Tiempos verbales del inglés

Verbos. Gramática. Presente. Pasado. Futuro

  • Enviado por: Helena
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 6 páginas
publicidad
cursos destacados
Curso Completo de Italiano
Curso Completo de Italiano

En este curso de italiano se verá el uso de diferente tiempos verbales como el presente, el...

Ver más información

Aprende Ruso con Ksenia Galaktionova
Aprende Ruso con Ksenia Galaktionova
Hola y bienvenido al !Curso de Ruso!. Vamos a estudiar Ruso paso a paso: empezando con el...
Ver más información

publicidad

VERB TENSES

PRESENT

PRESENT SIMPLE: Este es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar acciones permanentes o que tienen lugar en el presente y con una frecuencia determinada, es decir, cada día, cada mañana, etc.

+ Affirmative: Subject + verb (infin.) “s” + complements

Examples. - I eat a lot. \ He eats a lot.

- Negative: Subject + do/does not + verb (infin.) + complements

Examples.- I don't / do not eat much. \ He doesn't / does not eat much.

? Interrogative: (QW) + do/does + subject + verb (infin.) + compl. ?

Examples.- Do you eat much? \ Why does he eat much?

* Passive: Subject (”CD”) + is/are + verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.- + I eat a lot of chocolate \ *A lot of chocolate is eat (by me)

PRESENT CONTINUOUS: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar acciones que tienen lugar en el presente, en el mismo momento en el que se está enunciando la frase y para un futuro organizado.

+ Affirmative: Subject + to be (present) + verb (infin.)-ing +complements

Examples.- I am eating a hot-dog \ He is eating a hot-dog

-Negative: Subject + to be not (present) + verb (infin.)-ing +complements

Examples.- I'm not / am not eating a hot-dog\ He isn't/is not eating a hot-dog

? Interrogative: (QW) + to be(present)+ subject + verb(infin.)-ing+ compl.?

Examples.- Are you eating a hot-dog?\ What is he eating now?

*Passive: Subject (”CD”) + is/are+ being+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.- +They are repairing my piano\* My piano is being repaired (by them)

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar acciones que han tenido lugar en el pasado, pero en un pasado muy reciente, acciones que empezaron en el pasado y continúan en el presente o acaban de terminar o tienen consecuencias en el presente.

+ Affirmative: Subject + have/has + verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- I've/ have walked for two hours\ He's/has walked for two hours.

-Negative: Subject + have/has not + verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- I haven't/have not walked for two hours\He hasn't/has not walked

?Interrogative: (QW) + have/has + subject + verb (participio) + compl. ?

Examples.- Have you walked for two hours?\Has he walked for two hours?

*Passive: Subject (”CD”) + have/has+ been+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.- + They have found the car\ *The car has been found

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOS: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para hablar de una acción pasada que acaba de concluir, cuyo resultado es evidente; para hablar de una acción que empezó en el pasado y puede haber acabado recientemente o que continúa en el presente, se resalta la duración de la actividad con for o since.

+Affirmative: Subject + have/has + been+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- I've/ have been running this morning\ He's/has been running for one hour

-Negative: Subject + have/has not + been+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- I haven't/have not been running for two hours\He hasn't/has not been running since yesterday.

?Interrogative :(QW)+ have/has + subject +been+ verb(infin.)-ing+ compl. ?

Examples.-Have we been cooking for a hour?\Has he been running this morning?

*Passive: Subject(”CD”) + have/has+ been +being+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.- +

PAST

PAST SIMPLE: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar acciones que tuvieron lugar en el pasado, sin que importe excesivamente el momento del pasado en el que tuvieron lugar.

+ Affirmative: Subject + verb (past) + complements

Examples. - I played in the park. \ He ate a lot.

- Negative: Subject + did not + verb (infin.) + complements

Examples.- I didn't/did not eat much. \ He didn't/did not play in the park.

? Interrogative: (QW) + did + subject + verb (infi.) + compl. ?

Examples.- Did you eat much? \ Did he play in the park?

* Passive: Subject (”CD”) + was/were+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.- +Shakespeare wrote “Romeo and Juliet”\*”Romeo and Juliet” was written by Shakespeare

PAST CONTINUOUS: Es un tiempo verbal en el que se expresan acciones que tuvieron lugar en el pasado, pero en un momento concreto.

+ Affirmative: Subject + to be(past) + verb(infin.)-ing +complements

Examples.- I was eating a hot-dog \ You were sleeping in the park

-Negative: Subject + to be not(past) + verb(infin.)-ing +complements

Examples.- He wasn't/was not eating a hot-dog\ We weren't/were not playing

?Interrogative: (QW) + to be(past)+ subject + verb(infin.)-ing+ compl.?

Examples.- Were you eating a hot-dog?\ What was he doing in each moment?

* Passive: Subject (”CD”) + was/were+ being+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.-+They were opening the door\*The door was being opened(by them)

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE: Es un tiempo verbal que expresa acciones que han tenido lugar en el pasado, pero en un pasado menos reciente que el que se expresa en el Present Perfect. Es lo que se denomina el pasado del pasado (past in the past). Una acción que ha tenido lugar antes de otra en el pasado

+ Affirmative: Subject + had + verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- I´d / had gone when they arrived\He'd/had gone when they arrived.

-Negative: Subject + had not + verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- I hadn't/had not gone when they arrived

?Interrogative: (QW) + had + subject + verb (participio) + compl. ?

Examples.- Had you gone when they arrived?

*Passive: Subject (”CD”) + had+ been+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.-+I'd bought it when they arrived/*It had been bought (by me) when they arrived

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para dar énfasis a la duración de una acción pasada, la cual ha sucedido antes que otra acción pasada.

+Affirmative: Subject + had + been+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- I'd/had been running this morning\ He'd/had been running …

-Negative: Subject + had not + been+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- You hadn't/had not been running for two hours

?Interrogative:(QW)+ had + subject + been + verb(infin.)-ing+ compl. ?

Examples.- Had they been speaking on the phone?

*Passive: Subject(”CD”) + had + been +being+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.- +

FUTURE

FUTURE SIMPLE: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar una predicción del futuro, hacer promesas, hacer un ofrecimiento, tomar una decisión en el momento de hablar.

+ Affirmative: Subject + will + verb (infin.) + complements

Examples. - You'll/will return tonight/ He'll/will return tonight

- Negative: Subject + will not + verb (infin.) + complements

Examples.- I won't/will not write you every day..

? Interrogative: (QW) + will + subject + verb (infi.) + compl. ?

Examples.- Will they return tonight?

*Passive: Subject (“CD”) + will (o un modal) + be+ verb (participio) +compl.

Examples.-

FUTURE CONTINUOUS: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar una acción que estará sucediendo en un cierto tiempo en el futuro, para acentuar la duración de una acción en el futuro.

+ Affirmative: Subject + will + be+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples. - You'll/will be travelling to Rome this time tomorrow

- Negative: Subject + will not + be+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- I won't/will not be travelling to Rome this time tomorrow

? Interrogative: (QW) + will + subject + be+ verb (infi.)-ing + compl. ?

Examples.- Will they be travelling to Rome this time tomorrow?

*Passive: Subject(“CD”)+ will+ be+ being+ verb (participio)+complements

Examples.-

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar acciones que habrán acabado en un punto concreto del futuro, al cumplirse el tiempo indicado.

+ Affirmative: Subject + will + have+ verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- I will have completed this job next week

- Negative: Subject + will not + have+ verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- He won't/will not have completed this job next week

? Interrogative: (QW) + will + subject + have+ verb (participio)+ compl. ?

Examples.- Will he have completed this job next week ?

*Passive: Subject(“CD”)+ will+ have+ been+ verb (participio)+complements

Examples.-

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar una acción inacabada en período inacabado en un punto en el futuro.

+ Affirmative: Subject + will + have+ been+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- Tomorrow, he'll/will have been working for a week

- Negative: Subject + will not + have+ been+ verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- Probably, she won't/will not have been studying

? Interrogative: (QW)+will + subject + have+been+ verb(infin.)-ing+ compl.?

Examples.- Will they have been fixing the car?

*Passive:Subject(“CD”)+will+have+been+being+verb(participio)+complements

Examples.-

FUTURE WITH GOING TO: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar intenciones, hablar de planes futuros, hacer predicciones de futuro a través de hechos evidentes en el presente.

+ Affirmative: Subject + to be+ going to+ verb (infin.) + complements

Examples. - I'm going to stay at home

- Negative: Subject + to be not + going to + verb (infin.)+ complements

Examples.- She isn't going to stay at home

? Interrogative: (QW) +to be + subject +going to + verb (infi.)+ compl. ?

Examples.- Are you going to stay at home

*Passive: Subject(“CD”)+ is/are going to+ be+ verb (participio)+complements

Examples.-

CONDITIONAL

CONDITIONAL SIMPLE: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar una acción hipotética condicionada por una acción presente o para expresar una acción de un futuro hipotético del tiempo pasado real.

+ Affirmative: Subject + would + verb (infin.) + complements

Examples. - I'd/would eat an ice-cream (if I had money)

- Negative: Subject + would not + verb (infin.) + complements

Examples.- I wouldn't/would not eat much even (if I could)

? Interrogative: (QW) + would + subject + verb (infi.) + compl. ?

Examples.- Would you eat an ice-cream (if you had it)?

*Passive: Subject (“CD”) + would+ be+ verb (participio) +complements

Examples.- +I would eat an ice-cream\*An ice-cream would be eaten by me

CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar una acción hipotética en curso.

+Affirmative: Subject+ would + be + verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- He would be lying in bed (if he were ill)

-Negative: Subject+ would not + be + verb (infin.)-ing + complements

Examples.- He wouldn't/would not be waiting for us (if he had to)

?Interrogative: (QW)+ would + subject + be+ verb(infin.)-ing+ compl.?

Examples.- Would he be keeping a diet (if he wasn't fat)?

*Passive: Subject (“CD”) + be+ being+ verb (participio) + complements

Examples.-

CONDITIONAL PERFECT: Es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para expresar una acción hipotética del pasado, condicionada a otra acción hipotética del pasado.

+Affirmative: Subject + would+ have +verb (participio) + complements

Examples.- You would have seen him (if you had met him)

-Negative: Subject+ would not+ have+ verb (participio) + complments

Examples.- He wouldn't/would not have seen him (if he hadn't met him)

? Interrogative: (QW) + would + subject + have + verb (participio) + compl.?

Examples.- Would I have left you (if you had been alone)?

*Passive: Subject (“CD”) + would+ have+ been + verb (participio) + compl.

Examples.-

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

1st TYPE - PROBABLE: Es un tipo de oración que se utiliza para expresar situaciones que pensamos que son posibles.

IF CLAUSE (present) ------------------------MAIN CLAUSE (future)

If+ subject+ verb(present) + com , subject + verb(future simple)+compl.

If you give up smoking , you will feel better

IF CLAUSE (present) ------------------------MAIN CLAUSE (present)

If+ subject+ verb(present simple)+ com , subject+ verb(present simple)+com.

If you heat water at 100 º C , it boils

IF CLAUSE (present) ------------------------MAIN CLAUSE (imperative)

If+ subject+ verb (present simple) + com , verb (imperative) +com

If you don't like this food , have a sandwich

Unless + subject+ verb (al contrario que en la frase original +/- ) + …

Unless you don't give up smoking , you will feel better

2nd TYPE - HYPOTETIC: Es un tipo de oración que se utiliza para expresar situaciones posibles pero poco probables o para expresar situaciones hipotéticas o imaginarias.

IF CLAUSE (past) ------------------------MAIN CLAUSE (conditional)

If+ subject+ verb (past simple) +com, subject+ verb (conditional simple) +com

If I had money , I would buy a car

3rd TYPE - IMPOSSIBLE: Es un tipo de oración que se utiliza para expresar situaciones pasadas que no ocurrieron.

IF CLAUSE (past perfect simple) ----- MAIN CLAUSE (conditional perfect)

If+subject+ verb (past perfect) +com, subject+verb(conditional perfect) +com

If I had studied harder , I would have passed the exam