Turismo, Hostelería, Gastronomía y Restauración
The roman history is the history of the occidental civic. There are four stages:
Monarchy (7th century to 509 BC)
Republic (509 to 27 BC)
Empire (27 to 395 AC)
Low empire (395 to 476 AC)
Ancient Romans believed their city had been founded on 21 April 753 BC. According to myth, the city was founded by the twin sons of Mars, god of war, and Rhea Silvia, princess and vestal virgin. The twins, Romulus and Remus, were abandoned on the shores of the Tiber and brought up by a she-wolf. Romulus killed his brother in a battle, then established the city of Rome on the Palatino.
The nonmythical city was ruled by Etruscan kings until 510 BC, when it became a republic. By the 2nd century BC the city controlled central and southern Italy, had defeated the rival empire of Carthage in three Punic wars and was poised to take over the Mediterranean.
The Republic ended and the emperors took over, building a lot of civic and monumental building. Each emperor wanted to leave his mark on the city - Nero built the Domus Aurea, Vespasian the Colosseum, Trajan his eponymous column, Hadrian Castel Sant'Angelo. They sprinkled Rome with many of the famous buildings that still stand today. The Empire reached its extent under Trajan (form 98 - 117 AD), spanning the area from northern England to Mesopotamia, north to the River Danube and south down the Nile.
With the rise of Christianity in the 4th century, Rome lost much of its power but became the centre of a new empire, Christendom. The Bishop of Rome was named Pope. Many of the city's large basilicas - such as, Santa Maria Maggiore, San Pietro and San Sebastiano - were built around this time.
When, in 410 AD, the Barbarian invasions began. The Western Roman Empire bit the dust in 476 AD when Odoacer deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus - from this time on power moved east, and Germanic and Byzantine leaders. The alliance became known as the Holy Roman Empire - combining the power of church and state - and on Christmas Day 800 AD the Frankish king, Charlemagne, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. From the 9th to the 12th centuries the power of the popes grew. The papacy got its wealth on several new churches dedicated to the Virgin.
In the 14th century, when the pope was exiled to Avingnon (France), the city's population and infrastructure took a plummet, the papacy had reestablished its firm on the reigns by the 15th century. The papacy transformed Rome into a wonderland of Renaissance and Baroque piazzas, churches and fountains. The only real interruption to papal power came in the form of the Roman Commune, whose republican constitution and classical-style senate were instituted during the Roman revolution of 1143.
In 1870 Rome became capital of the newly united Italy, leaving the pope with mere figurehead status and causing him to abandon the city (the pope was made sovereign of Vatican City in 1929). The new administration was more interested in offices and houses than churches.
During Mussolini's rule, in the 1920s and '30s, Rome took on Fascist airs, Mussolini to form an alliance with Germany during WWII. The postwar years saw Rome's physical expansion and a role as the centre of Italy's film industry until the early 1960s.
The 1970s and '80s were marked by more violent transformations by some radical student groups (Red Brigade) was the most notorious group. The last few decades of the 20th century saw a mixture of economic success.
Rome-style politics remain complicated in the new century, with a government that threatens to be unified and focused on economic reform trying to stave off a resurgence of support for Silvio Berlusconi because in 1994 there were right-wing elections where the public reacted perverse indignation and he was deposed of the goverment. In 2000, Silvio Berlusconi, was chosen first minister of the goverment
City and capital of Italy located next to the river Tiber, in the central part of the country near the sea Tirreno. The City of the Vatican, located in its biggest part inside Rome, is the headquarters of the papacy of the Catholic Church, grateful as independent state for the Italian government in the year 1929 for the Pacts of Letrán. The majestic dome of San Pedro's basilica, in the City of the Vatican, stands out on the horizon of the city. Rome has been the capital of the Italy unified from 1871.
Rome is a city of three million of habitants that occupies an extension of 1500 km2 in the centre of Italy. It is almost in the same latitude that Barcelona, in southern Europe. It has two airports, besides it is connected to Europe for railroad, it is in the centre of the main net of highways of Italy, some tracts of which follow the ancient Romans highways.
Certainly the most famous and spectacular fountain in Rome. The fountain is the terminal part of the Vergine aqueduct built by Agrippa, a general of Augustus, in 19 B.C. to bring the water coming from the Salone springs, 19 km away, to Rome.
Designed by Nicola Salvi and finished in the 18th century, the Fontana di Trevi, in Rome, it is example of Baroque architecture. The statues of gods and horses decorate this source and the two newts of Neptune, Roman god of the sea, they seem to drive their winged car for the water. According to the tradition, to toss three currencies to the water, it guarantees the return to Rome.
The Colosseo (Colosseum) was started by Vespasian in 72 AD in the grounds of the family name of Vespasian, it was inaugurated by his son Titus in 80 AD. The massive structure could seat more than 50,000 (the 4th century figure of 87,000 is disputed), and the bloody gladiator combat and wild beast shows held there. The Colosseum had more than 80 principals doors. Inside the Colosseum were celebrated gladiators and fierce animals fights
“Ave César, morituri te salutan”. This sentence was said when the gladiators went to fight
The splendid games held at the inauguration of the Colosseo lasted for 100 days and nights, during which some 5,000 animals were slaughtered. Trajan once held games which lasted for 117 days, during which some 9,000 gladiators fought to the death.
With the fall of the Empire, the Colosseo was abandoned and gradually became overgrown. Exotic plants grew there for centuries; seeds bad in advertently been transported from Africa and Asia with the wild beasts that appeared in the arena (including crocodiles, bears, lions, tigers, elephants, rhinos, hippos, camels and giraffes).
In the Middle Ages the Colosseo became a fortress, occupied by two of the city's warrior families: the Frangipani and the Annibaldi. Its reputation as a symbol of Rome.
Damaged several times by earthquake, it was later used as a quarry for travertine and marble for the Palazzo Venezia and other buildings. Pollution and the vibrations caused by traffic and the Metro have also taken their toll. Restoration works have periodically been carried out, the latest starting in 1992. Current estimates have a restored Colosseo being unveiled by 2004.
SQUARE OF S. PEDRO, CITY OF THE VATICAN
City of the Vatican, world center of the Catholic Church, is an independent state inside the city of Rome. Many of their buildings were designed and decorated by some of the best artists in the moment. Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed in 1667 the great square that frames the entrance to the Basilica inside a dynamic oval space formed by two semicircular colonnades.
Constantine built the basilica in the 4th century. In 1503, after centuries of attemps of restoration, Pope Julius 2 decided to destroy and rebuilt the new St. Peter´s, following the plans of Donato Bramante. The architect put up four pillars which were used to support Michelangelo´s great dome. Michelangelo planned the dome taking inspiration from those of the Panteon.The Sistina Chapel occupies the upper flloor of a fortified centre in the Apostolic Palaces. From the beginning, the room dedicated to the Assumption was the pontifical chapel. The restoration works promoted by Sixtus IV gave it a precious mosaic floor and marble transennas. The two cycles of the Old and New Testaments, frescoed between 1481 and 1483,by Botticelli, Rosselli, by Ghirlandaio and students began with scenes, later destroyed, of the finding of Moses and the Nativity of Christ completed by Perugino on the wall behind the altar where the Michelangelo The last judgment is now.
ARCH OF CONSTANTINO
Constantino's arch (312-315) of Rome it was built to commemorate Constantino's victory becoming this way the first absolute king of the Roman Empire. The triple arch has four exempt columns and a complex sculptural decoration.
The Forum of the old Rome was a section open of the city originally for public assemblies. With posteriority, temples and trade were built in it, and finally it became government's headquarters. In the forum one can observe the arch of Severe Septimio and the temple of the Concord
THE VAULT OF AGRIPA (Pantheon)
Adriano took charge the vault of Agripa, in Rome (118-128), considered as one of the most important buildings in the world. In the past it had a room hipóstila before the piazza. The dome of the round, after the piazza, has a diameter of 43 meters. It is holed in their center by a óculo (circular opening) of 8,5 m of diameter that constitutes the only source of light of the interior of the building.
CANOPE OF THE VILLAGE ADRIANA IN TÍVOLI
The village Adriana in Tívoli, built between the 118 and the 134, it never constitutes the biggest Roman village built. It was surrounded by a great garden with a pond, denominated Canope in honour to the channel that Alexandria connected with the Egyptian city of Canope. Classic columns and arches with copies of Greek sculpture surrounded the pond.
The portrait sculptural Roman composes one of the big chapters in the history of the old art. The conserved portraits have different size, from very small busts to enormous statues like that of Constantine (c. 315 D.C. -330 D.C.), located in their basilica of the Roman forum.
In all the parts of the empire they have been Roman mosaics.
Often the Roman roofs were coloured or recovered of mosaics.
How can you get from Spain to Rome:
From Spain to Rome there aren't direct trains, but you can go to Milan and there, you can change your train to Rome. From Madrid to Rome it takes with the change of train 21 hours and from Barcelona 16 hours. But if you want to go there by car are more or less 2000-km from Madrid, you must pay in France and Italy's motorways about 120 Euro of toll. You can arrive by plane from Spain. From Madrid it takes one hour and forty minutes to Fiumicino airport. From Barcelona itinerary takes one hour and twenty minutes to Fiumicino. From Fiumicino you get to the city by car, by taxi, by train and by bus.
The main sites to visit in Rome are all situated within a fairly walking distance in the city centre (Piazza Venezia). You also have the choice of using the public transportation that is constantly touring around the city, which is quite easy to take whenever you need and especially created for tourists.
Rome has also the Metro composed of two lines: Line A, that is ideal if you want to go to Piazza Spagna and the line B is ideal if you want to go to the Colosseo (Coliseum). These two lines meet at Termini, Rome's main railways station. Tickets are sold in the Tabaccherie, you can also find the machines in the entrance of the Metro stations, but you have to be able to pay with exact change or else the ticket can't be bought.
The main airport is Leonardo da Vinci, also known as Fiumicino. The other airport is Ciampino, but this is to flight domestic.
There are regular train connections to all the major cities in Italy and Europe from Termini station. Trains are comfortable and fast.
Buses run from Termini to a lot of cities of Italy. You can pick up a bus for towns in Lazio from various bus stops in the city: these buses run on the same tickets as city buses.
One of the most convenient ways to get into town is by the Stazione Termini direct train, which usually runs hourly from the airport. If you're driving, motorway runs from the airport to the city, that it's a 45-minute drive and will cost you a small fortune by taxi.
The city Bus Company is ATAC, and most of the main buses terminate at the bus station outside Stazione Termini (where you can get a map of the bus routes). Buses run from around 6am to midnight, with some services running during the night. A bus ticket is also valid for the city's Metro and train services.
Driving in Rome is the next best thing to suicide especially on a motorbike. Most of the historic centre of Rome is closed to normal traffic, although you will be allowed to drive to your hotel. For rent a car you'll need to be at least 21 years old.
During Holy Week, Catholics from around the world make pilmigrages to Rome's various basilicas and to hear the Pope. On Good Friday there is a procession of the cross from the Colosseum to Capitoline Hill head by the Pope.
Testaccio is the place to be in summer. There is a festival of nightclubbery that goes down every evening from 10 p.m. Other summer festivals include jazz at the villa Celimontana and tropical music at the Foro Italico. Along the river is held on the north bank of the Tiber during July, Rome turns into Los Angeles with beach volleyball, in-line skating, and art shows. Trastevere is filled with street theatre, craft stalls and food booths during the Festa di Noantri (20-28 July).
Enjoys favourable climatic conditions because of its geographic location on the Mediterranean Sea, which carries with it all the advantages of the maritime climate. The sky is generally clear, fog is uncommon, the temperature is mild, and the moderate winds often have a positive influence on the temperature. The pluviometric regime is typically Mediterranean. Rainfalls are concentrated in the fall and winter seasons, reaching a minimum in summer. Normally, the temperature is moderate but sometimes the minimum temperature is below 0 C and the maximum temperature is 36 C. Snowfall is uncommon, but, when it does occur, the blanket of snow usually not is longer than some days. The effect of the wind is particularly favourable in spring and summer. In these seasons, the well-known “ponentino” (the local name of the sea breeze) rising in the early afternoon, has a function of thermoregulation and can be considered an important environmental resource. Rome is hot, dry summer days, with temperatures often above 24 C, are frequently cooled in the afternoons by the ponentino. Spring and autumn are the rainiest seasons. Climate Rome's weather is at it's best in spring and Autumn, and fortunately both these seasons are long. In winter the weather is fairly cold (although it rarely goes below freezing), with periods of mild sunny days. In summer, particularly in July and August, Rome can get very hot. Although by sunset, most evenings, there is a cool sea breeze (Ponentino). In spring and fall, however, Rome is a joy. It's days are soft and balmy. The nights are cold and it's rain too.
The European Community permits to import free of duty of taxed goods the following: 400 cigarettes or cigars or 500 grams of tobacco, 2 litres of wine or 1 litre of spirits. The other duty-free goods taxed outside the European Community are: 300 cigarettes or 150 cigarillos or 75 cigars, 5 litres of wine, 1.5 litres of spirits and 75 millilitres of perfume. It is permitted to carry free of duty 2 photo cameras and 1 video camera, then a maximum amount of 2 million Liras can be imported or exported. It is not permitted to import, export or carry spare fuel.
Foreigners are expected to tip, although Italians themselves don't always do it. Leave a few coins in bars or cafes; in restaurants if you think that the service has been good, it's normally to leave around 10 percent of the bill. Keep coins handy for taxi drivers, sacristans, chambermaids, doormen and porters.
Public toilets are few and it's cost 0.75 Euro. There are clean ones by the Coliseum (with facilities for the disabled), at St Peter's. Most cafes let you use theirs if you ask, but you have to take your own paper.
Metro lines are becoming more and more popular for the gypsy children who snatch bags from passengers boarding at stops and are indirectly aided by the electric doors that close behind you. Tourists' areas are other favourites for pickpockets.
Rome for disabled:
The Vatican Museums, Sistine Chapel and St.Peter's are all accessible by wheelchair. The Vatican Museums recently received an EC award for get better accessibility for the disabled, and offer staff help if needed.
Typically Roman food:
Typical dishes Eating in Rome is really exciting; no other city has so many restaurants, inns and hostelries. In spring, further Rome's suburbs, one can find restaurants with tables in the open air, under the trees, where the "pinzimonio" which is a very simple but delicious dish, it consists of celery dipped into a dressing of oil, salt and pepper. This starter delights any Roman, especially when it is followed by other important dishes, such as lamb chops, salads, authentic cheese and some good wine of the Roman Castles. Roman cuisine bears its secret in the Latium's countryside: around Rome there is an area which is of volcanic origin and is full of mineral deposits that one can taste in its products. For example, the roman vegetables are the most scented, just smell some celery, peas, or salad.
In this landscape, sheep meat has a very important role, it brings to our tables dishes such as "abbacchio" which is the most famous sheep meat dish of roman cuisine.
So, another main character is pork: "pancetta", a kind of bacon.
“Porchetta”, pork cleaned of boned and roasted and dressed with aromatic herbs.
The mos typical vegetable dish is the “Carciofi alla Romana”, are artichokes filled with bread, parsley, anchovies, salt and peppers. Another dish is fried artichokes “alla giudia”, that consist of a very easy fried dish.
“Colli Albani”, is one of the roman castles´ wines . It is a dry wine with a light taste, a bit aromatic and it serves in all specialties of roman cuisine.
“Frascati”, it has a light yellow colour, fruity, perfume and fresh taste. A wine of very old origin and it should be drunk young and is perfect for a meal, normally used for typical dishes.
“Marino”, it has a yellow colour and fruit-perfumed, its taste is dry and has something from golden-type apples and apricots.
“Aleatico”, it is a bright red coloured wine for dessert, very aromatic and fruity.
“Aprilia Merlot and Aprilia Sangiovese”, are two red wines. The first it has a red colour and dry and harmonious taste. The second it has a rosy colour and dry and strong taste. Both are meal wines.
“Cesanese del Piglio, Cesanese di Affile and Cesanese di Olevano Romano”, are three red wines and they are dry-taste for meal or slightly sweet for desserts..