Introducción a la oración de relativo
Concepto de oración de relativo
Cuando hablamos de ciertas personas o cosas podemos necesitar añadir más información sobre ellas. Una de las fórmulas que podemos utilizar es la oración de relativo : relative clause, en inglés.
Oración de relativo : es una oración subordinada que va relacionada a una persona, cosa o animal, dando detalles sobre ella. La persona, cosa o animal es el antecedente .
That is the house which was designed by Gaudi
antecedente part.relat oración de relativo
The girl who phones you yesterday is here
antecedente part.rel. oración de relativo
La oración de relativo especifica algo sobre el antecedente. Nos aporta datos sobre la casa (especifica que fue diseñada por Gaudí) y sobre la chica (fue la que te llamó ayer)
WHO ----- El antecedente es persona
WHICH-- El antecedente es cosa o animal
Tipos de oración de relativo : defining / non defining
Ya hemos indicado anteriormente que la oración de relativo va siempre unida a un antecedente del que aporta datos nuevos, pero dependiendo de la función que tenga la oración de relativo con relación a su antecedente, puede ser de 2 tipos :
DEFINING Si el antecedente no está definido y concreto, es decir, si no se sabe a quien se refiere, la oración tiene como función aclarar o definir al antecedente.
En español se llama especificativa porque nos ayuda a especificar/definir el antecedente.
The player who got injured yesterday won't play today's match.
The house which had suffered the attack belonged to a famous politician.
The terrorist killed a man who had never done any harm to anyone.
(Antecedente,subrayado intermitente; oración de relat. subrayadao contínuo)
NON-DEFINING Si el antecedente sí está por sí solo definido, es decir, si por sí solo se sabe a quién o a qué se hace referencia, la oración de relativo tiene como función añadir más datos acerca del antecedente. VA SIEMPRE ENTRE COMAS
En español se llama explicativa porque no define al antecedente, ; solo aporta nuevos datos sobre él.
Leonardo di Caprio, who became famous with Titanic, is not a very good actor
The Giralda, which is visited by lots of tourists in Sevilla, needs an urgent repair
Torture, which was normal in Chile in the 1970s, shouldn't be allowed anywhere
2.1 Rasgos de los dos tipos de oración de relativo
a) Defining relative clause
Ya hemos dicho que este tipo de oración nos aclara o define al antecedente al que se refiere.
Los rasgos que la caracterizan son :
Podemos usar el pronombre relativo THAT en lugar de WHO o WHICH.
The woman who went out with Bruce Willis has become famous
The woman that went out………..
The dog which attacked John has been taken by the police to a dog house
The dog that attacked John……….
La oración de relativo no aparece entre comas
El pronombre relativo se puede omitir cuando no es sujeto del verbo de la
oración de relativo. En esto se diferencia del español, donde esto no se puede hacer.
b) Non-defining relative clauses
Sus rasgos son :
No se puede sustituir “that” por who/which
Bruce Willis, who has a Spanish girl-friend, is a very well-paid actor
La oración de relativo aparece entre comas
El pronombre relativo no se puede omitir nunca
Otros pronombres de relativo : WHERE y WHOSE
WHERE se utiliza cuando el antecedente es un lugar
WHOSE se utiliza cuando al antecedente le une una oración de posesión (cuyo,cuya..)
Sus rasgos son comunes:
Se pueden usar tanto en defining como en no-defining clauses
Ninguno de los dos se puede sustituir por that
no se pueden omitir
That Man is the writer WHO/THAT wrote a best-selling novel
Here is the Ricky Martin CD WHICH/THAT you thought you had lost
A professor is someone WHO/THAT teaches in a university
The only present WHICH/THAT didn't like was the leather bag
A meteorologist is someone WHO/THAT knows about the weather
This is the building WHICH/THAT I wrote to you about
Anybody WHO/THAT wants to join the jazz society must sign up now
Murphy's was the best club WHICH I have ever been to ( which= el cual, no donde)
The tower WHICH was damaged in the fire was built in the cold war period
That is the guy WHOSE father has won the lotto jack pot
An architect An architect is someone WHO designs buildings
a burglar A burglar is someone WHO breaks into a house to steal things.
a customer A customer is someone WHO buys something from a shop
a shoplifter A shoplifter is someone who steals from a shop
a coward A coward is someone WHO is not brave
an atheist An atheist is someone WHO doesn't believe in God
a pensioner A pensioner is someone WHO receives money from the state
a tenant A tenant is someone WHO pays a rent to live in a house or flat
Jessica has a coin collection. It contains many rare coins.
Jessica has a coin collection which/that contains many rare coins
Mary spent the money. It belonged to her sister
Mary spent the money which/that belonged to her sister
This is the new president. We all voted for him.
This is the new president whom we all voted for…………
The man hasn't answered yet . We sent an angry e-mail to him
The man whom we sent a angry e-mail hasn't answered yet
This is a very expensive car. The car dealer doesn't have a more expensive car.
This is the most expensive car which the car dealer have……….
I know the guy. He's going to marry may friend Susan.
I know the guy who's/that's going to marry my friend Susan
Barbara works for a company WHICH makes washing machines
The book is about a girl WHO runs away from home
What was the name of the horse WHICH won the race?
The police have caught the men WHO stole my car.
Alexander Bell was the man WHO invented the telephone
What's happened to the pictures which were on the wall?
A mystery is something cannot be explained (se omite)
A dictionary is a book WHICH gives you the meaning of words
I don't like people WHO are never on time
It seems that Earth is the only planet WHERE life can be found there…
Salma Hayek made a film with Antonio Banderas. She has now reached great popularity in the States.(N-D)
Salma Hayek, WHO has now reached great popularity in the States, made a film with Antonio Banderas.(comas-non def)
There's a woman living next door. She's a famous doctor.(D)
The woman WHO leaves next door is a famous doctor.
I was looking for a book this morning. I've found it now.(D)
I've found the book WHICH I was looking for……..
There was a strike at the Ford factory. It lasted 10 days. It's now over.(N_D)
The strike at the Ford factory, WHICH lasted today, is now over.
I've got a brother called Jim. He's lived in London since 1997. He's a doctor(N_D)
My brother Jim, WHO has lived in London since 1997, is a doctor.
Penélope Cruz is away from home a lot. Her job involves a lot of travelling.(N_D)
Penélope Cruz, WHOSE job involves a lot of travelling, is away from home a lot.
We met a couple of guys. Their car had broken down.(D)
We met a couple of guys WHOSE car had broken down.
What's the name of the man WHOSE car you borrowed?
A cemetery is a place WHERE people are buried
A pacifist is a person WHO believes that all wars are wrong
An orphan is a child WHOSE parents are died
The place WHERE we spent our holidays was really beautiful
I don't know the name of the woman ( WHOM ) I spoke on the phone
The woman ( WHOM ) I wanted to see was away on holiday
I met a man WHOSE sister knows you very well
The girl with ( WHOM ) he fell in love left him after a few weeks
I'd like to live in a little village WHERE there is no pollution
Mr Carter is very interested in our plan. I spoken to him on the phone last night.
Mr. Carter, to WHOM I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan.
This is a photograph of a friend of ours. We went on holiday with this friend
This is a photograph of a friend of ours (WHOM) we went on holiday
Mary's wedding took place last Friday. Only close relatives were invited to it.
Mary's wedding to WHICH (a la cuál) only close relatives were invited took place last Friday.
The guy finally arrived. We had been waiting for him.
The guy we had been waiting for finally arrived (aquí se omite)
We climbed to the top of a hill. We had a beautiful view from there.
We climbed to the top of a hill from (WHICH)we had a beautiful view.
It slept in that tent………………………… That is the tent I slept in
We walked up that hill……………………. That is the hill he walk up
We had a view of this beach……………… That is the beach we had a view of
We sailed from this harbour………………. This is the harbour we sailed from
We landed on this island………………….. This is the island we landed on
I went to this museum………………………This is the museum I went to
Crossford has only 200 inhabitants. It's miles from anywhere.
Crossford, WHICH's miles from anywhere, has only 200 inhabitants.
Someone made the arrangements for the meeting. It was Karen
The person (WHO/THAT) made the arrangements for the meeting was Karen.
Mr. Perkins , who is a bit deaf, couldn't hear the phone
St. Michael's Church dates from the 14th century. It's a great Gothic building.
St. Michael's Church, WHICH's a great Gothic building, dates from the 14th century.
A road leads to the farm. It isn't suitable for cars.
A road, WHICH leads to the farm , isn't suitable for cars
One of our teachers lives ten miles away. She stayed at home during the bus strike.
One of our teachers ( WHO/THAT) lives ten miles away stayed at home during the bus strike.
Someone got everything ready. It was Kevin.
The person ( THAT / WHO ) got everything was Kevin
Mandy, WHOSE name was missed off the list , wasn't very pleased
(La boda de Mary tuvo lugar el viernes pasado. Sólo parientes cercanos fueron invitados a ella)
EJ: We stayed at this camp site………………….This is the camp site we stayed at
Keswick, WHICH lies (se sitúa ) at the heart of the Lake District, is the perfect place for a holiday, and the Derwent Hotel, WHICH overlooks the town, is the perfect place to stay. Peter and Debbie Jackson, WHO bought this small hotel three years ago, have already won a reputation for excellence. Peter , WHOSE cooking attracts people from far and wide, was once Young Chef of the Year. The comfort of the guess, WHOM the owners treat almost members of the family, always comes first. Omar Shariff, WHO once stayed at the hotel, described it as marvellous. And the Lake District, WHICH has so much wonderful scenery (paisaje) , will not disappoint you. Here you can practise sailing, WHICH is very popular nowadays, as much as you like.
c) Mr. Perkins is a bit deaf (sordo). He couldn't hear the phone.
h ) Mandy's name was missed off the list. She wasn't very pleased.
The boy WHO phoned you yesterday is waiting for you out there
Who se refiere a the boy, que es el antecedente y funciona como sujeto de phoned, es decir de sujeto de la oración de relativo; por tanto no se puede omitir. Sí se puede sustituir por “That”
The boy WHO I invited yesterday has come to visit us
Aquí WHO hace referencia a “boy” que es el antecedente, que es de quien se habla, pero no funciona como sujeto del verbo de la oración de relativo (invited) porque el sujeto de invited es I Así que aquí funciona como objeto por que es a quien se invita. Por tanto, podemos omitirlo.
The boy I invited yesterday has come to visit us
The girl about WHOM they were talking is a very good friend of mine
Usamos Whom en vez de who porque el pronombre relativo funciona como objeto .
Aquí, la oración de relativo va encabezada por una preposición y es del tipo defining, así que se puede omitir el relativo porque no es sujeto de were talking (el sujeto es they). Por lo tanto, al omitir el relativo la preposición se queda sola y entonces cambia de lugar y se coloca con el verbo del que depende.
The girl they were talking about is a very good friend of mine
Lady Di WHO died in Paris in 1997, was hated by some members of the royal family
El antecedente es Lady Di, que es una persona concreta. La oración de relativo añade más datos pero no define al antecedente porque ya está definido.
Usamos WHO porque el antecedente es persona y no puede sustituirse por that, porque es sujeto.
We decided to buy New Alfa 157, WHICH has the best Italian diesel engine
El antecedente es concreto, un modelo de coche. La oración de rel. no lo define, como en la anterior; sólo añade más datos.
Usamos WHICH, porque es una cosa y no puede sustituirse por that porque hace de sujeto
Sarajevo, WHERE there are 600 Spanish troops, hasn't still recovered from the war
Mismo caso que los anteriores, pero aquí usamos WHERE por que es el pronombre relativo que se utiliza para los antecedentes de lugar. No se puede sustituir por that.
Miss Lewinsky, about WHOM everyone talked a few years ago, has nearly disappeared.
La oración de relativo va encabezada por una preposición que va antes del pronombre relativo. El antecedente está definido por sí solo (Lewinsky).
Se usa WHOM porque es complemento de una preposición, aunque también se usa cuando es objeto del verbo de la oración de relativo.
No se puede cambiar por That, ni tampoco se puede omitir.
Pinochet, WHOM the Chilean justice accuses of several crimes, still counts on lots of supporters
Antecedente = Pinochet = persona concreta .
Usamos WHOM porque aquí el pronombre hace de objeto del verbo ( a quien se acusa )
No se puede sustituir por that
The Olimpic Stadium, where no team wants to play, shouldn't have been built
El antecedente = lugar concreto, por eso la or. de relat. va entre comas.
Se usa WHERE porque hace referencia a un lugar = el estadio olímpico
No se puede sustituir ni omitir
When I was in Prague I visited a place WHERE hundreds of Jews died
Defining : explica el lugar que visité = a place, pero no está definido por sí solo. Lo concreta después la oración de relativo, por eso no va entre comas, porque es definitoria.
El pronombre WHERE también funciona como complemento de lugar, dentro de la oración de relativo. No reemplazar/ No omitir
Aznar, WHOSE government is trying to stop terrorism, is really worried about this issue
Aquí WHOSE tiene relación de posesión ( el gobierno es de Aznar) (Aznar, cuyo gobierno...)
Antecedente = Aznar = concreto, no hay que definirlo = non defining (con comas)
WHOSE es un sintagma nominal = va siempre con un nombre y ese nombre, a veces puede ir precedido de un adjetivo que lo modifica.
Por ej: Aznar, whose new govenment.....
Real Madrid has signed a player WHOSE salary will be around $8m a year.
Antecedente = a player que tiene una relación de posesión con la or. de relat (su salario)
Antecedente = un jugador, no especificado, hay que definir = defining (sin comas)
Whose es, como hemos dicho, un sintagma nominal. Puede ir seguido de nombre o adjetivo + nombre
Real Madrid has signed a player whose incredible salary.....(cuyo incredible sueldo)
1. Fill in the blanks with WHICH, WHO, THAT...
2. In this exercise you have to explain what some words mean . Choose the right meaning from the box ant then write a sentence with WHO.
steals from a shop buys something from a shop
designs buildings pays a rent to leave in a house or flat
doesn't believe in god breaks into a house to steal things
is not brave receives money from the state
3. Combine the following sentences using the relative pronouns WHO, WHOM, WHICH or THAT. Leave out the pronoun if possible.
4. Complete the sentences. Choose the most suitable ending from the box and make into a relative clause.
life can be found there it cannot be explained
it gives you the meaning of words it won the race?
he invented the telephone they are never on time
she runs away from home they stole my car
it makes washing machines they were on the wall
5. Make one sentence from two. There may be both defining and non-defining relative examples. Remember to leave out the pronoun if possible.
6. Complete each sentence using WHO / WHOM / WHOSE / WHERE or nothing if possible.
7. Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a relative clause.
8. Prepositions at the end : someone is showing their holiday photos to a friend. Write sentences with relative clauses
9. Complete this advertisement. Put in WHO / WHOM / WHOSE / WHICH / THAT. How many defining clauses can you find?
10. Combine the two sentences using a relative clause. Some examples need commas ; some do not.