Publicidad, Márketing y Relaciones Públicas
TRABAJO DE MÁRKETING - MERCADEO SOBRE CONOCIDA MARCA DE CERVEZA
Carlsberg Breweries was founded in 1847 by brewer J.C. Jacobsen. His brewery, wasjust outside the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, pioneered steam brewing, it refrigeration techniques and the greatest of all the propagation of a single yeast strain. J.C. Jacobsen demanded quality all else and his innovations in the art of making beer laid the cornerstone of the modern brewing industry
The Carlsberg brand is the "crown jewel". The Carlsberg brand is one of the company's most important possessions and we constantly strive to develop to innovative and pioneering ways to fortify its global position.
The strong brand-building theme advertising, is "Probably the best beer in the world" campaign, sponsorship of major sporting events, product placement and other global marketing activities have helped the Carlsberg brand to achieve steady growth and high public awareness around the world.
One of the world's biggest brewing groups and its core markets are the Nordic region, Eastern Europe, the United Kingdom and Asia.
Carlsberg in Sweden, part of the international Carlsberg Breweries Group, was formed by a joint venture of the Swedish Pripps-Ringnes Group and Carlsberg A/S of Denmark. Carlsberg Breweries sells around 7,000 million litres of beer via subsidiaries and joined companies and 2,000 million litres of mineral water and soft drinks.
The environment (Demographic, Economical, Natural, Technological, Political, Cultural, Legal forces)
The Carlsberg Breweries core markets are in the Nordic region, Eastern Europe, the United Kingdom and parts of Asia. The company is also motivated to become a key player in certain selected markets in Europe, Asia and North America. Carlsberg is one of the biggest beer market leaders in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Portugal and Malaysia. Along with Scottish & Newcastle, Carlsberg Breweries also owns Baltic Beverages Holding, the market leader in Russia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. As it was said, Carlsberg Breweries has its core markets in the Nordic region, Eastern Europe, the United Kingdom and parts of Asia. The company is also trying to become a key player in certain selected markets in Europe, Asia and North America.
The Carlsberg potential costumers are from the middle-upper class men and women starting from eighteen years old to fifty years old, depending on the legal drinking age of the country, also Carlsberg has its own loyalty costumers, like night clubs and bars.
Carlsberg is continually looking for other ways to reduce our impact on the natural environment. It has initiated an ambitious environmental policy which compels Carlsberg Breweries and the subsidiaries to implement environmental practices that are stricter than required by general legislation. All their companies are required to be ISO 14001 certified to ensure that we improve our performance. Carlsberg track the progress every year and compile results every second year in Environmental reports.
A lot of their efforts to help the environment are initiated globally, like the ISO 14001 certification, and is implemented in all breweries that Carlsberg owns.
But many environmental programmes are started by our local breweries and address a specific local environmental issue.
Carlsberg is improving their technology involved in the commercialisation of results of basic scientific research approved by Carlsberg Research Center.
The Carlsberg Research Center is part of Carlsberg and has for more than a hundred years provided remarkable scientific achievements with malting, brewing and fermentation through strong emphasis on the biotechnology and chemistry. This broad scientific expertise is today applied to a wider strategic capacity.
Carlsberg Research Center should integrate a broad a range of natural sciences to create novel opportunities contained by brewing and biotechnology. The Danish Malting Group is domiciled in Vordingborg and produces and sells brewing malt.
The Calsberg culture costumers, are more linked to the foot ball ambiance, In fact Carlsberg is sponsoring the UEFA's champions league, and it has a contract from the final in the year of 1998 until 2009.
There are some legal forces that intervene in the production of beer, like hygiene clauses, and preparation matters and also scientifically lab tested, to avoid any kind of negative health reactions.
Ass in any business, Carlsberg has to face its competitors but who are Carlsberg competitors? Who should Carlsberg consider a competitor? Who are the main competitors in this industry? Carlsberg competitors are primarily in the Alcohol Beverages industry. Carlsberg competitors include: Heineken, a Dutch enterprise which owns Heineken beer, and Amstel beer,
Inbev, a Belgium enterprise which owns the beers such as: Jupiler, Leffe and Stella artois
SABMiller, is a British enterprise which owns : Peroni Nastro Azzurro, Carling Black Label, Lech, Snow, Castle lager, Pilsner urquer and Miller lite.
These 3 big European companies are one of the biggest in the world, and these are the ones that Carlsberg has to face and there is a really big rivaliry between these 4 enterprises but this is when Carlsberg has to take advantage to its competitors by lounging new kind of beers or the most important: advertising.
Theat of new entrants
The beer market has been changing and also in significant respects has become more competitive since the introduction of the Beer Orders in 1989. The Beer Orders contained a number of adverse findings related to the vertical links between brewing and retailing, and made recommendations intended to loose the link between pub retailing and brewing to facilitate an easier entry, and increasing competition between, brewers, salers and pub retailers. This is something that every day Carlsberg has to face, and deal with new competitors but this is a challenge that Carlsberg is taking, and is growing as an enterprise gaining more markets.
Threat of substitute products
There are some substitute products, like licors and alocohol, if people decide to change to one of this products it can cause a decrease in sales, in the other hand this substitute products are more expensive than the Carlsberg products, so this is an advantage that the company has, but is not a reason to stop gainig costumers.
Bargaining power of suppliers
The Carlsberg companny is counting with a lot of suppliers which are:
DIAGEO, which is in charge of: Composite service, good focus given to factored brands, Dedicated wines & spirits specialists in regions, independent of any retail estate, with good understanding of support for strong brands, Innovative and flexible approach to market, Embrace new initiatives, is committed to developing three year strategic plan, commit people, data, tests, management review time resources, tailored strategies to help Carlsberg differentiate itself in the market place .
SCA, Speciality Products hqs worked with Carlsberg for over 4 years supplying quality litho packaging for Carlsberg and Carlsberg Export for the bottle squashing. The quality graphic representation on the packages ensures that the Carlsberg and Export Brands are strongly resistant and sponsorship promotions are most accurately represented on package in every detail.
STATOIL, Statoil Ltd has been supplying natural gas to Carlsberg's sites since 1998. So far the market has developed notably, with the gas price being based on an often explosive futures market and other costs.
Taylor Bloxham Limited, has been supplying a diverse sort of printed promotional materials to Carlsberg.
REXAM has been working with Carlsberg supplying Glass & Cans
TechnoLink, being nominated as a single supplier for all Carlsberg Packaging Graphics Management has enjoyed a close and professional relationship with Carlsberg for the past years.
Bargaining power of buyers.
The bargaining that Carlsberg has to their buyers, is satisfying them with the product, the price is set up in order of the demand and also it depends on the country and the factory the beer is made.
Carlsberg is a big international provider of beer and beverage brands, bringing to people together and adding to the enjoy of life. Carlsberg's overall vision is to make:
Probably the best beer company in the world.
Carlsberg's brands will be the consumers' first choice, and Carlsberg will lead the industry in profitability and growth through a culture of quality, innovation and continuous improvement in the beer world.
The company objectives and goals
Carlsberg, as a big company has to visualise its own objectives and goals mainly in:
Carlsberg's focusing areas in the following years and it will be:
Intensified their efforts for the Carlsberg brand internationally, intensified their efforts to find some other partners in the beer markets, increased efficiency with all their functions, increased and more frequent information to the shareholders.
In the soft drink sector, the running in of the newly established soft drinks group, of Coca-Cola Nordic Beverages, will continue, and a positive result is expected to be achieved within for the next years. In factthe Carlsberg Group expects a small increase in return in the next years and an operating benefits at level with last years. Because of the substantial investments in new plant and company acquisitions mentioned over, also the financial items will remain negative next year. The negative trend will be more than make up to gains from the sale of Grupo Cruzcampo and divest of shareholdings in non-beverage related companies. Given these predictions, the profit before tax will show an increase compared to the lasts years. The result for the following years is expected to be influenced positively by restructuring measures too as by increased market shares in a number of principal markets within beer as well as soft drinks. Carlsberg is making efforts to ensure the future development and expansion of the company in the beer market.
The business portfolio
Carlsberg has a solid portfolio of global, regional and local, the brands alows it to provide individual beers around the world with the beer that is right for them.
Carlsberg has beers that appeal to a broad diversity of tastes, personalities and lifestyles.
Carlsberg has 2 main SBU's to sell, which are: Carlsberg beer, and Tubourg, but it also has some others SBU's that depends on the country.
The main beer, which receive more goods is the Carlsberg Beer, because is the main product of the company.
The global premium brand in the portfolio, Carlsberg Beer, made an impressive increase of 12 % in the first half of 2004, with really strong sales in mature key markets such as the UK but also from new markets such in Poland, Romania, and the Baltic countries.
Tuborg is a key regional brand in the portfolio, building its strength in Western and Eastern Europe and delivering healthy growth.
This is an strategy growth by the company, because these SBU's almost don't need advertising because these are local brands it doesn't need a big publicity to make the sales. These are the SBU's that only need some local investment for sales.
The other local brands are Ringnes in Norway, Feldschlösschen in Switzerland Okocim in Poland, Pripps in Sweden, Koff in Finland and Tetley's in the UK that represent the backbone of Carlsberg's portfolio.
Each has it own unique heritage which the Carlsberg Group encourages, while providing continued support and expertise.
The Marketing Process For One Company's Offer
Description of the buyer decision process
The buying decision process is based first of all, the need, or the whim of a beer, and depending of what does the costumer really want, if just a beer, or the good taste of a beer, then the costumer will have to find some information about Carlsberg Beer and some other beers, how many grades of alcohol does it has, and does it has a good taste? The quality of the beer, then the buyer will have to know which other choices does he has, like Heineken, or Leffe, etc. and compare the price, then the costumer will have a purchase decision buying Carlsberg product as the best choice, and after the purchase, the buyer will make its evaluation, and will be happy with the decision noticing, that is tasting probably the best beer in the world.
Factors affecting the consumer behaviour
The factors that affects the consumer behaviour are mainly the advertising, because all the constant messages that hits the costumer, are persuading the costumer to buy the product.
There are some places that are with more advertised than others, because 2 reasons, the first one is because is a potential market and is possible to get this new market and this buyers by advertisement and the second one is because is already a loyal market.
They are some other factors like the regular bars which are loyal Carlsberg's costumers, or depending on the Carlsberg's selling places or distributors.
The Marketing Strategy
Market segmentation criterion
As it was said, Carlsberg, is segmented in the main beers, Carlsberg Beer, and Tuborg,
The segmentation that Carlsberg make is mainly a geographic matter and is using the local beers for its own country like Ringnes in Norway, Feldschlösschen in Switzerland Okocim in Poland, Pripps in Sweden, Koff in Finland and Tetley's in the UK and this segmentation like is done because not everywhere Carlsberg can sell this beer because is just a local beer, and it wont be really strong in the international market as Carlsber Beer or Tuborg.
Other factor that affect into the segmentation is the socio-economical fact that is depending on the country and depending on the economic situation of the society targeted.
The target is rated starting from the average of the minimum legal age to buy drinks, Carlsberg Beer is a beer that can be consume for everybody who likes to drink beer, men and women, and the normal market for the beer is 18-55 year-old.
The Carlsberg market position is getting bigger every year, and is increasing the market making some business with some locals breweries, in 2003 Carlsberg Breweries focused particularly on realising synergy matters, implementing improvement programmes and restructuring their operations, as well, on improving the Carlsberg's global position.
Carlsberg make better the position in the Balkans in 2003 by purchasing the Serbian brewery Pivara Celarevo. It also acquired more interesting in the Turkish company Türk Tuborg, the Bulgarian company Shumensko and Pirinsko Pivo and the Polish beer company Carlsberg Okocim. In Asia, Carlsberg terminated its business arrangement with Chang Beverages, but continued to operate in the region through its only subsidiary, Carlsberg Asia. Through its subsidiary in Hong Kong, Carlsberg Asia purchased the Chinese beer companies Kunming and Dali. In Vietnam the company increased its stake in the South-East Asia Brewery and Hue Brewery. Baltic Beverages Holding purchased the Ak-Nar beer company in Kazakhstan, while BBH, through its Russian subsidiary Baltika, inaugurated two newly constructed breweries in Samara and Habarovsk in Russia. In January 2004 Carlsberg Breweries signed an agreement to buy Holsten-Brauerei, making Carlsberg Breweries the leading brewery in North Germany.
In 2003 Carlsberg Breweries cut out the Tou brewery in Norway and decided to close it down in Stockholm payable to overfilling on these markets. Hannen's production plant in Germany and Feldschlösschen's soft drink tapping plant in Switzerland were sold.
The marketing program
Carlsberg Beer is said to be a rich, dark lager style, and traditionally brewed with an added blend of Munich and chocolate roasted malts, to bring some “smooth and dark beer that has a roasted flavour with a allusion of caramel”. The beer is 5.6% alcohol and is available in bottle of 33 cl, with a green and delicate design to reflect the quality in the packaging.
Carlsberg's strategy is made to try the product and get the idea of tried probably the best beer in the world.
The pricing strategy is a research of the market, that is based on the demand and the supplies, is based where the equilibrium point is situated depending on the market there are selling, also depends about the competition in each market, it lounge some promotions to gain advantage over the other competitors, such as Heineken, Jupiler, Maes pills, etc.
All the advertising that Carlsberg makes is to be remembered probably like the best beer in the world, and that's why sometimes has to bring the same product but with new packaging, or bring some temporally promotion to get the attention of the costumers. One example of it, is the Christmas special edition of Carlsberg beer, and it was the same beer, but with new package with the holiday theme.
Also Carlsberg is making some promotions in the sports matters, and a lot of sponsoring with it.
The place strategy is based on the geographic segmentation, and this will be chosen as the demand says, and as the new potential market let it.
Strong financial position
Exposure to the changes in foreign exchange
Facing opportunities for new markets
Evaluations of the Company's Marketing Strategy and Recommendations
The company's marketing strategy, was to get into a market the new product a new beer that innovates, something different than the other beers, when this happened the society started to know this new product, then it started to innovate it with some improvements to make the beer's taste better, as the Carlsberg company was growing it started to get some new markets, to introduce its product and then establish into it.
The strategy that Carlsberg Breweries is making is to make some join ventures with some new markets, and this is a very intelligent strategy to get into a new market, because the risks to get in to a new market and don't succeed are less, because, it has its backup by the other brewery.
Another strategy used by Carlsberg Breweries, was to provide just some local beers, to their own country, because with a smart movement like this, is gaining the most of the market, having its product and the local one, leaving just a small part to their competitors
I think Carlsberg Breweries strategy is very ambitious and smart from the beginning because it did not try to introduce a lot of products but introducing just two and then trying to gain the market by just triumphing above the other markets by just making joint ventures, and opening new factories around the world.
The main market is the sports supporters, and when Carlsberg is making this strategy into big sales, because this is some advertising direct to the costumers through the sports.
-Introduction to Marqueting (the marketing book)
-Uefa champions league sponsors http://fr.uefa.com/uefa/Keytopics/kind=131072/newsId=448603.html
-Carlsberg United Kingdom http://www.carlsberguk.co/suppliersuk/logosuppliers_frame_take.htm
-Carlsberg breweries http://info.carlsberg.com/NR/rdonlyres/evdnk3qjcseq6rlsqkhml5hhpglrxj7xaqig737sqa6xdknhiwf3bg3tbo7h5hbdgltxb7of7u6fvmksbo5ho6c2the/annual9899eng.pdf
|Enviado por:||Jorge Pintor|