The impressionists chose the painting al air free and the themes of the everyday life. Its first objective was to obtain a representation of the direct and spontaneous world, and for it they were centred in the effects that produce the natural light on the objects.
The impressionists worried more by grasping the incident of the light on the object that by the exact representation of their forms.
But there are ends of the 19th century and principles of the XX an artistic movement appeared developed in Germany as reaction before the Impressionism. The work of art no longer represented the objective reality, but the interior feeling of the artist, its emotional state and its vision of the environment.
The artist tried to represent the emotional experience in his more complete form, without being worried of the external reality but of his internal nature and of the emotions that awakes in the observer; achieve it, the themes are exaggerated and they are distorted in order to intensifying the artistic communication.
The term Expressionism did not apply to the painting until 1911, its characteristics are found in the art of almost all the countries and periods. Nevertheless, the authentic precursors of the modernist expressionism appeared to ends of the 19th century and beginnings of the XX, especially the painter Edvard Munch who created one of the most important paint of the history.
Edvard Munch passed its infancy and adolescence in the capital of Norway, that by then was called Christiania (today, Oslo). The family Munch included several prominent cultural and artistic personalities. In its youth, Edvard Munch lived with its family in a humble neighbourhood of the capital, in material conditions under its social rank. The father was a deeply religious military doctor with modest incomes. He instilled in their children a deep fear toward the hell assuring them that if they sinned anyway they would be condemned al hell without hope of pardon. When Munch had only five years, its mother died of tuberculosis, of the same illness its sister would die Sophie at the age of fifteen of age, its father I medicate alone could be a witness of its death, where Edvard Munch knew the impotence of the poor before the illness; later its sister Laura was diagnosed with a mental illness, illness that would carry it to pass the remainder of its life in a centre Psychiatric. Munch passed infancy with numerous illnesses and of the five brothers original so alone Andreas would marry dying a few months after the wedding. After a year in the Technical School of Architecture, decides to be a painter.
Its work Sick Girl, inspired in the death of its sister by tuberculosis would grant to a scholarship to travel to Paris. Shortly after its arrival to Paris the first autumn, receives the news of the death of its father. Munch feels very affected, al to suffer a probable pathological reaction of sorrow, al not to have been able to be said good-bye adequate of its father, with who maintained always some difficult relations.
With the time Edvard Munch receives numerous loving disillusionments, which also will be represented in its works. It frustrated by the female refusal, in an occasion discussing with a woman with which had been involved sentimentally decides to be cut the finger. Their nervous problems, aggravated by their alcoholism, they oblige him to remain boarding school eight months in a psychiatric clinic of Copenhagen.
In 1916 Edvard Munch buys a house in Ekely, where is dedicated to paint, surrounded by its pictures Edvard Munch dies like lived, in solitude, full of dreams and grievous memories.
"I walked with two friends along the road, then the sun was put; suddenly, the sky returned red as the blood. I stopped; I supported me in the fence, unspeakably tired. Tongues of fire and blood they extended on the azure black fjord. My friends continued walking, while I remained me behind trembling from fear, and I felt the infinite, enormous shout, of the nature".
The source of inspiration for the shout would be able to be found, perhaps, in it tormented life of the artist, a man educated by a stiff and severe father that, being a boy, saw to die to its mother and to a sister. In the decade of 1890, to Laura, its favourite sister, they diagnosed him a bipolar pain and were interned in a psychiatric one. Munch immortalized this impression in the picture The Desperation that represents a man with a hat of cup, of half a side, inclined on a prohibition and in a similar setting al of its personal experience. He does not please with the result; Munch paints a new picture, this time with a forward, androgynous figure, teaching the face, and with an attitude less contemplative and more desperate. The same thing that last one, this first version of the shout, The Desperation was called. As it details Robert Rosenblum (a specialist of the work of the painter), the source of inspiration for this stylized figures human would be able to have been a Peruvian mummy that Munch saw in the World's Fair of Paris in 1889. The picture was exposed, for the first time, in 1893, forming part of an assembly of six pieces titled Love. The idea of Munch was that of representing the different phases of a romance, since the initial infatuation to break dramatics. The shout represented the last phase, wrapped in grievous sensations.
The work very well was not received by the criticism and, the joint Love was classified as demented art (later, the Nazi state classified to Munch of degenerate artist and withdrew all the pictures that there was in an exposition in Germany). A critic considered the assembly, and particularly the shout, so disruptive, that advised the women embarrassed that they did not visit the exposition. The reaction of the public was dissenting and the picture became motive of discussion and, for the first time, mention of the shout in the criticisms is done and reports of the epoch.
Munch carried out four versions of the shout. The original one of 1893 (91 x 73, 5 cm.) a technique of oil and cake on cardboard, is exposed in the National Gallery of Oslo. The second (83, 5 x 66 cm.) in tempera on cardboard was exhibited in the Museum Munch of Oslo until was stolen in 2004. The third one al belong same museum and the quarter is property of an individual. To respond al interest of the public, Munch carried out also a lithography (1895) that permitted to print the picture in magazines and periodic.
To ends of the 20th century, the shout acquired status of cultural icon that began in the World War II pursuit period. In 1961 the magazine Times utilized the shout in the front of its edition dedicated to the complexes of fault and to the anxiety. Between 1983 and 1984, the pop artist Andy Warhol carried out a series of printings in silk on the works of Munch that included the shout. The idea was to demystify the painting devaluing its originality and becoming an object of reproduction in mass. The reproduction of the work in all types of products, from undershirts to ceramics coffee cups, posters, keys rings etc., gives testimony of its status as icon, as well as of the complete one nice character for the present public. In that same line, can be compared with other works of art, converted also in icons, as the Smooth Monkey of gives Vinci. The shout is a work with great emotional force, and the vacuum of the image in the popular culture can be interpreted like the intent to defuse the feeling of inconvenience that, inevitably, causes in the spectator, although other opinions reject this interpretation by excessively complicated, disputing that the makers of these products treat, simply, of removing money of an acquaintance work. The American muralist, Robert Fishbone, discovered a vein in the market when, in 1991, began to sell inflatable wrists with the central figure of the work. Its company with headquarters in San Luis, On the Wall Productions, sold hundreds of thousands. The critics indicate that, al to remove the figure of context (the landscape); Fishbone has destroyed the unit of the work of Munch, neutralizing, in this way, its expressive force. As one of the scarce modern works of art that instantly they are recognized, even by people that knows very little on art, the shout has been utilized in publicity, animated drawings and television. In one of the programs of television interviews, you give me Edna Average was presented with a dress that imitated the design of the figure of the shout. The work has also fascinated the directors of movies. Ghost face, the murderous psychopath of the horror movie of Wes Craven, Scream, carries a mask of Halloween inspired in this figure of the picture. The youthful actor Macaulay Culkin sits front al mirror in the Alone movie at home of Chris Columbus, doing also an ironic reference to the work of Munch. The robbery of the two pictures was also satirized in an episode of the series The Simpson's.
This espresso pictures the emotions and feelings of its author. They can see two passers-by that themselves they are not touched before that desertion. The man that is situated in close-up with the open mouth and with the hands being covered the ears seems to represent the anguish that tries to transmit. The scream person is reduced to a wretched undulating appearance in a landscape of delirium. Its body, its hands, its head, its mouth, its shout are diluted in the lines curves of the ocean and the sky being fused. Although its lines are diluted, its face is distinguished perfectly. The scream person is the notable element of the picture. The environment, the laws, the rules of the company, they are symbolized by the railing of the right.
Physical and astronomers of the University of Texas (United States) affirm that the sky dying of red of the painting The Scream of Edward Munch itself due to the eruptions of the volcano Indonesian Krakatoa produced in the years 80 of the 19th century. The investigators have arrived at this conclusion after analyzing the diaries of the artist and to study diverse topographical results of the epoch. The spectacular eruptions of the volcano of Indonesia in 1883, that created waves of lava of to 37 meters of height, they inspired the dramatic content of the most famous work of the Norwegian painter. Up to now, it had been believed that the only source of inspiration for that so disturbing picture had been the tragedy of the death of its relatives. As it seems, Edward Munch travelled with some friends along the road that circulates around Oslo when could contemplate in the distance a sky reddened, as painted by fire. The gases expelled by the volcano filled the atmosphere of Norway from November of 1883 to February of the following year. Munch remained so impressed by this natural phenomenon that took advantage of this image for The Scream.
Microsoft Encarta 2005: Edvard Munch