The novel opens on January 6, 1482. The city of Paris is in the midst of its annual celebrations for Epiphany and the Festival of Fools. The traditional celebrations, carried over from antiquity, revolve around three events: an exhibition of fireworks in the Place de Greve, the planting of a May tree at the Chapel of Braque, and a mystery play performed at the Palace of Justice. The chief attraction for most citizens is the mystery play, which is followed by the Election of the Pope of Fools. In this first chapter, the paths to the Palace of Justice are packed with people awaiting the arrival of the Flemish Ambassadors. The noise from the impatient crowd, as they amuse themselves by mocking each other, echoes throughout the entire palace. The scholars, including Jehan Frollo, are especially adept at their witticisms. As the clock strikes twelve, the show has still not begun. The angry crowd begins shouting. Finally Michel Giborne, an actor dressed as Jupiter, appears and announces that the play will begin as soon as the Cardinal arrives. Giborne's announcement to the impatient crowd causes them to become more rowdy. In fact, they react in such a ay that the actor actually becomes frightened by their anger. A tall, slender man demands that the play begin immediately, without the Cardinal. In response, Giborne takes his place on stage to commence the play. In the prologue to the play, Labor is wedded to Trade and Clergy to Nobility. According to the story, these two happy couples are joint possessors of a magnificent golden dolphin, which they wish to hand over to the most beautiful woman on earth. Accordingly, they travel through the world in search of this beauty. Finally, they land in Paris. The play is suddenly interrupted by the loud sounds of a nearby beggar. The playwright, Pierre Gringoire, is greatly displeased at the interruption of his play, which he seems to regard as a masterpiece. He fusses until the play resumes. It is not long after this first interruption that the Cardinal arrives, sending the audience into chaos again. The abrupt arrival of the Cardinal leaves Gringoire in despair. He fears that his play will never be finished. The audience, however, is enthralled with the arrival of the Cardinal, for they respect all dignitaries. As the Cardinal and Guillaume Rym, the Flemish Ambassador, exchange greetings, a man steps on stage and introduces himself as Jacque Coppenole, a hosier from Ghent. He is welcomed with great applause by the audience, for they consider him to be a member of their own class. Gringoire unsuccessfully attempts to return the attention of the audience to his mystery play. He appeals to the Cardinal for help. The Cardinal, who is relieved to hear that the play is half over, proclaims that it should continue. Gringoire's rejoicing is cut short, however, when the audience cannot understand what is happening and loses complete interest. Jacques Coppenole rises from his seat again. Addressing the audience, he criticizes the play. He then talks about the procedure for the Election of the Pope of Fools in Ghent. People take turns putting their faces through a hole and smiling. The ugliest face is selected by applause and is named the Pope of Fools. The audience responds to Coppenhole's explanation enthusiastically and forgets the play for good. Gringoire is devastated that his first drama has not been a success. All the necessary arrangements are made for the Election of the Pope of Fools. A window on the chapel wall, opposite the marble stage, is chosen as the place for the faces to appear. In no time at all the chapel is packed with competitors. Coppenole directs the enterprise with utmost attention. The Cardinal and his staff leave. The Flemish dignitaries, Gringoire and his actors, and the populace are left behind to enjoy the show. The display of grimaces begins, with the competitors presenting themselves at the window one after another. The onlookers, irrespective of class, rank, education or profession, are caught up in the fun of the occasion. The insulted Gringoire, who refuses to become involved, orders his actors to continue their performance. The Pope of Fools is finally selected, and the audience goes wild with applause. The winner, who has a hideous countenance, is the one-eyed, bandy-legged, hunchback of Notre-Dame, whose name is Quasimodo. Working as the bell ringer for the great cathedral, he is considered to be totally rotesque, and most people refuse to even look at him, especially the women. Because of his ugliness, he is despised by all and even called the devil. Now, according to custom, Quasimodo, as the newly elected Pope of Fools, is supposed be carried through the streets and celebrated in every corner of the city. Pierre Gringoire makes his actors continue with the performance of his play even as the crowd sets out for the procession for the Pope of Fools; but soon there is another interruption. La Esmeralda, a street dancer, enters and disrupts the performance. Finally giving up in frustration, Gringoire leaves the Great Hall at dusk. Lost in his own thoughts, he walks along the obscure and quiet streets of Paris, approaching the Place de Grève. The failure of his first dramatic effort weighs heavily on him. As Pierre Gringoire nears the Place de Grève, he realizes that he feels extremely cold. He also notices a large crowd of people who have assembled around a fire. As they warm themselves by the fire, they watch the dance of an elegant and beautiful young gypsy. They also watch as she makes her trained goat, named Djali, perform tricks for the crowd. The performer is La Esmeralda, the same gypsy that earlier entered the Great Hall and interrupted the play. As Gringoire surveys the scene, he spies a bald man, who is standing alone at a distance from the crowd, as he watches the performance. When the gypsy stops dancing, the onlookers applaud with great enthusiasm. The strange, bald man accuses La Esmeralda of witchcraft. Trying to ignore his comments, she begins to collect money for her performance. As she works the crowd, an old woman, who is locked up in Rolande's Tower, screams at her to go away and calls her a "gypsy wench." Since Gringoire has no money to contribute, he takes advantage of the strange man's loud accusations and the old woman's cries to slip away unnoticed. As Gringoire is departing, the procession of the Pope of Fools enters Place de Grève. The bald man, who accused the gypsy girl of witchcraft, snatches the crosier of gilt wood from Quasimodo's hands. It turns out that the old man is Dom Claude Frollo, the Archdeacon of Josas. A resident of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, he is also Quasimodo's master. When Quasimodo sees his master, he leaps from the procession, approaches Frollo, and bows his head before the priest in a gesture of humility. No one tries to stop the Pope of Fools as he leaves the procession to follow his master home. As the crowd moves on, a thoughtful Gringoire continues on his way, wondering where he will have his next meal. Gringoire decides to follow La Esmeralda, but he loses sight of the gypsy as the streets grow darker and more deserted. He then hears her scream. He rounds a corner and sees her struggling with two assailants. One is Quasimodo; the other is his master, the priest Frollo. Gringoire tries to help the gypsy, but Quasimodo hits him with a solid blow, knocking him to the ground. Fortunately for La Esmeralda, Phoebus, the captain of the archers of the King's Ordinance, comes along and rescues her; his men then arrest Quasimodo. Claude Frollo escapes unnoticed. La Esmeralda thanks Phoebus and disappears. As Gringoire recovers from Quasimodo's blow, he is still in pain and feels cold. While he is trying to gather his strength, a group of mischievous boys comes along and sets fire to the Paillasse right next to Gringoire. He feels he must depart immediately. Having escaped the mischief of the boys, Gringoire runs through the streets, stopping only when he is exhausted. He falls in with a group of blind men and beggars, who lead him to their restingplace, called The Court of Miracles. His new companions offer to introduce him to their leader. Gringoire is shocked to see that the leader is the same beggar who first disrupted his play. The leader, who tries to act like royalty, tells Gringoire that his name is Clopin Trouillefou, the King of Thunes and supreme ruler of the realm of Slang. He says that Gringoire will be punished for entering the beggars' territory without being one of his subjects unless he can either perform an acceptable trick or one of the beggar women offers to marry him. At that moment, La Esmeralda comes forward and says she will marry him. She gives Gringoire a jug that he is to drop on the ground. When he follows her instructions and the jug breaks into four pieces, they are pronounced husband and wife. Gringoire goes to live with La Esmeralda, but he is confused by her cold attitude. She almost completely ignores him. After several days he makes a sexual advance, which she deflects by threatening him with a knife. The frustrated Gringoire asks her why she married him. She replies that she wanted to save him from hanging. Over supper that night, Gringoire and La Esmeralda finally begin to talk. They even become comfortable with one another, acting like old friends. As Gringoire talks about his past, La Esmeralda seems to drift into her own thoughts. She then asks Gringoire what the name "Phoebus" means, and he tells her it means "sun." She then goes to her room with her goat, locking the door behind her. In this chapter, Hugo turns his attention to the Cathedral of Notre Dame, concentrating on the damage done to it through the years. Three distinct agents have negatively impacted the cathedral: time, various religious and political revolutions, and fashion. The latter has led to attacks on the very framework of the great monument. He explains that Notre-Dame does not belong to one particular style of architecture, for it is not purely Gothic, Romanesque, or Arabic; instead it is an artistic, transitional, and progressive structure that defies clear definition. Built of stone and glass, Notre-Dame is supported by a series of flying buttresses and decorated on the outside with innumerable gargoyles and dragons. It is also known for its towers. There is a long dark spiral staircase that is located between the thick walls of the tallest tower. The staircase, in turn, opens in to two large platforms. In this chapter, the area of Paris surrounding Notre-Dame is described in detail. The city itself is divided into three distinct parts, each with its own customs, privileges, and history. These parts include the City, the University, and the Town. At first glance, these three sections appear as a whole. The church itself is part of the City and sits on an island in the middle of the River Seine. Gothic galleries are situated to the north of the cathedral, and the Palace of Bishop is to the south. An uninhabited point of the island, called the Terrain, is located on the eastern side of the cathedral; and in front of Notre-Dame, there is a fine square of old houses. Towards the south is the Palace of Justice, and nearby is the famous pillory, where criminals are put to death. Hugo explains that the cathedral of Notre-Dame is only one of twenty-one great churches within the City. It is, however, considered to be the greatest because of its superb central location. It also has a wonderful view of Paris from the top of its towers. Because of its popularity, Notre-Dame is also the most vulnerable of the churches, susceptible to the ravages of time and man. A well-known custom in fifteenth century Paris was for churches to display orphaned-babies to the common people for the purpose of eliciting charity. Sometimes these orphaned children would be adopted and given homes. One Sunday in 1467, one such orphan was presented to the people. The baby was deformed and so ugly that many of the women call the child a demon. Some of them suggest that he should be drowned or burned. A young priest named Claude Frollo declared that he would adopt the deformed baby. The astonished crowd wondered whether Frollo was a sorcerer rather than a priest. The young Claude Frollo was an extraordinary person. His parents had trained him from his childhood for the priesthood. As a student, he had studied both Latin and theology. After his parents' death, Frollo, at the age of nineteen, took up the responsibility of raising his younger brother, Jehan. For most of his young life, Frollo was utterly devoted to his brother, pampering and spoiling him. Unfortunately, Jehan became somewhat worthless. When he entered the priesthood, Claude Frollo was the youngest chaplain of Notre-Dame and performed the service at the altar. He spent a lot of time reading books, which were his most prized possessions and helped him not to think about his brother. But it was the thought of his own brother that made Frollo adopt the deformed child and name him Quasimodo. Since he had failed with his brother, he hoped to work a miraculous transformation in the beastly orphan. In this chapter, the narrative shifts back to the present of 1482. The deformed Quasimodo has become the bell-ringer at the cathedral, and Claude Frollo has become the archdeacon of Josas. Over the years, Claude Frollo tried to teach Quasimodo to talk; but his years of ringing the bells robbed the hunchback of his hearing and his speech. As a result of his deformity, his deafness, and his muteness, Quasimodo seldom leaves the church, and his presence is felt everywhere in Notre-Dame. The statues in the cathedral become his only companions; he enjoys their company immensely, for they do not bear any malice towards him, like the people do. But Quasimodo's greatest appiness comes from the bells of Notre-Dame. Several times each day, Quasimodo looks forward to receiving the signal from Frollo that it is time to ring the bells. He runs of the staircase to eagerly perform his duty. As he rings the fifteen tower bells, they seem to awaken his imprisoned soul. His favorite bell is the largest one, which he has named Mary. At the time of the novel, Quasimodo is about twenty, and Claude Frollo has begun to grow old. The priest is the only person Quasimodo cares about; in fact, he probably loves Frollo more than he loves Notre-Dame. Frollo has spent his adult life at Notre-Dame, caring for Quasimodo and continuing to immerse himself in his studies. He has a secret cell located on the top of a tower within Notre- Dame, close to the Place de Greve; he spends long hours in this cell, pouring over his books. Spending their lives together, Quasimodo and Frollo are dependent open each other. The people of Paris cannot understand their relationship. They regard the hunchback and the priest as the demon and his master and often make comments like, "There goes one (the priest) whose soul is like the other's body!" Two visitors come to see Claude Frollo, asking questions about
medicine and alchemy. One of the visitors is the King's physician, Jacques Coictier. The other is named Compère Tourangeau. As Tourangeau and Claude Frollo speak, the priest is impressed by the mannerisms of Tourangeau, who carries himself as if he were someone strong and authoritative. He has many questions about Frollo's medical ideas, despite the voiced skepticism of his companion, Coictier. In the end, Tourangeau asks to study with Frollo. Then, as he is leaving, he reveals himself to be King Louis XI. In the previous chapter, Claude Frollo tells the King that books, which are becoming more popular and important in the fifteenth century, will kill the great cathedrals. In this chapter, Hugo discusses this idea at length. The meaning of the statement is two-fold. First, the printing press threatens to destroy the ecclesiastical establishment by supplanting its authority. In fact, the press has caused a revolution, bringing about a fundamental change in the mode of thinking and expression for all mankind. Second, the new art of writing may well dethrone the old art of architecture, for a book is simpler to create and produce. Hugo then discusses the limitations of architecture and further examines history in order to present an elaborate description of art and the various media in which it is propagated. These two chapters introduce the Provost of Paris, Robert d'Estouteville, and the deaf auditor, Master Florian. These men are in the Chatelet, or Court of Justice, where a large crowd has assembled for the trial of Quasimodo, who is well-guarded. Jehan Frollo is in the audience.
As the auditor announces the charges against Quasimodo, the audience laughs at the irony of a deaf man being accused by a deaf auditor. The laughter makes the auditor indignant and blames Quasimodo, accusing him of disrespect. The Provost takes over as Judge and punishes Quasimodo for his irrelevant and seemingly mocking answers, which are actually the result of his inability to communicate. The Provost sentences the hunchback to undergo an immediate and severe beating at the pillory in the Place de Greve. Before Quasimodo is punished, four sergeants on horseback park themselves at the four corners of the pillory. Then a large crowd begins to gather in the plaza. Overlooking the plaza is Rolande's Tower, which serves as the home of orphaned and afflicted women. Engraved below the window in the tower are the Roman words, "Pray Thou." Three women walk along the shore of the river from the Châtelet toward the Place de Grève. Two of them are dressed like wives of respectable citizens of Paris. The third woman, who looks like a country peasant, is holding a boy by one hand and carrying a cake in the other. Her name is Mahiette. Her companions, Gervaise and Oudarde, are talking about recent events at the pillory and about the visit of the Flemish ambassador. As the three women reach the foot of the bridge, they see a large crowd gathered. Gervaise announces that the crowd is watching the antics of La Esmeralda and her goat. When Mahiette hears
the announcement, she runs away so quickly that she causes the small boy by her side to trip and fall. When her friends catch up with her, she tells them she is running because La Esmeralda will steal her child. She then explains what has happened to Pacquette la Chantefleurie. Pacquette was a beautiful young girl who lived in Rheims. Her father died when she was an infant, and she and her mother were left to live in poverty. In spite of her plight, Pacquette was so lively and lovely that everyone called her La Chantefleurie. Because of her beauty, many men were attracted to her, but they always deserted her. When her mother died, Pacquette was
totally alone. She became pregnant, and, after great difficulty, gave birth to a child. She named her baby Agnes and poured all her affection and devotion into the girl. One day, a troupe of Egyptian vagabonds and beggars came to Rheims and amused the people with their tricks. In the evening, they stole Agnes from her crib and replaced her with a monstrous looking baby. Pacquette lost her mind and disappeared from Rheims. The monstrous baby in her crib was sent to Paris as a foundling and was eventually adopted by a priest. The infant was obviously Quasimodo. As Mahiette finishes her story about Pacquette, the women reach Rolande's Tower. Sister Gudule, whom they have come to see, is praying. The three women watch her sadly, remarking on her sad state. When Sister Gudule sees the child with the women, she warns them to keep a close watch over their children. When Gudule refuses their gifts, Mahiette whispers her real name, "Pacquette." Sister Gudule jumps up and curses them for recognizing her and calling her by name. The crowd at Place de Greve grows, and people mill around awaiting Quasimodo's punishment. The accused bell-ringer bears the humiliation of his upcoming punishment quietly; even when he is stripped to the waist and mocked for his deformities, he does not protest. At the end of his beating, Quasimodo sinks to the ground exhausted. The two attendants then wash his wounds and leave him in the pillory for one final hour. The crowd begins to torment Quasimodo. They throw stones at him and watch him bleed, rejoicing in their own cruelty. When Quasimodo spies Claude Frollo in the crowd, he is sure he will be rescued. But Claude Frollo simply walks away, leaving Quasimodo heartbroken and despairing. After awhile, Quasimodo begs for water, but no one responds. Finally La Esmeralda takes pity on him and gives him water. He is so relieved that he begins to cry. But from Rolande's tower, Sister Gudule curses La Esmeralda for her kindness. Having seen enough, Mahiette and her companions start toward home. March is the most beautiful time of year in Paris, and during the month, all the young men and women are paired together. Demoiselle Fleur de Lys, from a noble family, has been promised to the handsome Captain Phoebus, but he is indifferent to her. As the two of them talk, they see La Esmeralda playing her tambourine on the street. Claude Frollo is also watching the young gypsy. He is so mesmerized by her that he is motionless. Fleur de Lys asks Phoebus to invite the gypsy girl to join their party. When he extends the invitation, La Esmeralda blushes deeply, but accepts the offer. Unaware of her own beauty, the gypsy does not realize that the young men are fascinated with her appearance. When they eagerly seek her out, the other young women grow jealous and ridicule her. When Phoebus talks to La Esmeralda, Fleur de Lys becomes very irritated. One of the ladies asks La Esmeralda to make her goat perform a trick. Someone else loosens a little bag from the neck of the animal and pours out several pieces of paper. The goat arranges the papers, which spell out "Phoebus." When Fleur de Lys sees the name on the paper, she bursts into sobs. As a result, the other ladies at the gathering drive La Esmeralda away. Captain Phoebus follows her. Claude Frollo goes to the tower of the cathedral daily, remaining there from sunset through the night. On this day the sounds of the tambourine reach him, and when he looks out, he sees La Esmeralda. Her assistant seems familiar to Frollo. He realizes that it is Gringoire, his former student. As Frollo hurries down from the tower, he passes Quasimodo, who is also watching La Esmeralda. By the time Frollo reaches the street, La Esmeralda has departed; but the priest calls to Gringoire, who loses his balance and falls into the crowd from the surprise of hearing his name. When Claude Frollo questions him about how he came to work with the gypsy, Gringoire tells him of his hunger and the incidents that led to his marriage. Frollo is clearly upset and cross-examines Gringoire to gather all the details. Gringoire admits that he and La Esmeralda live together platonically. He also reveals that La Esmeralda is in love with Phoebus. Frollo, pretending to be concerned for Gringoire's welfare, urges him to keep his hands off of the gypsy. Inside the cathedral, Quasimodo is despondent. His bells no longer comfort or please him. He is miserable because he is in love and knows that no woman would ever love him. Jehan Frollo, in need of money, goes to see his brother Claude, who is in his room at the top of the tower. When Jehan arrives, he is not immediately seen by the priest; therefore, he able toobserve his brother unnoticed. The room in which Claude cloisters himself contains a largefurnace, a glass mask, and various strange pieces of equipment. A number of inscriptions are written on the walls in Gothic, Hebrew, Greek, and Roman languages, all mixed together. As Jehan watches, Claude Frollo reads aloud from a manuscript, occasionally speaking to himself on matters of alchemy. For a moment, he sinks into a chair and rests his head on a table; he then jumps up and writes the word ANATKH on the wall. Jehan slips away and then makes a noise as he reappears, alerting Claude Frollo to his arrival. The priest is surprised to see his brother and asks him why he has come. Jehan tells his brother he needs money to purchase buskins. Claude refuses to help his brother and berates Jehan, telling him that he is worthless. He even lists all of the complaints he has heard about Jehan. Angry that his brother will not help him, Jehan tries to upset the priest. He states that he knows the meaning of the word written on the wall. Claude turns pale when Jehan says that the word means "fatality." Wanting to silence Jehan, the priest agrees to buy him new buskins instead of giving him money. Jehan argues, insisting on money. When the priest hears footsteps approaching, he tells Jehan to hide. Jehan says he will only hide if Claude gives him the money. The priest gives in to his brother one more time. While Jehan is hidden, the visitor, Master Jacques Charmolue, comes in and speaks to Claude. He is a proctor for the king. The two men discuss sorcery and alchemy, and the inevitable accusations and prosecutions of those accused of wrongdoing. Claude tells the visitor to convict a sorcerer named Marc Cecaine but to ignore the accusations of sorcery against La Esmeralda. After the proctor departs, Jehan emerges from his hiding place. Pleased that he has received money from his brother, he happily descends the winding stairs of the tower. At the bottom of the stairs, he joins his friend -- Phoebus. The two laugh about La Esmeralda. Claude, overhearing their conversation, is furious with his brother and the callous captain. Phoebus and Jehan enter a tavern called La Pomme d'Eve. They are unaware that Claude Frollo has followed them and now waits, disguised in a cloak, outside the door. When the two friends exit the tavern, Phoebus reminds Jehan that he must leave in order to keep his appointment with a young woman (obviously La Esmeralda). When Jehan departs, the priest follows Phoebus. When Phoebus realizes he is being followed, he confronts the cloaked stranger. The disguised Frollo frightens Phoebus by telling him many things a stranger would not know. Claude then demands to accompany Phoebus to his destination, for he wants to see La Esmeralda. When they reach the appointed place, a low door in the Pont St Michel, an old woman opens the door. Phoebus puts a coin into her hand, and she leads the two men to a room up a ladder. Phoebus locks Claude in a closet and continues through the house with the old womanGroping around in the closet, Claude Frollo finds a hole through which he can look. He sees Phoebus greet La Esmeralda with a kiss. He then listens to the gypsy as she confesses her love for Phoebus and her desire to lose her virtue with him. Although Phoebus says he loves her, he laughs at her when she speaks of marrying him. When La Esmeralda shows that she is clearly hurt by Phoebus' laughter, he grabs her and kisses her. In the closet, Claude Frollo is beside himself with agitation. When he sees Phoebus kiss La Esmeralda with passion, he can stand it no longer. He jumps out of the closet and stabs his adversary. La Esmeralda faints with shock and fear. When she wakes, Phoebus lies in a pool of blood, and Frollo has vanished. Soon everyone is talking about how the sorceress stabbed the captain. Since La Esmeralda never returns home after the stabbing of Phoebus, everyone in the Court of Miracles is concerned about her, especially Gringoire. One day as he wanders in the streets, he sees a huge gathering near the Palace of Justice and realizes a trial is about to take place. He listens as old woman on the witness stand talks about the crime that has taken place at the Pont St. Michel. Gringoire realizes with a terrible start that the accused is his dear wife, La Esmeralda. From her seat, La Esmeralda begs to know if Phoebus is dead. She is told he is dying. She must then watch as Djali, her goat, is brought in as proof of her sorcery and crime. The King's Proctor makes the goat perform all sorts of tricks. Finally, he detaches a bag of letters from around the goat's neck. When he empties the bag, the goat carefully arranges the letters to form the name "Phoebus." La Esmeralda is found guilty and sentenced to torture. Gringoire watches in numb shock. La Esmeralda is taken to a dungeon, where she is tortured. During the torture, the King's proctor, Jacques Charmolue, coerces her into signing a confession. Having duly confessed, La Esmeralda is escorted back to court, where she is formally sentenced to death. Her goat, Djali, will suffer the same fate. After the sentencing is complete, La Esmeralda is taken away in shackles. As La Esmeralda awaits her execution in prison, her life is unbearable. She sits by herself in darkness and misery. Each day she is given only a crust of bread to eat and some water to drink. One day a man enters her dark prison cell with a lantern. He tells La Esmeralda that he is a priest. He speaks to her with such kindness that she cries; but when he takes her hands, she shudders at how cold he is. During the visit, La Esmeralda realizes that her visitor is the man who stabbed Phoebus. In fear she shrinks from him. Frollo then tells her how her singing and dancing have distracted him. He also states that her beauty must come from Hell, for it torments men, especially him. He then confesses that he is madly in love
with her and tells her his love is true and genuine, unlike the love of Phoebus. He tries to convince her of his worthiness. Next he tells her Phoebus is dead. Totally distraught, La Esmeralda says there is nothing left for her but death and falls with her face to the ground. In Rolande's Tower, Pacquette (Sister Gudule) caresses the shoe of her little lost daughter and talks to it as if it were a living thing. She then weeps until she overhears a group of boys discussing the execution of La Esmeralda. She rushes to the window where she can see the gallows. In truth, Phoebus is not dead. He recovers from his injuries and rejoins his company. When he returns to Paris, he visits Fleur de Lys. He tells her he has been away with his company, not mentioning the incident with La Esmeralda. He ignores the gallows in the street, looking back on his time with La Esmeralda with embarrassment. Phoebus courts Fleur de Lys, who tells him about the witch who is being hanged in the street below. They go to the window and are both shocked to see that the "witch" is none other than La Esmeralda. Though Phoebus would like to go back inside, Fleur de Lys insists on watching. La Esmeralda does not raise her eyes from where she stands. She is almost a picture of purity amidst the chanting and shouting of the mob. As she and her goat areuntied, she whispers the name "Phoebus." She is then made to walk barefoot on the hard pavement to the foot of the steps leading to the gallows. A rope is fastened around her neck and trails behind her. A long procession of priests advances toward her, including Claude Frollo. Though he is there to ask for her confession, he also asks her if she will be his. He tells her Phoebus is dead, and no one else can save her. At that moment, Frollo looks up to see Phoebus on the balcony with Fleur de Lys. La Esmeralda looks up as well. Spying Phoebus, she cries out with joy. Phoebus quickly withdraws inside, and La Esmeralda faints. Quasimodo suddenly appears on the scene and begins to fight the guards. He then snatches La Esmeralda, holding her above his head. As he runs inside the cathedral with her, he cries one word: "Sanctuary!" Master Charmolue and the executioners are helpless since they have no authority to harm someone who has fled into the church for refuge. Feeling he could not watch La Esmeralda's execution, Claude Frollo left the gallows after confronting the gypsy. As a result, he is unaware that Quasimodo saved La Esmeralda. Nearly mad with grief about losing her, the pale Frollo wanders the streets of Paris. Eventually he reaches Pont St. Michel, where he sees a young man with a prostitute and the old woman who testified against La Esmeralda. Drawing closer, Frollo is shocked to see that the young man is his brother Jehan. When Jehan does not even acknowledge him, the priest turns and runs toward Notre Dame. Arriving home, he takes refuge in his reading. After awhile Frollo decides to find Quasimodo in the tower. As he nears the top of the stairs, he sees a pale female form walking in the shadows with what appears to be a goat. He thinks he is seeing a ghost and shudders, not realizing La Esmeralda is alive and safe in the tower. Towns in the Middle Ages viewed churches as sanctuaries, islands in which even criminals could take refuge from justice and the law. As long as the criminal stayed inside the church, he was safe from all threats. La Esmeralda's sanctuary within Notre-Dame was a small cell at the top of the tower. As Quasimodo deposited her here, she wondered why she had been spared. Since Phoebus does not love her, she does not care if she lives. Quasimodo brings La Esmeralda a bundle of clothes left by charitable churchwomen. When she sees the clothes, La Esmeralda realizes with a blush that she is nearly naked. Quasimodo, covering his face with his large hands, retires from the room so that she can dress herself. Later he brings her dinner and motions to the pallet on which she can sleep. When La Esmeralda looks into his face, she cannot hide her horror. Quasimodo tells her not to look at him. He also tells her not to leave the cathedral. After he is gone, she begins to cry. In the evening, she takes a walk in the high gallery to refresh herself. La Esmeralda wakes up the next morning, after sleeping all night. She spies Quasimodo, but when he sees she is awake, he covers his face and tries to hide from her. The kind La Esmeralda runs behind him and takes hold of his hand, showing him that he need not hide from her. At her touch, his whole face shines with joy and tenderness. He then reveals to La Esmeralda that he is practically deaf and mute, but he communicates to her the depth of his feelings of wretchedness. La Esmeralda responds to him with all her heart though she is still uncomfortable when she looks at him. Before departing, Quasimodo gives her a small metal whistle and tells her that whenever she has enough courage to see him, she can use the whistle to call to him and he will come. La Esmeralda comes to feel some peace in the tower even though she is haunted by thoughts of Phoebus. She regrets her confession for a crime she did not commit and longs to see Phoebus in order to tell him she did not stab him. At times she feels more cut off from the world than even Quasimodo. She also feels guilty that her gratitude to him is less than he deserves, but she cannot rise above her revulsion at his appearance. One morning La Esmeralda looks out the window and sees Phoebus walking on the street below with Fleur de Lys. She calls out to him although he does not hear her. Quasimodo, however, hears her calls and is deeply hurt, thinking that Phoebus does not deserve La Esmeralda's love just because he is beautiful. La Esmeralda asks Quasimodo to go to Phoebus and bring him to the tower. Quasimodo agrees, only because he loves her so much. He waits outside Phoebus' house all day and night. When Phoebus finally comes outside, he responds to Quasimodo's request to come to the tower by striking him. When Quasimodo returns to Notre-Dame, La Esmeralda comes to greet him with excitement; but her face falls when she sees that he has not brought Phoebus. She cruelly sends Quasimodo away. Quasimodo begins to avoid La Esmeralda, hurt by her thoughtless disregard for him. La Esmeralda wonders why the hunchback has gone away. Just as she is beginning to growalarmed for his welfare, she hears a sigh and sees Quasimodo asleep near her cell, guarding her. Claude Frollo learns about Quasimodo's actions and about the gypsy taking sanctuary in his church. During the day he tries tocatch glimpses of La Esmeralda and her goat. At night he sits in his room thinking about her and about his stabbing Phoebus. One night Frollo slips from his chambers and climbs the stairs to La Esmeralda's cell. When she sees him, she falls back on her bed,frozen in fear. The priest gathers her in his arms and begs her to love him. La Esmeralda blows the whistle Quasimodo has given her. Within moments her beastly protector comes and throws the attacker off of her, not knowing that it is his master. When Quasimodo drags the man out into the light, he sees that it is Frollo and feels he must release him. The priest motions for Quasimodo to retire; but he refuses, for he will not let Frollo harm La Esmeralda in any way. The hunchback tells the priest he will not leave her side unless Frollokills him. He then hands Frollo his dagger. La Esmeralda snatches the dagger and attacks Claude Frollo, telling him that Phoebus is alive. The priest, quivering with rage, rushes out to the staircase. When Quasimodo leaves her cell, La Esmeralda begins to sob. Back in his cell, Claude Frollo repeats the fatal phrase, "Nobody shall have her!" Gringoire learns of La Esmeralda's fate, but is too afraid of trouble to visit his wife in the cathedral tower. Still performing tricks for money, he misses the companionship of La Esmeralda and her goat; but unlike the others in the Court of Miracles, he has his imagination and his philosophy to keep him company and thinks he does not need La Esmeralda. One day he runs into Claude Frollo. As the two converse, Frollo asks Gringoire many casual questions, gradually working his way toward the subject of La Esmeralda. After an extended conversation in which Frollo feigns disinterest, Gringoire learns that La Esmeralda's case has been referred to Parliament, and her sanctuary will be violated in three days, at which time she will be executed. Gringoire is shocked and angry that anyone would care so much about punishing the gypsy girl. He wonders aloud who would have done such a thing. Frollo has no answer. Claude Frollo subtly tempts Gringoire to take part in a plan to save La Esmeralda. When Gringoire expresses his hesitation, Frollo manipulates him by making him feel guilty. The plan Frollo suggests would free La Esmeralda, but result in Gringoire's death. When Gringoire finally agrees, he decides to enlist the help of the others at the Court of Miracles. Frollo and Gringoire also arrange to meet the next night to put the plan in action. On returning to his chamber, Claude Frollo finds his brother Jehan waiting for him. Jehan tells the priest that he has turned over a new leaf and wants to clean up his life. He asks for money in order to make this transition. When the priest refuses, Jehan threatens to become a total vagabond and blames his brother. Claude appears unconcerned and even tells his brother that he does not care if he becomes a vagabond. Jehan leaves empty handed and without a struggle; but as he reaches the street, Frollo opens a window and surprisingly throws money to him. He shouts that it will be the last money he gives him. In the Court of Miracles, the gypsies are excited, arming themselves for the rescue of La Esmeralda that they are about to undertake. The weather cooperates with their plan. The sky is overcast, darkening the moon and helping them to be more secretive as they march towards Notre-Dame. Worrying about La Esmeralda, Quasimodo is unable to sleep. Though he has taken every precaution to keep the gypsy's cell safe and secure, the attack by Frollo has made him nervous. In his restlessness, he climbs up into one of the towers of the cathedral to look out at the city of Paris. As he surveys the area surrounding Notre-Dame, he notices a multitude of people making their way toward the cathedral. He is afraid they are coming to harm La Esmeralda. When the citizens from the Court of Miracles arrive at Notre- Dame, they announce that they will plunder the church unless La Esmeralda is released to them. Since there is no response, they enter through the great door of the church and begin ascending the staircase. Suddenly, an enormous beam falls from the sky and crushes a dozen of the approaching gypsies. As the others continue, they are pelted with rocks. Then two streams of molten lead destroy more of the group. At first, the superstitious gypsies think that the moon is attacking them, but they soon see Quasimodo at the top of the stairs as he tries to fend them off. Jehan Frollo arrives with a ladder and climbs it in an effort to find La Esmeralda. When Quasimodo stops him, the two men fight, and Jehan is killed. The remaining mob of gypsies is incensed and grows more violent. They start a fire on the cathedral's platform, which illuminates the whole area. As alarms begin to ring, the attackers approach the gallery. Quasimodo sinks in despair. On the same night that the attack takes place at Notre Dame, King Louis XI arrives in Paris for a visit. He decides to stay in the Bastille, the famous prison. While he is there, his envoys bring him the news that an uprising is taking place at the great cathedral. He orders his troops to provide assistance in putting down the revolt. When the King's men capture two of the revolutionaries, they are brought before the King. The first, identified as Geoffrey Pincebourde, says he is a gypsy who has joined the revolt out of boredom. The second man identifies himself as Pierre Gringoire. He lies and tells the King that he was not a part of the revolt. He claims merely to be a philosopher who was in the wrong place at the wrong time. The King believes the story of Gringoire and releases him. Some of the King's men return with the erroneous news that the revolt is really against the King. They also explain that therioting mob wants the release of La Esmeralda, probably to hang her themselves. The King orders the troublemakers to be caught and hanged. He then orders that La Esmeralda be immediately executed as well, for causing the revolt. After he is set free, Gringoire meets with Claude Frollo and tells him of his narrow escape from death. He reveals that he is more committed than ever to the plan of rescuing La Esmeralda from her certain execution, directly order by the King. Back at Notre Dame, Quasimodo is in critical danger, for the cathedral is on the verge of being taken over by the angry mob. Suddenly the King's troops, led by Phoebus, attack the attackers, forcing the gypsies to retreat. Quasimodo, thinking his enemies have been defeated, returns to La Esmeralda's cell. To his shock she is gone. At the time the attack begins, La Esmeralda is sleeping. When the commotion wakes her, she looks out and sees with horror the carnage in the street below. Totally frightened, she runs back to bed and covers her face. Soon two men enter her cell. Her fear subsides when she recognizes her husband, Gringoire. He tells her that his companion (who is Frollo in disguise) is a friend to be trusted. He then warns La Esmeralda that she and her goat Djali are in grave danger and must leave with him at once. Though La Esmeralda is suspicious of the cloaked friend, she agrees to go since she trusts Gringoire completely. After they cross the river, Gringoire, his companion, and La Esmeralda stop. Gringoire slips away with the goat, leaving La Esmeralda with the stranger, whom she suddenly realizes is Claude Frollo. When she tries to escape, the priest stops her in the Place de Greve, the site of executions. He warns her that her life is totally in his hands. Frollo then commands her to love him and to never speak of Phoebus again. She calls him an assassin and tells him she would rather die on the gallows than to love him. Frollo's eyes sparkle with passion and rage as he tries to persuade her to love him. When she refuses again, he drags her up to Rolande's Tower and locks her in with Sister Gudule. He then goes to find some sergeants to kill her. If he cannot have La Esmeralda for himself, he does not want her to live. Locked inside with Sister Gudule (Pacquette), La Esmeraldaturns to the old woman who hates all gypsies. As the two women talk, Sister Gudule tells La Esmeralda the story of her lost baby. At the end of her story, she shows La Esmeralda the little shoe that belonged to her daughter. La Esmeralda opens the amulet that she always wears around her neck; inside is the other shoe. Sister Gudule cannot believe that she has finally been reunited with her long lost daughter. Suddenly the soldiers come for La Esmeralda. When Gudule tries to hide the girl, she nearly succeeds; but La Esmeralda hears Phoebus' voice and comes out to speak to him, still believing she can persuade him to love her. She is immediately seized and dragged down into the street toward the gallows. Sister Gudule tries to stop the soldiers, even biting one of them. The soldier reacts by striking her with such force that Gudule falls on the pavement, hitting her head and dying instantly in front of La Esmeralda. Quasimodo becomes mad with rage when he realizes La Esmeralda has been taken away from her sanctuary. He helps the King's men look for her, thinking they are friends rather than executioners. When the hunchback climbs to the highest tower of the cathedral to look out into the city, he sees Claude Frollo climbing the stairs and follows him unobserved. At the top of Notre Dame, the priest stops and looks out into the streets of Paris. Quasimodo looks out as well and sees a man climbing thesteps of the Place de Greve, dragging a woman behind him. With a sinking heart, Quasimodo recognizes the woman as La Esmeralda. He watches in horror as she is tied to the gallows and the ladder is kicked out from under her. At the same moment, Claude Frollo laughs fiendishly. In reaction, Quasimodo runs towards the priest and pushes him off the balcony. For seemingly endless moments, Frollo dangles by his clothing and then drops nearly two hundred feet into the street below. Quasimodo is left alone in the tower to survey the city of Paris, the lifeless body of La Esmeralda, and the crumpled body of Claude Frollo. In supreme grief, he cries out, "This is all I ever loved!" When the judicial officers of the bishop come to remove the corpse of Claude Frollo, they cannot find Quasimodo. A rumor soon circulates around the city that the hunchback, serving as the devil's messenger, has taken the soul of the evil priest. The following year King Louis XI dies, Phoebus marries, and Pierre Gringoire becomes a popular writer, who lives alone with his goat. According to custom, La Esmeralda's body is removed from the rope and carried to Montfaucon, an ancient burial place outside the city. Montfaucon is composed of a vast vault, closed by an iron gate, into which the bodies of those who are executed are tossed. It is a dark and gloomy place where only the lowest people are laid to rest. About two years after La Esmeralda's death, King Charles VIII orders the body of Oliver le Daim, an executed criminal, to be removed from Montfaucon and given burial in a better cemetery. When the soldiers go to retrieve his body, they find an unusual sight. Two skeletons are bound in eternal embrace. One is a female, dressed in faded white and wearing the remains of a small sack around her neck. The other is a twisted skeleton with a shrunken spine and asymmetrical bones--clearly a deformed man. The soldiers make an attempt to separate the skeletons. When they touch the bones of the hunchback, he crumbles to dust and falls away.