Propaganda electoral

Comunicación política. Partidos políticos. Publicidad en las campañas electorales. México. Política mexicana # Propaganda versus publicity. Mass media

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  • País: México México
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At the time in which we lived, the people we depend, like source of information on political subjects, of information. that come from the propaganda and of the publicity that the parties political and the government make.

Also, in the democratic systems, more important the participative political process that they are the selections depends, to a great extent, of advertising campaigns. Although we will see that a difference between propaganda and publicity exists, both have many things in common. Most important it is than almost never they provide precise information and yes that that tends to distort or to disguise the reality in order to persuade or to manipulate the people in certain direction.

It does not concern the nature of the political system, the political publicity, like the propaganda and other forms of communication are today one of several arms to exert and to maintain the power. This one is, in last instance, the true nature of the policy.

The objective of this test is to be able to get to include/understand throughout the development of a question, as the publicity and the propaganda in the political life of our country can, of one or another form to persuade or to manipulate our decisions, actions or thoughts.

When understanding the previous thing, we will be able to be given account as it obtains a social system, a political party, a political campaign, a candidate or an ideology to get to fulfill its purpose, which perhaps is to gain a vote or a change of thought.

In order to obtain this, the political party, campaign or candidate it will make use and operate to the maximum the publicity and of the propaganda in his political campaigns, but something interesting that we will discover is: towards which side inclines plus the balance, towards the publicity or the propaganda.

This we will discover when finalizing this test to it.


The propaganda and the publicity are contemporary forms of political communication. In fact, the propaganda is almost as old as the man and the policy but historically was made commonest in the measurement in which the average ones for their existence existed, as the press or the radio. It is associated to him fundamentally with the totalitarian systems of Century XX but the propaganda is part of all political situation in practically any part of the world.

The publicity, that arrives at the policy of the world of the trade in the consumer societies, is commonest in the democratic societies that have electoral systems.

The importance which they can have these factors in the policy depends on the effect that one thinks that they have on the citizens or inhabitants of a country. In many countries it can be understood that the support or the opposition that the inhabitants give to a government or system depends fundamentally on the information that they have or the ideology in which they create. This depends as well on which it communicates to him, that is, of the propaganda and the publicity that receive. The reality is not an objective reality that communicates through the language and of mass media, but a construction of these.

“The political reality that knows the human being average is a “mediatizada” reality, constructed, made mainly by which they control mass media... From the point of view of the communication, the policy is also a debate on the definition of the reality since the support or the opposition that is generated depends on the definition or construction of the reality that becomes hegemonic or dominant in one society.”1

We thought that the propaganda and the publicity belong, about the immense majority of the cases, to the types of persuasive and manipulating speech. Both are part of the strategies of the governments and the political parties and respond to the necessity of these to work with the masses. Favorites are the political mechanisms, more than the use of the force or other forms of repression.


We are treating here the propaganda and the publicity like two manifestations of the same thing, but it is necessary to establish the difference vice versa because in different situations one tends to predominate on the other and. Marie Domenach Says To Jean: " the propaganda can be compared with the publicity as soon as it tends to create, to transform or to confirm opinions and uses some of own means of this one; but he distinguishes himself of her because he also persecutes a political aim and not comercial".2, Guy Durandin treats both simultaneously although also he considers them different.

The scopes of application of the propaganda and the publicity are, in principle, different: normally, speech of publicity when one is the commercial land, and of propaganda when one is problems of political order or general interest. But the two have the same general aim: to modify the conduct of personas. 3

The propaganda is, in other terms is, the propagation of ideas, opinions and attitudes, whose true intention is not explained with clarity that listens to it or reads. Is a systematic attempt, made by an individual to control the attitudes of groups of individuals by means of the use of the suggestion, and consequently, to control his actions. “A propaganda model focuses on this inequality of wealth and power asn its multilevel effects on mass-media interests and choices.” 4 “Talking of propaganda, you are talking of manufacturing consent” 5

On the other hand, the publicity comes from the term “advertising” that derives from the Latin and that side means to focus the mind towards... (some side), then, the publicity has several functions as they are to prearrange to a person so that it buys a product, that it changes to seem or to cause that it lets buy something.

With the previous thing it is possible to be said that the difference between propaganda and publicity is in the last effect that looks for to produce in each one of them. While the publicity sells products, the propaganda sells ideas. Both are worth of persuasive mechanisms and manipulating in some cases to convince certain group to take some attitudes that will benefit to who emits the message (in this case to the candidate).

As much the publicity as the propaganda acts on the mind of individuals that are member of a group with some characteristics in common and therefore they persecute the change of an attitude. So we can say that the propaganda is a procedure to increase the media's effect. (Chomsky, 203). 6

The problem with this distinction is that it does not take into account the recent development from the political publicity like a commercial activity. Domenach is right when it deals with the political publicity like a source propaganda that has commercial form to differentiate it from which he is openly ideológica. 7

The reality, as already it were mentioned, is that both look for the same aim to influence the conduct of people but they do it by different methods. The one that propaganda in itself could be called she is that that expresses an ideology directly or (speeches, written, etc.) or through some massive program, communication channels as they would be the cinema of television, reporter, etc. The political publicity takes the commercial format. It is a product (political messages) that is sold in a market like any other product, or as Jamieson says, " the candidates to political positions to the electorate are sold as the cigarettes or soap". 8

Consulted Literature tends to indicate that the propaganda as much as the political publicity responds to situations that occur recently more than one hundred years. Until the ideologies did not exist average for “promote”.

Until the average ones did not exist stops. to promote. the ideologies and until the masses to those who did not exist to influence, can be spoken neither of propaganda nor of political publicity in the strict sense. They exist, then, two situations that make of these two phenomena a fundamental reality of century XX: (1) the sprouting of the masses in the policy and (2) the development of mass media. For Jacques Ellul, they have been the masses those that have caused that the propaganda is possible. Combination of demographic phenomena must occur one as they are the increase in the population density and the concentrations urbane. 9 To this it is necessary to add that the masses acquire political importance because in the modern political systems the masses are the base of the political power. They are those that support or choose a leader, is this one a dictator or no. It has, therefore, the necessity to manipulate the opinion of the masses by means of the development of the " public opinion ".

Nothing of this would not be possible either if the technological development had not occurred that to us the massive mass media brought: the newspapers, the radio, the cinema and the TV. Ellul Says:

“The modern propaganda could not exist without massive means, the inventions that made possible to the press, the radio, the television and the cinema, or those that produced the modern means of transportation and which they allow the masses, compound of diverse individuals of different places, to meet it frequents and easily.” 10

Other authors bind the height of the publicity to the structural transformations of capitalism. Eliseo R. Colon, for example, understands that the advertising speech arises like part of the rational constitution of this system from the crises that this one suffers in century XIX. The publicity provides the mechanisms for the development of the culture of the market that finally manages to stabilize to the same. 11

One was an incorporation process of the masses to the economic system by means of an opened manipulating process. “The intention -David Harvey says- no is to inform or to promote in the traditional sense, but that the manipulation of desires and the tastes through images are oriented towards that can be tied to the products that try to also sell”. 12 Colon insists on which the objective of the publicity is to increase the productivity of the consumer so that this one buys more and it obtains it by means of the manipulation of his desires. “It is the volatile and ephemeral speech of all of the objects dice; he is placed in the threshold of the appearances, of mask”. 13


The best examples of both cases are, of course, of our own century. In the case of the propaganda like so, the best examples are those of nazism and the comunism. In the case of the political publicity, the best examples are the electoral campaigns of the democratic systems. As Ahmad says: The media have always been a very easy instrument for powerful forces to manipulate because they are a very shallow instrument, very easily manipulated.

The cases Nazi and communist are tried in literature like attempts of dictators to obtain adhesion to their person and her governments. Lennin, for example, is mentioned like saying: “The main thing is the agitation and the propaganda in all the layers of the town” whereas Hitler affirmed that “the propaganda allowed us to conserve the power and it will give the possibility us of conquering the world”. 14

Hitler and their minister Goebbels are not invent the propaganda, but they perfected it. They saw the man like a moldable being who was possible to control and to manipulate by means of a propaganda machinery that becomes a direct political weapon. One mentions Mussolini saying: " The modern man amazingly is arranged to believe ". To this he adds Hitler who " their acts are determined much more by the printing produced in their senses that by pure reflexion".15 As Chomsky says: “ train the minds of the people to a virtuous attachment to their government”

The Nazi propaganda oriented more to the image than to the explanation, to the no rational thing that to the rational, to the unconscious thing that to the conscious thing. Domenach says that the propaganda of Hitler had hypnotized and conditioned to the Germans until turning them into autómatas.16

A similar case is the one of the communism that begins with Lennin in the old Soviet Union. Like in the Nazi case, the Soviet government gets to develop and to control the diffusion means that allow a direct manipulation him of the masses and makes of the ideology a true political weapon. The direct use of the ideology becomes a dictatorial technique. Lennin saw necessary to foment between the Soviets the call “conscience of class”, fundamental so that the process of the revolution occurred. Domenach Says: “Lennin replaces the Social-Democratic conception of the working party... by the dialectic conception of agitators who sensitize and lead the mass…... and that continuously connects the mass with party ”. 17 Produces then the model of the leader (or party) dictatorial who leads to the masses by means of the ideological manipulation.

Although it is certain that the dictatorial systems made of the propaganda their preferred weapon, the democratic systems also make use of the propaganda but in different forms. The fundamental difference is that the propaganda stops being a direct activity in most of the cases to take other subtle forms but that include the political publicity, which tends to predominate. This is thus because the government does not control means and because he assumes that the rational capacity exists in the people to decide with the information who receive and not with manipulations. The ideological propaganda note more of indirect form like, for example, in the cinema, the programs of TV and the news.

When one is to convince or to persuade, one resorts to the political publicity by means of announcements in electoral campaigns and other campaigns from the government or of the political parties as information vehicle as supposedly it happens in the commercial campaigns.

Independently if it deals with about propaganda in the systems called totalitarian like nazism or the communism or the variety that we found in the democratic systems, we can be asked if its function today is the one to inform to allow, as we said in the beginning, that people make decisions of rational type, or if has the function to manipulate, that is to say, the one to take to the people to make such-and such conduct particular.

Everything seems to indicate that the propaganda, of the type that is, goes fundamentally oriented to exert influence in certain direction. More than this, the use of the propaganda or the political publicity has become a type of to “help of political strategy”.18 As Domenach calls to: Theoreticians of the publicity openly see the mission of the publicity like "manipulation" or "manufacture” of a message in order obtain a given objective. 19

In agreement with Goebbels, the Nazi minister, " We did not speak to say something, but to obtain a certain effect". 20 If this is thus, and returning to the distinctions that we mentioned in the beginning on the types of political speech, it would be more logical to find in the propaganda and the publicity the types persuasive and manipulating that the types informative or argumentative.

Then after this, the central question arises, which is more developed in the political campaigns to persuade and/or to manipulate the population?

For some authors, it is the use of the lie. For others, it is the use of the distorted message. For Durandin, for example, the propaganda and the publicity make use of the lie because they give a vision of the reality different from which they have by true with. intention to modify the opinions and conducts... using the manipulation of signs and not of forces. 21

This can be done with words, or perhaps more easily nowadays, with images.

The forms to lie or to distort a message in the propaganda or publicity are, according to Durandin, three:

1.- Suppressions, or to make think that things that exist, do not exist; between these, the omission and the negation stand out.

2.- Additions, or to make believe in things that do not exist.

3.- Deformations, or to deform something that exists.

Also other procedures with the intention are used of “to disturb the conditions of exercise of the knowledge” as they are to turn aside the attention, to try that the question is bad well-known, to allude to presumed facts or to send to the news contradictories.22

Using these ideas, we are going to analyze the case of the publicity in the electoral campaigns of the democratic systems and in individual, the case of the electoral campaigns in Mexico.

Compiling all the previous one and on the basis of the acquired data beginning to the answer of the central question of this work can be given, which is more developed in the political campaigns to persuade and/or to manipulate the population?

First it is necessary to clarify that both, as much the publicity as the propaganda are of vital importance in the promotion of a political campaign as well as of the candidate, the two complement one sells the idea and the other sells the product.

But at the moment of the operation of one or another resource of campaign, the more developed in the political campaigns is the propaganda, one handles in its totality the person, who emits the message must be somebody leader, who calls the attention with his single presence.

In the case of the selections passed of the 2 of July, the candidate leader, of better presence, affection, serenity, the one that more confidence projected and demonstrated to be more natural, more human. The person that won the Presidency of Mexico, Vicente Fox Quezada, was the one who handling all these strategies of propaganda.

In this same case, the aggressive messages towards Fox and the harmful publicity that was generated around his ideas and commentaries. These attacks towards Fox had little successful and eliminated by the great charisma that Fox transmits, reason for which many Mexican we gave our vote him. We paid attention but to the person who in which this says or thinks, since the propaganda of the political figure is the one that is recorded more in the mind of the population.


The publicity is associated with the world of the market, that is, with the form as the systems of capitalist type and the consumer societies transmit the information that the consumers of a product need to make a good decision of purchase. Rosario Quiles defines publicity like "a technique of persuasion of the consumers through the creation of resources of information, essentially propagandistic, that they promote the sales of services and products for a market." 23 Normally one is an operation developed by professional companies (journalist, consulting, etc.) that one becomes by means of campaigns and that becomes through mass media.24

The political publicity works in the consumer societies and the mechanism consists of turning the political process of propaganda in which it follows the format of the commercial publicity which we have described. From the point of view of the publicity “it does not exist, technically, no difference between sending to the market to a politician or to send a biodegradable detergent”.25 They operate, therefore, the same rules including knowing "who will be the buyers of the product before making the image of the candidate". One is "construct" the candidate based on which wants the market.26 “Propaganda campaigns in general have been closely attuned to elite interests” 27 Like in the commercial publicity, before designing the advertising campaign, it is necessary to make an investigation of the preferences of the voters.

Also like in the commercial campaigns, there is a tendency to the simplicity of the way messages so that these are short or telegráficos.28 Treats, again like the commercial campaigns, as it affirms Ellul, of a production for the masses that require a consumption masivo.29 All of saying about the propaganda in general applies to the advertising campaigns in the policy. It is persuasive communication designed to influence. Today, more than ever, the propaganda takes control of adapted advertising mottos to ideas and parties.

The tendency of the pre-candidates to the presidency of Mexico is evident (the proselytism who we saw of Bartlett, Madrazo, Fox...) that with their campaigns makes more publicity than propaganda. it is an example of which the time has invested to the papers now the publicity is the teacher of the propaganda and this one resorts to the advertising techniques of unusual way.

But one is due to clarify that the publicity has helped to that the candidates in Mexico are pleased among them, causing personal angers, disputes, humors and offenses that do not have anything of relation with the objective who unite them, to promote their campaign, their ideology for “ Mexico” when they are presidents. So, “propaganda campaigns will not be mobilized where victimatization, even though massive, sustauned, and dramatic, fails to meet the test of utility to elite ineterests” 30 “Propaganda campaigns may be instituted either by the government or by one or more of the top media firms” 31

This type of tense situations between the different candidates has increased time in the last, for that reason it says that the publicity has taken advantage or greater part in the development from the political campaigns, but, without a doubt the propaganda is the one that has urged this, since the aggressions handled by the publicity are the reflection of a good political propaganda that it stimulates and it imposes the presence and person of some candidate emphasizing his special qualities but before the others to emphasize in the policy, the candidates, since Fox did, must make use of the propaganda in their person in showing to a human being not a fight dog.

This technique has very high levels of success, for that reason she is the one that has but development in the policy since a presence can be but penetrating that an attitude, and the propaganda promotes the person, the presence.

Nimmo defines the political campaign like the activity of an individual or group. designed to manipulate the behavior of an ample number of people (the hearing) for its own advantage. 32 Its main purpouse is not make the people think or reflect on but acceptance.

They do it, refering to emotional desires, promises and satisfaction. 33. Izquierdo Navarro says that one is manipulation in the sense that products without manipulating are only raw material and, therefore, cannot be communicated without manipulating since the public does not have the capacity to manipulate the information by their self. 34

The objective are not present then the reality like so, but the image of the reality that the " salesman " of the political product interests to him that has the " political consumer " and who takes this one to act of the form wished by this " salesman ". As it affirms Izquierdo Navarro: " the policy is pragmatic and their aims justify any means whatever the cost, whenever he is profitable... There is no substitute for the victory, as it said an old slogan military. " 35

This image of the electoral campaigns tends to put emphasis, according to Nimmo, in the utilitarian aspect of the same ones in opposition to the informative aspect. It is recognized that the information that is provided in this type of campaigns is not by the same information but to produce some influence in the behavior. 36

By this, one tends to give more emphasis to the image of the candidate who to issues that they are in discussion.

The processing that the mass media give the electoral campaigns is as if it was a game or it deports where the substance is not important. 37 The this reflected fact, according to Izquierdo Navarro, of which it tends to have very little difference of substance between the candidates and who the difference is of details. 38 Issues are very few and these are chosen carefully. The information that the voters obtain, according to the studies, is not useful information for them. 39

The advertising campaigns in the electoral processes of the democratic systems tend, then, to be manipulating and to orient themselves to the trivial thing and not to the substance.

“In sum, a propaganda approach to media coverage suggests a systematic highly political dichotomization innews coverage based on serviciability to important domestc power interests” 40


The political publicity made its spectacular arrival to Mexico at the end of the Eighties and generated a series of controversies. The debate includes an endless number of interpretations about this discipline, from fantasists ideas that they compare with charlatanry and the electoral astrology until serious and critical commentaries of his virtues, I reach and potentialities.

In agreement with its detractors, the publicity is a myth, since the obtained results are very small and they do not hit the real result of a selection. Another fantasies idea, taken advantage of by individuals that obtain with the good faith of the people, indicates that its use assures political results and triumphs for those who use the techniques and strategies of this novel field of the knowledge.

The Mexican society has all the characteristics of a consumer society and the advertising campaigns in general have adopted the new techniques of the commercial promotion in these consumer societies. The Mexican town is customary to live between advertising campaigns of all type of products. The policy is not, nowadays, an exception. Perhaps the previous generations will remember when the typical form of electoral campaign was the speech that the candidates gave personally of town in town.

These speeches went accompanied of songs and flags with the symbols of the parties like the Institutional Revolutionary Party, PRI or of the today known like National Action Party, PAN among others.

Of this really it is very little. The use of massive mass media has replaced much of the personal communication that today limits personal presentations and caravans where the candidate, to the North American style, speaks little and is concentrated in saluting and kissing and to embrace to the masses.

Most of the message that it has to give keeps it for the political announcements and for which another presentation by radio or television including the famous debates by television. It is in this sense that the political publicity has received a great importance in our country.

Is in the massive mass media, says to Manuel de J. González “where the political campaigns and not in matins are being developed now, marches and concentrations that were organized before. Mexico, just as the United States, also it is experiencing this transformation in the form of the political campaigns” 41 The importance of the use of these means can be seen, affirms to Manuel de J. González, in the amount of money that is spent in these advertising campaigns.

According to which we have been able to see, political the advertising campaigns in Mexico also follow the pattern that we discussed previously. Ramon Lopez affirms that in our campaigns, like in the North Americans, “the party and the ideology they happen to background and what it is sold is the charisma of a leader”, (clear example of this is the today President of Mexico, Vicente Fox Quezada). 42

The announcements, add, talking about to the campaign advertising, work like "”ritual games in which most important it is not the certainty or falsification of the content, but the capacity to summon political answers by means of images and sounds that promote the attraction “vote-buy” a political status"”. 43 This tends to indicate the manipulating character of the campaign, according to we defined it previously. Little substance tends to be observed yes and a constant process of accusations, some questions and offenses between the candidates in its eagerness to be created publicity and to supplant to its opponent.


As we have been able to see throughout this test, the publicity and the propaganda have been present in the history of our society, in the diverse scopes, the case of this work, the scope of the policy. The propaganda has more weight since it is the most feasible channel so that a political campaign obtains its objective.

All the factors which they comprise vital of the political life (the candidates, the political campaign, the ideology of a party, the systems of government, etc) as well as the propaganda and the publicity, nowadays are objects of objects of study of psychologists, anthropologists, signalers, sociologists, among other specialists since they have been phenomena that can explain, partly, the ideas and the attitudes of the different generations from a century and on the other hand thus we can include/understand the handling and development of the communication and the society by means of the development and handling of the political life of the country.

In the political systems like ours, we tend to depend, like source of information on policy, of the information that come from the propaganda and of the publicity that the parties political and the government make. Also in the selections we depend of electoral campaigns directed by advertising agencies. The messages tend to be persuasive and manipulating than informative or argumentative. These almost never provide precise information and yes information that tends to distort or to disguise the reality in order to persuade or to manipulate the people in certain direction.

With the information that we obtained of the diverse bibliographical sources we answered our central question of this work. The answer to that we injured made us understand the differences between two subjects so related which can be confused and as these two techniques of persuasion can injure to manipulate to us. So reiterating the answer to the question, propaganda or publicity, which is more developed in the political campaigns to persuades and/or to manipulate the population?

We know that as much the publicity and the propaganda have a same aim, to get to persuade to us and manipulate stops to change to us of ideology or to won a vote for his campaign, but of these two strategies of persuasion that are used in the political campaigns, but effective and the one that in fact get to have a greater impact in the population it is the propaganda. We understood how the propaganda can makes us turn aside or change of the main objective, since we make to a side the speeches political, the transcendental content of the words and we focused in which but he attracts us of a person, the charisma, the personality, the form to act, the behavior, thanks to we paid attention to the propaganda, in which we would have to leave in background.

A living test of this impact that has the propaganda in the opinion and decision of the town is Vicente Fox, he win most of the votes by his charisma, affection and level behavior, but what he proposed?, what plans have for the country?, what did he said in his speeches? Nobody can remember.

But yes!!!, all of we know that Vicente Fox is very charismatic, sincere, man of field, born in Guanajuato, that he has a team of “the friends of Fox”, all of we know that he is the man who uses boots and his sign is. “V”. of the victory, of course!!.

Everybody knows that he contracted marriage with Martha Sagun, we know that Vicente Fox is the man who change the political history of the country in July 2nd, 2000. But, what does he proposed before being President?, What did he offered to us in exchange for our vote?... I don't remember!!. But I know that the propaganda is used to manipulate stops us to leave our attention of the very and the really important things. The propaganda is the most powerful weapon that the politicians use to manipulated.

It is important to carry out reception analysis that indicates the particular way to us as the voter-receiving take control, that is to say, does his, interprets, these messages in the process to construct its own political reality. The intentions of such are clear: they go directed to generate support or aversion and to push the voter-receiving in a certain direction using strategies that cancel the capacities critics of the same one. In this sense, the political fight is transferred to the land of the communication, where the advertising messages are another weapon of fight more.

And in fact they do not sell an idea to us, a change, an ideology, which sells to us is the image of a person, its own propaganda, a candidate. It continues being, parodied to Von Clausewitz, the continuation of the war by other means. If, after 500 years, Maquiavelo were right, we would be as opposed to one of the more formidable instruments of political domination of all the times.


1. Roberto Mori, De política, mentiras y videocinta, Boletín del Centro de Diseño y Producción de Recursos Instruccionales (CEDPRI), octubre, 1992, 9-10. Ver, sobre este tema, el excelente libro de Dan Nimmo y James E. Combs, Mediated political realities. New York: Longman, 1983.

2. Jean Marie Domenach, La propaganda política. (Buenos Aires: EUDEBA, 1962), 8.

3. Guy Durandin, La mentira en la propaganda política y en la publicidad. (Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós, 1983) 12.

4. Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent.

5. Chomsky. Taking the risk out of democracy, Grassroots and treetops Propaganda .

6. Jean Marie Domenach, Ibid., 16-22.

7. Kathleen Hall Jamieson y Karlyn Kohrs Campbell, The Interplay of Influence: News, Advertising, Politics and the Mass Media. (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1992), 252.

8. Jacques Ellul, Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. (New York: Vintage Books, 1973), 94-95.

9. Ibid., 89.

10. Eliseo R. Colón, Publicidad, modernidad, hegemonía (Editorial de la UPR, 1996), 7.

11. David Harvey, The Condition of Post Modernity (London: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 287.

12. Eliseo R. Colón, Op. cit., 15.

13. Jean Marie Domenach, Op. cit., 5.

14. Ibid. 37.

15. Domenach, Op cit., 46.

16. Ibid., 24-25.

17. Domenach, Op cit., 19.

18. Francisco Izquierdo Navarro, La publicidad política: Cómo se convierte a un hombre en candidato. (Barcelona: oikos-tau, s.a. - ediciones, 1975).

19. Citado por Jacques Ellul, Op. cit., x.

20. Guy Durandin, Op. cit., 25.

21. Durandin, Op. cit., 59-171. Ver también J.M Pérez Tornero, La semiótica de la publicidad: Análisis del lenguaje publicitario. Barcelona: Editorial Mitre, 1982.

22. Luis Antonio Rosario Quiles, Comunicación y sociedad. (Iberoamericana de Ediciones, Inc., 1991), 115.

23. Ibid., 117-120.

24. Francisco Izquierdo Navarro, Op. cit., 115.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., 157.

27. Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. Pag. 32

28. Ellul, Op. cit., 68.

29. Dan Nimmo, The Political Persuaders: The Techniques of Modern Election Campaigns. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970), 10.

30. Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. Pag. 33

31. Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. Pag. 33

32. Francisco Izquierdo Navarro, Ibid., 176-177.

33. Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. Pag. 212

34. Ibid., 104.

35. Dan Nimmo, Op. cit., 10.

36. James MacGregor Burns, et. al., Government by the People. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981) 284.

37. Izquierdo Navarro, Op. cit., 179.

38. Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Op. cit., 287.

39. Manuel de J. González, Las elecciones y los medios de comunicación, Diálogo, septiembre, 1988, 28.

40. Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. Pag. 35

41. Ramón López, Vendedores de promesas: La publicidad en la consulta política, Diálogo, noviembre, 1993, 13.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid.