for example Germany had four million
desemployeds). Many people blame on the immigrants
this problem, because of two principal reasons: the
fist one is that now more and more immigrants are
prepared to work as white people of their own country;
the second is that many illegal (and even legal)
immigrants work in very bad conditions for very low
salaries just because they can’t find better
jobs (this is very common to find in the agrarian
3. This is the xenophobia, the intolerance against all
of the people who are not from your country or that
 ACADEMIC NEOFASCISM:
This form of neofascism is seen in the scholarly
industry that publishes propaganda in an academic
style to play down, or excuse the horrors of Nazism.
This approach is sometimes called historical
revisionism, although it is separate from a much more
general and mainstream approach to history known as
revisionism. Some of these scholars manipulate
documentary evidence to "prove" that the Nazis did not
create extermination camps that killed millions of
Jews during the Holocaust. All professional
historians completely reject any attempt to show that
the Holocaust never happened, but there continues to
be a number of fascist writers who try to deny the
atrocities that the Nazis committed. The Internet has
made it much easier for these writers to spread their
ideas and propaganda, in a way that it is practically
impossible to censor them.
We have a clear example on Robert Faurisson. He was an
associate professor of French literature at the
University of Lyon. He wrote several articles for the
newspaper Le Monde (and other important French
newspapers) talking about the non-existence of gas
chambers. He was said to be an “expert”
in investigation of truth and falsehood. In 1981 he
was expelled from the University because he had been
trying to teach his ideals in there. This is not the
common thing to happen, there are many teachers that
still teach this ideals.
Other example of academic neofascism is seen in many
musical gangs, which are distributed by fascist record
companies. The first skinhead concert in Madrid took
place on November 1998 (it was organised by a group of
Hammerskins), as it were a success the groups decided
to organise another advising it to their comrades
expecting more people to go. They as well wanted to
see the System’s reaction.
Some of these gangs are: 7 Muelles, Gesta Bélico,
Batallón de Castgo, Torquemada 1488, Zeteme88 and
Jungsturm (they are all Spanish and have a lot of
prosperity among Spanish Neo-nazis).
 POLITICAL NEOFASCISM:
Some fascists have tried to form political parties to
participate in government. In contrast to the first
fascist movements, these new fascist parties do not
rely on the army to fight their opponents. To make
fascist ideas seem acceptable, some parties softened
their revolutionary methods in order to win vote
support even from people who do not want a radical
change or a fascist regime. Instead of emphasizing
their long-term objectives for change, the fascist
parties focus on issues such as the threat of
Communism, crime, global economic competition, the
loss of cultural identity (resulting from mass
immigration), and the need for a strong, charismatic
leader to give the nation the right direction.
Italy, for example, saw this type of
“democratic” fascism with the 1946
formation of the Movimento Sociale Italiano (MSI),
which hoped to keep fascist ideals alive. In the
mid-1990s the MSI managed to widen its support
significantly when it renounced the goals of historic
Italian Fascism and changed its name to the National
Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale). During the 1990s
several other extreme-right parties gained significant
social support, as the Republicans (Die Republikaner)
in Germany, but fell down when the Christian
Democratic Union promoted very hard laws against the
immigrants, the National Front (Front National) in
France, the Freedom Movement (Die Freiheitlichen) in
Austria, the Flemish Block (Vlaamsblok) in Belgium,
and the Liberal Democratic Party in Russia. All of
these groups have some fascist elements, but reject
the radicalism and violence of true fascism.
 SOCIAL NEOFASCISM:
One of the most important new fascist strategies is to
form small groups of idealist people willing to
dedicate their lives to the fascist cause, but also
you find illiterate people that simply wanted to be
accepted. In some cases these minor groups turn to
Since 1945, fascists in Western Europe and the United
States formed many thousands of small groups, form
thousands of members to less than ten. Many of them
are dissolved or change names after a few years, and
members sometimes move through a number of groups or
even belong to several at once. Although the groups
often use attractive slogans and claim that their
forces will create a severe social crisis, in practice
they remain unable to change the society or politics.
These groups remain ineffective because they fail to
attract mass support.
Despite their weaknesses, these small fascist groups
cannot be dismissed as insignificant. Some of them
have been known to carry out acts of violence against
In 1997 in Denmark, for example, a fascist group was
accused of sending bombs through the mail to
assassinate political opponents. In the United States,
fascists have assaulted and killed African Americans,
Jews, and other minorities, and set off scores of
bombs. Another example is the case of Aitor Zabaleta
who has been killed by a member of a neo-nazi Spanish
group. Small fascist groups also present a threat
because the propaganda they distribute and the marches
and meetings they hold can create a local climate of
racial intolerance. This encourages discrimination
(from verbal abuse to murder). In addition, the small
size and lack of centralized organization that weakens
these groups also makes them almost impossible for
governments to control. If a government stops
violence by arresting members of a few groups, the
larger fascist network remains intact. This guarantees
that the ideology of fascism will survive even if
government authorities clamp down on some
SPANISH NEO-NAZI GROUPS
 MAJOR GROUPS
At least fourteen neo-nazi groups and several small
associations are acting in Madrid since last year.
This means that Madrid has the largest number of Nazi
movements. These groups are mainly made up by skin
heads (how are normally young middle class people with
fascist and nazi beliefs, and who hate homosexuals,
prostitutes, immigrants and indigents.
These fourteen groups are divided in the ones that act
in the capital: Skins Majadahonda, Skins Vallecas,
Skins Barrio del Pilar, Revolución Joven Skin, Skins
Moncloa, Skins Cubos (Plaza de España), and Juventud
Nacional Revolucionaria; and the ones which act in the
whole Community: La Voz del Pueblo (Alcorcón),
Hammerskin (Fuenlabrada), Ultras Parla, Boys Leganés,
Frente Joven (Alcalá de Henares), Resistencia Blanca
(Getafe) and Camaradas Presos (Alcalá de Henares).
These groups are menace considering that most of them
are conected (thanks to Internet) to each other and to
their European “brothers”.
If we focus on Hammerskin, for example, we can see
that is not simply a Spanish group, but has other
seats in California (USA), Florida (USA), Vinland
(Canada), Southern Cross, and Britain. Hammerskin
criticise openly the National Socialists, leftist
groups (as the Redskins), or simply the Basque
Country, Galicia and Cataluña. They try to explain
their European comrades the separatist situation of
Spain and make propaganda of neo-fascist music bands.
The symbols of the Hammerskins are different for each
country, so at the left
is the Internatinal Flag and at the right the Spanish
one. There are more flags, but they are all very
The football is one of the favourite surroundings for
the meeting of extreme rightist movements. There they
are protected by the pacific masses and are prepared
to act if necessary. Each weekend, only in Madrid
3,700 to 4,500 ultras go to the four mayor stadiums of
The Movimiento Contra la Intolerancia (MIC) has
published recently in the Third Raxen Inform the
 The Frente Atlético convokes 2,500/3,000
 Ultrasur about 1,000 or 1,500.
 Comandos Azules (Getafe) more than 100.
 Leganés Boys more or less 100.
Not all of these groups’ members are skinheads,
but are integrated in Neo fascist groups
Esteban Ibarra, president of MIC has announced that
Madrid is the Spanish region with the highest presence
of ultras. But this doesn’t mean that there
aren’t other organizations in the rest of Spain.
Two inspectors of the Cuerpo Nacional de Policía have
done a map of autonomies with the distribution of the
ultra violent groups, but we are going to concentrate
in the ones with neo-fascist ideals, because there are
other which have socialist and communist thoughts:
 Asturias: they are called Ultra Boys del
Sporting they sum up 450 members more or less.
 Andalucía: the 300 sympathisers of the
Supporters Gol Sur describe themselves as
extreme-rightist, specially a clump of twenty
skinheads that use nazi symbolism and flags.
 Aragón: the Ligallo Fondo Norte del Zaragoza
hates the Basque teams. It is composed of 300 people
among you can find 40 nazi skinheads.
 Castilla y León: within the 300 associates of
the Ultras Violetas del Real Valladolid there are only
30 rightist skinheads.
 Castilla-La Mancha: the most important and
known neo-fascist clusters here are the Brigadas
Blancas, Komandos Verdes and Escuadra Imperial.
 Extremadura: the two significant groups here
are the Legiones Sur de Mérida and the Infierno
Pacense del Badajoz. Both of them hate each other.
 La Rioja: the Gaunas Sur, who are
 Cataluña: the 800 Boixos Nois de Barcelona
are the one most fierce sets, having more than 150
rightist skinheads and about 200 that aren’t
skinheads but support fascist ideals. The Brigadas
Blanquiazules have also 150 skinheads approximately.
 Valencia: the skin-right movements are: the
Yomus y Gol Gran, the Jove Elx de Elche, Las Banderas
del Hércules and the Ultras Levante.
At the beginning all of these brackets had the support
of the football team they belonged to, they were even
paid by them, who used the groups to
“protect” their players and intimidate the
adversaries. This ended when the clubs were blamed on
the brutal acts the ultras committed.
All of those knots have their common enemies (which
are mentioned before) that are the punks, the red
skins (they believe in socialism), the sharps
(skinheads who are against racism), the Symmachiarii
(who defend anarchism), and many more.
Approximately there are sixty-five Neonazi groups in
Spain. They are organised and have developed a
strategy to arrive to their purpose: launch a
political party. Thanks to a web page in Miami
(Nuevorden-Hispania Gothorum) they are having more and
more probabilities of achieving their goal. Being in
Miami is advantage, because this way they are avoiding
the Spanish justice that prohibits these types of
This web page incorporates thousands of nationalist
contacts all over the world that interchange ideas,
teach their doctrines and project demonstrations to
those sixty-five (more or less) groups that act in
Spain. The representatives of this page maintain that
they have always tried to help the people to organise
in and for the legality. They want to co-ordinate the
already existent groups and also, in a near future,
they want to suppress the swastika, with this manner
they will gain more mass support.
Nuevorden-Hispania Gothorum encourages young, but
prepared people to support this movement with a
message of hate: << Not all the revolutions are
good…Only those which favoured our race. >>
 CURRENT EVENTS
AITOR ZABALETA CASE
Aitor Zabaleta was killed the 8th of December of 1998
by an ultra group of neo-nazis, followers of the
Atlético de Madrid Bastión 1903 near the Vicente
Calderón stadium. He had more than seven stabs through
all his body. The principal accused, Ricardo Guerra
gave the mortal one.
The Audiencia Provincial judgement began the 28th
February 2000. The principal accused is Ricardo
Guerra, but there are three more implicates, Ignacio
Racionero, Israel Gonzalo Canabal and Iván Martín Ron.
A popular jury decided that Ricardo Guerra was guilty
of the murder of Aitor Zabaleta.
The sentence says that he has to spend 17 years in
prison. The judge had decided that Ricardo Guerra has
to pay 20 million pesetas as compensation for the
death of Aitor Zabaleta, and, doing an exception, the
girlfriend is going to receive 10 million as a
compensation for the damages caused by the aggressor
The family of Aitor is happy with the sentence; but
they are waiting for the judgement against other 12
members of the neonazi “Bastión”. They
don’t want that this “people” get
away with their crime. They want justice.
First of all we think that if there are about
sixty-five Spanish Neo-nazi groups co-ordinated among
themselves this means that they aren’t as
inoffensive as Government tries to show, so it would
be a good idea to take steps against this assemblages
before they take steps against democracy.
We are totally against any fascist or nazi ideas. We
can’t believe that at the end of the XX century
(or at the beginning of the XXI century) there are
people who still accept these retrogressive ideas.
Teaching the atrocities that Hitler’s,
Mussolini’s or other dictator’s followers
did under an objective point of view, and showing what
immoral and savage were, is something that we think
will help decrease the number of people that want to
participate in this kind of clumps.
|Enviado por:||Mar Garcimartín|