Deporte, Educación Física, Juegos y Animación
The history of volleyball
The game invented it in 1895, like a pastime, the American William G. Morgan, director of physical education of the Christian Association of Young people of Holyoke, in Massachusetts. Its game, that originally was called mintonette, was made popular quickly not only in the United States but anywhere in the world. One gambled for the first time in 1913 in the Games of the Distant East, celebrated in Manila, the Philippines. The Federation the International of Voleibol (FIVB) formed in 1947. The first championships of the world were celebrated in 1949, with a regularity of four years from 1952. In the masculine competition they have dominated to the old Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and previous Czechoslovakia. In the feminine competition, the old USSR, Japan and China have achieved the greater successes. It was including in the Pan-American Games in 1955 and has been in the Olympic Games from 1964. The championships of Europe (instituted in 1948 for men and 1949 for women), been have dominated almost exclusively by the equipment of the previous USSR (as much in men as in women). There is a Glass of the World that is celebrated every four years from 1965 for men and 1973 for women. Also there is World-wide Liga that was celebrated for the first time in 1990 and they compose at the present time ten countries. In 1993 a Grand feminine Prix made up of the equipment of the eight better classified countries of the world was introduced.
Track and Equipment
The volleyball track has a surface of 9.14 by 18.29 m.s is divided in two sides of 9.14 separated ms by one more a network higher than the head of the players. The rules to play in an inner enclosure recommend that there are at least 8 ms of height without no obstacle in all the track. The network has 9.75 ms of length by 0.91 ms of wide and is made with black twine thread or brown dark forming a mesh of squares of 10.2 cm of side that stays through the tense and tense track it holds by his four corners. The height of the superior edge of the network is of 2.44 ms for the men, 2.29 ms for the women and 2.13 ms or less for the children. A line of 5.1 cm in width extends through each one of the two areas of game, from a side to the other, it compares to the line of center or network, and to a distance of 3.05 ms of the same one. The ball is a sphere of an inflated leather material covered. Smaller and light than the one of basketball (básquetbol), it has a circumference between 63.5 and 68, 6 cm and weight between 255 and 283 grams.
The six players of a volleyball equipment understand three attackers, who are near the network, and three defenders. The player who begins serving locates behind the right third of the back line of his field and serves over the network the opposite field, sending the ball to the air and striking it with his hand or wrist. In the service an attempt is only allowed. Striking the ball back and ahead over the network, with the hands, wrists, forearms, head, or any part of the body over the waist, the game continues until an equipment fails, that is to say, does not give back the ball or commits a violation of the rules. The ball must be given back by one of the equipment over the network after a maximum of three I touch and no twice successive player can strike the ball. The return on the network must become without taking hold, pushing or to hold the ball, without no player touches the network and without entering the space of the rival equipment. The equipment only can write down a point that is serving; a player has the service while its equipment writes down points; in opposite case, the privilege to serve changes to the other equipment. In a change of serve all the members of the equipment that is called on to serve to him rotate a position moving in favor of the needles of the clock, happening the player who was in the right front position to the right back part or position on watch. The first equipment that writes down fifteen points gains the Seth, whenever the difference is of at least two points. A volleyball party gambles the best one of five sets. If there is tie to fourteen points, it is continued playing until an equipment removes two points from advantage. The parties are controlled by a main referee, an assistant, a timekeeper, a anotador and lines men.
A vital play in volleyball is kills, powerful smash on the network. In order to carry out a player kills must jump high in the air and to downwards strike with force the ball to the track of the rival, in a site where the return is virtually impossible. The players of back (defending) can carry out you kill only from behind the line of 3.05 ms.
An affluent ball located, high and near the network, so that a companion carries out kills, is a positioning. Leaving is a ball that goes to the track opposed after to be struck of slight form; normally it uses the colocador to surprise the players of the opposite equipment who try to anticipate themselves to block kills. The recoveries of balls are allowed that they give in the network, that is to say, a ball that has touched the network in the first one or second touches can continue in game, whenever it does not exhaust the three I touch and that no consecutive player strikes the ball twice.
A ball that strikes the network near the superior edge usually falls vertically towards the ground, but one that strikes in the part of down normally leaves impelled backwards and it is possible to be recovered. Defensively the blockades are used, that can be individual or multiple. In this play, one or several players of the advantage jumps near the network with the arms and the hands located as opposed to the possible one kill of the attacker, and try to block the ball or to turn aside it towards a companion who can give back it.
A series of abilities contributes to the success of the equipment, in special a precise service to a weak point of the opposite side either conducted with force and imprimiendo speed to him, or slow and with effect, causing that is swinged in the air of uncertain form. Also the control when receiving is important a service, recepcionando it kills or placing the ball in the precise place so that a companion gives back it track to the opposite. The work of equipment in volleyball is developed by a good mutual understanding between the players, intuiting each one what they are going to do the others and practicing several types of plays.
The net: it measures 1 meter of wide and the high is variable: 2, 43 m for man and 2, 24 m for woman. The size for children is also different:
The ball: is spherical and flexible. About 65-66 cm of circumference, and 260-280 gr of weigh.
The matches: they re disputed in five series. Like in tennis, five sets. When one of the teams has three sets, it wins. A team wins a set when it reaches the 25points, but it has to have two points of advantage. If it's needed another time for the play-off, it is play only until 15 points. The duration of the match is very variable; it can be from 1 hour to 2 hours and a half.
Rests: Each team can ask for two rests of 30 seconds each. In official competitions, there are also other two of 60 seconds. During those periods, the players that are on play talk with their coach, and the others have a short warm-up on the court.
Arbitration: it is composed by a first and a second arbiter, 2 or 4 linemen, and an annotator. The first arbiter is the one that ha all the power of decision.
Teams: each team play with 6 players that can be replaceable. Three of the players are on the front, to attack, and the other three behind to defend. The whole team can be of a maximum of 12 players, the coach, a second coach, a doctor and a masseur. One of the players is the captain. Another, the sweeper; that has to wear a different uniform that the others.
Rotations: When a team scores a point he's the one that serves the new game. When the serve is wrenched, the six players must rotate on the same sense of the clock. So, each player will play during all the game in all the positions.
The sweeper: He's a defensive player that substitutes any player that, in the rotation, is situated in any of the defensives positions.
Overhead pass: The overhead pass is any pass contacted above the players head. The best known overhead pass is the set, which is usually the second contact made in setting up an attack. The players should stand with their feet shoulder width apart, the right foot slightly in front of the left. The knees are bent slightly and the weight is on the balls of the feet. The players should raise and cup their hands above the forehead, waiting for the ball. The wrists are cocked back and the fingers are spread and relaxed, four to eight inches from the forehead, as if holding a volleyball. Contact the ball in the middle of the forehead, the pads of the fingers, not the palm, should contact the ball. Whenever possible the player should square their shoulders to the target. As contact is made, the player extends the arms and legs up.
Forearmpass: The forearm pass is for receiving serves and spikes, for digging balls that are no more than waist high, and for playing any ball that has gone into the net. There is no swing of the arm to the ball but rather the player allows the ball to come to their arm.
The forearm pass begins with a good ready position. Have your players stand with their feet shoulder width apart, toes turned in slightly, and the right foot just slightly ahead of the left. As they bend at the waist and flex the knees, their weight should shift slightly forward onto the balls of their feet. They should keep their heads up and follow the ball while keeping their knees bent and their weight over the balls of their feet. The palms and thumbs of the hands should be facing close together and pointed towards the floor. The arms are extended away from the body in about a 45 degree angle. Prior to contact flex the legs. After contact, the arms follow through and direct the ball to the target.
Underhand: The underhand serve allows beginning players to put the ball in play. It is easier to master control than the overhead serve because it doesn't involve a toss.
The player should start with their weight on the back foot and the ball held in front of the toe by the non hitting hand. The eyes should be focused on the ball until contact made with the heel of the hand. Transfer weight from the back to the front foot as the arm swings to contact the ball. Follow through with the hitting arm toward the top of the net. The hitting arm and back leg should be in line with the follow through.
Overhand: The overhead serve is more challenging for beginning players because it requires being able to toss consistently. The toss is the key to successful overhead serving. A ball tossed to high, to low, too far in front, or to far in back will cause the server to chase the toss and move out of alignment. The ball should always be in front of the hitting shoulder. Have players focus on the toss until it becomes consistent on each repetition.
The player should point their body at the target area and keep their weight on the back opposite leg from the ball. The elbow of the hitting arm should be at about ear level and away from the head. The toss should be 12 to 18 inches above the extended tossing hand and in front of the hitting shoulder. Weight should move forward as the shoulders and hips come through and the player prepares to contact the ball. The heel of the hand should contact the ball with the arm fully extended and the wrist stiff. The hitting arm should swing fast. The hitting arm should follow behind the hitting leg and not cross in front of the body after making contact.
Spike: The spike - sending the ball forward and downward over the net by striking it overhead with an open hand - is a player's most powerful offensive weapon.
If you can't jump high enough to hit the ball when it's above the height of the net, you should spike farther away from the net whenever possible. You want to hit the ball forward and down as much as you can, not straight up so the opposing players have plenty of time to react to it. If you're tall and/or a good jumper, make contact as close to the net as you can (without reaching over it, which is illegal). If there are no blockers in the way, pummel it straight down.
|Enviado por:||Jon Pereda|