Gramática inglesa

Perífrasis verbales. Verbos. Conjugación verbal en inglés

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TIEMPOS VERBALES EN INGLÉS


PRESENT SIMPLE

USES:

To talk about a habit or something that happens regularly.

How often do you see your grandparents?.

To talk about a state.

She doesn't like coffee.

To talk about something which is always true. Babies cry when they're hungry.

To talk about a future, timetabled event.

The train leaves at 9:30 tonight.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

USES:

To talk about what is happening now, at this moment.

What are you doing?.

To talk about a temporary situation, or activity happening around now.

He's learning English.

To talk about future plans or arrangements.

I'm seeing her tonight.

To talk about change in progress.

My father's becoming very bad-tempered.

PAST SIMPLE

USES:

To talk about a finished action in the past, often with a time adverbial.

He left school in 1994.

To talk about something that happened regularly in the past.

She went out every night.

To talk about a past situation.

I went to Oxford University.

PAST CONTINUOUS

USES:

To talk about an action which was in progress at a particular moment in the past.

I was watching television at 9:30.

To describe a situation or the background to a scene.

It was raining and he was carrying an umbrella.

To describe an interrupted action in the past.

We were watching the news when you rang.

The past continuous is often used after while and as.

While we were playing, it started to rain.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

USES:

For an action that happened before another action in the past.

When we got to the station, the train had already left.

For an action that happened before a certain time in the past.

By 4000 they had walked almost 20 kilometres.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

USES:

To talk about experiences in one's life.

Have you ever been to America? I've never flown.

To talk about the present result of a past action.

Ann has gone out.

To talk about an action which began in the past and which continues in the present.

She has had the same car since 1993.

PRESENT PERFECT CONT.

USES:

To talk about an action which began in the past and which continues in the present. It is often used for temporary actions and situations.

She's been working here since June.

To emphasise that an activity is unfinished. Compare this with the present perfect simple which often indicates a finished action.

I've been reading the book (= I haven't finished it).

I've read the book (= I've finished it).

FUTURE TENSES

USES (Will):

To make a prediction about the future.

I think it will rain tomorrow.

To talk about a decision made at the moment of speaking.

I'm tired; I'll go to bed.

To make an offer.

“I'm hungry” - “I'll get you something to eat”.

USES (Going to):

To make a prediction where there is some evidence now.

Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain.

To talk about plans where the decision has been made before speaking. It normally expresses a degree of intention.

She's going to study French.

USES (Future continuous):

To indicate that an action will be in progress at a particular moment in the future.

I will be working all day tomorrow

USES (Future perfect):

To say that an action will be finished by a certain time in the future.

They'll have known each other for twenty years in June.


INFINITIVE WITH `TO' AND `-ING' FORM

Ininitive with TO

Infinitive with -ING

Infinitive with TO:

Afford, Agree, Appear, Arrange, Ask, Attempt, Choose, Decide, Demand, Deserve, Expect, Help, Hope, Intend, Learn, Manage, Need, Offer, Plan, Pretend, Promise, Refuse, Seem, Threaten, Want, Wish, Would like, Would love, Would hate, Would prefer.

The -ING form is used:

Admit, Avoid, Be used to, Can't help, Can't stand, Consider, Deny, Dislike, Don't mind, Enjoy, Finish, Imagine, Keep, Look forward to, Miss, Practise, Regret, Suggest.

Negative form:

Verb + not + to …

After prepositions:

Verb + prep + verb

Verb + object + infinitive:

Advise, Allow, Ask, Encourage, Expect, Force, Get, Help, Invite, Persuade, Remind, Teach, Tell, Warn, Would like, Would love, Would hate, Would prefer.

Nouns:

Example: Smoking is bad for you.

Verbs followed by To or -ING

Meaning similar:

Begin, Continue, Hate, Like, Love, Start.

Not the same meaning:

Forget, Go on, Remember, Stop, Try

THE

THE is used for talking about concrete things. Examples:


The name of the street

The best player

Can you tell me the time?

The first floor

The city centre

The nearest bank

The same street

The sun

The moon

The world

The sky

The sea

The country

The police

The fire brigade

The army

The top

The end

The middle

The left, …

To play the piano, …

The radio

To go to the cinema

“ “ the theatre

“ “ the bank

“ “ the post office

“ “ the doctor

“ “ the station

“ “ the airport

“ “ the city centre


They say:


Go to work, be at work, start work, finish work.

Go to school, be at school, start school, leave school.

Go to university, be at university.

Go to hospital, be in hospital.

Go to prison, be in prison.

Go to church, be in/at church.

Go to bed, be in bed.

Go home, Be at home.

I like music.

I like meat.

Life isn't possible without water.

I hate exams.

Foreign newspapers


The isn't used with sports, academy subjects, languages, …

They don't use THE with television, breakfast, lunch, dinner, next/last + …, …

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

First conditional: If + Present, will. Will is substitutable for may, can, should, … or a imperative.

Is used to talk about a situation that is true or may become true.

If you go to the party, you'll enjoy it.

Second conditional: If + past simple, would. After If, they use were (not was). Would is substitutable like Will.

Is used to talk about a situation that is unreal or unlikely to happen.

If you went to the party, you'd enjoy it.

Third conditional: If + past perfect, would have. Would have is substitutable for might/could have.

Is used to describe an imaginary event or situation in the past.

If you had gone to the party, you would have enjoyed it.

SHOULD / OUGHT TO

They are used to:

To give advice.

To make suggestions.

To talk about what is a good or the correct thing to do.

To express a future possibility.

Example: You should go to bed. You ought to go to the dentist twice a year.

REPORTED STATEMENTS, QUESTIONS, COMMANDS


Times:

Present simple Past simple

Present continuous Past continuous

Past simple Past perfect simple

Present perfect simple Past perfect simple

Will / won't Would / wouldn't

Can / can't Could / couldn't

Words:

This, these That, those

Now, today Then, that day

Next week The next week

Tomorrow The next day

Yesterday The day before

Last week The week before


“That” can be omitted after “Say” or “Tell”.

In reported questions, we use the first word, and after that, we put the subject, and after the subject, qe put the verb. Example: Why are you crying / She asked why they were crying. If there isn't a question word, we use “if” or “whether”. Example: Are you English? / She asked if / whether we were English.

In reported commands, the affirmative structure is Subject + Verb + Object. Example: Sit down / He told her to sit down.

In reported commands, the negative structure is Subject + Verb + Object + Not + Infinitive with To. Example: Don't shout me / She told him not to shout at her. We can use other verbs instead of tell: persuade, advise, warn, remind, …

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Defining relative clauses: They give more information about the subject. Examples:

The woman who caused the accident went to prison. / This is the gun which was found. / Where is the man who found it?

This is the police whose arm was broken in the attack.

The linking words are: who (person), which (things), that (all), whose (things which belong to the subject), whom (a quien.)

Non-defining relative clauses: They don't give more information about the subject. Examples:

Lord Lucan, who disappeared in 1974, is said to have killed his wife.

WISH / IF ONLY

Present situations:

Wish / If only + past simple: Desire for something to change in the present. If only was better-looking.

Wish / If only + could: Desire for something to change in the present. I wish she could come this evening.

Wish / If only + would: To complain about people or things. I wish you would stop doing that. If only the film would end.

Past situations:

Wish / If only + past perfect: To talk about a regret about the past. I wish I had seen the film. If only we hadn't broke the CD player.

VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE WITH TO

Verbs: Ask, beg, enable, expect, force, get, help, invite, mean (=intend), order, persuade, remind, teach, tell, train, want, warn, would hate, would like, would love. Examples: I want you to take my photo. She told me not to say anything.

Note: Make and Let can be used in same construction but without To: He made them wait.

VERBS NOT USED IN CONTINUOUS TENSES

Verbs of thinking: Believe, Forget, Know, Remember, Understandig.

Verbs of liking and disliking: Hate, Like, Love, Prefer.

Verbs of being and possession: Be, Own.

MAY / MIGHT

Affirmative forms: may / might. Negative forms: may not / might not.

They use them to talk about future possibility and to make predictions.

Examples: The sky's grey; it might rain. They may come, but they aren't sure.

SHALL FOR OFFERS

Uses:

For making offers in the affirmative: We'll help you with your homework.

For offers that are questions: Shall I buy you a newspaper?

EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY

Some: Affirmative sentences and questions that you expect Yes as answer. Countable nouns.

Any: Negative sentences and questions. Countable nouns.

A few: Countable nouns.

Little: Uncountable nouns.

Many: Interrogative and negative sentences. Countable nouns.

Much: Interrogative and negative sentences. Uncountable nouns.

A lot of: Affirmative sentences. Countable and uncountable nouns.

IIREGULARS VERBS

Infinitive Past tense Past participle Infinitive Past tense Past participle

BE WAS / WERE BEEN LEND LENT LENT

BECOME BECAME BECOME LET LET LET

BEGIN BEGAN BEGUN LOSE LOST LOST

BITE BIT BITTEN MAKE MADE MADE

BLOW BLEW BLOWN MEAN MEANT MEANT

BREAK BROKE BROKEN MEET MET MET

BRING BROUGHT BROUGHT PAY PAID PAID

BUILD BUILT BUILT PUT PUT PUT

BURN BURNT BURNT READ READ READ

BUY BOUGHT BOUGHT RIDE RODE RIDDEN

CATCH CAUGHT CAUGHT RING RANG RUNG

CHOOSE CHOSE CHOSEN RISE ROSE RISEN

COME CAME COME RUN RAN RUN

COST COST COST SAY SAID SAID

CUT CUT CUT SEE SAW SEEN

DO DID DONE SELL SOLD SOLD

DRAW DREW DRAWN SEND SENT SENT

DRINK DRANK DRUNK SET SET SET

DRIVE DROVE DRIVEN SHAKE SHOOK SHAKEN

EAT ATE EATEN SHINE SHONE SHONE

FALL FELL FALLEN SHOOT SHOT SHOT

FEED FED FED SHOW SHOWN SHOWN

FEEL FELT FELT SHUT SHUT SHUT

FIGHT FOUGHT FOUGHT SING SANG SUNG

FIND FOUND FOUND SINK SANK SUNK

FLY FLEW FLOWN SLEEP SLEPT SLEPT

FORGET FORGOT FORGOTTEN SPEAK SPOKE SPOKEN

FREEZE FROZE FROZEN SPEND SPENT SPENT

GET GOT GOT SPREAD SPREAD SPREAD

GIVE GAVE GIVEN STAND STOOD STOOD

GO WENT GONE STEAL STOLE STOLEN

GROW GREW GROWN STICK STUCK STUCK

HANG HUNG HUNG STRIKE STRUCK STRUCK

HAVE HAD HAD SWIM SWAM SWUM

HEAR HEARD HEARD TAKE TOOK TAKEN

HIDE HID HIDDEN TEACH TAUGHT TAUGHT

HIT HIT HIT TEAR TORE TORN

HOLD HELD HELD TELL TOLD TOLD

HURT HURT HURT THINK THOUGHT THOUGHT

KEEP KEPT KEPT THROW THREW THROWN

KNOW KNEW KNOWN WAKE WOKE WOKEN

LEAD LED LED WEAR WORE WORN

LEARN LEARNT LEARNT WIN WON WON

LEAVE LEFT LEFT WRITE WROTE WRITTEN

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ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Never - Hardly ever - Sometimes - Often - Usually - Always

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

Good Better The best

Bad Worse The worst