CHANGES FROM IE TO PdE
* Grimm's Law or First Sound-Shifting
voiceless stops aspiration voiceless fricatives
p > ph > f
t > th > <þ>
k > kh > <h>
kw > kwh > w <hw>
voiced stops voiceless stops
b > p
d > t
g > k
gw > kw
aspirated voiced voiced stops
bh > b
dh > d
gh > g
gwh > gw
Ex: IE*pisk- ; IE* ten- ; IE* kerd- ; IE* dónt- ; IE* gen*- ; IE* bhrter ; IE* dhoigh- ; IE* ghaido-
* Grassmann's Law
a) After voiceless fricatives Gmc voiceless stops did not become voiceless fricatives.
b) After [s] Gmc voiceless stops did not change.
c) When there are two voiceless stops together only the first one is affected.
Ex: IE* okto-
* Free changes
> / o > a / * > a / ² appeared (preterite of some verbs of class 7 and adverb Œ hr)
Ex: IE* mter ; IE* golt- ; IE* p*tér
* Conditioned changes
e nasal or > i
o high vowel > u
Ex: IE* pempe, ten.
i > e
u > o
* Diphthongs: ei > / oi > ai / ou > au
Ex: IE* bheid ; IE* le-loikw- e (>*laihw) ; IE* louk-o- (>lauha)
* (Re)sonnants: m, , , > um, un, ul, ur.
Ex: IE*s ; IE*mtos
* e + i, ,j (in the following syllable) > i
* i + a (in the following syllable) > e
Ex: IE* nisdo > PrGmc* nesta
Voiceless fricatives became voiced fricatives unless:
(a) Being the first sound of the word
(b) Being next to another voiceless sound Ex: PdE stop
(c) Having the IE stress on the immediately preceding syllable.
Voiceless fricatives Voiced fricatives
f > v [*]
> g [*]
s > z
* Stress shift: stress to the first syllable of the word.
* > (only ¹) Ex: PrGmc* mnan > WGmc mna (> Œ mna)
* a mf > f, s, þ
i + ns > f, s, þ
u nþ [n] > f, s, þ
Ex: PrGmc* gans > WGmc gs (>Œ gs )
The sounds resulting from Verner's Law where further modified as follows:
v [*] > v
* > d
g [*] > [*] or [j] according to whether the neighbouring vowels were back or front.
z > r (this change is called Rhotacism)
Ex: IE* mter, Œ SV2 osan: est as curon e-coren; SV3 weorþan: wierþ wearþ wurdon e-worden.
* f, s, þ > f, s, þ
f, s, þ > f, s, þ
f, s, þ > f, s, þ
* Palatalization (Occurred earlier than i-mutation)
k- > [t*] < >(Posición inicial ante vocales frontales)
g- + front vowels > [j] < >(Posición inicial y medial ante vocales frontales)
sk- (æ,e,i) > [*] < s(e) >
Ex: Œ ild; iefan; fis.
* e + nasal or labial + consonant > i
* [n] before [h] was lost / [n] before [f, , s] was lost in PreŒ.
* Final accented > Ex: Œ c, h, t.
* i + z (< s) > e
u + z (< s) > o
Ex: Œ meord (e > eo Breaking), leornian.
* Final open vowels were lengthened when under full accent. Ex: Œ þ, þ, m, w, , h, s, n, etc.
* Unstressed syllables were reduced phonetically.
* au > [æa] < a > / eu > o Ex: PrGmc* hauhaz > Œ hah; PrGmc* deupaz > Œ dop
* Gemination of consonants
single vowel + single consonant + resonnant (l, m, n, r, j, w)
Gemination of < f > [v] was < bb > [vv]; gemination of < g > [j] was < cg > [d*]
The [r] was not geminated, and when followed by [j] ( rj ) the [j] was vocalized to [i], so that [rj] > [ri]
Ex: Œ settan, tellan, bycan, hebban (to raise), nerian, herias.
* [z] is lost finally in unaccented syllables
* > æ / + nasal > Ex: WGmc mna > Œ mna
* ai > (> æ² by i-mutation) Ex: WGmc stainaz > Œ stn
* Anglo-Frisian Brightening or First Fronting
a > æ/e Unless followed by nasal or back vowel in the following syllable
Ex: WGmc hwat > Œ hwæt.
1- Breaking or Fracture (WS)
æ + h > ea [æa] e + h > eo
æ + h + consonant > ea [æa] e + h + consonant > eo
æ + r + consonant > ea [æa] e + r + consonant > eo
æ + l + consonant > ea [æa]
i + h > io (io > eo in WS)
i + h + consonant > io
i + r + consonant > io
i + l + consonant > io
Ex: Œ eahta, weorþan, eald, leornian, Peohtas.
æ h > a
e + w > o
i l, r, h + cons > u
Ex: Anglian ald, barn, harm, sword, worþian,
2- Restoration of [a] before back vowels: æ > a
Ex: Œ dæ (nom. sg) dæes (gen. sg.) dagas (nom/acc. pl) dagum (dat. pl)
3- Second Fronting (Mercian)
æ >e / a > æ Takes place after First Fronting and after the Restoration of [a] before back vowels. Ex: Mercian de dægum.
Palatal Diphthongization (WS)
< s(e) > [*] æ > [æa] < ea >
< > [t*] + e > [ie]
< > [j]
Ex: Œ sap, iellan, iefan, easter, et.
4- I-Mutation (I-Umlaut; Front Mutation)
The back vowels a, , o, , u, ; the diphthongs ea, a, eo, o; and the front vowels æ, e; were modified by the vowels [i, , j] in the following syllable.
a > æ a + m, n > e ea > ie æ > e
o > e eo > ie e > i
u > y
Ex: Œ dman, fyllan, cwellan, færst, epan, hilpþ, fend, menn.
5- Back Mutation
æ > [æa] < ea >
e + u, o in the next syllable > eo
i > io
West-Saxon: only when there was an intervening single consonant which was either a labial or a liquid (f, p, w, m, l, r).
Anglian: through any intervening consonant except [k, g]
Kentish: before any consonant.
Ex: Œ earm, frond, feohtan, hiord, eorn.
6- Smoothing (Anglian)
[æa] > æ (> e)
eo + [, k, g] > e
io > i
Ex: Anglian æhta, fehtan, feh, birhtu
7- Contraction of vowels leading to compensatory lengthening
vowel + h + vowel the <h> is lost and the vowels are contracted and lengthened.
Ex: PreŒ* sehan > * seohan > * seoan > Œ son (PdE see).
vowel + liquid + h + vowel / vowel + h + liquid + vowel the <h> is lost and the first vowel (or diphthong) is lengthened, but there is no vocalic contraction due to the <r>. Ex:PreŒ feorh + es>Œ fores.
Œ (there are not , in Œ, only , )
* All diphthongs became monophthongs (usually falling diphthongs):
o > LŒ  / < a > [æa] > 12thC / < ea > [æa] > 12thC[a]
( æ > 12thC / æ > 12thC[a] )
Ex: Œ hafod, heofon, fond, mearc.
Rising diphthongs: Œ fower (>LŒ[fwer]), scotan, sawian.
* Lengthening of short vowels followed by lengthening consonantal groups: < ng, nd, mb, ld, rd, rl, rn > and < rþ, rs > when a vowel follows.
Ex: Œ grund, feld, word (> LWS [w] + short vowel or [eo] + [r] > [u] always), wolde, scolde, land.
* Œ [ss] > [s] (se simplifica) Ex: Œ mæsse
* Syncope : in trisyllabic words the vowel of the second syllable (usually  ) is syncopated. Ex: Œ fæder > 12thC[fad()r] Syncope (oblique cases).
* Œ lg > LŒ lw / Œ rg > LŒ rw. Ex: Œ folgian [folian] > LŒ [folwian] / Œ hergode [herode] > LŒ [herw(o)d] (also syncope)
* Palatal Umlaut (LWS):
[e] ht, hs, hþ
[eo] + or > [i]
Ex: Œ feoht, reoht, (nah, hah > !!)
 + [h]>LŒ (Palatal umlaut) Ex: Œ plh, enh, th.
* Long accented vowels are shortened in closed syllables before consonantal groups (except lengthening groups) Ex:Œ gdspell
* Se vocaliza <g> //: [j] after front vowels / [w] after back vowels
Ex: Œ dæ, gen
* æ > 12thC (> in KENTISH DIALECT) / æ > 12thC[a]
Ex: Œ sæ, æs [æ]
[i] North and East Midlands Ex:Œ þyrstan(PdE<thirst>)
* y > 12thC: [y] <u> West Midlands and South West
[e] South Eastern (Kent).Ex: Œ yfel(PdE <evil>)
* New dipththongs arose due to the vocalization of <g>:
Œ <æ> [æ]>LŒ[æj]>12thC[ai]>13thC[ai]>14thC>15thC[æ]
Œ <æ> [æ]>LŒ[æj]>[j]>12thC[ei]>13thC[ai]>14thC>15thC[æ]
Œ <e> [e]>LŒ[ej]>12thC[ei]> 13thC[ai]>14thC>15thC[æ]
Œ <> >LŒ[j]>12thC[ei]/>13thC[ai]/>14thC/>15thC[æ]/[ij]
Œ <i> [i]>LŒ[ij]>12thC> 13thC>14thC>15thC[ij]
Ex: Œ we, fæn, land
Œ <ag> [a]>LŒ[aw]>12thC[au]>16thC[ou]…>19thC
Œ <g> >LŒ[w]>12thC[w]>13thC[ou]>14thC>16thC
Œ <og> [o]>LŒ[ow]>12thC[ou]>14thC>16thC
Œ <g> >LŒ[w]>12thC[ou]/>14thC/>15thC/[uw]>16thC/[ou]
Œ <ug> [ug]>LŒ[uw]>12thC>15thC[uw]>16thC[ou]
Ex: Œ dg, bg, bgan
* There are not long diphthongs in ME and ModE.
* > : not in Northern dialects. Ex: Œ hw
* Gliding between a vowel and <h> : [j] after front vowels/ [w] after back vowels.
Ex: Œ feohtan, bh
* 13thC-18thC: loss of [h] : [hl], [hn], [hr] Ex: Œ hlapan, hld
* Short vowels were lengthened in open stressed syllables of disyllabic words:
South (1st half of century): [a]> North (2nd half): [i]>
Ex: Œ nama, specan/ North: wicu
* [i] + [ht] gliding in between(and the resulting lengthening): [ijht]>[ht]
Ex: Œ niht.
* Shortening of first syllable of trisyllabic words.Ex: Œ hlidæ
* Shortening before two or more consonants (except for lengthening groups)
* Epenthetic vowel: in disyllables a glide develops in medial position between:
consonant + nasal, liquid, [w] Making trisyllables. Ex: dvles > LME(13th-14thC) dveles
And between a liquid + /[w] (glide [o] ) Ex: folwen > LME folowen / morwe > LME morowe.
* NORTHERN DIALECT: [ai]>13-14thC
[ei]>13-14thC They lose the 2nd element.
[oi]>13-14thC Ex: Œ cæ
* WEST-MIDLANDS: [h]>LME[f]>14-15thC[uf]>17thC[f] (the [f] shortens the vowel) Ex: Œ enh, th
* [-er]>[-ar] (>18thC ) when [r] belonged to the same syllable. Sometimes [-er] remained or was reintroduced: >18thC (=[:]) Ex: Œ bern, heorte.
* Lengthening kept only (the rest were shortened):
(a) [i] / [o] + [mb] (b) [i] / [u] + [nd] (c) Any vowel + [ld]
* [ir]>[er] / [ur]>[or] / [er]>[ær] (>15thC[ar] )
* [ai]> Ex: Œ næel.
* [dr]>[r] <th> (French influence)
* LME Glide consonants: [m] + [p, b] / [n] + [t, d] Ex: Œ æmet
* [w] often disappeared in LME(14-15thCs) between [s] and a back rounded vowel; and at the beginning of a lightly stressed syllable.
[sw + back rounded vowel]>14-15thC[s + back rounded vowel] Ex: Œ sw
* WESTERN DIALECT: tendency to put a [w] in front of words in LME (Prothetic [w,j] ) Ex: Œ n.
* Great Vowel Shift :
* Se empieza a fijar la grafía a finales del siglo XV
* Œ <e> [e]>LŒ[je]>12thC[ji]>>13thC>14thC>15thC[Ø]
It was weakened due to lack of stress and finally lost in 15thC.
* Back vowel + [l] / [l + consonant] develops a gliding [u] when in the same syllable.
[al]>15thC[aul]>16-17thCs[oul]>18thC (15thC[aul] has two possible written forms: <aul> / <awl> ) Ex: PdE all, tall, call, pall, small.
(a) when [l] occurred finally.
(b) before dentals.
(c) when [l] was followed by [f, v, m] (lip consonants): [au]>
[ol]>15thC[oul]>20thC[l]. Ex: PdE toll
[u] + [ld] / [lt] > [ou] Ex: PdE shoulder.
* [w] + [a]>15thC[wo] (Rounding influence of [w] )Ex: PdE wash, swan
[w] + [a] + [k, g, ] : there in no rounding.Ex: PdE twang, wag.
* GVS: >16thC>19thC[ou]>20thC
* [dr] >16thC[r] <th> / sometimes <dr>.
-ir >16thC[r]>18thC [:] Ex: Œ yrie
* There are not oblique cases anymore and [d, t] can shorten the previous vowel.
* [a]>17thC(1653)[æ] In the North, the [a] remained. Ex: 14thC barn
* ME <u/o> (minims) [u]>17thC // >[o]/ influence of spelling with <o>
Ex: Œ dst
* [r] lengthened the preceding vowels when in the same syllable, but not when [r] was in intervocalic position (spelt <rr>)
ME[ar]>[ær]>17thC[ær]>18thC.Ex: PdE arm, sharp, garden.
ME[or]>17thC[r]>18thC Ex: PdE for, horse.
* the labial consonants [f, p, b] tend to cause rounding of the following vowels. And their influence prevented [u]>17thC or led to the restoration of the founded vowel, especially when followed by [, t, l].Ex: PdE full, pull, pulpit.
* Voiceless fricatives caused lengthening of the immediately preceding vowel:
ME[a]>[æ] + [f, s, ] >17thC[æ]>18thC Ex: PdE after, staff, fast, grass,path
ME[o] + [f, s, ] >17thC Ex: PdE off, coffee, cross, froth.
* [æ] + [f, s, ]
[r] + consonant >17-18thC[æ] Ex: PdE craft, mark
[n] + consonant (dental or [s] )
* Before [k] shortening took place late and not in Scots and Northern dialects.
* Initial [k, g] + [n] : [k, g] disappeared in pronunciation in 17thC.Ex: PdE knight
* Se fija la grafía para diferenciar [v]/[u]: <ve> en posición final para evitar confusiones antes de que fijara la grafía, y luego se mantuvo la misma grafía.
* [g] after the velar nasal  is lost in the 17thC.Ex: PdE king
* loss of [r]: (a) medially before consonants.
(b) finally: short vowel + [r]> 18thC[long vowel] Ex: PdE thirst
long vowel + [r]> 18thC[long vowel + ] Ex: PdE hard
diphthong + [r]>18thC[diphthong + ] Ex: PdE fire[f]
* [wr]>18thC[r]. [w] disappeared in pronunciation.Ex: PdE write
* Diphthongization: >19thC[ou] Ex: PdE over [v]
* Centralization of diphthong: [ou]>20thC Ex: PdE so [s]
|Enviado por:||Esther Pajares San Gregorio|