English Grammar

English Language. Grammar. Simple and continuous forms. Reported speech. Modal verbs. Conditionals. Future forms. Perfect forms. Comparative and superlative adjectives

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  • Idioma: inglés
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INGLÉS 1ª EVALUACIÓN

GRAMMAR

1. Simple and continuous forms

2. Use to + infinitivo // be used to + -ing // get used to + -ing // would

1) Used to -> “solía”

Didn´t use to -> “no solía”

Did (sujeto) use to -> “¿solía...?”

Implica que las situaciones ya no se dan.

Nunca puede utilizarse con for y since.

2) Be used to + -ing -> “estar acostubrado a”

Cambia el verbo be, pero used to nunca cambia.

3) Get + used to + -ing: “acostumbrarse”

Cambia el verbo get, pero used to nunca cambia.

Ex:

- Sandra used to live in Madrid (but now she lives in Valencia). Sandra vivía en Madrid (pero ahora vive en Valencia).

- Sandra was used to living in Madrid. Sandra estaba acostumbrada a vivir en Madrid.

4) Would: describe hábitos del pasado.

Es sinónimo de used to y del past simple.

No se suele utilizar.

No se ultiliza para describir estados. Si se quiere describir un estado del pasado se utiliza used to o el past simple.

3. Future forms

1) Will + infinitivo

Uso: - Decisiones que se toman mientras se habla.

- Predicciones.

En la 1ª persona se puede utilizar shall, pero no es frecuente.

2) Going to

Uso: - Intenciones y planes.

- Predicciones evidentes.

3) Present continuous

Uso: - Planes a corto plazo (con preparativos, fecha, hora...)

4) Present simple

Uso: - Hechos para los que se tiene una hora o una fecha.

5) Future continuous (will be + -ing // won´t be + -ing // will (sujeto) be + -ing)

Uso:

- Acciones futuras que se desarrollarán durante un periodo de tiempo, coincidiendo además con otra acción.

Ex: “We can´t come round at seven becouse we´ll be having dinner.”

- Acciones futuras que ya se hayan planificado.

Ex: “This time next week, I´ll be living in Estepona”.

6) Future perfect (will have + -ed/3ªcol // won´t have + -ed/3ª col // Will (suj) have + -ed/3ªcol)

Uso:

- Cosas que se habrán completado en un momento determinado del futuro. Se suele utilizar by para especificar de qué momento futuro estamos hablando.

Ex: “By the time I´m 30, I´ll have travelled around the world”.

“Will you have finished your studies by 2006?”

7) Future time clauses

After (después de) - as (cuando) - as sonn as (en cuanto) - before (antes de) - by the time (para cuando) - until (hasta que) - when (cuando) - while (mientras)

Detrás de ellos no se pueden utilizar will, going to o present continuous. Se suele utilizar present simple o present perfect.

Ex: “I´m going to speak to the manager when we get there”

“He´s taking his practical driving test as soon as he´s passed the theory”

4. Reported speech

1) Reported statements: tense changes

Present simple ----> past simple

Present continuous ----> past continuous

Past simple ----> Past perfect simple

Present perfect simple ----> past perfect simple

Will ----> would

Can ----> could

Must ----> had to

2) Reported statements: other changes

- Los verbos modales (should, could, would, might, ought to,etc) no suelen cambiar.

Ex: Jen might want to go --> She said that Jen might want to go.

- Los pronombres:

I ----> she/he

You (de ti/a ti) ----> me

We ----> They

Our ----> Their

- Expresiones de tiempo y lugar:

Here ----> there

This ----> that

These ----> those

Now ----> then

Next weed ----> the following weed

Today ----> that day

Tonight ----> that night

Tomorrow ----> the following day/the next day

Yesterday ----> the day before/the previous day

Last week ----> the week before / the previous week

3) Reporting verbs.

- Verbos con complemento indirecto. Dar órdenes o hacer peticiones.


Advise (aconsejar)

Ask (pedir)

Beg (rogar)

Invite (invitar)

Order (ordenar)

Remind (recordar)

Tell (decir)

Warn (avisar)

Ex: - Whatever you do, don´t tell your mum what happened! --> He advised me not to tell my mum what had happened.

- Please, don´t tell my mum! --> He begged me not to tell his mum.

- That + sujeto + verbo

Admit (admitir)

Agree (acordar)

Announce (anunciar)

Complain (quejarse)

Declare (declarar)

Explain (explicar)

Insist (insistir)

Predict (predecir)

Promise (prometer)

Recommend (recomendar)

Reply (responder)

Reveal (revelar)

Say (decir)

Suggest (sugerir)

Warn (avisar)

En el registro formal that se puede opitir.

Ex: I promise to write soon --> She promised (that) she would write soon.

You need to be optimistic in this profession --> He explained (to her) (that) she needed to be optimistic in that profession.

- Hay verbos que pueden ir acompañados de otro verbo + -ing, si el sujeto de ambos es el mismo.

Suggest (sugerir)

Recommend (recomendar)

Apologize for (pedir disculpas por)

Ex: She suggested meeting at 7

He apologized for forgetting.

- Con suggest y recommend también se utiliza That + sujeto + should.

Ex: He suggested that we should meet later.

The doctor recommended that I should rest.

-Verbos como agree (acodar, aceptar) y offer (ofrecer) van seguidos por un infinitivo con to.

Ex: He agreed to come.

She offered to help.

4) Reported commands and requests:

El imperativo se utiliza para dar órdenes y hacer peticiones. En estilo indirecto:

sujeto + verbo + cd + infinitivo (con to)

Ex: Tell me the funniest joke you know ---> She told him to tell her the funniest joke he knew.

En negativo se coloca not delate de infinitivo (con to)

Ex: Rember not to tell my mum. ---> He reminded her not to tell his mother.

5) Reported questions:

verbo + sujeto --> sujeto + verbo

Ex: What´s your favourite comedy? she asked --> She asked (me) what my favourite comedy was.

Wh- questions --> wh- question

Ex: Why are you laughing? --> He asked her why she was laughing.

No wh- questions --> se añade if / whether

Ex: Are you feeling optimistic about the future? they asked us --> they asked us if / whether we were feeling optimistic about the future.

5. Modal verbs

- + infinitivo con to

- No -s

- No do/does

- Tienen una única forma.

1) Ability and permission

Can, could, be able to, be allowed to.

(puedo)

Be able to: habilidades.

Be allowed to: pedir permiso.

musn´t: prohibición firme.

2) Posibility and deducción

May, might, can, could, must

(puede que)

can´t: algo imposible

must / can´t: deducciones lógicas.

(debe de)

3) Obligation and necessity

Must, have to, need, should, ought to

Must (have to) = obligación

Needn´t (don´t have to) = no obligación

Ought to, should y shouldn´t = consejos = had better

Had better / had better not. = amenazas también

Have to = must

but Don´t have to NO ES IGUAL A must´n.

Don´t have to = no es necesario.

Must´n = prohibido.

4) Perfect forms of modal verbs

- Must have + -ed/3ªcol: certeza o conclusión lógica del pasado

- Can´t have + -ed/3ªcol: imposible que sucediera en el pasado

- Might/may/could have + -ed/3ªcol: posibilidad en el pasado

- Could have + -ed/3ªcol: podía haber sucedido, pero ahora es imposible que suceda

- Should have + -ed/3ªcol: opinar aunque ahora ya no pueda cambiar

- Shouldn´t have + -ed/3ªcol: arrepentimiento o crítica a cosas pasadas

Adjetivo comparativo
1._SUPERIORIDAD = adj cortos (1sílaba/2en -y): -er than
adj largos(2,3 o 4 silabas):more + adj +than
2._INFERIORIDAD = less + adj +than
3._IGUALDAD = as + adj + as

Adjetivo superlativo
Adj cortos : the -est
Adj largos : the most + adj

1) Too + adj / adv = demasiado

2) (not) + adj / adv /sust + enough = (no) suficiente

Conditionals

If: si

Unlees: a no ser que

Even if: incluso si

As long as: mientras

Providing that: con tal que

0.- Se acepta como cierto/da órdenes = If + present simple...,present simple/imperativo.

If you have a strong compaign, the public listens

1._Real/promesas o advertencias = If + present simple..., will + infinitive
If it rains, I will take the umbrella


2._Probable pero difícil = If + pasado simple..., would + infinitive
If I wan the lottery, I would buy a house


3._Imposible = If + past perfect (had+-ed/3ªcol)..., would have+ part
If I had lived in Italy, I would have spoken a perfect Italian

Wish + past / past perfect / would

1._ Wish + past simple/continuous = se desea que un hecho o situación presente sea diferente.

2._ Wish + would = quejas

3._ Wish / if only + past perfect simple/continuos/could have + past pasado