Market: an arrangement that allows people to make exchanges with one another; whenever and wherever people voluntarily make exchanges with one another.
Ex: When a kid went to buy an ice cream at an ice-cream place. He gave money for it and he received it. There was a market.
Market Economy: Using markets as the primary means of organizing and coordinating production. Also called capitalism or free enterprise.
Ex: The people claimed In Venezuela the production of corn meal, individual producers made the corn meal and sold it to the people; people and producers themselves determined the price of the corn meal.
Goods: Physical products businesses produce. Tangible items of value.
Ex: The pants I wear are goods that were produced by businesses. The coffee my dad drinks every morning is a good as well.
Services: Products you can't touch. Work performed; intangible items of value.
Ex: The security police offers is a service. The Internet at home is a service.
Scarcity: The result of an inability to satisfy all of everyone's wants.
Ex: Pedro has $ 1000 available to buy a laptop computer. The price of the computer including tax is $ 999. He also saw a printer and a scanner he wanted to purchase but he has no money to buy them. He is not able to buy all he wanted to have. Another example is that Miguel has to decide between buying a car or buying a truck; because he has a farm he gave up the car even if he wanted to have both.
Resources: they are the basic elements used to produce goods and services.
o Natural Resources: they are unaltered gifts of nature. Ex: The water needed to make bread in a bakery.
o Human Resources: they are physical and mental efforts people use to create goods and services. Ex: the baker who makes bread everyday at the bakery.
o Capital Resources: they are the buildings, tools, and machines people use to create goods and services. Ex: the oven where the bread is to be baked and the building where the bread is to be sold are some examples of capital resources.
Opportunity Cost: it is the best alternative given up when making a choice. Ex: Emily wants to buy a stereo that costs $ 50 as well as a digital camera that costs $ 50; she only has $ 50 to spend. Her computer needs to be fixed, which would cost her $ 50. She has decided to buy the stereo, which means she has given up the best alternative that was to repair the computer.
Peter has two 20-dollar bills; he is at the department store willing to buy a pair of Levi's jeans that cost 39 dollars. When he is about to buy them he sees some shirts that he likes a lot. He wants to buy the pants but he also wants the two shirts that together would cost 40 dollars. He decides to buy the shirts even though he needed the jeans more than he needed the shirts.
Trade-offs: A choice that involves giving up some of one thing to have more of another. Ex: In the morning my cousin spends a lot of time putting on make-up, she doesn't have enough time to eat breakfast because she has to go to school. The time she could spend on her nutrition is being given up.
A farmer doesn't have pigs anymore at his farm because he wants to have more cows.
What, How, Who Choices: What goods and services are to be created, how they are to be created and who is to receive them.
o What: People choose the kinds and quantities of goods and services to produce. Ex: People in a community want to buy products made from mango.
o How: People choose the way to create goods and services. Ex: They want to create mango ice cream and mango juice. They need to decide whether they are going to use old machinery or new technology to do it.
o Who: who receives and consumes the goods and services created. Ex: the community gets to buy the products from mango.
Pillars of Free Enterprise:
o Private Property: it is the capital and other resources owned by individuals rather than governments. Ex: My uncle owns a house in the U.S as well as in Venezuela.
o Price System: it is the use of prices to allocate scarce resources. Ex: The price of rice was set to be not higher than 80 cents per pound.
o Competition: is the rivalry among buyers and sellers in the purchase and sell of resources. Ex: the rivalry among two shoe brands to sell their shoes, the Nike and New Balance.
o Entrepreneurship: is the reason for doing something. Ex: I found a job where I'll be paid $12 an hour; I can't wait to begin working.
Circular Flow: It is an illustration that presents how much money circulates in the US economy. Ex:
Other Types of Economic Systems:
o Command economy: the government holds most property rights. Ex: In Cuba the government owns the land where sugar cane is raised to earn money for the government.
o Traditional economy: people rely on traditions to make the what, how and who choices. Ex: In a rural area there is a community who needs to raise yucca. They raise it themselves to consume it themselves.
Three Function of Money: Medium of Exchange, Store of Value and Measure of Value. Ex: I can work as a woodman and getting money for payment instead of pieces of wood. I can save the money for the future.
Resource Markets: they are voluntary exchanges between resource owners and businesses. Ex: My job is my market for resources because it allows me to get money to spend it on the market for goods and services.
My father earns $3000 a month in the recourse market and he spends it in the markets for Goods & Services.
Demand: it is the quantities of a particular good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at different possible prices at a particular time. Ex: In a little town of an undeveloped country, a McDonald's restaurant was opened. People were willing and able to buy hamburgers at high prices just because it was something new to try. People demanded hamburgers because they were able to buy them. People demand flowers in springtime because they are willing and able to buy them at different possible prices.
Price Effect: People buy less of something at higher prices than they do at lower prices. Ex: My mom waits for the price of the gasoline to go down so she can buy more gas; she tries not to spend so much gas when the prices are up; she does buy gas when prices are up but she doesn't buy as much as she buys at a lower price. My family tries not to turn on the air conditioning in the house when energy prices are up because they would pay more than when prices are down.
Three factors of Price Effect:
o Buying Power: when a product's price is down, people's money has more buying power than before. Ex: if I buy beer at low prices I can buy more amount of beer than I could if prices were up.
o Diminishing Personal Value: People value some of the uses of their products more than others. Ex: I the price of beer goes up I'd buy just enough beer to have available to offer people who visit me.
o Diminishing Marginal Utility: People would reach a point where there is a less satisfaction of something. Ex: I might love beer but there is a point I will not buy so much beer no matter what the price is, just because I would have lost enjoyment.
Market Demand: it is the sum of all individual demands in a given market at a particular time. Ex: my friend would like to buy a truck but cars and truck's prices have risen too high, so he is not able to buy it. His uncle is not affected for the inflation and can demand the truck. Ex: I would love to own a house but I can't demand it, there are other people who can but are not willing to buy it so they don't demand it.
Price Elasticity of Demand: is a measurement of the impact of the price effect. Ex: I want to buy a bike but I also have to pay for a fine I got. I need to pay for the ticket instead of needing to buy the bike.
Reasons for elasticity of demand:
o Availability of substitutes: When substitutes are more plentiful, demand is usually more elastic. Ex: My mother likes to buy soda pop for parties instead of buying milk.
o Percentage of Budget: The bigger the percentage of people's budgets they spend on product, the more elastic its demand tends to be. Ex: My uncle used to pay the monthly fee for his children school; the school fee went way up, my uncle couldn't afford it. Finally, he moved his children to a public school.
o Time: the longer people have to adjust to a price change, the more elastic demand tends to be. Ex: The price of gas in Venezuela rose from 450 Bs per gallon to 600 Bs in tow days, people didn't have time to make plans on how to save money to keep getting the same amount of gas they used to buy before the rise.
Example for Change in Demand:
o Change in income: My aunt won the lottery last week, now she is able to buy the house she couldn't afford before.
o Prices or availability of substitutes: In Spain most of people travel to other cities or countries by train because gasoline prices are often going up.
o Change in the weather or season: People buy more beer at a baseball game when it is warm and sunny rather than cool and cloudy.
Supply: the various amounts of something a producer is willing and able to sell at different possible prices at a particular time. Ex: An Old Italian man owns a small grocery store; he has the chance to get and sell a type of cheese that is found in his old homeland only; he is willing to sell some of the cheese at a high price. He only has eight pounds of the cheese, which is his supply. Ex: In a farm where they get milk to sell; they produce 6000 liters/3 days; 6000 liters is their supply because it is the amount they are able and willing to sell.
Market Supply: It is the sum of all individual supplies in given market at a particular time.
Price Elasticity of Supply: If a change in price has a large effect on the quantity of a product supplied, the price effect is big and the price is elastic.
Market Clearing Price: is the price that balances the amount buyers want to buy with the amount sellers want to sell. Ex: In December, in my country there is a big demand for banana tree leaves that is because people make a dish that requires the leaves. The supply is very high as well, but there is a problem the sellers want to sell the leaves at a very high price, and buyers want to buy them at a lower price. Finally there is a market equilibrium that makes sellers put up for sale their product and buyers buy their product at a good price.
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