Inglés básico

Pronombres. Verbos. Verbo to be. Saludos y presentaciones. Modal verbs

  • Enviado por: Horat
  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 27 páginas

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PRONOMBRES

Español Inglés

Yo ........................................ I

Tú ......................................... You

El........................................... He (maculino, for a man/para hombre)

She (femenino, for a woman/ para mujer)

It ( para cosas o animales)

Nosotros................................ We

Vosotros................................ You

Ellos...................................... They

VERBOS / VERBS

En español los verbos en infinitivo se reconocen por las terminaciones -ar, -er, -ir, y se conjugan con el pronombre delante. En inglés se usa la partícula to + infinitivo.

Examples: cantar .......... to sing

Beber ........... to drink

Venir............ to come

En español conjugamos el verbo con distintas terminaciones y el pronombre delante;en inglés es más sencillo pues la forma verbal es la misma excepto que añaden una -s en la 3ª persona del singular (he/she/it + verb +-s)

Examples.

I sing - Yo canto

You sing - Tú cantas

He/she/it sings - El /ella/ eso canta

We sing - Nosotros cantamos

You sing - Vosotros cantais

They sing - Ellos cantan.

Existen pequeñas excepciones que tienen que ver con la terminación del verbo en infitivo, así por ejemplo si el verbo termina en -o en lugar de añadir una sola -s, añade -es, por motivos de pronunciación. Ejemplo to go (ir) sería he/she/it goes.

Exercises . Hacer el presente de indicativo de los siguientes verbos.

To drink

To come

To go

To know

To eat

VERBO “TO BE” . SER O ESTAR

Es el más importante de los verbos en inglés por ser el más utilizado y además actuar de auxiliar en ocasiones (como ocurre en español con el verbo haber en las formas compuestas, que actúa de auxiliar, “he cantado” “he sido”).

El verbo to be tiene una conjugación especial:

Forma normal del To be Formas contractas (más usuales)

I am I'm

You are You're

He/she/it is He's /she's/it's

We are we're

You are you're

They are They're

Examples:

I am Mayte. Yo soy Mayte.

You are M.José. Tú eres M.José.

They are friends. Ellos son amigos.

She is in the park. Ella está en el parque.

I am in Vigo. Yo estoy en Vigo.

Formas interrogativas del Verbo To be. Cómo hacer preguntas y cómo contestarlas.

Para hacer preguntas con este verbo solamente se varía el orden, es decir, se pone primero el verbo y después el pronombre. Para contestarlas simplemente decimos sí (yes), una coma y usamos el verbo en el orden habitual (pronombre más verbo).

Examples.

Am I Mayte?. Yes, I am.

Are you M. José?. Yes, you are.

Are they friends?. Yes, they are.

Is she in the park?. Yes, she is.

Am I in Vigo?. Yes, I am.

Formas negativas.

Sucede que no todas las veces que preguntamos algo la respuesta es afirmativa, podemos responder que no, por lo que debemos aprender cómo se usa la partícula negativa “not”. Para hacer una frase en negativo, añadimos al orden habitual el “not”, quedando así : Pronombre +verbo+not.

Examples:

I'm not Mayte. / I am not Mayte.

You are not M.José. / You aren't M.José.

They are not friends./ They aren't friends.

She is not in the park./ She isn't in the park.

Exercise: Hacer las preguntas anteriores respondiendo en negativo.

NÚMEROS.

1.One

7.Seven

13.Thirteen

19.Nineteen

50.Fifty

2.Two

8.Eight

14.Fourteen

20.Twenty

60.Sixty

3.Three

9.Nine

15.Fifteen

21.Twenty-one

70.Seventy

4.Four

10.Ten

16.Sixteen

22.Twenty-two

80.Eighty

5.Five

11.Eleven

17.Seventeen

30.Thirty

90.Ninety

6.Six

12.Twelve

18.Eighteen

41.Forty

100. A Hundred

Exercises:

01857

880462

01716332265

0134199007

SALUDOS Y PRESENTACIONES.

Good morning. Buenos días.

Good afternoon. Buenas tardes.

Good evening. Buenas noches ( entre las seis de la tarde y la hora en que te vayas a dormir)

Goodnight. Buenas noches.

Goodbye/ bye. Adiós, hasta luego.

Hello/Hi Hola.

En inglés hay dos modos principales de presentarse, cada uno con una respuesta preconcebida:

  • Hello, how are you? Hola, ¿cómo estás?

  • Fine, thanks. And you? Bien, gracias. ¿Y tú?

O bien con esta frase hecha, sin traducción literal, y que se debe responder igual (vamos como un diálogo de besugos).

  • How do you do?

  • How do you do?

Exercises:

I'm English. …..'re German.

He …. n't Polish. He' …. Brazilian.

….. you British?. No, …..'m not. I'….. American.

We' …… from Italy. Where …. You from?

…… they Egyptian?. No, they…. They'….. French.

….. you from Hungary?. Yes, we ……

…... he Spanish?. No, he………. He ........ Spanish.

....... she French?. Yes. She….. . She'……. French.

……. You German?. Yes, we ….. We' …… German.

……. You english?. No, I…… I …….Irish.

VERBE “ TO HAVE GOT”

El verbo “to have got” significa poseer. Con la partícula invariable got, sólo hace referencia a posesión, si se la quitamos, se conjuga de otro modo y significa tener, además de funcionar a veces como un auxiliar.

Examples:

I have got a house. Tengo una casa.

I have a headache. Tengo dolor de cabeza. Observar que aquí no lleva la partícula got, porque no hace referencia a posesión.

Conjugación del To have got.

Presente Interrogativa Negativa

I have got Have I got? I have not got /I haven't got

You have got Have you got? You have not got / You haven't got

He has got Has he got? He has not got/ He hasn't got.

She has got Has she got? She has not got/ she hasn't got.

It has got Has it got? It has not got/ it hasn't got.

We have got Have we got? We have not got/ we haven't got.

You have got Have you got? You have not got / You haven't got.

They have got Have they got? They have not got/ They haven't got.

Examples.

I have got a house. Yo tengo una casa.

You have got a car. Tú tienes un coche.

She has got a new dress. Ella tiene un vestido nuevo.

It has got a collar. El tiene un collar.

We have got a fantastic book. Nosotros tenemos un libro fantástico.

Como decíamos antes el verbo “to have” no siempre va acompañado de la partícula got. En los casos en que significa tener o que funcione como auxiliar no la lleva y se conjuga de forma diferente. Pero para explicarlo debemos conocer ante el verbo auxiliar “To do”.

VERBE TO DO

Este verbo se puede utilizar solo, y significa hacer, o bien utilizarlo como un auxiliar para todos los verbos excepto para el To be y el To have got, que sólo añaden el not en la forma negativa y en la interrogativa se invierten. ( Have I got? - Are you? - She isn't.)

Conjugación To do (hacer)

Presente Interrogativa Negativa

I do do I? I do not/ I don't

You do do you? You do not/ you don't

He does does he? He does not/ he doesn't

She does does she? She does not/ she doesn't

It does does it? It does not/ It doesn't

We do do we? We do not/ We don't

You do do you? You do not/ You don't

They do do they? They do not/ They don't

Por lo tanto este verbo además de poder usarlo solo, nos va a servir para hacer la interrogativa y la negativa de todos los demás, sólo tenemos que fijarnos en la variación que sufre en la tercera persona de singular (he/she/it does).

Pero es muy importante saber que como todos los verbos en 3ª p.sing. sufren variaciones, normalmente añaden una -s, no pueden ir juntas dos variaciones, es decir, al conjugar con el verbo to do dejamos la variación del do y eliminamos la del otro verbo.

Examples:

El presente de indicativo del verbo to run (correr) es el siguiente:

I run

You run

He/She/It runs

We run

You run

They run

Si lo queremos pasar a negativa o interrogativa, como no es ni el to have got ni el to be, se conjugan con el to do, pero del siguiente modo.

Do I run? I don't run.

Do you run? You don't run.

Does he run? He doesn't run.

Does she run? She doesn't run.

Does it run? It doesn't run.

Do we run? We don't run.

Do you run? You don't run.

Do they run? They don't run.

Examples.

I don't go to the cinema. Yo no voy al cine.

She does her homework. Ella hace sus deberes.

It don't drink water. El no bebe agua.

We speak English. Nosotros hablamos inglés.

They don't speak German. Ellos no hablan alemán.

Do you break my heart?. ¿Rompes tú mi corazón?.

Does she lose her book? ¿Pierde ella su libro?

She doesn't lose her book. Ella no pierde su libro.

He eats a hamburguer. El come una hamburguesa.

He doesn't eat a sandwich. El no come un bocadillo.

We don't go to the beach in winter. Nosotros no vamos a la playa en invierno.

Do we go to the beach in summer?. ¿Vamos a la playa en verano?

VERBE TO HAVE

Como vimos antes también podemos conjugar el verbo to have con un sentido de tener pero no de poseer, el presente se conjuga como el to have got , pero sin la partícula invariable got, y la interrogativa y la negativa con el auxiliar to do.

Presente Interrogativa Negativa

I have Do I have? I don't have

You have do you have? You don't have

He has does he have? He doesn't have

She has does she have? She doesn't have

It has does it have? It doesn't have

We have do we have? We don't have

You have do you have? You don't have

They have do they have? They don't have

Casi siempre podemos poner el verbo to have en lugar del to have got, pero si lo hacemos debemos tener en cuenta que se conjugan de distinto modo en negativa y en interrogativa.

Examples.

I have got a car. I haven't got a car. Have I got a car?

I have a car. I don't have a car. Do I have a car?

Con esto tenemos los tres verbos principales y más utilizados en Inglés, el To be (ser o estar) el to have (tener) y el to do (hacer, y que nos sirve de auxiliar para todos los demás)

Exercises.

Hacer el presente, la forma interrogativa y negativa de estos verbos.

To go (ir)

To phone (telefonear)

To come (venir)

To open (abrir)

To play ( jugar, tocar algún instrumento)

To speak (hablar)

To like (gustar)

Exercises.

Mary …………. (go) to the cinema all Mondays.

Sharon …………..(play) the guitar.

Steve…………… (go) to the park.

They …………… (open) the window.

Gizbo, the cat, …………(eat) a lot.

We …………. (come) to the English class.

Mark ……….. (phone) the bank.

We ……………. (not like) football.

You ……………(not work) in an office.

He ……………… (not have got) a dog.

I……………. (be) Mayte.

My name …………….. (not be) Arantxa.

I…………… (be) in my home.

She ………….. (love) music.

It …………. (be) a very good mouse.

I ………………. (answer) the question.

Kent Walker is a secret agent. He is in London now. He has to travel to a country called Tribania. He cannot travel with his own passport because perhaps the police in Tribania have some information about him. Perhaps they know he is a spy.

Robert Shaw was born in Cardiff in 1954. His parents moved to Bristol when he was six. He lived in Bristol for twelve years. He went to London University when he was nineteen and studied computer science. He got married four years ago. Three years ago he moved to Southampton where he still lives with his wife and two children. He now has a job with Computer International Services. He has been with this company since 1st April.

Traducción del texto : Kent Walker es un agente secreto. El está en Londres ahora. El tiene que viajar a un país llamado Tribania. El no puede viajar con su propio pasaporte porque quizás la policía en Tribania tiene alguna información sobre el. Quizá ellos saben que es un espía.

Robert Shaw ha nacido /nació en Cardiff en 1956. Sus padres se mudaron a Bristol cuando el tenía seis (años).El vivió en Bristol durante 12 años. El fue a la Universidad de Londres cuando tenía 19 y estudió ciencias de las computadoras (informática). El contrajo matrimonio hace cuatro años. Hace tres años se mudó a southampton donde aún vive con su mujer y dos niños. El ahora tiene un trabajo con la Computer International Services (servicios internacionales de ordenadores). El ha estado con esta compañía desde el primero de abril.

Traducción de las preguntas y posibles respuestas:

  • Where does Shaw live? - ¿Donde vive Shaw?

  • He lives in Southampton. - El vive en Southampton.

  • What is his job? . - ¿Cual es su trabajo?.

  • He jobs with computers. His job is computer science. - Trabaja con ordenadores. Su trabajo es informático.

  • Is he a spy?. - ¿Es un espía?

  • No, he isn't. - No, el no lo es.

  • Who does he work for? - ¿Para quien trabaja?

  • He works for Computer Internationa Services. - Trabaja para C.I.S.

  • What is his nationality? - ¿Cuál es su nacionalidad?

  • He is Britain/English. - El es británico/inglés.

  • Where was he born? - ¿Dónde nació?

  • He was born in Cardiff. - El nació en Cardiff.

  • When was born? -¿Cuándo nació?

  • He was born in 1954. - El nació en 1954.

  • How old was he when he moved to Bristol? - ¿Cuántos años tenía cuando se mudó a Bristol?

  • He was six years old. /He was six. - El tenía seis años de edad.

  • How long was he there? - ¿Cuánto tiempo estuvo allí?

  • He lived in Bristol for twelve years. - El vivió en Bristol durante/por doce años.

  • How old was he when he went to London University?- ¿Qué años tenía cuando fue a la Universidad de Londres?

  • He was nineteen years old. - Tenía diecinueve años.

  • What did he study at Bristol University? - ¿Qué estudió en la universidad de Bristol?

  • He didn't study anything at Bristol University. He went to London University. - El no estudió nada en la universidad de Bristol. El fue a la universidad de Londres.

  • How long has he been married? - ¿Cuánto tiempo ha estado casado?

  • He got married four years ago. - El contrajo matrimonio hace cuatro años.

  • How long has he been in Southampton? - ¿Cuánto tiempo ha estado en Southampton?

  • He moved to Southampton three years ago. - Se mudó a Southampton hace tres años.

  • What company does he work for?- ¿Para que empresa trabaja?

  • He works for C.I.S. - Trabaja para C.I.S.

  • How long has he have a job with Computer International Services? - ¿Cuánto hace que ha trabajado para C.I.S.?

  • He has have a job with C.I.S. since 1st (first) April. Ha tenido un trabajo con C.I.S. desde el primero de abril.

    EJERCICIOS DE REPASO DE FORMAS VERBALES.

    Complete the sentences:

  • They ..................... a barbecue on Sundays. (have/has) ellos tienen una barbacoa todos los domingos

  • He ………………. To bring the books. (forget/ forgets) el olvida traer los libros.

  • She………………. Lucky to catch the bus. (is, are, am) ella tiene suerte de coger el bus. (to be lucky)

  • We ……………… a barbecue today. (have/has) nosotros tenemos una barbacoa hoy.

  • He……………….. lucky to have a boat. (am/is) el tiene suerte de tener un bote.

  • He ………………. His new pet to Sally. (show/shows) el enseña su nuevo cachorro a sally.

  • Jerry …………….. his new pet Max. (call/calls) Jerry llama a su nueva mascota Max.

  • Sally…………….. the pet in her arms. (hold/holds) Sally coge/abraza el cachorro en sus brazos

  • They…………….. the pet playing. (see/sees) ellos miran al cachorro jugando.

  • She……………… to go to London. (hope/hopes) ella espera ir a Londres.

  • They…………….. for freedom. (fight/fights) Ellos luchan por la libertad.

  • We……………… the old mission. (visit/visits) Nosotros visitamos la vieja misión.

  • He ……………… his dog for a walk. (take/takes) He saca/coge a su perro para un paseo

  • Make negative:

  • I am hungry.tengo hambre …………………………………………………….………………....…….

  • I am thirsty…tengo sed………………………………………………………….…………………….

  • They forget my birthday ellos olvidan mi cumpleaños…………….…………………….……………………

  • We have a barbecue every Sunday………………………………………………..……………….

  • You work in an office…tu trabajas en una oficina………………………………….……………………….

  • We smoke two cigarrettes…nosotros fumamos dos cigarrillos…………..……………………………………..

  • He speaks Greek very well el habla griego muy bien…………….………………………………………….

  • Make interrogative:

  • You are hungry……………………………………………………………………………

  • He is thirsty……………………………………………………………………………….

  • She forgets my birthday…………………………………………………………………...

  • You have a barbecue every Sunday……………………………………………………….

  • Complete with the verb to be:

  • Is he American? Yes, he ………...

  • Is it a hospital? No, it ……………….. It's a hotel.

  • Is ……….. a T.V?. No, ………..isn't. It ………… a computer.

  • ………..it a Japanese? Yes, ……………………

  • …………she a doctor? No, ………isn't. …………………..a teacher.

  • Is your car German? No, ……………. It …………….Italian.

  • QUESTIONS:

    Las partículas más usadas para hacer preguntas son:

    WHO - Quien

    WHAT - Qué

    WHERE - Dónde

    WHEN - Cuándo

    HOW - Cómo

    WHICH - Cuál

    Se pone la partícula interrogativa que deseamos delante, y luego la frase en interrogativa, es decir verbo y pronombre si es con el to be o con el to have got (what are you?/what have you got?) o bien el auxiliar to do el pronombre y el verbo que se conjuga ( what do you do?)

    Esto no supone ninguna variación hacia lo que ya sabíamos, simplemente ponemos delante de todo la partícula interrogativa. Unas de las preguntas más habituales son :

    Who are you? - ¿quién eres?

    Where do you live? - ¿dónde vives?- I live in Vigo.

    Where are you from? - ¿De dónde eres? - I'm from Spain.

    How old are you? - ¿qué años tienes?- I'm twenty-seven years old.

    What do you do? - ¿qué haces? (se refiere a profesión). I'm a doctor.

    What's your name? -¿cómo es tu nombre?. - My name is Mayte.

    TEXTE.

    My name is Lee. I'm twenty-one years old. I live with my family in a small flat in Hong-Kong. I study psychology. I speak English and Chinese. I like Chinese and Italian food. I don't drink coffee or milk but I love Chinese tea. I don't smoke and I don't have got a car. In the evenings, I watch TV or films on video. On Saturdays, I go to discos and on Sundays, I play basketball or table tennis.

    Answer the questions about the texte:

    Where is he from.?……………………………………………………………………………………

    Where does he live?…………………………………………………………………………………..

    How old is he?…………………………………………………………………………………………

    Does he work? ………………………………………………………………………………………...

    What does he do? ……………………………………………………………………………………..

    Does he study on Saturdays? …………………………………………………………………………

    What is his name? ……………………………………………………………………………………

    Does he have got a car? ………………………………………………………………………………

    Does he drink milk? …………………………………………………………………………………..

    What languages does he speak?……………………………………………………………………….

    Subrayar todos los verbos que se encuentren en el texto.

    Escribir tres frases sobre vosotras mismas.

    I live with my family in Lagos, Nigeria. I don't work. I study computer science. I want to be a computer programmer. In my free time, I meet my friends or watch TV. And I do a lot of sport. I play football and I run every day. I don't smoke and I don't drink alcohol.

    Does he live with his family?………………………………………………………………………….

    Does he work? ………………………………………………………………………………………...

    Does he a student? …………………………………………………………………………………….

    Does he want to be a programmer? …………………………………………………………………...

    What does he do in his free time? …………………………………………………………………….

    Where does he live? …………………………………………………………………………………..

    What's his nationality? ……………………………………………………………………………….

    Posessives:

    I ------------- my. My house. My car. My flat. My job. (mi casa, mi coche, mi piso, mi trabajo)

    You----------your Your case. Your friend . Your door. (tu maleta, tu amigo, tu puerta)

    He -----------his His book. His pen. His mother. (su libro, su boligrafo, su madre)

    She-----------her Her hand. Her pet. Her eyes. (su mano, su mascota, sus ojos)

    It------------- its Its channel. Its bone. Its home (su canal, su hueso, su hogar/casa)

    We ---------- our Our travel. Our class. Our bodys. (nuestro viaje, nuestra clase, nuestros cuerpos)

    You--------- your Your paper. Your bicycle. Your tree. (vuestro papel, vuestra bicicleta, vuestro árbol)

    They-------- their Their ship, their milk, their carpet. (su barco, su leche, su alfombra)

    ........... name is Anna.

    ..........names are Mark and Paul.

    ........ name is Anxo.

    Articles.

    El artículo un/una es muy utilizado en inglés y muy fácil pues simplemente se escribe “a”, solamente hay que tener encuenta que si el nombre o adjetivo al que acompaña comienza por vocal, se cambia por “an”, pues no deben ir dos vocales juntas. Ex. : a bus, a hand, a tree, an egg, (un autobus, una mano, un árbol, un huevo.)

    An airport.

    ..... hamburger

    ..... snake

    ….. year.

    ….Italian film.

    ….. pizza

    …..Chinese restaurant.

    ...... important pone number.

    …… egg.

    EL VERBO “ TO MAY”

    May , que se traduce por “puede que”, “podría” en el sentido de ser posible y de tener permiso, es un verbo defectivo con sólo dos tiempos: presente (may) y pasado (might).

    El presento tiene una sola forma para todas las personas, es decir, no añade “s” en la tercera de singular, y va seguido de un infinitivo sin “to”

    I may go to the cinema tomorrow. Podría, puede que vaya al cine mañana.

    It may be cold inside. Podría hacer frío dentro.

    -Se suele utilizar para pedir permiso de forma educada, o para requerimientos que exigen cierta cortesía. When you finish the test, you may leave. Cuando acabes el exámen, puedes irte.

    May I borrow your pen, please? ¿Puedo pedirte prestado tu bolígrafo, por favor?

    -También indica posibilidad.

    I may rain tomorrow. Podría llover mañana.

    She isn't in class. She may be sick / ill. Ella no está en clase. Puede que esté enferma.

    - O también expresa una prohibición.

    You may not smoke here. No puedes fumar aquí.

    You may not walk on the grass. No puedes andar sobre el césped.

    I may + verb I may not + verb May I +verb?

    You may

    He/she/it may

    We may

    You may

    They may

    VERBO MUST :

    El presento tiene una sola forma para todas las personas, es decir, no añade “s” en la tercera de singular, y va seguido de un infinitivo sin “to”

    Se traduce como deber y sólo tiene la forma de presente, en pasado y futuro utilizamos en lugar de “must” el verbo have to.

    I must go to visit her. Debo visitarla.

    I must be there. Debo estar allí.

    Puede expresar deber moral, (you must go to see your mother, debes visitar a tu madre).

    Probabilidad (Karen must be sick)

    Necesidad (enfatizar una frase, I must be home by eight, debo estar en casa sobre las ocho)

    Prohibición (You must not walk on the grass. It is prohibited. No debes andar sobre el césped. Está prohibido.)

    I must wash my hands before dinner. Debo lavar mis manos antes de cenar.

    Must he make than noise? Debe hacer ese ruido?

    Mother must be cooking because I can smell food. Mamá debe estar cocinando porque puedo oler comida.

    You must not swim after lunch. No debes nadar después de comer.

    VERBO SHOULD :

    Puede tener varias traducciones posibles, no más habitual es que sustituya al condicional del castellano dependiendo del verbo que acompañe: cambiaría, sería, nadaría..... Pero muchas veces lo traducimos tambien por debería.

    El presento tiene una sola forma para todas las personas, es decir, no añade “s” en la tercera de singular, y va seguido de un infinitivo sin “to”

    I-you-he- she- it- we - you- they- should /should not + verb.

    He should not swim after eating. No nadaría después de comer. (tb. No debería nadar)

    You should not drive too fast. No deberías conducir tan rápido.

    It should be a nice day. Será/sería/ podría ser un bonito día.

    Should he buy a motorcycle? Compraría una moto?

    Should we wait for Tom? Deberíamos esperar por Tom?

    It shouldn't rain if there are no clouds. No debería llover si no hay nubes.

    VERBO OUGHT TO

    Podríamos traducirlo como tener que o deber por obligación.

    También va acompañado de un verbo en infinitivo sin to, solo que ya de por si el verbo ought va acompañado de su propio to. Como los anteriores no cambia en la tercera persona de singular, es decir, no añade -s.

    I- you- he- she- it- we- you- they ought to/ought not to + verb

    I ought to change my clother because they are dirty. Tengo que cambiar mis ropas porque están sucias.

    We ought to be happy when the new color TV arrives. Tenemos que estar felices cuando la nueva televisón en color llegue.

    It ought not to rain if there are no clouds. No tiene que llover si no hay nubes.

    It ought to snow today. Tiene que /debería nevar hoy.

    It ought not to cost very much. No debe costar mucho.

    VERBO TO CAN.

    Significa poder, es mucho más común que todos los anteriores. El presento tiene una sola forma para todas las personas, es decir, no añade “s” en la tercera de singular, y va seguido de un infinitivo sin “to”

    I can +verb Can I +verb I can not/can't +verb

    I cannot do that. No puedo hacer eso.

    It cannot play football, it has four legs. El no puede jugar al fútbol, tiene cuatro piernas.

    We can go to the cinema next Sunday. Podemos ir al cine el próximo domingo.

    Can you say that name? ¿Puedes decir ese nombre?

    Can I do it? Puedo hacerlo?

    He can speak Russian.

    She can't play tennis.

    Can you ride a horse? Yes, I can. No, I cannot.

    WHAT TIM E IS IT? (¿qué hora es?)

    Sixty seconds = a minute.

    Sixty minutes = a hour.

    Twenty-four hours= a day

    Seven days = a week

    Four weeks = a month

    Twelve months = a year.

    a.m. : in the morning

    p.m. : in the afternoon 12.00 : midday 24.00 : midnight

    Desde la posición de las doce a las doce y media utilizamos la partícula past, ponemos primero el sujeto que es it porque las horas son cosas no personas, después van los minutos seguidos de past y finalmente las horas, es decir al revés que en castellano.

    It's one o'clock. La una en punto.

    It is five past one . La una y cinco

    It's ten past one. La una y diez.

    It's fifteen past one. La una y quince. O It's a quarter past one. (más utilizada)

    It's twenty past one. La una y veinte.

    It's twenty-five past one. La una y veinticinco.

    It's half past one. La una y media, forma especial como las y cuarto.

    A partir de aquí sigue todo igual excepto que cambiamos la partícula past por to.

    It's twenty-five to two. Las dos menos veinticinco.

    It's twenty to two. Las dos m enos veinte.

    It's a quarter to two. Las dos menos cuarto.

    It's ten to two. Las dos menos diez.

    It's five to two. Las dos menos cinco.

    It's two o'clock. Las dos en punto.

    What time is it?

    9.15

    4.45

    6.27.

    7.28

    9.55

    TEXTE: A DAY OF A NURSE.

    I go to work at ten o'clock in the evening. I wear a blue and white uniform at work. I work in a very big building with a lot of beds and windows. I like working with people. I get home at seven in the morning.

    What time does she start to work?

    Where do you think that she works?

    Does she like her job?

    What does she wear in her job?

    TEXTE : THE POSTMAN

    He gets up at five o'clock in the morning and he starts work at six. He goes to woek by car but at work he walks a lot. He hates dogs and he hates working when it rains. He finishes work at midday.

    What time does he get up?

    Does he like dogs?

    Does he work by car?

    What time does he finish work?

    TEXTE: KAREN'S DAY

    I live in New York city.I get up at seven thirty. Then I have breakfast and go to work. I have lunch at one. I finish work at five. I have dinner at seven. After dinner I watch TV, and I go to bed at about eleven.

    What does she do after breakfast?

    What time does she have lunch?

    What does she do after dinner?

    Does she go to bed late?

    FAMILY

    Mother

    Madre

    Mary Johnson has got a brother and a sister. Her brother is Will. He goes to school. Her sister, Amelia, is married. She has two children: a baby girl, Wendy, and a boy called Craig. Mary's brother-in-law is called John.

    Mary's grandfather is Harry. He and his wife, Maggie, live in Sydney, Australia. Mary's grandparents have two chindren. Lucy is married to Tom Brown. Mary likes her cousins Alvin and Rose, but the live a long way away.

    What is the name of Mary' s brother?

    Where do Harry and Maggie live?

    Does Mary like her cousins?

    Father

    Padre

    Grandfather

    Abuelo

    Grandmother

    Abuela

    Aunt

    Tía

    Uncle

    Tío

    Brother-in-law

    cuñado

    Cousins

    Primos

    Parents

    Padres

    Sister

    Hermana

    brother

    hermano

    Son

    Hijo

    daughter

    hija

    husband

    Marido

    wife

    mujer

    nephew

    Sobrino

    niece

    sobrina

    TEXTE: FAMILIES

    Paul is looking at a family photograph. He is talking about his family.That is Simon, my brother. He is a banker, That is Ann, his wife. She is a music teacher. They have got two sons. Joe is seven years old and his brother, Tim, is ten years old. That is my sister, Caroline. She is Joe and Tim's favourite aunt! That is her husband, Robert. He is a writer. They've got a son and a daughter, John and Sandra my nephew and niece of course! They are fun.

    How many sons has Simon and Ann got?

    Who Is Tim's favourite aunt?

    What does Simon do? And Robert?

    Can you make these sentences negative?

    He needs to buy a tennis racket

    They need to study the lesson.

    We need to wash the car.

    You need to spend a day at the library

    It need to be bigger.

    Can you complete these sentences? Use one of the words or phrases in brackets.

    I…….. to ride a horse. (want, wants)

    We…….. to buy a cheap football. (wants, want)

    Jim and Ben ………… to see that film. (don't want, doesn't want)

    You……….. to watch television last night. (wants, want)

    I………………… to wear gloves. (doesn't want, don't want)

    Can you change these staments into questions?

    For example: Ben wants to play tennis. Does Ben want to play tennis?

    Alice wants to buy some nice tennis balls.

    The need to do exercises.

    I want to learn Spanish.

    You want to read the newspaper.

    We need to telephone to Mother.

    Can you complete these sentences? Use one of the words or phrases in brackets.

    ……….. doesn't want to see that film. (Bill, they)

    ……….. don't need to study that lesson. ( Jack and Bill, he)

    Do ……… need to buy a nice tennis racket? (She, you)

    SIMPLE PAST

    La mayoría de los verbos en pasado añaden -ed, pero existen otros muchos que tienen una forma específica y que tenemos que aprender.

    La única diferencia con el presente es que no añaden -s en la tercera persona de singular, por lo que siempre es la misma forma. En cuanto a la forma interrogativa y la negativa siguen la misma forma que el presente, el auxiliar delante en pasado y luego la forma del verbo que estés conjugando en infinito (sin el to).

    Examples.

    To do (auxiliar) To be (ser o estar)

    I did I was

    You did You were

    He/she/it did he/she/it was

    We did we were

    You did you were

    They did they were

    Regular verbs : add -ed

    To play - played jugar

    To weigh - weighed pesar

    To wait - waited esperar

    To post - posted enviar

    To help - helped ayudar

    Irregular verbs:

    To tell - told decir

    To see- saw ver

    To send- sent enviar

    To do- did hacer

    To go- went ir

    To have- had tener

    Present simple past simple

    I go I went

    I don't go I didn't go

    Do I go Did I go?

    Yes, I do. / Yes, I did.

    No, I don't. / no, I didn't

    EXERCISES.

    Can you complete these sentences? Use one of the woeds in brackets?.

    Beth………sad because of her test. (was, were)

    Laura………her lesson. (studied, studies)

    I ……… the test. (passed, passes.)

    We……… right about this work.(was, were)

    They have……….for the test. (studied, studies)

    He…………the time reading.(spends, spent)

    Make the sentences negative:

    There were some pictures on the wall.

    She worked yesterday.

    There was a knife on the floor.

    He likes jazz.

    They were to fly to Ankara.

    PRESENT CONTINUOS / PROGRESIVE TENSE

    El presente continuo se utiliza de dos maneras, como un significado de futuro en algunos casos y normalmente en situaciones que están ocurriendo en el preciso momento en que se está hablando.

    Se utiliza con el verbo to be conjugado y el otro verbo que lo acompaña añade a su infinitivo (sin el to) la terminación -ing.


    En pasado se utiliza también conjugando el verbo to be en pasado.

    Examples:

    That people are dancing. Esa gente está bailando.

    I think my boyfriend is working.

    I am wearing a red skirt. Llevo puesta una camiseta roja.

    John is probably getting up. John está probablemente levantándose.

    She is singing. Ella está cantando.

    Andy is talking to Polly. Andy está hablando con Polly.

    What are you cooking? ¿qué estás cocinando?

    What are you eating? ¿Qué estás comiendo?

    Exercises:

    Can you complete these sentences? Put the verbs in the progressive present

    We…………. Listening to the radio.

    She………… listening to records.

    ……….. you listening to the radio?

    ………. She going to the cinema?

    ……….. he selling tickets?

    ………….. were listening to the radio before the TV program started. (you, Jack)

    …………. Was buying the tickets before the film started. (we, Jane)

    …………were going to the cinema when it started to rain. (Jack and Don, she)

    A LETTER TO A PENFRIEND

    Kopitarjeve 11

    15121, Ljubljana

    Slovenia

    October 28th 1995

    Dear Karina,

    My name's Dalibor and I'm from Slovenia. I was born in Dobrova, a small town near Ljubljana in Slovenia but we live in Ljubljana now. I live with my parents, my grandmother and my brother and sister. My brother's at school and my sister works for IBM. My father's got a small company wich exports glass. My mother's a housewife, but she often helps at my father's company too when they're very bussy.

    I'm twenty'two and I'm single. I'm studying Technology. I'm in my third year at university. I have classes every morning from 9 to 1.30 and then I have lunch. In the afternoon, I usually study in the library. When I finish my university course I'm going to try and get a job as an engineer in an international company. That's why I need to learn English.

    In my free time I like playing sport. At weekends I play basketball for the university team. I also like travelling very much.

    Last summer I went on holiday to Bulgaria. I went with Iva, my girlfriend, and we stayed in a youth hostel near Sofia. The weather was great so we went walking in the mountains nearly every day. It was fantastic. Have you ever been there?

    Please write soon and send a photo.

    Best wishes,

    Dalibor.

    Who is he?

    Where was he born?

    Where does he live?

    What does his family do?

    How old is he?

    What does he do every day?

    Why is you learning English?

    What does he like doing in his free time?

    What did he do last summer?

    What will he do when he finish at university?

    Read the letter. Answer true or false.

  • He lives in the town where he was born.

  • He lives with five people.

  • His parents sometimes work together.

  • He has three and a half hours of classes every day.

  • He's going to use English at work.

  • He likes basketball and travelling.

  • His girlfriend's name is Sofia.

  • A family tree.

    Joe's wife's name is Ann. Joe and Ann have got three children: two daughters and a son. Their daughters' names are Alice and Lucy, and their son's name is Fred. Fred and Lucy are not married. Alice's husband's name is Harry. Harry and Alice have got two children: a boy and a girl. Their daughter's name is Pat, and their son's name is Eric.

    Who is Joe's wife?

    Who is Eric?

    Has Ann got any son? And daughter?

    What are their names?

    What are you like? What do you looks like?

    I've got blue eyes, and my mother has, too. I've got straight hair but my brother's got curly hair.

    Sheila has got long dark hair and brown eyes.

    Mary has got long fair hair and green eyes.

    Thomas is five feet tall.

    My father weighs about 70 kg.

    I'm thirty-four, and I look my age.

    How tall are you?

    How much do you weigh?

    I'm quite shy. I look calm but actually I'm rather nervy. I think I'm kind but sometimes I am bad-tempered. I think I look like a bussinesman.

    Mary's brother is eighteen years old. He is a good-looking boy. He has got a a He has got brown eyes and short and straight fair hair. He is very tall, about seven feet inches tall and slim, over fifty-five kilogrames. He practices sports then he has got a muscular body. He looks like an actor.

    COMPARATIVES

    POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

    The dog is big the garage is bigger the house is the biggest

    The bicycle goes fast the motorcycle goes faster the car goes fastest

    The car is small the bicycle is smaller the ball is the smallest

    The salad is cold the milk is colder the ice cream is the coldest

    The salad is good the milk is better the ice cream is the best

    Mother eats well bobby eats better father eats best.

  • Usually for adjectives and adverbs that have one or two syllables.

  • Normalmente para adjetivos y adverbios que tienen una o dos sílabas añaden al adjetivo -er para el comparativo, y para el superlativo -est.

    POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

    Old

    viejo

    older

    oldest

    Cold

    Frío

    Colder

    Coldest

    white

    blanco

    Whiter

    whitest

    Cheap

    barato

    Cheaper

    Cheapest

    Fast

    Rápido

    Faster

    Fastest

    Slow

    Despacio

    Slower

    Slowest

    Soon

    pronto

    sooner

    soonest

    IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

    Good

    Bueno

    Better

    Best

    Well

    Bien

    Better

    best

    Much

    Mucho

    More

    Most

    bad

    Malo

    Worse

    Worst

    Little

    Pequeño

    Less

    Least

    badly

    malamente

    worse

    worst

  • Usually for adjectives of more than two syllables and adverbs that end in “ly”

  • Normalmente para adjetivos de más de dos sílabas y adverbios que finalicen en “ly”, añaden more delante en el comparativo y most en el superlativo.

    POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

    Important

    importante

    More important

    Most important

    Expensive

    Caro

    more expensive

    Most expensive

    Difficult

    Difícil

    More difficult

    Most difficult

    Nearly

    Cercano

    More nearly

    Most nearly

    Happyly

    Felizmente

    More happily

    Most happily

    quietly

    tranquilamente

    More quietly

    Most quietly

  • For adjectives and adverbs that indicate less of a quantity.

  • Para adjetivos y adverbios que indican menos de una cantidad (referidos a cantidades)

    POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

    expensive

    Caro

    Less expensive

    Least expensive

    Difficult

    Difícil

    Less difficult

    Least difficult

    Wide

    Ancho

    Less wide

    Least wide

    Scared

    Asustado

    Less scared

    Least scared

    Quietly

    Tranquilo

    Less quietly

    Least quietly

    Nicely

    bonito

    Less nicely

    Least nicely

    THE BIGGEST DESERT

    In the northern part of Africa there is a great amount of hot, dry land called desert. This desert is bigger than Spain, France, and Germany together.

    It is called the Sahara Desert and it is the biggest desert in the world.

    Nobody lives in the driest parts of the desert. In other parts where the land is higher there is enough rain for plants to grow.

    In the desert there are places where water comes from springs or wells all the year. These places are called oases.

    Many of the people of the desert move from place to place looking for more water and grass for the animals.

    The camel is the most important animal in the desert. It is called the “ship of the desert”

    Most of the land in the desert is not owned by anyone.

    ABOUT MARTIN

    Martin lived in London for ten years, and then he went to Surrey, where he bought a new house. He worked at Interface Computers Ltd for three years, that is, since 1970. He always had the same job, and never thought about changing. He got married in 1975, tha is, he is married for six years. He and his wife, Judith moved into their house in Surrey five years ago, and they live there ever since. Martin and Judith met while they were still at school: they knew each other since they were fifteen years old. They have had two children since they get married; the younger child is still at school, but the elder son left scholl and is now at college.

    What does Martin do?

    Where did he meet Judith?

    How many children has they got?

    How old is their elder son?

    Where does Martin live?

    Did he live in Surrey since he was born?

    What do their children do?

    How old were Martin and Judith when they met each other?

    Translation:

    Martin vivió en Londres durante 10 años, y entonces el se fue a Surrey, donde compró una casa nueva. El trabajó en Interface Computers Ltd durante/hace 3 años, esto es, desde 1970. El siempre tuvo el mismo trabajo, y nunca pensó en cambiarlo. El se casó en 1975, esto es, el está casado hace 6 años. El y su mujer Judith, se mudaron a su casa en Surrey hace cinco años y ellos viven allí desde entonces. Martín y Judith se encontraron mientras ellos estaban todavía en el colegio: ellos se conocen desde que tenían quince años. Ellos han tenido dos hijos desde que están casados; el más joven está todavía en el colegio, pero el mayor hijo dejó el colegio y está ahora en el instituto.

    Marco Polo was born in Vence in 1254. With his father and his uncle, who were businessmen, he travelled to China in 1275. They were the first Europeans to do this. Marco Polo stayed at the court of the Chinese emperor for many years, and went as an ambassador for the emperor to Tonkin, Annam, India and Persia.

    He went back to Venice in 1295, made rich by his travels. Polo wrote a book about his experiences, but not many people believed him at first. He died in 1324.

    Where was Marco Polo born?

    What did Marco Polo's father do?

    When was Marco Polo born?

    How many years did he stay at the court of the Chinese emperor.?

    When did he go back to Venice?

    What did he do with his travels?

    Where did he die?

    SOME AND ANY

    Use some in positive sentences:

    • I'm going to buy some eggs.

    • There is some ice in the fridge.

    • They made some mistakes.

    • She said something.

    • I saw somebody or someone.

    Use any in negative sentences:

    • I'm not going to buy any eggs.

    • There isn't any ice in the fridge.

    • They didn't make any mistakes.

    • She didn't say anything.

    • I didn't see anybody (or anyone)

    Any and some in questions.

    In most questions (but not all) we use any:

    • Is there any ice in the fridge?

    • Did they make any mistakes?

    • Are you doing anything this evening?

    • I can't find Ann. Has anybody seen her?

    We normally use some (not any) when we offer things (Would you like some…..?

    -A: Would you like some coffee?

    -B: Yes please.

    -A: Would you like something to eat?

    -B: No, thank you. I'm not hungry.

    And when we ask for things (Can I have some…?)

    Can I have some soup, please? Yes, of course. Help yourself.

    Can you lend me some money? I'm sorry. I cannot.

    We've got some cheese but we haven't got any bread.

    I didn't take any photographs but Ann took some (some photographs)

    You can have some coffee, but I don0t want any (any coffee)

    I've just made some coffee. Would you like some? (some coffee)

    I haven0t got any money. Can you lend me some? (some money)

    Exercises.

    Put in some or any.

  • I'm going to buy ……… eggs.

  • They didn't make ……… mistakes.

  • I can pay. I've got………… money.

  • There aren't ………… shops in this part of the town.

  • George and Alice haven't got ………… children.

  • Have you got …………. Brothers or sisters?

  • There are …………… beautiful flowers in the garden.

  • Are there ………….. letters for me this morning?

  • I haven't got ………….. satamps but Ann's got………….-

  • Do you know ………… good hotels in London?

  • Would you like………. Tea? Yes, please.

  • Don't buy any rice. We don't need ………….

  • We haven't got ………….bread, so I'm going out to buy …………

  • When we wre on holiday, we visited …………. Very interesting places.

  • I went out to buy ………… milk but they didn't have …………….. in the shop.

  • I'm thirsty. Can I have ………….. water, please?

  • Complete the sentences. Use some or any + one of these words.

    Air batteries chairs cheese friends languages milk money photographs problems shampoo stamps.

  • I can't buy you a drink. I haven't got ………………….

  • I want to wash my hair. Is there ……………………….?

  • I'm going to the post office to get …………………….

  • Can you speak ……………. Foreign ……………………………?

  • I haven't got my camera so I can't take ……………………………….

  • Sorry we are late. We had …………………………… with the car.

  • Everybody was standing because there weren't ……………………… in the hall.

  • It's hot in this office. I'm going out for ……………… fresh …………………

  • Why isn't the radio working? Are there ……………………….. in it?

  • Can I have ………………. In my coffee, please?

  • Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with……………………….. of mine.

  • Would you like …………………………..? No, thank you. I've had enough to eat.

  • Put in somebody (or someone) /something/ anybody (or anyone)/anything

    She said …………………but I didn't understand it.

    What's wrong?. There's ………………………in my eye.

    Do you know …………….. about politics?

    I went to the shop but I didn't buy ………………………..

    ………………………… has broken the window. I don't know who.

    There isn't ……………………… in the box. It is empty.

    I'm looking for my keys. Has ………………….. seen them?

    Would you like ………………….. to drink?

    I didn't eat …………………. Because I wasn't hungry.

    I can do this job alone. I don't need ………………. To help me.

    Paola is an Italian student of English at a school in London. Read and listen to her letter to David, her penfriend.

    72 Nexton Drive

    London SW6

    3rd October

    Dear David,

    How are you? I'm fine. I'm in London, at the International School of English. I'm in class 3 with eight other students. They're all from different countries -Spain, France, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland, and Thailand. Our teacher's name name is Peter Briscall. He's very nice. He's funny and he's a very good teacher.

    My new address is at the top of the letter. I'm with an English family, the Browns. Mr. And Mrs. Brown have three children. Thomas is fourteen, Catherine is twelve, and Andrew is seven. They are all very friendly, but it isn't easy to understand them!

    London is very big and very interesting. The weather is good, cold but sunny, and the parks are beautiful. Hyde Park, Green Park and St. James's Park are all in the centre. It isn't easy to use the Underground, but I understand it now. It's very expensive.

    English food isn't very bad, but the coffee is horrible.

    Write to me soon.

    Love, Paola

    P.S.Is my English ok?

    Where are she from?

    How many people live in her house in London?

    What's the name of the English family?

    Does she enjoy her stay in London?

    What is her teacher looks like?

    AN INTERVIEW

    Bank manager: Good morning, Mr. Harris.

    Customer: Good morning

    BM. Please sit down.

    C. Thank you.

    BM. Now, one or two questions….

    C. Yes, of course.

    BM How old are you, Mr. Harris?

    C. thirty-two

    BM:And you are Canadian, aren't you?

    C:Yes, that's right.

    BM. Are you married or single?

    C. Yes, I'm married.

    BM. What is your wife's name?

    C. Monica.

    BM. And your wife's age, Mr. Harris.

    C. Pardon?

    BM. How old is Mrs. Harris?

    C. Oh, she is thirty.

    BM. Thirty. I see. And is she Canadian, too?

    C. No, she's British.

    BM. British, yes. Have you got any children?

    C. Yes, three. Two boys and a girl.

    (phone rings)

    BM. Excuse me a moment. Hello, Anne, Yes? Yes? I am. No. Yes. No, I'm sorry. I don't know. No. yes, all right. Thank you. Goodbye. I'm sorry, Mr. Harris. Now, two girls and a boy, you said?

    C. No, two boys and a girl.

    BM. Oh, yes. I'm sorry. And what are their names?

    C. Alan, Jane and Max.

    BM. And their ages?

    C. twelve, ten and six.

    BM. I see. Now one more question, Mr. Harris. What is your job? What do you do?

    C. I'm a university teacher.

    BM. A university teacher. Right . Thank you. Now, you want $50.000 to buy a house.

    C. That's right.

    BM. And what sort of security.

    1

    Fijémonos que varía la 3ª p. Sing. del auxiliar pero no la del conjugado, que es siempre igual.

    Poner las anteriores frases en interrogativa.