Arte islámico

Islamic Architecture. Arquitectura musulmana. Religion. Minaret. Hamman

  • Enviado por: Toni Martinez
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 4 páginas
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Islam is a religion based upon to God who is One , al-islam means in Arabic submission and peace .By submitting to God , human beings gain peace .The God of Islam is called Allah . The prophets of this religion where specially Abraham , which is the father of Arabs as well of Jews , and his descendants . The last prophet and messenger of God is Muhammad . The religion originated in Arabia , in the oasis cities of Makkah and Medina . From there it started spreading until it became what it is now , one of the most extended religions in the world .

The Islamic religion consists in what Muhammad called “the five pillars”. Affirmation of faith , which consists on saying out loud , and believing that “There is no divinity but Allah , and Muhammad is his messenger” at least one time in your life; Prayer , which consists on five prayers each day . The first one before the sun rises , the second one at noon , the third between 3 and 5 in the afternoon , the fourth after the sun rises , and the fifth and last before midnight . During the prayers the Muslims look in the direction of al-Haram , the great Mosque of Makka; Charity , which means that the Muslims are obliged to give alms to the poor . At first this was a tax imposed first by Muhammad and after by the government. This money was used to get new followers , to help the community , to pay debts or to pay for the holly war; Fasting , Muslims have to fast during the month of Ramadan . During this month , Muslims can't drink , eat , maintain sexual intercourse , or even have sinful thoughts; Peregrinate to Makka , at least one time in your life to Kaaba , in Makka . Once there you have to go seven times around Kaaba , then walk the 3,827km to Mina and the continue 11,263km to Arafat to listen to a sermon and the walk back to Makka and offer a sacrifice in the memory of Abraham for his intention to sacrifice his own son .

Apart from this five basic point of Islamic religion , other things that aren't permitted are to drink any kind of alcohol or to eat pork meat . The reason for not eating pig is because of the origin of the religion . It originated in Arabia , and the climate there makes eating pork dangerous for the health because it can't be well preserved . Apart from Kaaba , other important places for Muslims are the Mosques , where Muslims do their daily prayers , and the Cathedral Mosques , where the Muslims pray on Fridays .

There are 2 important texts for the Muslims : the Quran , and the al-Shari'ah . The Quran is the equivalent to the Holly Bible for the Christians or Jews . For Muslims , the Quran is the word of God revealed through the archangel Gabriel to the prophet Muhammad during his 23 year period of his prophetic mission . It was revealed in the Arabic language and therefore , Arabic became the official language of Islam even to non-Arab Muslims . There is only one text of the Quran accepted by all schools of Islamic thoughts . It's the central sacred reality of Islam . It is considered as the best guide for the life of a Muslim . Both the intellectual aspects of Islam , and their laws come from the Quran . It places the gaining of knowledge as the highest religious activity , one that is most pleasing to the eyes of God .

The al-Shari'ah is the religious law of Islam in Arabic which governs the life of the Muslims and which they consider to be the Will of God . It is contained inside the Quran . and it's complemented by the Sunnah . These principles which are being followed by the Muslims where developed early in Islamic history. Islamic laws are essentially preventative , and they aren't based on harsh punishments except as a last measure . What makes them obey the rules , is their faith .

Islam spread at a tremendous speed , not only within Arabia , but within half a century of the prophets death , it spread over 3 continents . It is not a religion that forced other people to convert , instead , they respected other religions . They only made wars within Arabia . Being a monotheist and an emphasis upon His mercy made this religion attractive for other people . Today Islam grows not only in Africa , but also in Europe and America .

Faith and Knowledge in Islamic Architecture

The symbolization of palm trees have always had the meaning of communication in the early days of Islam. The top of the palm tree provided a high point from which to call the faithful to group prayer and also had the use of a watch tower to give early warnings of any infidels attacks. The top part of the telecommunication tower consisted of a feather like leaves, the part below shows the dates, also called bunches. The trunk has a wider base. These have their own identity and are descriptive divisions.

The photograph below represents faith and knowledge. The Muslims sees the book as a metaphor comparing it to a lung were human mind breathes. The shape of the book represents the design of the entrance to University. They represent knowledge and faith. We can appreciate some verses from the Holy Qur'an based on faith and knowledge are written on the cover of each book. (king Saud University Entrance Gate: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Education is based on the Islamic thought. All the knowledge in the heavenly world is timeless. The intellect is all and it's essence comprehends the intellect. Boundless Mind was the inspiration chosen to design this monument below using a combination of two form: An open book and the open arch.

Most essential tenet of Islam that the soul be purified at least five times in one day by the prayers so they strengthen their commitment to God and to refresh their ambition in their quest for truth. Cleanliness and hygiene are vital quests for maintaining good health. The Muslims care a lot of bathing facilities `Hamman' for washing and doing the ablutions of prayers even if they aren't in their country.

In the development of the Mosque, you can find how two patterns are established. A pentagonal form in the excitor apparatus is the first pattern. The second derives drom the idea of the Qur'an in book form. Each side represents an open book with a circular binding displaying one of the five Suras, each one has calligraphic feature on the external façade. In one of the books you can see placed the minaret.

Bookstand Fountain has a historic analogy design which is similar to the one in the Qur'an stand in the foreground of the Khanum Mosque in Smarkand, built in 1399-1404. You can see three concentric octagonal stars which form the setting for an open book constructed of three stone blocks. Water flow over the pages while it emerges over the binding.

You can see the Fantacy Palace of Thousand and One Nights. The door leads the visitors to the museum of fine Arts and Crafts and to a mysterious world of fantasy and fairy tales. The museum represents a glorious artistic site, the landmark of the ultimate park. This palace will have the honor of housing the `world of music and song'.

Floating Island designated as the `Lost Land'. Way above the island you can see the center post. To hold the tent-like structure that covers the top plaza of the island they have eight posts which are designed in a minaret-type structure.

Decoration in Islamic Architecture

Mayor unifying factor in Islamic architecture and design. Decoration has linked buildings and objects from all over the Islamic world. It's an art which represents more the decorative forms than the themes than the form, independently of material, scale and technique. Each building and object embodies to some extent identical principles which makes the art be considered in entirely. The same ideas, forms and designs are used in art and in objects but differ in it's execution. The fluidity of space by the nature of their decoration is represented in their floors and ceilings. They are often patterned in the same manner as the walls and sometimes the decoration actually reproduces carpets, specially talking about floors.

Islamic design may be restricted by two dimensions but that very character of Islamic design implies three-dimensional possibilities. The use of reflecting shining materials and glazes, repetition of designs, contrasting of textures and manipulation of planes makes the Islamic decoration complex and intricate. Their art is an art of repose where tensions are resolved. Water and light generate additional layers of patterns and they transform space, that's why it's and important resource for it's art. It exists an intimate connection in Islamic architecture between space and decoration.

Primacy of the world Islam is reflected in the virtually universal application of calligraphy. Writing is almost present in all kind of objects like: wall surfaces, mosque furniture, interiors and exteriors of mosques, tombs, and in alKa'ba, it's most famous sanctuary. Script also represents power like in other faiths. The writing of the divine message of the Qur'an, endowed it with extraordinary strength and transcendent significance.