Grammar Summary # Gramática

Reglas gramáticales de inglés # Verb. Prepositions. Possessive adjectives. Subject. Articles. Comparative and superlative

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Grammar Summary

Elementary

Unit 1


Verb to be

Positive - s/v/c

I

am

from England.

He

She

It

is

We

You

They

are

Question - Qw/v/s/c/?

Where

am

I

from?

is

he

she

it

are

we

you

they

I'm 20 - I'm 20 years old.

Prepositions

Where are you from?

I live in a flat in Paris

What's this in English?

Possessive adjectives

What's

my

your

his

her

its

our

your

their

name?

This is

house.

a/an

It's a

ticket.

dictionary.

magazine.

We use an before a vowel.

It's an

apple.

envelope.

English dictionary.

Unit 2

Verb to be

Questions whit question words

Answers

What

is her surname?

is his job?

is her address?

Lucas.

He's a policeman.

34, Church Street.

Where

is she

are you

are they

from?

Portugal.

Who

is Jennifer?

is she?

She's John's daughter.

How old

is he?

are you?

Twenty-two.

How much

is a Coke?

Sixty pence.


Yes/No questions v/s/c/?

Is

he

she

it

hot?

Yes, he is.

No, she isn't.

Yes, it is.

Are

you

they

married?

No, I'm not/No, we aren't.

Yes, they are,

Negative s/-v/c

I

am

not

from the States.

He

She

It

is

We

You

They

are

Prepositions

I'm in London

I'm in class 3 with eight other students

Green Park is in the centre

I'm at home

My parents are at work

I'm at the International School of Languages

She isn't on holiday

This is a photo of my family

Plural nouns

1.- Most nouns add -s in the plural.

book books

student students

2.- If the noun ends in -s, -sh, or ch, add -es.

bus buses

church churches

watch watches

3.- If the noun ends in a consonant +y, the y changes to -ies.

country countries

party parties

But if the noun ends in a vowel +y, the y does not change.

boy boys

day days

4.- Some nouns era irregular. Dictionaries show this.

child - children, woman - women, person - people, man - men

Unit 3

Present Simple he, she, it

Positive - s/v/c

He

She

It

lives

In the mountains.

Negative - s/-v/c

He

She

It

does not

live

In France.

Question - Qw/ax.vb/s/v/c/?

Where

does

he

she

it

live?

Yes/No questions - ax.vb/s/v/c/?

Does

he

she

it

live

In France?

In the mountains?

I

You

We

They

do

I

You

We

They

have

He

She

It

does

He

She

It

has

Does is an auxiliary verb in questions whit he, she, and it.

Doesn't is in negative sentences.

The position of subject and object pronouns

Subject pronouns come before the verb.

She works in a school

They are Italian.

Object pronouns come after the verb

We like him

How do you spell it?

We use pronouns and possessive adjectives to replace nouns.

Anna drinks red wine because she likes it.

John's son is a doctor and his daughter is a dentist.


Prepositions

She works in a girl's school

He lives in a village in the mountains

In winter he teaches skiing

On Tuesday I'm tired

He plays football with his sons in his free time

She is married to an American

A nurse looks after people in a hospital

He arrives at school at 8:45

He catches a train to London

He drives from his village to Boulogne

He goes to Boulogne by train

No preposition

He leaves __home at 8:00

He arrives __home at 9:30

Unit 4

Present Simple

Positive - s/v/c

I

You

We

They

start

at 6:30.

He

She

It

starts

Negative - s/ax.vb/vb/c

I

You

We

They

don't

start

at 6:30

He

She

It

doesn't

Question - Qw/ax.vb/s/v/c/?

When

do

I

You

We

They

start?

does

He

She

It

Yes/No questions - ax.vb/s/v/c/?

Do

you

they

have

a camera?

Does

he

she

it

like

Chinese food?

Articles

a= indefinite article

1.- She has a flat in London.

Can I have a ham sandwich?

2.- She's a nurse. (jobs)

The = definite article

3.- The flat is very nice

The ham sandwich is horrible!

4.- The Times: the Thames

No article

We do not use the definite article the when we talk about things

Things in general

__ Cats are my favourite pets

Ann loves __ music

Definite things

The cats are in the garden

The music is very loud

5.- Things in general

I have __ tea and toast for breakfast.

__Books are expensive.

I like taking __ photographs

Do you like __ Chinese food?

6.- Meals, places, transport

I have __ breakfast/lunch/dinner

I go/come __ home

I go/come to school/university/work/bed

I'm at __ work/on __ holiday

I go/come by __ train/car/bus/taxi

Prepositions

I stay in bed until 11:00

She works for the BBC

We listen to music

On

Friday mornings/evenings Saturday

at

Weekends

in

the morning/evening (the) spring

We stay in a hotel

like/love + verb + ing

When like and love are followed by a verb, it is usually verb + ing.

I like swimming.

She loves listening to music.

They like sailing very much.

In the Present Simple positive we add s to the verb whit he, she and it, but not whit I, you, we and they.

Whit I, you, we, and they, the negative is don't + infinitive. Whit he, she, and it, the negative is doesn't + infinitive.

Adverbs of frequency

Position of adverbs

1.- These adverbs usually come before the main verb

I usually go to bed at about 11:00

I don't often go swimming

She never eats meat

We always have wine in the evenings

I sometimes play tennis on Saturdays

2.- Sometimes and usually can also come at the beginning or the end

Sometimes we play cards

We play cards sometimes

Usually I walk to school

I walk to school usually

3.- Never and always can't come at the beginning or the end


Unit 5


There is/are

Positive

There

is

a sofa.

(singular)

are

two books

(plural)

Negative

There

isn't

an

armchair

(singular)

aren't

any

flowers

(plural)

Yes/No questions

Is

there

a table?

Are

any photos?

Some/any

Positive

There are some flowers

Some + plural noun

Negative

There aren't any cups

Any + plural noun

Question

Are there any books?

Any + plural noun

This is a/an

Close/near by (singular)

That is a/an

Far away (singular)

These are some

Close/near by (plural)

Those are some

Far away (plural)


Prepositions

There is a photo on the television

The bank is next to the supermarket

The bus stop is near the park

There is a post box in front of the chemist's

The cinema is on the left, opposite the flower shop

There are two pictures on the wall

The lamp is behind the sofa

Your dictionary is like my dictionary

She speaks to people during the meal

Why don't we go out for a drink?

They talk about the news

She has coffee from Harrods

Unit 6

Can/can't

Can and can't have the same form in all persons. There is no do or does.

Can is followed by the infinitive (without to)

Could/couldn't

Could is the past of can. Could and couldn't have the same form in all persons. Could is followed by the infinite (without to)

Positive - s/mod/v

I

You

He/She/It

We

They

can

could

swim

Negative - s/-mod/v

I

You

He/She/It

We

They

can't

couldn't

dance

Question - Qw/mod-ax.vb/s/v/?

What

can

could

I

you

he/she/it

we

they

do?

Yes/No questions

Can

Could

you

she

they

etc.

drive?

cook?

Was/were

Was/were is the past of am/is/are

Positive

I

She/He/It

was

in Paris yesterday

in England last year

We

You

They

were

Negative

I

He/She/It

wasn't

at school yesterday

at the party last night

We

You

They

weren't

Question

Where

was

i?

he/she/it?

were

we?

you?

they?

Yes/No questions

Was

he

she

at work?

at home?

Were

you

they

etc.

Was born

Where

was

he

she

born?

were

you

they

etc.

I was born in Manchester in 1970

Prepositions

They were in England in 1980

I was at a party

We land in ten minutes

He studies from 8:15 to 4:00


Unit 7


Past simple

The form of the Past Simple is the sample in all persons.

Positive

I

You

He/She/It

We

They

went

to London in 1985

moved

Negative

We use didn't + infinitive (without) in all persons

I

You

He/She/It

We

They

didn't

go

to London

move

Question

We use did +infinitive (without to) in all persons.

When

did

I

you

he/she/it

we

they

go?

Where

Yes/No questions

Did

you

she

they

etc.

like

the film?

the family?

Time expressions

last

night

Saturday

week

month

year

yesterday

morning

afternoon

evening

Prepositions

I often think about you

I have a shower before breakfast

I am always in debt

Write about when you were young

The box is full of books

Unit 8

Past Simple

Negative

Negative in the Past Simple are the same in all persons

I

You

She

We

They

etc.

didn't

go out

last night

ago

I went to the States

ten years

two weeks

a month

ago

Somebody, anybody, somewhere,

anywhere, something, anything

Positive

Somebody phoned you last night

I'd like something to eat

They have a house somewhere in the south of France

Negative

I didn't go anywhere last night

I didn't have anything for lunch

He doesn't know anybody in London

Question

Did you go anywhere aver the weekend?

Did you meet anybody at the party?

Is there anything to eat in the house?

Time expressions

in

The twentieth century

19924

winter/summer

the evening/the morning

September

on

10 October

Christmas Day

Saturday

Sunday evening

at

seven o'clock

weekends


Prepositions

I phoned him at the end of the programme

My birthday is on the tenth of October

Can I ask a question about your country?

She fell in love with his voice

Unit 9


Would you like

Would is the same in all persons. We use would you like in offers and requests.

Positive

I

You

He/She/It

We

They

'd like

a drink

'd = would

Yes/No questions

Would

you

he/she/it

they

like a biscuit?

Yes, please

No, thank you

Countable and uncountable nouns

Some nouns are countable

a book - two books

an egg - six eggs

Some nouns are uncountable

bread

rice

Some nouns are both!

Do you like ice-cream?

We'd like three ice-creams, please

How much...? and How many....?

We use How much...? with uncountable nouns

How much rice would you like?

We use How many...? with countable nouns

How many cigarettes do you smoke a day?

some

We use some in positive sentences with

uncountable nouns and plural nouns

There is

some

bread

on the table

There are

oranges

We use some in questions when we ask

for things and offer things

Can I have

some

coffee, please?

Would you like

grapes?

any

We use any in questions and negative sentences

with uncountable nouns and plural nouns

Is there

any

water?

Does she have

children?

I can't see

rice

There aren't

people


Prepositions

A bottle of aspirin

A packet of cigarettes

They have cereal for breakfast

Marmalade is made from oranges

Unit 10

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

One - syllable adjectives

old

safe

big

hot

older

safer

bigger

hotter

the oldest

the safest

the biggest*

the hottest*

Adjectives ending in -y

noisy

dirty

noisier

dirtier

the noisiest

the dirtiest

Adjectives with two or more syllables

boring

beautiful

more boring

more beautiful

the most boring

the most beautiful

Irregular adjectives

good

bad

far

better

worse

farther

the best

the worst

the farthest

*Adjectives, which end in one vowel and one consonant, double the consonant

Examples

You're older than me.

New York is dirtier than Paris.

Prague is one of the mast beautiful cities in Europe.

Have got and have

Have got means the same as have to talk about possession, but the form is very different. We often use have got in spoken English.

Have got

Positive

I

You

We

They

have

got

a cat

He

She

It

has

a garden

Negative

I

You

We

They

haven't

got

a dog

He

She

It

hasn't

a garage

Questions

Have

I

you

we

they

got

any money?

a sister?

Has

he

she

it

How many children have they got?

Short answers

Yes, I have./No, I haven't

Yes, she has./No, she hasn't

Have

Positive

I

You

We

They

have

a cat

He

She

It

has

a garden

Negative

I

You

We

They

don't

have

a dog

a garage

He

She

It

doesn't

Questions

Do

I

you

we

they

have

any money?

a sister?

Does

he

she

it

How many children do they have?

Short answers

Yes, I do./No, I don't

Yes, she does./No she doesn't


Prepositions

The country is quieter than the city

The house is 50 metres from the sea

Everest is the highest mountain in the world

Everybody, nobody, everywhere,

nowhere, everything, nothing

These words are followed by a verb in the singular

Everybody likes Kate

Nobody wants more homework

Everything is ready

Relative pronouns

We use who/that, which/that, and where to join sentences

I saw the girl. She works in the travel agent's

I saw the girl who/that works in the travel agent's

!

who/that = person/people

This is the book. It has the information

This is the book which/that has the information

!

which/that = thing/things

There's the house. John and Mary live in it

There's the house where John and Mary live

!

where = place/places

Unit 11

Present Continuous

The Present Continuous describes an activity happening now

She's wearing jeans

I'm studying English

It also describes a activity in the near future

I'm playing tennis this afternoon

Jane's seeing her boyfriend tonight

Positive and Negative

I

am

(not)

going

outside

He

She

It

is

We

You

They

are

Question

Where

am

I

going?

is

he/she/it

are

we

you

they

Yes/No questions

Are you having a good time?

Is my English getting better?

Are they having a party?

Yes, we are

Yes, it is

No, they aren't

Present Simple and Present Continuous

The Present Simple describes things that are always true, or true for a long time

I come from Switzerland

He works in a bank

The Present Continuous describes activities happening now. And the temporary activities

Why are you wearing a suit? You usually wear jeans

Whose + possessive pronouns

Whose is this book?

Whose book is this?

It's

mine

yours

hers

his

ours

theirs

Prepositions

I'm looking for a jacket

'll = will. Will is an auxiliary verb

I'll have it

I'll leave it

In these sentences, will expresses a decision

Unit 12

Going to

Going to expresses a person's plans and intentions

She's going to be ballet dancer when she grows up

We're going to stay in a villa in France this summer

We also use going to when we can see now that something is sure to happen in the future

Careful! That glass is going to fall!

Positive an negative

I

am

(not)

going to

have a break?

stay at home?

He/She/It

is

We

You

They

are

Question

When

am

I

going to

have a brake?

stay at home?

is

he/she/it

are

we

you

they

With the verbs to go and to come, we usually use the Present Continuous for the future plans

We're going to Paris next week

Joe and Tim are coming for lunch tomorrow

Infinitive of purpose

The infinitive can express why a person does something

I'm saving my money to buy a CD player

We're going to Paris to have a holiday

Prepositions

I'm worried about the exam

She's good at singing

She climbs without ropes

What's the weather like?

What's on at the cinema?

What's on TV tonight?

There's a film on Channel 4

Unit 13

Questions forms

When

Where

Who

How

What

What

Why

did Columbus discover America?

are the Andes?

did she marry?

do you get to school?

do you have for breakfast?

happens at the end of the story?

do you want to learn English?

How many

How much

How far

What sort of

Which newspaper

people are herein the class?

does she earn?

is it to the centre?

car do you have?

do you read?

Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives describe nouns

a big dog

a careful driver

Adverbs describe verbs

She ran quickly

He drives too fast

To form regular adverbs, add -ly to the adjective

Words ending in -y change to -ily

Adjective

Adverb

quick

bad

careful

easy

immediate

quickly

badly

carefully

easily

immediately

Some adverbs are irregular

good

hard

early

fast

well

hard

early

fast

Prepositions

What's the story about?

What happens in the end?

What do you think of Peter?

I want to go round the world

A girl with green eyes

Are you interested in ballet?

The train is on time

The train leaves from platform 9

Unit 14

Present Perfect

Positive and negative

I

You

We

They

have

(not)

been

to the States

He

She

It

has

Question

Where

have

I

you

we

they

been?

has

she

he

it

Yes/No questions

Have you been to Russia?

Present Prefect and Past Simple

We use the Present Perfect to refer to an indefinite time in the past

He's travelled all over the world

They've just arrived home

We use the Past Simple to refer to a definite time in the past

I left

last night

yesterday

in 1990

at three o'clock

on Monday

Present Perfect +yet and just

I haven't done it yet (but I'm going to)

I have just done it (a short time before now)

Prepositions

She works for a big company

Hamlet is a play by Shakespeare

She was bored with life

She wrote about her life as a nurse

Don't worry about me

Can I speak to Jo, please?

Unit 15

Verb patterns

There are different verb patterns when one verb follows another verb

Verb + infinitive

I want

We'd like

We've decided

I hope

to go

to have

to get

to se

home

a holiday

married!

you again soon

Verb + ing

He enjoys/loves/likes

It's stopped/started

sailing

raining

Adjective + infinitive

It was nice

It's easy

It's difficult

to meet

to make

to understand

you

mistakes

what he's saying

Say and tell

She

He

said (that)

she enjoyed the party

I was wrong

I

She

told

them

me

(that)

their English was good

she wanted to go home

Prepositions

I want to talk to you about something

Tell me about their friends

I have a problem with people in the post office

Say and tell

When you use say, you have to say the idea

She said (that) they had a wonderful time

When you use tell, you have to say the person that say it or the object pronoun

She told Alice (that) it was awful

Verb patterns

We use the infinitive after many adjectives

It was expensive to decorate the house

It's easy to learn English

We use the infinitive after some verbs

He wants to learn Japanese

I'd like to come

We decided to go to Spain

We use the -ing form after some verbs

I enjoy learning English

He has finished doing his homework

I like swimming

Verb patterns

Verb + ing

like

love

enjoy

hate

finish

stop

swimming

cooking

Verb + to + infinitive

choose

decide

forget

promise

need

help

hope

try

want

would like

would love

to go

to work

Note

Have to for obligation is followed by the infinitive

I have to go now. Goodbye

Modal auxiliary verbs

Cab

Could

Shall

Will

would

Go

arrive

Multi-word verbs

Take something off remove a piece of clothing

He came in and took off his coat

In English, many verbs can add a preposition or adverb. Sometimes the meaning of the verb is literal, as in He took of his coat

Take off leave the ground and start to fly

The aeroplane took off an hour late

Sometimes the meaning of the verb is idiomatic, as in The plane took off

Break down (a) go wrong and stop working

We are late because the car broke down

Break down (b) start to cry

He broke down when he heard that his horse was dead

Go out with someone have someone as a boyfriend or girlfriend

Paula is going out with Martin

Get on with someone work or live in a friendly way with someone

Are you getting on with your new neighbours?

Get up stand up; get out of bed

It's time to get up, children!

Look after take care of someone or something

A nurse looks after sick people in a hospital

Give something up stop doing, using, or eating something

I'm fat. I'm going to give up sugar and potatoes!

Turn off stop something

Turn off the light

Turn on start something

Turn on the television

Shall and Let's

Shall is an auxiliary verb. We use it to ask for suggestions

What shall we do tonight? = What do we want to do tonight?

Shall we go swimming?

Let's go! makes a suggestion for everyone. It is like an imperative in the first person plural.

Let's go! = I suggest that we go. (Let's = Let us)

Let's have a pizza!

Let's go home now. It's late

Noun and adjectives suffixes

We use suffixes to form different parts of speech

Noun suffixes: -ness, -ence

Adjective suffixes: -ful, -y, -ous, -al, -ly, -ic, -ent

Adjectives that end in -ed and -ing

Some adjectives can end in either -ed or -ing

The book was interesting

I was interested in the book

The film was boring

She was bored by the film

Been or gone

She's gone to Portugal = She's in Portugal now

She's been to Portugal = She went to Portugal and now she has returned

Am/is /are + adjective describes people and things

He is old/tall/hungry/tired

Am/is/are + verb + ing describes activities happening now

I'm learning English

He's wearing a suit

They're cooking

She isn't smiling

This is the Present Continuous tense and too can describe activities happening in the near future

I'm playing tennis this afternoon

We're having fish for dinner tonight

'll = will. Will is an auxiliary verb

I'll have it

I'll leave it

In these sentences, will expresses a decision