Industria y Materiales
It's called around a set of machine tools that enable the machining of geometric shape of revolution. These machines operate by rotating the tool workpiece (subject in the head or fixed between chale points), while one or more cutting tools are pushed into a regulated movement forward on the surface of the piece.
Just two lines of work, often called Z and X. The cutting tool is mounted on a carriage that moves along rails or tracks parallel to the axis of rotation of the piece lathes, called the Z axis, on this car is one that moves along the X axis in radial direction the piece lathes, and may have a third car called Charriot that can be tilted to make cones, and which supports the turret tool holder. When the main carriage moves the tool along the axis of rotation, causes the displacement of the piece, and when the cross slide moves perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the piece is performed the operation known as capping.
TYPES OF LATHE
Currently used in machining industries the following types of winches that depend on the number of workpieces per series, the complexity of the pieces and the size of the pieces.
The mechanical lathe or lathe is the kind that evolved from ancient lathes when you were adding new teams that make it one of the most important machine tools that have existed. However, now is used only for minor tasks, for use in the workshops of learners and maintenance workshops for specific jobs or special.
It is called copying around a type of lathe operating with hydraulic and electronic device allows the turning of parts according to the characteristics of the same following the outline of a pattern that reproduces the profile of the piece.
It is used for parts that have previously been forged or cast. They are also used in woodworking and artistic marble to shape beautifying columns.
The turn around is designed around a variety of parts for machining possible on the simultaneous work of several tools in order to reduce the total machining time. The parts with this condition are those that use bar, have a final form of cap or similar.
It is called a type automatic lathe lathe in which work is entirely automated. The bar food required for each piece is also made automatically from a long bar that is inserted through a tube with the head and held in place by hydraulic collet.
The vertical lathe is a lathe range designed for machining large components, which are held in the grip plate or other operators and that their size or weight would make it difficult fixation on a horizontal lathe.
The lathe CNC lathe is a type operated by computer numerical control. It is characterized as a very effective machine to machine tool assemblies.
Below I will explain the parts containing the lathe.
- The Bed
- Fixed Head
- largest banking Cart
- transverse shuttle
- Shopping upper tool holder
F- Porta tools
G- box transverse motion
H- GM feed
I- screw thread or pattern
J- bar cylinder
K- Progress bar
L- Head MobileM-plate clamp (spindle)
N- levers rotating command
O- Counter Point
Z- Support legs
The main function of a lathe is to provide a means for rotating a workpiece against a cutting tool and, thus starting metal.
A stand for the accessories around the room. One way to hold and rotate the piece. One way to hold and move the cutting tool.
It is a heavy casting is made to withstand the working parts of the lathe. Many winches are made from forged temperate guides and ground to reduce wear and maintain accuracy. The base serves as a support for other units around. The upper part has guides for moving the capstan, or counterpoint and leading truck.
It is subject to the left side of the bed. The spindle head, a hollow cylindrical shaft supported by bearings, provides motor drive devices to hold the piece.
The most modern lathes are equipped with gears and spindle driven by a number of them who are in the head. This provision allows for various spindle speeds to suit different types and sizes of the piece.
BOX QUICK CHANGE GEARS
This box, which contains several gears of different sizes, makes it possible to give the bar feeder and the main screw feed speeds for various turning operations and tapping.
Supports cutting tool and is used to move along the bench in the operations of tornado. The car has three main parts: the seat, the lever apron and cross slide.
The seat, one-piece H-shaped cast that is mounted on top of guides around, supports the cross slide. The combined support (or adjustable) is used to hold the cutting tool and can be rotated to form any horizontal angle for taper turning operations. The cross slide and support are combined through safety screws move forward. Each graduate has a drum in order to make accurate adjustments of the cutting tools.
It consists of two units. The top half can be adjusted based on by two screws to align the points of the moving head and fixed head when you are performing turning cylindrical. They can also use these screws to decentralize the capstan in order to make turning cylindrical dots. The tailstock can be set at any position along the bench if you press the lever or nut.
In the spindle of this head may also hold other standard taper shank tools such as drills and reamers. It employs a spindle clamping lever or squeeze handle to keep the spindle out of the casting which is movable head and can also be used for manual feed in drilling and reaming operations.
The mobile head against head is resting on the bench and guides can be moved manually or along them by the length of the workpiece, carried the desired point is blocked. His position with the lever (T6). By the steering wheel (T1) can move forward or backward the counter point (T5) on the body of anti head (T3), the shift can be blocked by preventing the back with the lever (T2). In this head against the base (T4) and body (T3) are separate pieces attached to one another by screws, which can be loosened and allow some transverse displacement of the body with respect to the base, eta operation can be done to mechanize cones small angle of inclination.
The counter point is the element that is used to support and serve to place the pieces are turned between centers and other elements such as chuck or drill to make holes in the center of the axes. This item can move against and fixed at various positions over the bench.
M-O SWIVEL HEAD CHUCK
Its function is to hold the piece to be machined, various types as independent 4 jaw chuck or universal empelaron mostly in the garage, just as there are six magnetic chuck jaws.
COLLABORATION TOOLS TROLLEY
It consists of the leading truck, which produces the forward movement and depth of cut, the cross slide, which slides transversely on the leading truck, and adjustable upper carriage, formed up of three parts: the base, and Charriot chuck. The base is supported on a rotating platform to be oriented in any direction.
In the picture you can see in detail the car of a lathe, the leading truck (4) is supported on the guide rails of the bed and moved lengthwise by them, in the front is the box mechanisms (5) the wheel (5a) can move left or right hand, the shipment of threading (5b) has two positions in neutral or in gear in this position the carriage moves longitudinally at constant speed by the screw thread. Clutch cylinder (5c) cylinder has three positions, neutral and facing, the speed of progress will be determined by the screw cylinder. In this control panel can be connected either automatically, but you can not modify or forward speed or the direction of movement will have to look at the feed box and transmitted to the car by tapping screw or cylinder as appropriate. The cross slide (3) is mounted and adjusted in the dovetail on the cart can move longitudinally and transversely by hand with the handle (3b) or automatic facing. On the cross slide is the car orientable (2) this truck can roll over any angle marked on the scale (2b) by the handle (2nd) this car can move forward or backward on the car orientable, there is the turret tool holder (1) where the blade is mounted.
The car is longitudinal displacement which is the bed, this vehicle gives us the movement through a mesh with zip and a worm has a machine which is operated by Colisa bar, this machine is used to do the tapping operation. The steering wheel has a graduation to measure the depth that gives courts.
This car has a transversal movement that owes its name, is a graduate crank, the car has automatic and is mounted on the auxiliary carriage
The auxiliary is the car which is responsible for the carving of varying the cone angle of it.