Historia universal en el siglo XX

Marshall Plan. Vietnam war. Star wars. Stalin

  • Enviado por: Romeo
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: México México
  • 14 páginas
publicidad

INTERNATIONAL PANORAMA

EVENT

YEAR

STEPS

ACTORS

CAUSES

EFFECTS

* Comrades

17-45

Revolution

Depression

Wartime Alliances

Summits

Anticommunist forces, Germany, Russia

Stalin, Roosevelt, Hitler, Churchill

Lenin's death, intent to oust the Bolsheviks

Great depression of 29

The non-aggression pact with Berlin.

German troops storm into Poland, invade Russia

"Big Three" meeting in Yalta

Roosevelt's death

US drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Joseph Stalin rises to power, make the Great Purge

Soviet Union's five-year plans for economic development by Stalin. New Deal by Roosevelt

Start the Second World War

Stalingrad´s battle

Soviets will attack Japan once Germany is defeated. Soviet and U.S. troops meet cutting Germany in two.

Truman rises to power in US

Japan is destroyed. End of the World War II.

* Iron curtain

45-47

Homecomings

Conquered divided

Soviet control

Warnings

Truman's doctrine

Allies, Germany

Stalin, Truman, Churchill

End of the war

Germany is divided in Four occupation zones by Allies setting up a sector in Berlin

Communist and capitalist looks for control

Stalin commented that capitalism and imperialism made future wars inevitable.

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech

American economy and government was revitalized. Troops come home

Germans are expelled from Allies countries

Soviets created a series of satellite states.

US was alert. Declaration of Churchill, and Truman in college in Fulton that said that the political and ideological divide between the Soviets and the West as the Cold War began.

The tensions grow between the Soviet Union and former allies

Truman shows his new “Truman Doctrine”

* Marshall plan

47-52

Post War Europe

Truman Doctrine

George Marshall

The Plan

Coup

Aid to Europe

Fear and Response

Truman, Europe, George Marshall, Russia

Europe was in chaos, national economies remain in ruin

Britain informs to that London is ending aid to Greece and Turkey

George Marshall gone whit the other allies in Moscow, in an attempt to determine the future of then-occupied Germany.

The Marshall Plan offers billions of dollars in U.S. aid to European countries including those under Soviet occupation.

Soviets established “COMECON”, the Warsaw Pact's version of an economic trading bloc.

The Marshall agency spends $13.5 billion in 16 countries. In turn, Europe's purchase of U.S. goods and machinery brings

The Soviet Union urges its communist colleagues in Western Europe to take action against the Marshall Plan.

Many in Western Europe considered communism as an end to the hard life and injustices

US authorize $400 million in aid for Turkey and Greece. Truman establish a clear distinction between the capitalist and communist

The talks in Moscow go nowhere.

Russia accuses the West of working to divide Europe into two hostile camps

A communist coup topples the government of Czechoslovakia

Many dollars back into the American economy

The Soviet Union put its eyes on Italy and France. US was afraid that Italy could change to the communism and started a campaign of covert operations from the newly formed CIA. Democracy won in Italy

* Berlin

48-49

The Nazis' once-proud capital, reduced to a pile of rubble by Allied anger, is down to its bare essentials.

The Western Allies impose a counter-blockade on the Soviet zone. The Soviets hope to starve the West out of Berlin

Divided germany

Currency reform

Airlift

New allies west east

Blockade ends

The Berlin airlift brings a new mindset to the Western Allies, who start thinking of West Germany as an ally, rather than an occupied territory.

Soviet troops harass West Berliners who go to the eastern zone. And in September, a communist attempt to take over the city council sparks mass protests -- which end in violence.

At least 79 people, including 31 Americans, 39 British and nine Germans, had lost their lives, mostly in plane crashes. But the confrontation proved to be only the opening act in the decades-long Cold War.

* Korea

49-53

Both North Korean leader Kim Il Sung and his South Korean counterpart,

Syngman Rhee, dreamed of reunifying the peninsula under their respective

governments. But Kim acted first. He pleaded with Stalin, who -- after first

rejecting the idea -- helped North Korean forces plan for the invasion of

the South.

In November 1950, after repeated warnings through diplomatic channels, China

attacked -- sending the surprised U.N. forces reeling southward.

The conflict on the Korean peninsula with the interview of Germany,

China, U.S.S.R. and U.S.A.

The surrender of Japan at the end of World War II also meant an end

to 35 years of Japanese occupation in Korea. As they had in Germany, Soviet

and U.S. troops liberated Korea -- and agreed to divide the nation along

the 38th parallel as a temporary measure.

But as both sides withdrew their troops, they also set up rival governments,

creating the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North, and the

Republic of Korea in the South.

The United States took advantage of a Soviet boycott of the United

Nations to have the U.N. Security Council condemn North Korean aggression

-- and create a U.N. military force that would defend South Korea.

Stalin also was heartened by the communist victory in China in 1949 and

believed it was time to open an Asian front against capitalism. On June

25, 1950, the North Korean army rolled south in a surprise assault.

By the summer of 1951 armistice talks began. It wasn't until July 1953,

after months of pointless fighting and the death of Soviet dictator Joseph

Stalin, that a cease-fire was finally agreed to. Despite the armistice,

the Korean peninsula remains divided to this day -- and a potential global

flashpoint.

* Reds

47-53

Fear

Hollywood

Whitch hunts

Rosenbergs

Conformity

Stalin

USSR and USA

To influence the nations about the communism by massive campaigns.

Dead or dissapeer of important people of the countries.

USSR erected walls in the cities to close theirs limits.

Dead of Stalin

USSR obtained the secrets to make nuclear weapons and guns.

* After Stalin

53-56

Stalin

East Germany,

nato/polan,

Hungary crackdown.

Nikita Khrushchev, Walter Ulbricht, Konrad Adenauer, Britain and France, Imre Nagy.

In 1953, the death of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin creates a power vacuum in the Kremlin's leadership. It also unleashes a wave of unrest in Eastern Europe, as some Soviet satellites test the limits of Moscow's tolerance. DEAD OF STALIN AND A VACUUM OF POWER.

Nikita Khrushchev, would soon rise to the top of the Soviet hierarchy. Anger over strict production quotas boiled over in June 1953. In September 1953, Konrad.

Adenauer was re-elected chancellor of West Germany. With U.S. backing, Adenauer persuaded Britain and France to allow West Germany into NATO, the Western military alliance. Students in Hungary's capital of Budapest launched a more serious challenge to Soviet rule, Hungarians believed they had won their revolution.

Thousands were killed in the crackdown. Nagy was arrested and eventually executed. Two hundred thousand Hungarians fled the country. Khrushchev had re-enforced the Iron Curtain.

* Sputnik

49-61

Duck-Cover,

Sputnik

Catch-Up,

U-2,

Disaster/

Triumph

United States, USSR, Dwight Eisenhower, Werner von Braun,

United States, Sovietic Union, Dwight Eisenhower, Werner von Braun,

The start of the nuclear arms race between the Cold War rivals. U-2 was shot down by the Soviet military.

On April 12, 1961, Gagarin achieved international acclaim when he became the first human to be launched into space. They tested the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile in May 1957.

And on October 4 of that year they surprised the world by launching Sputnik -- the world's first satellite.

* The wall

58-63

Berlin

Khrushchev,

East Germany

The Wall Divided.

United States, West Berlin, East Germany, Khrushche, Eisenhower-Khrushchev, German leader Walter Ulbricht, John F. Kennedy,

For years, West Berlin was an escape route for East Germans seeking to flee communism. But growing Cold War tensions forced the Soviet bloc to erect a deadly blockade across the city -- a Wall that divided Berlin for nearly three decades.

Khrushchev issued a new demand, calling on the Western powers to withdraw from Berlin, he met with President Eisenhower.

A second Eisenhower-Khrushchev summit collapsed, Every month, thousands of East Germans fled across the open Berlin border and took refuge in the West. ,

Kennedy's attempted invasion of Castro's Cuba, at the Bay of Pigs, failed miserably. On the morning of August 13, 1961, East German and Soviet troops sealed the East Berlin side of the border, closing crossing points and erecting barricades.

Berlin was divided. the Wall remained a symbol of the Cold War's cruelty and Europe's division.

* Cuba

59-62

Revolution

Nationalization

Bay Of Pigs

Missile Crisis

At The Brink

A Way Out

USA,Cuba, USSR,

Batista, JFK, Castro

Defeat Batista.

Nationalized the U.S.-owned refineries

Castro takes government.

Cuba decides buy oil to USSR

Complete trade embargo against Cuba.

Cubans leave their country.

USA invades cuba.

Cuba resists and attack Usa army. Cuba wins.

USSR helps Cuba giving missiles that are discovered.

USA promises not attack Cuba, they make a deal and panic is over. Missiles are retired from Cuba and peace come back.

* Vietnam

54-68

Divided

Iron fists

Overthrow

Gulf of ton kin

Escalation

Quagmire

Vietnam

USA

The nationalist movement led by Ho Chi Minh

Groups such as the Viet Cong were encouraged by Moscow. U.S.

President John F. Kennedy, after suffering a setback against the communists in Cuba and trying to control the crisis in Berlin, wanted to show U.S. resolve in Asia. the primitive but highly effective supply line that linked North Vietnam with its fighters and supporters in the South. But the tactic failed.

Kennedy sent American military advisers to South Vietnam.

While the people of Saigon initially responded with enthusiasm to Diem's overthrow, the coup left the country with no clear leader.

The incident prompted Johnson to push the Gulf of Ton kin Resolution through Congress. The measure allowed LBJ to wage war in Vietnam. The war cost thousand morelifes.

* Mad

60-72

On alert, buildup, close call, deterrence, anti-missiles

The United States and the USSR (John f. Kennedy)

With Cold War tensions heightening at the start of the 1960s, the superpowers are drawn into an escalating arms race.

The world's safety depends on a nuclear paradox known as "mutual assured destruction."

The consecuences in this period, final with the creation of anti-missils between the two nations EUA and USSR, because they need a protection after the desarmy in Cuba, they want to maintain the peace in his own nations with the anti-missils

* Make love, not war

60´S

Kennedy's Election

Economic depression

Discrimination

Kennedy's death

John F. Kennedy

George Wallace

Edgar Hoover

Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963.

American ideals of political freedom were now being extended into the personal realm

While some Americans went off to war in Vietnam, others were challenging what was termed "the Establishment."

The protesters gathered in city parks in preparation for a march on the convention hall. But Chicago Mayor Richard Daley had no intention of allowing them to take over the convention . On the day the Democrats were due to nominate their presidential candidate, the demonstrators battled with police.

Young men of draft age were turning on, tuning in and dropping out.

Protests against the war were growing, some black activists trained as paramilitaries in what they saw as a civil war against a racist police force

The Cold War, and the war in Vietnam

* Red spring

60´S

khrushchev, Catching up, Ouster/Unrest, Red Spring, Bear Claw.

Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet people, Leonid Brezhnev, Czechoslovak, Alexander Dubcek.

In the 1960s, as dissent and protest swept through the West, nations of the Warsaw Pact were experimenting with reforms. But hopes for change were crushed by palace coups and, in the case of Czechoslovakia, outright invasion.

Actors: Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet people, Leonid Brezhnev, Czechoslovak, Alexander Dubcek.

: Khrushchev boasted the U.S.S.R. would overtake America in production of meat, milk and grain. More and more Russians, meanwhile, were getting a taste of such amenities as the company picnic -- and paid vacations at resorts run by the Communist Party and trade unions. In October 1964, Khrushchev was deposed. Stability was restored in the Soviet Union. One of the first changes in Czechoslovakia that year was an end to censorship. The Czechoslovak experiment, the most daring attempt to marry communism with democracy, had failed.

* China

49-72

China's new rulers embarked on radical land reforms

One million people lost their lives.

China

Led by Mao Tse-tung, the communists establish the People's Republic of China.

Actors:

China feared an attack on its own territory. In conclusion what we can say is that the war between oriental countries and the Americans and Europe countries was a terrible success

* Détente

69-75

SLOW DOWN COMP

All the world

Soviet leaders hoped to guarantee the U.S.S.R.'s security and world-power status with a treaty that would recognize the postwar division of Europe

The most public symbol of the new relationship between the rival superpowers was the Apollo-Soyuz project. In space, cooperation was replacing years of Cold War confrontation.

* Good and bad guys

67-78

NIXON PRESIDENT

Richard Nixon

The Cold War takes on a new dimension as the Soviet Union, the United States and their allies become involved in wars between rivals in Africa and the Middle East.

The Arab threat from Egypt against Israel had become intense, Nasser and the Arab states wanted to destroy Israel but the Soviet Union did not.(1967)

For the Soviets, better ties with America outweighed Moscow's commitments to the Arabs.

Against Moscow's advice, Somalia prepared for war with Ethiopia.

* Backyard

54-90

ANTI-WAR

Nixon

After World War II, growing nationalism in Central and South America led to greater resentment against the United States.

In 1950, Jacobo Arbenz was voted Guatemala's president.

Che Guevara -- who went to Mexico, where he met Cuban rebel leader Fidel Castro. Arbenz wasn't a communist, but some of his allies were. The superpower struggle in Central America had given way to a quiet revolution at the ballot box.

* Freeze

77-81

DÉTENTE RECOGNITION

Communist Party

Looking for a Panacea that could stops the Cold War, USA and the Soviet Union promised to reduce the tensions reducing and controling the arms.

Arms Talks: The governors of the two nations made a meet for solve all the frictions between the countries in order to protect the human rights establish the limits of the arsenals.

Human Rights: A reason for the aparent relax was the brutal break of the human rights, like in mental hospitals, where mind-control drugs were used to make them recant.

Salt II: The Salt II was the negotiation for a new arms limitation that paid special atention to the new medium-range nuclear missile.

Malaise: The people from the two sides feel bad with the desicion, especially because it didn't do what was promised.

Solidarity: As support for Solidarity spread throughout the world, the movement became increasingly defiant. Moscow watched with growing alarm.

Martial law: On December 2, 1981, in a warning to Solidarity, riot police crushed a firemen's strike. Ten days later, Solidarity met to plan a nationwide strike. But that night, the Polish government sent in the army, arrested Solidarity's leaders and banned the trade movement. Jaruzelski declared martial law, suspending civil rights. Moscow had reimposed its will. East-West relations were fractured once more.

* Soldiers of god

75-88

DIPLOMATIC GAMES

Henry Kissinger, were the architects of the new U.S.

In the 1970s, Afghanistan became a focus of superpower rivalry. Geographically strategic -- near Persian Gulf oil and Indian Ocean ports, and bordering the Soviet Central Asian republics -- a friendly Afghanistan was vital to Moscow's interests.

Coup: The Soviet Union sent hundreds of advisers to Kabul following an April 1978 military coup that brought a left-wing regime to power. But a group of rebels called themselves the Mujahedeen, or Soldiers of God were mostly peasants, organized by village mullahs and landowners, with weapons captured from the communists. But a lot of musulmans deserted each month.

Invasion: Hafizullah Amin, launched a campaign of terror, then flew to Moscow to talk with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev about how to curb Amin's excesses, but he was discovered and the executed. And with the coperation of some leaders, Urss invede Afghanistan.

Response: In a secret way, Us sent its money and troops to help Afghanistan and make a real resistance, but that was always in a secret way sending the supplies trough other countries.

Civil War: The real fight was released, the Soviets took the control and bombed all the territory, always trying to cut the Mujahedeen's escape routes.

Withdrawal: The war in Afghanistan was taking its toll on the Soviets. With increasing ruthlessness and daring, the Mujahedeen attacked Soviet convoys bringing oil and weapons to their army. As many as 2,000 Soviets were killed each year. In March 1985, an energetic new leader took power in the Kremlin. As Mikhail Gorbachev met crowds around the country, opposition to the war could finally be expressed. Gorbachev told the United Nations that the Soviets would consider withdrawing from Afghanistan under a U.N. agreement. Afghanistan was to endure more years of bloodshed. Although the Soviet troop withdrawal was completed by February 1989.

* Spies

45-90

VIETMAN AGREE

Hanoi had presented Kissinger with a draft agreement

The Cold War was fought on two fronts. In public, it was a series of confrontations and crises. But the East and West also battled in the shadows, as intelligence agents risked their lives to steal secrets.

Unknown to one another, scientists Klaus Fuchs and Ted Hall both passed on details of how to detonate nuclear weapons by "implosion" -- a principle so new to Soviet science that there was no equivalent word in Russian. The intelligence war was lopsided. The CIA dug a long tunnel under the Soviet sector to tap telephone cables. Penkovsky revealed the Soviets' lack of atomic warheads and their problems with guidance systems. He provided information that proved critical to the United States during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. On February 21, 1994, nearly five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Ames was arrested for spying, along with his wife, Rosario, after years of high living. During his nearly nine years on the KGB payroll, Ames was paid $2.7 million. He identified 25 CIA agents in the Soviet Union, 10 of whom were executed

* Star wars

80-88

A NEW RELATIONSHIP

As Vietnam came under communist control

In 1981, Ronald Reagan -- a strident Cold Warrior -- enters the White House on a platform of "making America strong again." Convinced the United States is lagging in the arms race, Reagan increases defense spending and proposes a "Star Wars" anti-missile system -- alarming leaders in Moscow.

First with the decision of Reagan for make a new army with more power for his country, he try to make a deal with the urss. With the war and the fight in the iron curtain appear the human rights and this contributed for stopped the creation of more arm, the name of the deal was saltII.

The "Star Wars" plan said "All attempts at achieving military superiority over the U.S.S.R. are futile,".

The meeting ended without an agreement -- but each delegation realized the discussions had crossed a historic line. In 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev in Washington to sign the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty eliminating an entire class of U.S. and Soviet nuclear arms . Reagan's defense of "Star Wars" prevented further progress in arms talks for the remainder of his presidency.

* The wall comes down

89

Economic reforms had met with disaster, and the Communist Party was losing control.

George Bush

USSR

For nearly three decades, the Berlin Wall symbolized the Iron Curtain that separated East from West. But by 1989, the Wall was starting to crumble -- and by the end of the year it would collapse.

Economic reforms had met with disaster, and the Communist Party was losing control. The Poles, like the Hungarians, were breaking with the communist system, In June, elections were held, The economy was running down, The refugees could go to West Germany, but only if their train crossed East German territory first., Weekly demonstrations in Leipzig soon swelled into mass protests.

Gorbachev suggested to Honecker that the way to stop public protest engulfing his government would be to introduce a German version of perestroika. West Berliners arrived from the other direction and began to demolish the Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate.

Across the Wall, two worlds had faced each other in arms.