Verbos en inglés

Gramática inglesa. Verbo. Conjugación y tiempos verbales

  • Enviado por: Bernat Lluch
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 5 páginas

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NOMBRE DEL TIEMPO EN INGLÉS

TRADUCCIÓN EN CASTELLANO

USOS MÁS FRECUENTES

PRESENTE

PRESENT SIMPLE

I WORK

PRESENTE

CANTO

Acciones habituales.

Verdades generales.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

TO BE + -ING

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO

ESTOY CANTANDO

Acciones en proceso de realización.

Acciones futuras (con adverbios de tiempo).

PRESENT SIMPLE PERFECT

I HAVE + PARTICIPLE *

PRETÉRITO PERFECTO

HE CANTADO

Acción pasada relacionada con el presente.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS PERFECT

I HAVE BEEN + -ING

PRETÉRITO PERFECTO PROGRESIVO

HE ESTADO CANTANDO

Acción pasada que continúa en el presente.

PASADO

PAST SIMPLE

INFINITIVE + ED *

PRET. INDEFINIDO / IMPERFECTO

CANTÉ / CANTABA

Acciones pasadas terminadas.

Narraciones en pasado.

PAST CONTINUOUS

I WAS + -ING

PRET. INDEF. / IMPERFECTO PROGRESIVO

ESTABA CANTANDO

Acciones pasadas en proceso de realización.

PAST SIMPLE PERFECT

I HAD + PARTICIPLE *

PRET. PLUSCUAMPERFECTO

HABÍA CANTADO

Acciones pasadas anteriores a otra también pasada.

PAST CONTINUOUS PERFECT

I HAD BEEN + -ING

PRET. PLUSCUAMPERFECTO PROGRESIVO

HABÍA ESTADO CANTANDO

Acción pasada en proceso de realización anterior a otra también pasada.

FUTURO

FUTURE SIMPLE

I SHALL / WILL +INFINITIVE

FUTURO IMPERFECTO

CANTARÉ

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

I'LL BE + -ING

FUTURO PROGRESIVO

ESTARÉ CANTANDO

FUTURE SIMPLE PERFECT

I SHALL HAVE + PARTICIPLE *

FUTURO PERFECTO

HABRÉ CANTADO

FUTURE CONTINUOUS PERFECT

I SHALL HAVE BEEN + -ING

FUTURO PERFECTO PROGRESIVO

HABRÉ ESTADO CANTANDO

* Es donde van los verbos irregulares.

TIEMPOS VERBALES I CORRESPONDENCIA EN INGLÉS

En todos los tiempos, donde pone “Yo” sirve igual para las personas : Tú, Nosotros, Vosotros, Ellos excepto los marcados con los símbolos 1ª, 2ª, 3ª, 4ª o %.

En todos los tiempos, donde pone “Él” sirve igual para las personas : Ella, Ello excepto los marcados con los símbolos 1ª, 2ª, 3ª, 4ª o %.

TIEMPO

CASTELLANO

AFIRMATIVO

INTERROGATIVO

NEGATIVO

PASIVA

INFINITIVO

Ser/estar

Haber/tener

Trabajar

To be

To have

To work

Not to be

Not to have

Not to work

Ser amado

to be loved

INFINITIVO PRETÉRITO

(perfecto)

Haber sido/estado

Haber habido/tenido

Haber trabajado

To have been

To have had

To have worked

Not have been

Not have had

Not have worked

Haber sido amado

To have been loved

PARTICIPIO PRESENTE Y GERUNDIO

Siendo/estando - ell ser/estar

Habiendo/teniendo - el tener/estar

Trabajando - el trabajar

Being

Having

Working

Not being

Not having

Not working

Siendo amado - el hecho de ser amado

Being loved

PARTICIPIO PASADO (pasivo)

Sido/estado

Habido/tenido

Trabajado

Been

Had

Worked

Amado

loved

IMPERATIVO

Sé tú

Sea él - dejadle ser

Seamos nosotros - dejadnos ser

Sed vosotros

Sean ellos - dejadlos ser

Ten tú

Tenga él - dejadle tener

Tengamos nosotros - dejadnos tener

Tened vosotros

Tengan ellos - dejadlos tener

Trabaja tú

Trabaje él - dejadle trabajar

Trabajemos nosotros - dejadnos trabajar

Trabajad vosotros

Trabajen ellos - dejadlos trabajar

Be

Let him be

Let us be

Be

Let them be

Have

Let him have

Let us have

Have

Let them have

Work

Let him work

Let us work

Work

Let them work

Do not be

Let not him be

Let not us be

Do not be

Let not them be

Do not have

Let not him have

Let not us have

Do not have

Let not them have

Do not work

Let not him work

Let not us work

Do not work

Let not them work

REFLEXIVA

Yo me lavo

I wash myself

Él se lava

He washes himself

PRESENTE DE INDICATIVO

Yo soy/estoy

Yo he/tengo

Yo trabajo

I am

I have

I work

Am I?

Have I?

Do I work?

I am not

I have not

I do not work

Yo soy amado

I am loved

Tú eres/estás

Tú has/tienes

Tú trabajas

You are

You have

You work

Are you?

Have you?

Do you work?

You are not

You have not

You do not work

Tú eres amado

You are loved

Él es/está

Él ha/tiene

Él trabaja

He is

He has

He work

Is he?

Has he?

Does he work?

He is not

He has not

He does not work

Él es amado

He is loved

PRETÉRITO INDEFINIDO (pretérito imperfecto i indefinido)*

Yo/1ª era/fui/estaba/estuve

Yo/% había/hube/tenía/tuve

Yo/% trabajaba/trabajé

I was

I had

I worked

Was I?

Had I?

Worked I?

I was not

I had not

I did not work

Yo/1ª era/fui amado

I was loved

Tú/2ª eras/fuiste/estabas/estuviste

You were

Were you?

You did not work

Tú/2ª eras/fuiste amado

You were loved

PRETÉRITO PERFECTO

(pretéritos compuestos del indicativo)

Yo he sido/estado

Yo he habido/tenido

Yo he trabajado

I have been

I have had

I have worked

Have I been?

Have I had?

Have I worked?

I have not been

I have not had

I have not worked

Yo he sido amado

I have been loved

Él ha sido/estado

Él ha habido/tenido

Él ha trabajado

He has been

He has had

He has worked

Has he been?

Has he had?

Has he worked?

He has not been

He has not had

He has not worked

Él ha sido amado

He has been loved

PRETÉRITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO

Yo/% había sido/estado

Yo/% había habido/tenido

Yo/% había trabajado

I had been

I had had

I had worked

Had I been?

Had I had?

Had I worked?

I had not been

I had not had

I had not worked

Yo/% había sido amado

I had been loved

FUTÚRO IMPERFECTO

Yo/3ª seré/estaré

Yo/3ª habré/tendré

Yo/3ª trabajaré

I shall be

I shall have

I shall worked

Shall I be?

Shall I have?

Shall I work?

I shall not be

I shall not have

I shall not worked

Yo/3ª seré amado

I shall be loved

Él/4ª será/estará

Él/4ª habrá/tendrá

Él/4ª trabajará

He will be

He will have

He will work

Will he be?

Will he have?

Will he work?

He will not be

He will not have

He will not work

Él/4ª será/estará

He will be loved

FUTÚRO PERFECTO

Yo/3ª habré sido/estado

Yo/3ª habré habido/tenido

Yo/3ª habré trabajado

I shall have been

I shall have had

I shall have worked

Shall I have been?

Shall I have had?

Shall I have worked?

I shall not have been

I shall not have had

I shall not have worked

Yo/3ª habré sido amado

I shall have been loved

Él/4ª habrá sido/estado

Él/4ª habrá habido/tenido

Él/4ª habrá trabajado

He will have been

He will have had

He will have worked

Will he have been?

Will he have been?

Will he have worked?

He not have been

He not have had

He not have worked

Él/4ª habrá sido amado

He will have been loved

CONDICIONAL PRESENTE

Yo/3ª sería/estaría

Yo/3ª habría/tendría

Yo/3ª trabajaría

I should be

I should have

I should work

Should I be?

Should I have?

Should I work?

I should not be

I should not have

I should not work

Yo/3ª sería amado

I should be loved

Él/4ª sería/estaría

Él/4ª habría/tendría

Él/4ª trabajaría

He would be

He would have

He would work

Would he be?

Would he have?

Would he work?

He would not be

He would not have

He would not work

Él/4ª sería amado

He would be loved

CONDICIONAL PRETÉRITO

Yo/3ª habría sido/estado

Yo/3ª habría habido/tenido

Yo/3ª habría trabajado

I should have been

I should have had

I should have worked

Should I have been?

Should I have had?

Should I have worked?

I should not have been

I should not have had

I should not have worked

Yo/3ª habría sido amado

I should have been loved

Él/4ª habría sido/estado

Él/4ª habría habido/tenido

Él/4ª habría trabajado

He would have been

He would have had

He would have worked

Would he have been?

Would he have had?

Would he have work?

He would not have been

He would not have had

He would not have worked

Él/4ª habría sido amado

He would have been loved

SUBJUNTIVO PRESENTE

Yo/% sea/estuviera

Yo/% haya/tenga

Yo/% trabaje

I be

I have

I work

Yo/% sea amado

I be loved

SUBJUNTIVO PRETÉRITO

PERFECTO

Yo/% fuera/fuese/estuviera/estuviese

Yo/% hubiera/hubiese/tuviera/tuviese

Yo/% trabajara/trabajase

Was/were

Had

Worked

Yo/? fuera/fuese amado

I were loved

SUBJUNTIVO PERFECTO

Yo/? haya sido amado

I have been loved

SUBJUNTIVO

PLUSCUAMPERFECTO

Yo/? hubiera/hubiese sido amado

I had been loved

* Es donde van los irregulares

1ª Válido para : Yo / Él / Ella / Ello

2ª Válido para : Tú / Nosotros / Vosotros / Ellos

3ª Válido para : Yo / Nosotros

4ª Válido para : Tú / Él / Ella / Ello / Vosotros / Ellos

% Válido para : Todas las personas

El futuro inglés és perifrástico; se forma con los auxiliares shall (para las primeras personas) y will (para las segundas y terceras personas), seguidos del infinitivo (sin la partícula to) del verbo conjugado.

El condicional inglés se forma con los auxiliares should (primeras personas) y would (segundas y terceras personas), más el infinitivo del verbo conjugado.

REFLEXIVA

(Acción que se realiza uno mismo)

(Se hace igual con todos los tiempos)

I was myself Yo me lavo

You was yourself Tú te lavas

He washes himself Él se lava

We wash ourselves Nosotros nos lavamos

You wash yourselves Vosotros os laváis

They wash themselves Ellos se lavan

AUXILIARES MODALES O DEFECTIVOS

(Sirven para indicar la posibilidad, necesidad, etc., de una acción)

(Sólo tienen presente y pretérito indefinido de indicativo)

Éstos son:

VERBO

CASTELLANO

PRESENTE

PRETÉRITO

CAN

puedo

I can (puedo)

I could (podía/pude)

MAY

puedo (me está permitido)

I may (puedo)

I might (podía/pude)

MUST

debo (es preciso que)

I must (debo)

NO TIENE PRETÉRITO

OUGHT

debo (conviene que)

I ought (debería/debí/debo)

NO TIENE PRETÉRITO

SHALL

debo

I shall

I should

WILL

quiero

I will

I would

ESQUEMA GENERAL RESUMIDO

INFINITIVO -> ANDAR -> TO +INFINITIVO

IMPERATIVO -> ANDES -> QUE +INFINITIVO

GERUNDIO -> ANDANDO -> INFINITIVO +”ING”

PASADO -> ANDÉ / ANDABA -> INFINITIVO +”ED”

PARTICIPIO -> ANDADO -> INFINITIVO +”ED”

PERFECT

SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

PRESENT

I walk

acción habitual

I am lo que ocurre

en este momento concreto

I have

acciones habituales

PAST

I walked

*infinitivo

I was

I had

FUTURE

I will+infi.

(I'll)

I will be

I will have

* Es donde van los irregulares

-> Casi no se usan

¿CÓMO SERIA EN CASTELLANO?

PERFECT

SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

SIMPLE

CONTINUOUS

PRESENT

ando

estoy

he

desde antes hasta la actualidad

PAST

andé / andaba

estaba

había

desde antes hasta antes

FUTURE

andaré

estaré

habré

desde ahora hasta luego

been walking

walked

*participio pasado

walking

participio

presente

estado

andando

andando

andado