In political philosophy, an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each. In primeval times, according to the theory, individuals were born into an anarchic state of nature, which was happy or unhappy according to the particular version. They then, by exercising natural reason, formed a society (and a government) by means of a contract among themselves.
Although similar ideas can be traced back to the Greek Sophists, social-contract theories had their greatest currency in the 17th and 18th centuries and are associated with such names as the Englishmen Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the Frenchman Jean-Jacques Rousseau. What distinguished these theories of political obligation from other doctrines of the period was their attempt to justify political authority on grounds of individual self-interest and rational consent. They attempted to demonstrate the value and purposes of organized government by comparing the advantages of civil society with the disadvantages of the state of nature, a hypothetical condition characterized by a complete absence of governmental authority. The purpose of this comparison was to show why and under what conditions government is useful and ought therefore to be accepted by all reasonable people as a voluntary obligation. These conclusions were then reduced to the form of a social contract, from which it was supposed that all the essential rights and duties of citizens could be logically deduced.
Theories of the social contract differed according to their purpose: some were designed to justify the power of the sovereign; on the other hand, some were intended to safeguard the individual from oppression by an all-too-powerful sovereign.
According to Hobbes (Leviathan, 1651), the state of nature was one in which there were no enforceable criteria of right and wrong. Each person took for himself all that he could; human life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short." The state of nature was therefore a state of war, which could be ended only if individuals agreed (in a social contract) to give their liberty into the hands of a sovereign, who was thenceforward absolute, on the sole condition that their lives were safeguarded by sovereign power.
Locke (in the second of Two Treatises of Government, 1690) differed from Hobbes insofar as he described the state of nature as one in which the rights of life and property were generally recognized under natural law, the inconveniences of the situation arising from insecurity in the enforcement of those rights. He therefore argued that the obligation to obey civil government under the social contract was conditional upon the protection not only of the person but also of private property. If a sovereign violated these terms, he could be justifiably overthrown.
Rousseau (in Du contrat social, 1762) held that in the state of nature man was unwarlike and somewhat undeveloped in his reasoning powers and sense of morality and responsibility. When, however, people agreed for mutual protection to surrender individual freedom of action and establish laws and government, they then acquired a sense of moral and civic obligation. In order to retain its essentially moral character, government must thus rest on the consent of the governed, the volonté générale ("general will").
The more perceptive social-contract theorists, including Hobbes, invariably recognized that their concepts of the social contract and the state of nature were unhistorical and that they could be justified only as hypotheses useful for the clarification of timeless political problems.
The influence of Rousseau
Regarding the cultural transformations of 18th-century France, it would be difficult to overestimate the crystallizing and revolutionary impact of Rousseau's vision of the world. His thought changed conceptions both of man's private and public spheres. According to Rousseau the self becomes empowered in private union with the beloved other, as portrayed in his immensely popular novel Julie: ou, la nouvelle Héloïse (1761; Julie: or, The New Eloise), or in public union with one's fraternally minded fellow citizens, as explained in Du contrat social (1762; The Social Contract), a work less well-known but even more symptomatic of change.
The cultural transformation affecting the domestic sphere ennobled the roles of women as wives and mothers. The nature of masculine and feminine sexuality became a favoured topic for writers, doctors, pamphleteers, or pornographers (some of whom, like Restif de la Bretonne, or even Diderot, were in other respects writers of considerable stature). Moralists reflected anew on the responsibility of children to their parents and on the obligation of mothers to breast-feed their children. At this time the majority of babies born in the cities were sent to be wet-nursed in the country; indeed, more than 80 percent of babies born in Paris in the 1780s were sent out to be suckled by professional nurses. The appeal to mothers to nurture their own children came from Rousseau himself.