We use the present simple to talk about:
things that are always true; that is to say, general truths or scientific facts.
habits, things that we do regularly.
future events based on timetables such as public transports, cinemas, meetings...
the main events in a story, a joke, in sports events...
DO: crosswords, gymnastics.
GO: rollerblading, swimming.
PLAY: cards, computer games, basketball, pool.
We use the present continuous:
to talk about an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. We usually find adverbs such as: now, right now, at the moment...
to talk about arranged plans in the near future.
to talk about actions which are in progress, which aren't finished.
to talk about a temporary situation.
to emphasise that something is done repeatedly and we complain about it. We usually find adverbs such as: always, constantly, repeatedly...
VERBS NOT USED IN CONTINUOUS TENSES.-
Verbs which are not usually used in continuous forms:
Verbs of linking or disliking: like, love, prefer, hate, want, wish, need...
Verbs that describe mental activities: think, imagine, believe, know...
Verbs of appearance: be, seem, look, sound, taste, smell, fell...
Verbs of possession: belong to, contain, include, possess, owe, own...
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY.-
They tell us how often we do something:
never, hardly ever, sometimes, often, usually, always...
We place the adverbs of frequency:
after the verb to be.
before the verbs.
between the auxiliary/modal verb and the main verb.
after the subject in questions.
We use the past simple to refer to:
a complete action that took place in the past. We usually find adverbs which tell us when the action happened.
two or more actions that happened one after the other.
We use the past continuous to refer to:
an action in progress at a particular time in the past.
two or more actions which were happening simultaneously.
PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS.-
We usually find the past simple ant the past continuous in the same sentence. The past continuous refers to a large action which was in progress and was interrupted by a second shorter action which is in the past simple.
PREPOSITIONS + -ING.-
When a preposition is followed by a verb we use an -ing form.
After words such as: before, after, since, when while and as, an -ing form can be used.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE.-
It shows a connection between the past and the present.
We use the present perfect simple to refer to:
an action that started in the past and has as result in the present.
a recent action when the time is not mentioned. We can use the present perfect simple with JUST to refer to a very recent action. JUST means “a short time ago” and it is placed between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.
an action that started in the past and still continues up to the present. The present perfect simple is usually used with expressions of time which refer to the period up now or by now: all this year, recently, lately, ever, for..., since..., already...
And it cannot be used with expressions of time which refer to periods of time which are finished: yesterday, last week... In this case we have to used the past simple.
FOR, SINCE, DURING, AGO.-
FOR + period time to say how long an action happens. We don't use FOR with expressions
beginning with ALL: all day, all my life...
SINCE + a point of time to when something starts.
SINCE + a cause.
DURING + a noun to say when something happens.
Expression of time + AGO to say when a past action happened counting backwards to the present. AGO is placed after the expression of time and it is used with the past simple.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.-
We use the present perfect continuous to refer to:
an action that has recently stopped and we focus on its origin.
an action which began in the past and is still continuing.
actions that have been repeated in a period up the present.
The present perfect continuous slows a connection between the past and the present.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND PRESENT PREFECT CONTINUOUS.-
The present perfect simple expresses:
an idea of completion: the action has just finished or has a result.
the number of times we have done something.
a more permanent situation.
The present perfect continuous expresses:
an action that has been in progress up to the present or nearly up to the present. The action can be continuing or have stopped.
an action that is not interrupted.
a more temporary situation.
PRESENT SIMPLE is used to refer to:
future events based on timetables or programmes.
We use the present simple in future time clause with time conjunctions such as: before, after, as soon as, when, until, while...or if clauses (type 1).
PRESENT CONTINUOUS is used to refer to arranged plans in the near future.
BE GOING TO is used to refer to:
an intention or decision to do something in the future.
something will happen in the future because we have some evidence for it now.
FUTURE SIMPLE is used to refer to:
a prediction based on our opinion or past experience.
something we decide to do at the time of speaking.
We often use the future simple with: probably, to expect, to be sure, to think, to wonder...
FUTURE SIMPLE CONTINUOUS is used to talk about:
an action that will be happening at a particular time in the future.
something that has been fixed.
FUTURE PERFECT refers to:
something that will be completed by a particular time in the future.
MODAL VERBS: MAY/MIGHT.-
Modal verbs: Features.
Modal verbs have no -s in the 3rd person singular.
Questions and negatives are made without “do”.
They are usually followed by an infinitive without to.
They have no infinitives so other expressions are used instead; for example: be allowed to.
MAY is used to:
talk about possibility in the present or future.
ask for permission.
give or refuse permission.
forbid in negative sentences.
suggest that someone should do something because there is nothing better; we use the expression: “may as well + infinitive”.
MIGHT is used to:
talk about smaller possibility in the present or future.
ask for permission when we are not sure about the answer.
suggest that someone should do something because there is nothing better; we use the expression: “might as well + infinitive”.
refer to the past form of “may” in reported speech or conditional sentences.
Conditional sentences have two parts:
the if-clause contains the conditional link.
the main clause.
The if-clause may appear first or second in the statements but when it comes first a comma is used after it.
TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.-
TYPE 0: GENERAL.
If + present form , present form/imperative/modal verb.
Present forms include present simple, present continuous, present perfect simple or continuous.
In this type of conditional sentences “when” could be used instead of “if”.
This kind of conditional sentences is used to:
say that something always happens.
describe general truths or scientific processes.
TYPE 1: PROBABLE.
If + present form , future form.
Future forms include future simple, future continuous, future perfect simple or continuous.
This kind of conditional is used to describe things which are possible and quite probable that they will happen.
TYPE 2: UNREAL OR IMPROBABLE.
If + past simple or continuous , would/could/might + infinitive without to.
The correct form of the verb to be in the if-clause is “were” for all the persons.
This kind of conditional sentences is used to indicate that we don't expect the action in the if-clause takes place.
TYPE 3: IMPOSSIBLE.
If + past perfect , conditional perfect.
This type refers to the past. The action in the if-clause is impossible since we can't change the past.
OTHER CONDITIONAL LINKS.-
Unless + affirmative verb = if not.
As long as = if and only if.
Provided (that) / providing (that) = on condition that.
On condition that.
Suppose (that)/ supposing (that) = imagine.
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS.-
The past perfect refers to an action which happened before another past action and there is usually a time gap between the two actions.
The past perfect is used to make the order of events clear. It isn't necessary to use it when the two actions happen quickly, one after the other, or when the order of events is clear.
The past perfect continuous is used when the first action continued for same time or was finished.
REPORTED SPEECH STATEMENTS.-
say + that clause.
say + to + personal object + that clause.
tell + personal object pronoun + that clause.
When the introductory verb is in the present, present perfect or future tense, we can report the sentence without any change of tense.
But reported speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past and some changes have to be made:
Pronouns and possessives adjectives usually change from first or second to third person.
Expect when the speaker is reporting his own words.
This and these.
“This” used in time expressions usually becomes “that”.
This and these used as adjectives usually change to “the”.
This and these used as pronouns can become: it, they/them.
Verbs tenses change to a corresponding past tense.
DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
Present Simple Past Simple
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Simple Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Past Perfect (No change)
Future Simple Conditional Simple
Future Continuous Conditional Continuous
Future Perfect Conditional Perfect
Conditional Simple Conditional Simple (No change)
Conditional Perfect Conditional Perfect (No change)
Imperative affirmative To + infinitive
Imperative negative Not + to + infinitive
Must Had to
Expressions of time and place.
DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
Today That day
Yesterday The day before/The previous day
The day before yesterday Two days before
Tomorrow The next day/The following day
The day after tomorrow In two days' time
Next The following
Last The previous
A year/a week...ago A year/a week...before
Tonight That night
REPORTED SPEECH: QUESTIONS.-
Introductory verbs: the verb “say” may introduce a questions in direct speech but it must be change to a verb of asking in reported speech, e.g.: ask, inquire, wonder, want to know...
ask + personal object pronoun without preposition.
ask/inquire/wonder/want to know... without personal object pronoun.
When we turn direct questions into reported speech, the following changes are necessary:
Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place change as in statements.
The interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form.
The question mark is omitted in indirect questions.
If the direct question begins with a wh-word (when, where, how...), The wh-word is repeated in the indirect questions.
If there is no wh-word, “if or whether” must be used.
REPORTED SPEECH: COMMANDS.-
Introductory verbs: the verb “say” may introduced commands in direct speech but it must be changed to a verb of command in reported speech, e.g.: beg, command, forbid, order, tell, know, ask... + personal object without preposition.
Indirect commands are usually expressed by a verb of command + object without preposition + to infinitive.
Negative commands are usually reported by not + to infinitive.
When we turn a command into reported speech, it is necessary to change the pronouns and possessive adjectives and adverbs of time and place as in the statements.
A relative clause gives more information about someone or something referred to in a main clause.
We put the relative clause immediately after or as close as possible to the noun it adds information to.
There are two kinds of relative clauses: defining and non-defining.
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES.
Relative pronouns used in defining relative clauses:
A defining relative clause makes it clear or what we are talking and it is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
That often replaces who or which.
Comma are not used before the relative pronoun.
When we use a defining relative clause, the relative pronoun can be the subject or the object of the clause. If the relative pronoun is the subject, the verb follows the relative pronoun. If the relative pronoun is the object, there is a noun or pronoun between the relative pronoun and the verb. In this case, we can omit the relative pronoun.
Whom can be used instead of who as object, although is very formal.
That is especially common after the following words: all, everything, something, anything, nothing, none, little, few, much, only and superlatives.
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Relative pronouns used in non-defining relative clauses:
A non-defining relative clause adds extra information about a noun, but this information is not necessary to explain which person or thing we mean.
Who and which cannot be replaced by that.
The relative pronoun cannot be omitted.
A comma is used before the relative pronoun and another at the end of the clause.
We also use which to refer to the whole situation talked about in the sentence outside the relative clause.
Why cannot be used in non-defining clauses.
PREPOSITIONS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES:
The preposition is put before the relative pronoun which or whom.
Who cannot be used instead of whom.
That cannot be used.
The relative pronoun cannot be omitted.
The preposition is put later in the relative clause.
In this case we prefer who rather than whom.
In defining relative clauses we can also use that or zero relative pronoun.
In very formal language, the verb wish can be followed by “to infinite” or by “object + to infinitive”. In this case wish means the same as want.
Wish is also used in a different way to say that we would like things to be different from the way they are:
Subject 1 + wish + subject 2 + past simple expresses regret about a present situation.
Were is used for all the personal pronouns after wish or “if only”.
We can use “if only” + subject + past simple to express the same.
Subject 1 + wish + subject 2 + past perfect expresses regret about a past situation.
We can use “if only” + subject + past perfect to express the same.
Subject 1 + wish + subject 2 + conditional simple expresses a complaint or disagreement about a present situation.
We can use “if only” + subject + conditional simple to express the same.
An active sentence put emphasis on the person or thing that did the action. A passive sentence put emphasis on the events that happened.
In passive sentence:
the direct object becomes the subject.
passive verbs are formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb.
the subject of the active sentence becomes the agent and it is introduced by the preposition “by”. In most passive sentences