Glosario de fonética inglesa

Lingüística. Fonología. Vocales. Consonantes. Sonidos # Phonetics Glossary. Vowels. Consonants

  • Enviado por: Rosyta K
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
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PHONETICS GLOSSARY

English Word

Transcription

Spanish word

Meaning

Accent

Acento

The way a person speaks, with differences in the sounds that can show the place a person comes from, or their social class.

Acoustic phonetics

Fonética acústica

The study of the physical properties of speech sounds.

Affricate

Africada

Type of consonant consisting of a stop consonant followed by a fricative; for example, the initial sounds of child and joy. Also called affricative. Affricate consonants are /t / and /d /.

Allophone

Alófono

A different form of the same sound or phoneme.

Alveolar

Alveolar

Consonant pronuncied using the blade of the tongue close to the alveolar ridge. In English, alveolar consonants are /t/,/d/,/n/,/s/,/z/ y /l/.

Alveolar ridge

Anatomy phonetics ridge behind teeth: a hard ridge in the mouth immediately behind the roots of the teeth.

Amplitude of vibration

Amplitud de vibración

The maximum displacement of a vibrating particle from its position of rest.

Articulatory phonetics

Fonética articulatoria

The study of the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds.

Assimilation

Asimilación

Change of a sound in speech so that it becomes identical with or similar to a neighbouring sound.

Auditory phonetics

Fonética auditiva

The study of the way people perceive speech sounds.

Back vowel

Vocal posterior

Vowel which is produced in the back of the tongue. Back vowels are

[ ],[ ],[ ],[ ], [ ],[ ],[ ] and [ ].

Bilabial

Bilabial

Consonant pronounced using both lips,by bringing both lips into contact with each other or by rounding them. English bilabials are /p/, /b/ and /m/.

Central vowel

Vocal central

Vowel pronounced in the central position of the tongue. Central vowels are [ ], [ ], [ ] and

[ ].

Close (or high) vowel

Vocal cerrada

A vocal, or sometimes a whispered, sound modified by resonance in the oral passage, the peculiar resonance in each case giving to each several vowel its distinctive character or quality as a sound of speech.Close vowels are [i], [ ], [ ], [ ],

[ ] and [u].

Close-mid vowel

Vocal semicerrada

Vowel situated between close vowels and open-mid vowels. Close-mid vowels are [e], [ ],[ ] and [ ].

Consonant

Consonante

Sound formed by stopping the air flowing through the mouth. The twenty two consonantic phonemes in English are: /p,b,,f,v,t,d,k,g,s,z, , , , ,

,m, n,l,r,h/.

Dental

Dental /

Interdental

Consonant that is formed by placing the tongue against the back of the top front teeth.

Diphtong

Diptongo

Vowels where two vowel qualities can be perceived.

Disyllabic

Bisílaba

A word composed of two syllables.

Elision

Elisión

Language omission of element of word: the omission of a vowel, consonant, or syllable while pronouncing or writing something, sometimes as a natural shortening.

Falling intonation

Entonación descendente

Intonation produced in statements, wh questions, question tags and commands. The intonation falls along the sentence.

Flap

Articulation of consonants consisting of making a single tap be the tongue tip against the alveolar ridge, as in some pronunciations of /r/ or /d/.

Formant (spectrum)

Formante (espectro)

Any of several frequency regions of relatively great intensity in a sound spectrum, which together determine the characteristic quality of a vowel sound.

Frequency

Frecuencia

The number of occurrences within a given time period. Sound frequency is measured in cycles per second.

Frequency range

The point where vowel sounds are at their most distinctive and characteristic pitch.

Fricative

Fricativa

A consonant produced by the forcing of breath through a constricted passage. Also called spirant. In English, fricative consonants are: /f/, /v/, / /, / /, /s/, /z/,

/ / and / /.

Front vowel

Vocal anterior

Vowel produced in the front side of the tongue.

Glottis

Glotis

The opening between the vocal chords at the upper part of the larynx.

Grapheme

Grafema

All of the letters and letter combinations that represent a phoneme.

Hard palate

Paladar duro

The front side of the palate.

Homograph

Homógrafa

One of two or more words that have the same spelling but differ in origin, meaning, and sometimes pronunciation, such as fair (pleasing in appearance) and fair (market).

Homophone

Homófona

One of two or more words, such as night and knight, that are pronounced the same but differ in meaning, origin, and sometimes spelling.

Intensity

Intensidad

The magnitude of sound.

Intonation

Entonación

The use of pitch in speech to create contrast and variation.

Labio-dental

Labio-dental

Consonant

articulated with the lower lip and upper teeth. Labio-dental consonats are /f/ and /v/.

Larynx

Laringe

The expanded upper end of the windpipe or trachea, connected with the hyoid bone or cartilage. It contains the vocal cords, which produce the voice by their vibrations,when they are stretched and a current of air passes between them. The larynx is connected to the pharynx by the glottis.

Lateral

Lateral

Consonant produced by making a partial closure bye the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, in such a way that the air stream is able to flow around the sides of the tongue. The lateral consonant is /l/.

Liaison

Liaison

Pronunciation of the usually silent final consonant of a word when followed by a word beginning with a vowel.

Lip

Labios

Either of two fleshy folds that surround the opening of the mouth.

Minimal pair

Par mínimo

Words differing in just one sound, a pair of words or other linguistic expressions that are the same except for one sound, for example, “bit” and “pit”.

Monophthong (pure vowel)

Vocal pura

Vowel with a single perceived auditory quality, made by a movement of the tongue towards one position in the mouth.

Monosyllabic

Monosílaba

A word which has only a syllable.

Mouth

Boca

The organ considered as the speech language. It consists of lips, teeth, alveolus, palate, velum and tongue.

Nasal

Nasal

Consonant articulated by lowering the soft palate so that air resonates in the nasal cavities and passes out the nose, as in the pronunciation of the consonants /m/, /n/ and

/ /.

Neightbour sounds

Contexto lingüístico

The sounds that are next to a different one.

Nose

Nariz

The organ that cooperates with mouth in breath and pronunciation. It makes possible the pronunciation of nasal consonants.

Occlusion

Oclusión o cierre

Closure at some point in the vocal tract that blocks the flow of air in the production of an oral or nasal stop.

Open (or low) vowel

Vocal abierta

Vowel produced at the front of the mouth, in the lowest point that is theoretically possible for the body of the tongue to reach. They are [a], [ ], [ ] and [ ].

Opening

Apertura

Articulated with the tongue in a low position, as the vowel / / in far.

Open-mid vowel

Vocal semiabierta

Vowel situated between close-mid vowels and open vowels. Open-mid vowels are [ ], [ ],

[ ] and [ ].

Palatal

Palatal

Consonant which is pronuncied by raising the front of the tongue close to the hadrd palate, as in /j/.

Palato-alveolar

Palato-alveolar

Consonant pronuncied by using the blade (and sometimes the tip) of the tongue towardds the roof of the mouth, as in the consonants / /, / /, / / and

/ /.

Phoneme

Fonema

The smallest meaningful sound in a language. The English phonemes are represented in the Phonetic Alphabet.

Phonetic alphabet

System of letters and symbols that are used to represent the individual sounds of a language.

Pharynx

Faringe

The passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collar bone.

Phonetics

Fonética

The study of the sound systems of languages, and of the general properties displayed by these systems. It only studies the contrasts in sound (the phonemes) which make differences of meaning within language.

Phonology

Fonología

The science or doctrine of the elementary sounds uttered by the human voice in speech, including the various distinctions, modifications and combinations of tones.

Plosive

Oclusiva

Of, relating to, or being a speech sound produced by complete closure of the oral passage and subsequent release accompanied by a burst of air, as in the sound /p/ in pit or /d/ in dog.

Polysyllabic

Polisílaba

A word which has more than two syllables.

Post-alveolar

Post-alveolar

Consonant pronuncied by using the tongue tip close to just behind the alveolar ridge, as in /r/.

Rate

Tiempo/

Cantidad

Interval in which sounds are produced.

Received pronunciation

Pronunciación recibida

The way Standard English is spoken; without regional variations. Standard English and RP are widely used in the media and by public figures, so it has prestige status and is regarded by many as the most desirable form of the language.

Retroflex

Sound pronounced using the tongue tip curled back to well behind the alveolar ridge. For some accents, the pronunciation of /r/ is this way.

Rhythm

Ritmo

The pattern of sound that characterizes a language, dialect, or accent.

Rising intonation

Entonación ascendente

Intonation in Yes/No questions and in short pauses, that consists in starting lower and finishing with a louder intonation.

Roll or Trill

Sound made by vibrating vocal organs: a sound or consonant made by two vocal organs vibrating rapidly against each other, for example, the tip of the tongue vibrating against the ridge behind the front teeth.

Segmental phoneme

Fonema segmental

Phoneme that can be isolated, such as vowels, consonants, diphtongs, triphtongs and semivowels.

Semi-vowel

Semivocal

A vocal sound with short duration which slides quickly towards another vowel that is the centre of the syllable.

Soft palate (velum)

Paladar blando (velo del paladar)

The back side of the palate.

Spectrograph

Espectrógrafo

A machine used to measure the frequency of the sounds.

Speech

Habla

The faculty of uttering articulate sounds or words; the faculty of expressing thoughts by words or articulate sounds; the power of speaking.

Standard English

Inglés estándar

The variety of English that is held to be 'correct' in the sense that it shows none of the regional or other variations that are considered by some to be ungrammatical, or non-standard English.

Stress

Acento

Phonetics emphasis on syllable: the emphasis placed on a particular sound or syllable by pronouncing it more loudly or forcefully than those surrounding it in the same word or phrase.

Strong form

Forma fuerte

Form that is used when the word is said in isolation or when is being emphasized.

Suprasegmental phoneme

Fonema suprasegmental

Phoneme that cannot be isolated,such as rhythm, stress and intonation.

Syllable

Sílaba

A unit of spoken language consisting of a single uninterrupted sound formed by a vowel, diphthong, or syllabic consonant alone, or by any of these sounds preceded, followed, or surrounded by one or more consonants./One or more letters or phonetic symbols written or printed to approximate a spoken syllable.

Timbre

Timbre

In auditive phonetics, the characteristic that helps us to recognize the quality of a sound.

Tone

Tono

The quality of a person´s voice

Tongue

Lengua

The movable fleshy organ attached to the bottom of the inside of the mouth of humans and most animals, used for speech.

Transcription

Transcripción

A phonetic representation of speech using special symbols.

Triphthong

Triptongo

Vowels in which three vowel qualities can be perceived.

Uvula

Úvula

A small fleshy V-shaped extension of the soft palate that hangs above the tongue at the entrance to the throat.

Velar

Velar

Consonant spoken with the back of the tongue close to, or in contact with, the soft palate (velum). Velar consonants are /k/, /g/ and / /.

Vocal chords

Cuerdas vocales

Throat membranes that produce sounds: a pair of fibrous sheets of tissue that span the cavity of the voice box (larynx) and produce sounds by vibrating. Muscles tighten the cords, narrowing the gap between them, and as air is expelled from the lungs they vibrate.

Voiced consonant

Consonante sonora

Consonant pronounced with vibration of vocal chords, by passing air across them to create audible vibrations, as the sound /s/ in the word his.

Voiceless consonant

Consonante sorda

Consonant pronounced without vibration of vocal cords, without passing air across the vocal cords and creating audible vibrations, as in the /s/ sound in the word “hiss”.

Vowel

Vocal

Sound articulated with a relatively open configuration of the vocal tract: no part of the mouth is closed, and none of the vocal organs comoe so close together that we can hear the sound of the air passing betwenen them. English vowels are / /, / /, /e/, / /,

/ /, / /, / /,

/ /,/ /, / / and / /.

Weak form

Forma débil

Forms which are normal in connected speech: peripheral vowels are replaced by those of a more central quality, and ome consonants may be elided.