Braadcasting is the transmission of radio and television programmes that are intended far general public reception, as distinguished fram private signals that are directed ta specific receivers. In its most common form, braadcasting may be described as the systematic disseminatian af entertainment, infarmatian, educatianal pragramming, and ather features far simultaneous receptian by a scattered audience with appropriate receiving apparatus. Broadcasts may be audible only, as in radio, or visual or a combinatian of both, as in televisian. Saund braadcasting in this sense may be said ta have started abaut 1920, while televisian braadcasting began in the 1930s. With the advent af cable televisian in the early 1950s and the use of satellites
for braadcasting beginning in the early 1960s, television reception improved and the number of programmes receivable increased dramatically.
From the beginning the evolutian af braadcasting was rapid; many persons wha wanted to hear music, news or plays from the air soon created a demand for receivers that were suitable for aperation by everybody. The increase of the number of listeners in tum justified the establishment af stations especially for the purpose af
braadcasting entertainment and information prograrrames.
Far econamic reasans evaluatian af audience opinion anld response ta radia ar televisian programmes is important to the broadcaster. Cammercial braadcasters are quick to alter ar discontinue any programme that shaws lack af audience appeal, and 50 the listeners are influential in detennining the nature of the programmes
that are offered ta them. In commercial broadcasting, sponsored programmes are alsa affected by their apparent success or failure in selling the goods advertised.
1. Read the text and, according ta it, answer the fallawing questions in na mare than 30 words each. Yaur answers will be evaluated 0 to 1 point each (o-3 as a whale). Do not repeat the text:
a) Why was the evalutian afbroadcasting so rapid?
b) What is the difference between radio and televisian braadcasting?
c) In what way do the audience influence the programmes?
2. Transfonn ar complete the following sentences (0 to 0.5 each, 0--2 as a whole):
a) Unite both sentences by means of a relative pronaun: Broadcasting is intended for general public reception. It is the transmission ofradio or televisionprogrammes.
b) Ask a question to which the underlined word is the reply: The number of programmes receivable increased dramaticallv.
c) Transform into passive: The increase of the number of listeners jutified the establishment of stations.
d) Complete the sentence: If a programme lacked audience appeal...
3. The follawing 4 wards are underlined in the text. Give - ane synonym for each (0 ta 0.5 each, 2 as a whale):
a)began c) sponsored
4. Summarise the text using yaur own wards (5o-70 wards), or describe your favaurite radio ar television pragramme (7o-100 wards. 0 to 3 points). .
CRIME AND SOCIAL POLICY
Increasing crime appears ta be a feature af all modem industrialized societies, and na developments in law or penology can be shawn ta have ha a significant impact an the prablem. The effect af crime on the quality of life cannot be measured simply in terms af the actual incidence of crime, as the fear af crime affects far more people than are likely to become victims and forces them ta accept limitatians on their freedom of action.
Paradoxically, many social changes that are seen as progress may lead to further escalatian in the incidence of crime-.econamic progress, producing greater wealth. almast always leads ta greater opportunities far crime in the form of more goods to steal ar enhanced possibilities for successful fraud and an increase in individual
liberty may have similar effects, as the older constraints an behaviour are discarded.
Crime is least likely to be a serious problem in a society that is economically undeveloped and subject to restrictive religious or similar restraints on behaviour. For modem urbanized society, in which economic growth and personal success are dominant values, there is no reason to suppose that crime rates will not
continue ta increase.
GLOSARIO: discard = desechar . enhance = aumentar
1. Read the text and answer the questions in no more than 30 words, using yaur awn words. Your answers will be evaluated from O to 1 (3 as a whole). According to the texl:
a) What effects does crime have an saciety?
b) In what ways does progress affecl crime?
c) Why will crime continue to increase in the warld?
2. Transfonn the sentences according to the instructians. O to 0.5 each answer (2 as a whale):
a) Put inta the active voice: The effect of crime on the quality oflife cannot be measured.
b) Unite both sentences by means of a relative pronoun: The fear of crime affects people. They are likely to become victims.
c) Complete: Ifa society is economically undeveloped...
d) Ask a question ta which the underlined words are the reply :Many social changes are seen as progress.
3.Give synonyms for the following words as they are used in the text. Your answer will be evaluated O to 0.5 each (2 as a whole):
a) feature c) wealth
b) actual d) grawth
4. Summarize the text using your own words (in 50-70 words) or write (in 70-100 words) an essay on the following subject: Crime in our saciety (O ta 3 points).
Debt relief plan is falling behind
Leaders from the world's seven leading industrial nations (G7) pledged last autumn to deliver debt relief to 11 countries by Easter, but the president of the World Bank, James Wolfensohn, admitted last week that they were unlikely to reach that target. He said that just eight would be through by Easter and warned that the total for the year could be a lot lower than the G7 had hoped. Mr Wolfensohn insisted that the hold-up in for giveness was " delay for delay´s sake”. To quality poor countries must show they will spend the savings from debt relief on programmes to relieve poverty, but the process is proving time-consumigg for the Bank, and for the countries themselves.
Clare Short, Britain' s international development secretary warned that some poor countries were in danger of being bogged down by the paper-work required. "What is happening in Washington is that there's a delay looking for the perfect poverty reduction strategy," she said- "lf you ask for perfection, you'll be waiting for decades." ,
Britain has argued that countries should not be required to spell out to the last lettter how they will spend the money before they get the first instalment of debt relief. Other G7 countries, however, are insisting on seeing detailed palms.
Glossary: pledged = se comprometieron hold-up = suspensión instalment = plazo
debt relief = condonación de la deuda bogged down = quedando atascados/as
1. Read the text and answer the questions in no more than 30 words each. Your answers will be evaluated from 0 to 1 point each ( 3 as a whole ):
a) What did Mr Wolfensohn have to adnút last week?
b) What is the condition for the poor countries to be qualified for debt relief?
c) How does Clare Short feel about the requirements to relieve the debt?
2. Transform the following sentences according to the instructions. 0 to 0.5 each ( 2 as a whole ).
a) Join the two sentences by means ofa relative pronoun: Mr WoIfemohn illsisted that the hold-up in debt forgiveness was “delay for delsy's sake ". He is the president of the World Bank.
b) Put into the negative: Poor countries must show they will spend the savings on programmes to relieve poverly.
c) Write a question to which the underlined words are the answer-. Other G7 countries are insisting on seeing detailed plans-
d) Complete the following conditional sentence: If the poor countries were not required to spell all the details,...
3. Find one synonym in the text for each ofthe following words. 0 to 0.5 each answer ( 2 as a whole ):
a) acknowledged c) faultless
b) attain d) needed
4. Summarise the text (in 50-70 words) or write a short composition (70-100 words) about the following topic: Ways in which rich countries can help the poor ones(o-3). Police are thaugt bare facts
Enraged Mexican townspeople took the law into their own hands at the weekend, tying up and stripping 60 policemen sent to end a strike at a teachers' college in the rural state of Hidalgo.
Brought literally to their knees, the police were left semi-naked for several hours in a chilly public square. The village revolt was by a national battle over free education and by widespred public disgust with the country's notoriously corrupt and heavy-handed police force. Despite falling academic standards, students at the teachers' college are refusing to accept reforms, including tuition fees. In January, the students took over the college and ousted the director and half the staff
Afler students threw rocks at the state Governor's mansion, police were instructed to enforce a judges eviction order. Angered by a rumour that the police had raped one young woman, several hundred villagers carrying clubs, machetes and pistols surrounded the school, disarmed the police and forced them to remove their shirts, shoes and in some cases their trousers. The officers were then tied up paraded through the streets, and forced to lie face-down. They were released only after most of the strikeIs were freed.
stripping = desnudando prompted = provocada eviction = desalojo
1. Read the text and answer the questions in no more than 30 words each, using your own words.
Your answers will be evaluated from 0 to 1 point each ( 3 as a whole):
a) How did enraged Mexican townspeople take the law into their own hands?
b) Why was the village revolt prompted?
c) How did some villagers treat the police?
2. Transform the sentences according to the instructions. 0 to 0.5 each answer (2 as a whole):
a) Put into the passive: Enraged Mexican townspeople took the law into their own hands.
b) Transform into past : Despite falling academic standards, st~ents are refusing to accept reforms.
c) Put into the conditional: If there hadn't been rumours that the police had raped one young woman ...
d) Unite both sentences by means of a relative pronoun: The students took over the college.The had been angered by the police.
3. Find one synonym in the text for each of the following words. 0 to 0.5 each answer (2 as a whole)
a) independent c) encompassed
b) improvements d) solely
4. Summarise the text using your own words (50-70), or write an essay on the following subject:
Violence in schools ( 0 to 3 points ).