Educación y Pedagogía
LIGÜÍSTICA APLICADA (ANGLÈS)
Introduction . . . . . . . . 3
What is language? What is Linguistics? Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching.
Task: Class activity. . . . . . . . 4
Origins of Language. The properties of human language. Functions of human language. Linguistic and communicative competence. Task: Class activity: Caretaker's speech.
Task: The development of writing in G. Yule The study of language
. . . . . . . . . . 10
How do we learn languages? The critical period. First language acquisition The holophrastic stage. Telegraphic speech. Caretaker speech. Interaction.
Task: Language and the brain in G. Yule The study of language.
. . . . . . . . . 15
Second language acquisition. The concept of interlanguage. Interlanguage development. Input, output, interaction. Learner factors.
Task: Class activity. Checking own beliefs
Task: Class activity. English class video . . . 22
Bilingualism. Educational aspects of bilingualism. BICS and CALP Plurilingual and pluricultural competence.
Task: Self evaluation of linguistic and communicative performance and skills in the languages you know. . . . . 29
The study of language. Levels of analysis. Linguistic context. Social context.
Task: Spanish, Catalan and English vowels. . . . 34
Phonetics and phonology. Phonemes. Phones and allophones. Minimal pairs and sets. Concepts and applications.
Task: Teacher's speech analysis. . . . . 36
Words and word-formation processes. Coinage. Borrowing. Compounding. Blending. Clipping. Derivation. Prefixes and suffixes.
Task: Morpheme identification. . . . . . 40
Morphology. Morphemes: Free and bound morphemes. Derivational versus inflectional. . . . . . 47
Syntax. Sentence. Clause. Constituent. Phrase: Noun phrase, verb phrase. Preposition phrase.
Task: Grammar sentences. . . . . . 49
Semantics. Lexical relations. Pragmatics. Discourse analysis.
. . . . . . . . . . 53
Applications. Syllabus Design. Types of syllabus. Language in textbooks The teaching of grammar: deductive, inductive teaching. Explicit and implicit learning/teaching. Focus on form. Incidental focus on form: pre-emptive and reactive.
Task: Early starters written compositions: sentences, clauses. Coordinated and complex sentences . . . . 56
13. Glossary . . . . . . . . 70
This task begun with the first linguistic class last February.
The idea was to include in this portfolio all the tasks and works done in class and at home through the following months. I really didn't realise then that it was to be such a hard work.
I have chosen the first twelve units as they were explained by the teacher as to have a logical and gradual approach to the topics considered in this subject. Each item has one or two specific portfolio tasks included, most of them explained in the same unit by the explanation given in it and some with the class notes written during the activity.
As a conclusion, a glossary with all the specific terms used in this subject by their order of appearance in the units as presented in the handout of the subject.
What is language? What is Linguistics? Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching
What is language?
Is a communicative skill by signs or codes used by people?
Animals have reactive answers.
Men have a proactive response.
So we could talk about Homo Loquens as well as Homo Sapiens
Animals have an immediate and present (or context) memory, but humans we have the capability of creating a new context in the mind.
Children learn language through and about his/her social group: all kind of information arrives us through language.
But, is language an endowment or an accomplished skill?
Chomsky prefers to think we have a natural capability with which we are born = endowment. This is the cognitive point of view.
Halliday prefers the idea of an accomplishment. This is the social point of view. Halliday points out that language evolved slowly but firmly through ages. But human beings have not in some million years. So, it is society that has created language: the social point of view.
What is Linguistics?
Linguistics is the discipline that studies human language.
This study has got two different orientations:
Language is a system: a set of elements (sounds, letters, words, sentences...) which can or cannot occur or can or cannot combine.
Linguistics competence: is the knowledge of the grammatical rule-system.
Uses of language in human life
Linguistics and social knowledge to create communication acts which are not only grammatical correct but socially correct.
Linguistics has several aspects:
Semantics compose the speech event
Syntax (act of communication)
And are defined as Descriptive linguistics.
There are new fields of study:
Psycholinguistics: study the first language acquisition.
How humans learn a language
The mental processes that a person uses in producing and understanding language.
Sociolinguistics: study of language and society.: how social factor influence the structure and use of language.
Study of language in relation to social factors: social class, educational level, age...
Detailed study of communication
Variations in the language used by a group of people (bilingualism, language attitudes, etc)
Neurolinguistics: Study of the function the brain perform in language:
Research on how the structure of the brain influences human learning.
How and in which parts of the brain language is stored.
How damage of the brain affects the ability to use language.
“... the theoretical and empirical investigation of real world problems in which language is a central issue” Brumfit. (1991:46)
“...applied linguistics has been called a problem-based activity. The problems are solved or the questions are answered according to the principles or knowledge derived from the scientific study of the structure of language, how it is learnt and its role in society” Corder. (1973:137-139)
The applications are:
Translation: interpretation of a text encoded in one language that has to be translated into another.
Critical discourse analysis: How language is used n politics, commercials, etc. to manipulate opinion and how can express an ideology.
Forensic linguistics: how to interpret linguistic evidence in a court of law.
Task :Class Activity
El bilingüismo modifica el cerebro. Josef Grodzinsky. La Vanguardia 8-7-2004.
De la lectura del artículo destaco los siguientes puntos:
Grodzinsky lleva toda la vida pensando en cómo transferimos el pensamiento a la palabra.
Indica que es más fácil declarar que responder.
Está especializado en el tratamiento de afasia, es decir, una afección o alteración del habla debida a un ataque al corazón, con los que hace un trabajo de ingeniería inversa.
Dice también que la resonancia magnética permite analizar imágenes específicas del cerebro en actividad.
A partir de ese análisis imagina que los científicos podrán predecir el comportamiento humano.
Por los problemas que tiene que tratar ha deducido que cada idioma que las personas conocen ocupa un lugar/espacio diferente en el cerebro.
Sugiere que hay que perseverar ante los errores al hablar en otra lengua y que cuánto más se cambia de lengua más fácil es utilizarlas.
Desde su trabajo intenta averiguar si un error es relevante o no. Porque quizá el error puede ser revelador del mecanismo del lenguaje.
Con esa idea del análisis de la lengua y del error, considera que los neurólogos y los lingüistas deben trabajar juntos.
Como colofón queda en el aire la pregunta de si los humanos nacemos con la capacidad de hablar o la aprendemos socialmente.
Lo más interesante de esta entrevista es la aparición -al menos para mí- de una nueva manera de trabajar a partir de los usos de las lenguas como sistema de análisis del cerebro y a la vez su interacción con los sistemas de comunicación humanos. Es un aspecto del que desconozco absolutamente todo y por lo menos me ha invadido la curiosidad por saber un poco más.
Cuando comenta la posibilidad de predecir el comportamiento humano desde el análisis con resonancia magnética -o quizá otros métodos todavía por llegar- me invade una cierta sensación de indefensión y miedo: predecir el comportamiento equivale, desde mi punto de vista, a impedir la libre actuación de los individuos. No tengo clara cuál puede ser la utilidad práctica de esa predicción, al menos en lo científico. En otros aspectos, como la posibilidad de dominar el comportamiento, me asusta.
En la misma sesión se comenta un artículo publicado en el diario Avui el 19 de octubre de 2004. La llengua del melting pot. De Eduard Vallory i Subirà, politólogo i periodista.
“Els nord-americans es refereixen sovint al melting pot per dir que la seva identitat és el resultat d'una amalgama d'herències culturals que han vingut d'arreu. Així, la lleialtat al país i la voluntat de contribuir al progrés general aportant-hi l'esforç personal són els ingredients necessaris per esdevenir nord-americà. El patriotisme constitucional en estat pur.
L'11-S va fer trontollar aquesta visió, en emergir la següent pregunta: ¿a qui serien lleials els àrabs nord-americans davant un conflicte amb el món àrab? Per si de cas, la política antiterrorista de l'administració Bush ha colpit moltes famílies humils d'origen àrab, deportant persones totalment integrades que feia anys que vivien als EUA.
En aquestes eleccions, un segon factor fa trontollar la teoria del melting pot: la llengua. A diferència d'altres col·lectius, la immigració centreamericana està expandint la presència de l'espanyol més enllà dels seus barris. I així, moltes ciutats són ja a la pràctica bilingües, o van camí de ser-ho: els autobusos de Chicago, més pròxim al Canadà que a Mèxic, tenen els rètols en anglès i espanyol. Fins al punt que l'autor d'El xoc de civilitzacions, Samuel Huntington, el març passat va publicar un llibre (Who Are We?) en què avisa que la immigració mexicana "amenaça de dividir els EUA en dos pobles, dues cultures i dues llengües".
El miratge del melting pot, doncs, funcionava sota la premissa invisible que la llengua única era l'anglès i que les altres llengües eren detalls folklòrics als barris italià, xinès o polonès de les grans ciutats. De fet, la comunitat afroamericana, hereva dels antics esclaus i que representa un 12% de la població, mai ha parlat altra llengua que l'anglès.
Però ara els hispanos són cada cop més i no abandonen la seva llengua. I, malgrat els intents per frenar aquesta immigració, en pocs anys el vot hispà serà molt més rellevant que el dels abstencionistes afroamericans. Ja ho és avui a la decisiva Florida. Per això, tant Kerry com Bush tracten amb delicadesa el terreny de la immigració hispana, la llengua i la diversitat cultural. Perquè, com a Europa, res ja no tornarà a ser com abans.”
Valory nos ofrece su punto de vista sobre el futuro de las lenguas en los EE.UU. partiendo de la idea, ya del pasado, de que la única lengua, la que unificaba a todos sus habitantes era el inglés. Ahora con la aparición de la nueva emigración latinoamericana, que no abandona su idioma materno, en este caso el español, se produce un reto a las antiguas creencias sob re el melting pot americano. Así, la pregunta que muchos bienpensantes WASP se formulan es ¿cuál será nuestro futuro como país?
En algunas zonas la lengua ya es un factor determinante a la hora de escoger un candidato a un puesto político. Así lo hemos visto en las últimas elecciones, donde los presidenciables se han esforzado en hablar en español para llegar a un electorado que ya no tiene el inglés como lengua materna.
What pedagogical applications can be found to applied linguistics?
A first question we must do to ourselves is:
Why have we chosen English? Why not Russian?
That's due to different aspects:
Actually, we can say that nowadays, English is the new lingua franca.
There are more than six thousand languages in the world. About an 80% of them will disappear in the next hundred years due to media globalisation effects.
Catalan is in a risk position.
Then if English is the new lingua franca - used in a very simple version- other languages may become the second language. So bilingualism and multilingualism are new decisions that we'll find in the future as a part of sociolinguistics.
What can linguistics offer? What to teach?
Curriculum is for a whole block (i.e. primaria)
Syllabus for a complete academic year.
We must take decisions about topics, based on semantics and linguistic discussion.
Which models of learning?
Explicitly: giving the rules in class (i.e. a or an before noun)
Implicitly: to learn in contact with a language (street learning)
Young children learn implicitly: syllabus, grammar though teacher lessons and street learning.
2. Origins of Language. The properties of human language. Functions of human language. Linguistic and communicative competence.
Origins of language
There are several points of view:
This was the first representation about the origin of language. As we can read in the Genesis (2:19):
“...He brought them to the man to see how he would call them, and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name.”
Our ancestors could hear animal noises. Then tried to imitate them. And perhaps interjections related to emotional reactions: guau, grrr... etc.
Words from their sound:
Some word to imitate the noises, as:
- splash like in: splashing in the bath
- Gargling like in: gargling with salt water.
- Creak like in: That step always creaks
- Crash like in: car crash
- Mumble like in Speak up. Don't mumble.
But language is more than to put a name to the different things. When starting the learning of a language we use words and sentences or clauses as: Favor donde tren. So there is more than just words, they have a relation with our environment.
The properties of human language
Arbitrariness: The linguistic form has no natural or “iconic” relationship with that four-legged barking object out in the world. The word dog is nothing to do with perro or the sound the dog produces, as guau.
When languages are close, the arbitrariness is more similar.
Duality: Provides language with enormous productive power.
Language work combining. For instance the 3 letters B- I - N
You have BIN or NOB. Every combination has got its own meaning, as in Catalan:
NOMS or MONS
Displacement: To talk about events not present in the immediate environment.
Productivity: The potential number of utterances (emisiones verbales) in any human language is infinite.
Cultural transmission: Language is passed from one generation to the next.
Language is related to society and men. Men to mind. So, we find a relationship between
LANGUAGE - MIND - SOCIETY
We can name things and build what is called propositions.
i.e. In football Kick the ball
This is a proposition which allows me to have an interactional function.
Functions of human language
Ideational function: Allows to talk about our environment
Gives structure to our knowledge
Interactional function: to indicate friendliness, co-operation, hostility, pleasure...
Transactional function: ability to communicate knowledge skills and information i.e. When reading a book, we establish that function between writer and reader.
Linguistic and communicative competence
What is to be competent in a language?
Learning a language as a natural human accomplishment involves:
To be able to do something
Getting to know something
Parole - Saussure. 1916
Langue - Saussure. 1916
We can define competence as something internalised.
Performance is the normal use.
So, Communicative competence has two different fields:
Language is a code (but this is not enough, you need more than the grammatical rules)
- Not only the grammatical rules, but also to know when and where to use these sentences, how and to whom.
Task: Class activity. Caretakers speech.
As a class activity we heard a tape with a recording of a conversation between a baby and her caretaker. The baby's name is Ariadna.
The caretaker speaks to her in a very special manner, and there is a lot of negotiation of meanings.
Humans have an intuition system to communicate with younger children. When teaching them, we do similar adjustments in our language and musicality of our sentences.
As an example we talk about a Japanese visitor: if a tourist ask us something, we do adjustments in our language code to favour communication, we accompany our speech with signs and gesticulate to be understood.
Task: The development of writing. The study of language G. Yule
Writing followed speech communication. Was a way to represent the ideas being communicated. The first men represented their ideas through pictograms (a picture with a linguistic message which was similar to everybody)and ideograms (a representation of a more abstract idea). Some of these evolved into writing systems or logograms that represented a word in an specific language.
From the logograms men evolved to rebus writing, that is the representation os previously existing symbols to represent the sound of language. Every symbol could be used in a different way, with a variable and usually wide range of meanings.
To reduce the number of symbols used appeared the syllabic writing, that is, a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of words.
Later appeared the alphabet and so the alphabetic writing. An alphabet is a set of symbols to represent a single sound.
The development of alphabetic systems came to different systems till the Greeks used separated symbols to represent the vowel sounds as distinct entities.
With some minor changes it is basically our alphabet.
3. How do we learn languages? The critical period. First language acquisition The holophrastic stage. Telegraphic speech. Caretaker speech. Interaction.
How do we learn languages?
The critical period hypothesis
Do canaries sing? Not all of them sing, because there is a critical period of time in their life to learn how to sing. So, if in their environment there are not other canaries for it to hear, it will not sing.
There is a specific and limited period for language acquisition.
Critical age in children ranges from 5 years old to the early
Evidences are: brain injuries, “wolf children”, etc. That is, field cases in which wild children were found after their critical period, so it was very difficult for them to learn how to speak.
They do not learn because they are not exposed to language
Is there a critical period for the learning of a second language?
There is a period (i.e. up to certain age 6, 12, 14?) during which learners can acquire a second language easily and achieve a native-like competence.
After this certain period, the second language acquisition becomes more difficult and is rarely entirely successful.
Who is better in learning a second language?
Children? Adolescents? Adults?
Only younger people can improve a native like acquisition of a second language. Earlier of 6 you can attain native proficiency.
Other theories say till 14. Probably 14 is a critical period for grammar. Of course, there are exceptions, but very few adult people attains native proficiency when learning a second language. Adults can learn vocabulary and grammar structures and then use them. Probably they will not have an accurate accent. But it's better not to bother about it. The only way is to use a language, to communicate: to hear the radio, watch TV and movies, etc. to improve it.
There were some studies in the 70's about people of different ages who were set in the USA at different ages. Only the people who arrived to the USA when they were very young had improved a native like proficiency. The rest could speak English very well, but as foreigners.
Children need some conditions to be successful:
Teachers need to interact
Objectives have to be realistic
There must be plenty of exposure
The need to communicate.
In the example seen in class, the conversation between a little baby girl Ariadna and her caretaker (or mother)
1. Input characteristics
(A child needs to hear
Analysis of interaction adjustments
(A child needs to interact with other
Analysis of baby talk
(a child acquires language)
Chomsky thinks children have the capacity to learn a language if they are exposed to that language.
First language acquisition
When you learn a language through communication you emit utterances and sentences as “ME NO GO” as most of street learners do.
In an English school they will probably teach you complete sentences.
When children learn a language they tend to simplify I.e.
What are you wearing?
(Usually the article will be avoided by children.)
There are different stages in the babies general acquisition process of a first language:
Pre-language: “cooing”, “babbling” between 3-10 months. There is not a language but a communication process. Babies learn that their sound have a response.
Holophrastic stage: single unit utterances: “bup-bup” “mama” “iaia” “mem” “xo” (between 12 and 18 months). It's a one word stage, but each words means a complete sentence. Second language learners do something similar and are not aware of the different words that compose a sentence: ya está “iatá”
Two word stage: “mama sopa” “posa pijama” the meaning depends on the context. (since 18 months). We can understand babies because we interact with them.
Telegraphic speech: Only the main words appear: “iaia dona meva” “jersei nina petita” (between 2-3 years old).
Communication takes place in all of the stages. Children produce speech and receive feedback (la riqueza recibida como respuesta).
Language and the brain in G. Yule The study of language.
The ability to use language is located
in the brain NEUROLINGUISTICS
(Speech Motor Cortex
production) muscle movement
Localisation view: the activity involved in hearing a word, understanding it and then saying it, would follow a definite pattern:
1. Heard and comprehended via Wernicke's area
2. Transferred via the arcuate fasciculus to Broca's area
(where preparations are made to produce it)
3. The motor cortex physically articulates the word
Investigation always through indirect sources: we cannot obtain direct physical evidence of linguistic processes in the brain.
Tongue tips and slips
Through different errors and occasional difficulties of speech researchers found clues to the linguistic organisation of our brain:
Tip of the tongue phenomenon:
Words probably stored on the basis of phonological similarities?
Secant / sextet / sexton sextant
Slip of the tongue phenomenon:
Sounds carried from one word to the next?
You beel fetter You feel better
Black bloxes Black boxes
Slips of the ear phenomenon:
How the brain tries to make sense of the auditory signal?
great ape grey tape
Difficulties constantly suffered
Impairment of language due to cerebral damage, almost always left hemisphere.
Difficulty in understanding and producing linguistic forms
Reduced amount of speech, distorted articulation, slow effortless speech. Also called agrammatic aphasia:
I eggs and eat and drink coffee breakfast
Fluent speech which is difficult to make sense of:
It's blowing, on the right and er there is four letters in it, and I think it begins with C when you start it then goes right up in the air. I would I would have to keep racking my brain how I would spell that word. That flies, that that doesn't fly, if you pull it round, it goes up in the air. Kite
Conduction aphasia (less common than previous)
What is heard and understood cannot be transferred to the speech production area
Dichotic listening test
It's usually accepted that most of the people have language functions in the left hemisphere. How to confirm?
Through experiments we know that:
Anything experienced in the right hand side of the body is processed in the left hemisphere of the brain.
Anything in the left hand side is processed in the in the right hemisphere.
The specialisation of left hemisphere for language -lateralisation- is an early process. Coincides with the critical period.
Second language acquisition. The concept of interlanguage. Interlanguage development. Input, output, interaction. Learner factors.
How do we learn languages?
Task 1 chapter 4
Checking our own beliefs about a second language learning:
One clue to know that you are learning a language is through your mistakes: mistakes are not imitation, so they demonstrate you are creating learning mechanisms.
Ways to make English speech comprehensible:
Simplify the input
slower speech rate
longer and natural pauses
controlled sentence length and complexity
Adding contextual clues
kinesics: gestures, facial expressions, acting out meanings
concrete referents: visuals, realia (real things)
topics known to the children
exaggerate intonation at times
Promoting communicative interaction
Variety of question types
Personalise the conversation
Promoting a positive attitude
maintain a low anxiety level
Task: Class activity. English class video
At this point we were shown an English class video. The teacher interacts with 7 year old children to teach numbers, colours, parts of the human body and garments.
She is very active, ask a lot of easy questions to her pupils so they cans answer. She says “very good” all the time to reinforce their collaborating attitude.
Is a good example of the work of a teacher in an English class for beginners.
The concept of interlanguage
When you tray to use all the concepts you have learnt in your previous English classes and you do your best effort, the language as a result of you try is called interlanguage.
At this point we heard a tape recording of a boy explaining (trying to explain) the drawings of a book. It is the story of two children having some fun in the country.
Before mastering a language you go on your learning in different stages. The stages appear when learners produce language freely. But you need to use a language. If you don't use a language you do not acquire the use of speaking.
The interlanguage so, is the type of language produced by second (foreign language) learners who are in the process of learning a language.
There are always errors. What is an error?
When writing and speaking, is the use of a linguistic item (a word, a grammatical item, a speech act, etc.) resulting in an unacceptable utterance and sentence. It occurs because the learners have not yet internalised the rules of the code.
The Natural Route: L2 learners go through a number of transitional states en route to acquire the target language rules: Natural order, developmental sequence).
We can say all the people learn driving by the same highway. But there a lot of differences between them: the speed, the stops... all by the same road, but with different acquisition speeds in the different stages.
Which are these stages?
variability between firsts learners
contribution to learning (TPLR: total physical response)
types: formulas, patterns, scripts
memorised language identification
functions: communicative function, production strategies, learning strategies.
structural simplification (omisión morfemas y palabras funcionales)
Morphologic instability : formulaic speech
It consist of expressions which are learned and unanalysed wholes or “chunks” (words learned as a whole, i.e. “how are you?”)
Formulaic language: routines on speech.
The interlanguage does not follow the rules of the target language. Usually learners repeat to negotiate the meaning and uses the expansion to develop interaction.
There is not automatic speech production: there are stops to look for word and find them.
Interlanguage does not follow the rules of the target language. It has:
Simple short sentences
Sentences patterned by subject-verb-object (canonic order)
Similar words to overcome problems
Class learning is focussed in form but children acquire it partially
There is a phenomena that may occur and is called fossilisation. It is whereby linguistic items (particularly erroneous ones) become permanent in a learners interlanguage. It may occur in relation to any linguistic level.
Display questions: a question to which the one who asks already knows the answer. (Ex. What colour is you T-shirt?)
Genuine questions: They are asked when there is a focus on information. The one who asks does not know the answer in advance. (Ex. What did you do at the weekend?)
NEGOTIATION OF MEANING
When learners interact with native speakers, language teachers or learners, they often experience considerable difficulties in communicating. This leads to substantial interactional efforts by the conversational partners to secure mutual understanding.
This work if often called negotiation of meaning (modified interactions)
Task: Class activity. Checking own beliefs29-III-2005
5. Bilingualism. Educational aspects of bilingualism. BICS and CALP Plurilingual and pluricultural competence
We are facing a multilingual situation.
What does it mean competence in language?
Bilingualism can be analysed:
at a macro level: SOCIAL BILINGUALISM.
from an individual level: INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGE
How do we use language among us?
We can analyse the competence and the use of a language to communicate.
Individual: Popular speech: bilingual is “a person who speaks 2 languages equally well”
Or could we say “a person who has some functional ability in a second language”?
It is preferred to consider that bilingualism has differet levels:
A top level: or balanced bilingualism (expert translators)
A low level: limited ability : recent immigrant.
Of course there are many intermediate situations with their different level of competence.
Way of acquisition
Age and time
L.1 : baby dominant mother tongue
L.2 : additional language : English in England / Spanish in Spain.
FL. : School subject : English in Spain
With different level of competence
We use the language for:
Internal functions :
External functions (sometimes depends on the context)
Individual selection for the language a book is written
The use depends on:
Who are you
Who are you talking to
Where are you
A person who knows or uses 3 or more languages. Usually does not know all the languages equally well.
The situations are:
Speak and understand 1 language best
Be able to write in only one
Use each language in different types os situation (home, work...)
Use each language for different communicative purposes (talking about science, religious purposes, personal feelings...)
The European linguistic trend in Europe
Is being interested in knowing languages
To interest children to understand and develop an open attitude to language and other countries
To become aware of language differences
Multilingualism can be favoured in school using the same children of the schools
Analysis of attitudes towards target language through psychological positions.
Attitude towards Native culture Target culture
Positive with L.1 and target language
Negative with own culture. Positive with target culture
All negative: forget L.1 and no target language
Only interested in L.1 no interested or negative target language
All of them are a question of degree
There is an intersection between the own language and the L.1 language of a new culture (country)
The theory says the intersection between L.1 and a target language plays a very important role to arrive or not to proficiency in the new language.
Definition of the previously stated aspects:
Additive bilingualism: a speaker adds a second language without any loss of competence in L.1
Subtractive bilingualism: The addition of a second language leds to a gradual erosion of competence in the first language
Semilingualism: In some contexts, when learners of a L.2 develop negative attitude towards both their owns attitude and that of the target language: the learners fail to develop full proficiency in either language (this point is controversial)
BICS means: Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills.
Is the kind of proficiency that learners require in order to engage effectively in face-to-face communication (context-embeded uses of language)
CALPS means: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Is the kind of proficiency required to engage effectively in academic study. It involves the ability to communicate messages in tasks that are context-reduced and cognitively demanding.
So we can say that BICS is the proficiency in face to face communication plus context and CALPS is the proficiency in academic communication with reduced context.
Task: Self evaluation of linguistic and communicative performance and skills in the languages you know.5-IV-2005
6. The study of language. Levels of analysis. Linguistic context. Social context
Graphological: writing system, spelling
Phonological: phonemes, intonation
Words: morphology, lexemas
Syntax: structure of sentences
Cohesion: the ties that connect up units of speech
Discourse: The use of language in speech and writing to achieve pragmatic meaning. The larger the units we deal with, the less we idealise the data.
Task: Spanish, Catalan and English vowels.7. Phonetics and phonology. Phonemes. Phones and allophones. Minimal pairs and sets. Concepts and applications
The study of speech sounds.
ARTICULATORY PHONETICS: The way in which speech sounds are produced (position of the lips, tongue, vocal cords, etc.)
ACOUSTIC PHONETICS: Transmissions of speech sounds through the air (sound waves) . Use of instruments.
PHONETIC SYMBOLS: Special symbols which express the sounds of a spoken utterance in writing.
The sound can be:
Bilabials, labiodental, dental, alveolar, alveopalatal, velar and glotal.
Phonetics: Describes the sounds and how people articulates to produce speech.
Phonology: Branch of linguistics that investigates the sound systems of human language. So, it describes phonemes.
A phoneme: is the smallest sound segment which can differentiate meanings. They are units of analysis and abstractions from the set of sounds.
The learners, when speaking L.2 have a tendency to unify. So, their pronunciation looks for the vowel pronunciation reference of the first language.
Minimal pair test
meanings are different
But there are other words that can receive a different pronunciation although they do not have a different meaning:
These are Allophones: The very in the same phoneme: not everybody has the same pronunciation even between the people who masters the language or L.1 speakers
Contrasting the sounds, exploring the sounds, we describe differences between words.
At a phonetic level, confusions are between sounds that are very similar each other.
There are not pronunciation classes in primary schools, but pronunciation is very important to allow communication and is a basic communicational skill.
IPA : International Phonetic Alphabet
Allows people who doesn't master a language to pronounce with certain accuracy the words they have never heard before through an phonetic alphabet that can be used for all languages.
In English the IPA transcribes the standard British English pronunciation. But in certain dictionaries it is possible to find a variety of pronunciation transcriptions from different countries (Canada, Australia, USA and even from different social classes)
Supra Segmental features
Pronunciation is not only a question of phonemes but a question of stress.
The stress is the pronunciation of a word or a syllable with more force than the surrounding words or syllables (more air from the lungs)
The stress of a word can be found in a dictionary through the phonetic transcription.
Teachers may use songs to teach stress to young learners, as this one:
Five little monkeys jumping on the bed
one fell off and bumped his head.
Mummy phoned the doctor and the doctor said:
“No more jumping on the bed.”
Task: Teachers speech analysis
8. Words and word-formation processes. Coinage. Borrowing. Compounding. Blending. Clipping. Derivation. Prefixes and suffixes.
Learning a word
Ability to make sense Ability to activate
of a word (understand) the word automatically
There are words that users understand but are incapable to use. They understand them by context or because they have already known the word although they have forgotten it.
Other words they know are never used to produce speech because the process is not automated. So, they must retrieve them looking for them in their memory. So users probable will choose another word to replace it.
People do not know words automatically. They need to retrieve them, so they need time to find them before they produce speech. They look for the words in their long term memory.
Other words that are forgotten is because they are only in the short term memory. Usually words are first stored in the short term memory. But they can be easily forgot.
Also words learnt by heart are forgotten easily.
The only really useful memory is the long term memory by constant use and also when there is a significative store of words.
How does memory store words?
(spoken/written words) (spoken/written words)
When a learner learns a word, is learning the:
meaning (or at least a part of its meaning)
use (in which context may be used)
Foreign language classes need different activities and repetitions to let students learn new words.
Which is the storage to learn a word?
Learners must be exposed to that words. Orally first, then written. If both at a time, may probably occur that only one of the forms will be learnt (probably written form).
So. first of all is the phonological shape, then written shape.
Words are stored probably by association:
Considering this aspect, to play word chains in class is a good way to learn new words and store them in the long term memory (associating words to a topic: birthday/cake/presents, etc.)
Allowing to insert the news words in the long term memory and practising them and being exposed to the words, it will be easier to retrieve the words for an everyday use: the learner will have a retrieving knowledge and practice to produce speech.
The basic English as a core (fundamental) list of words was designed in 1930. It was a list of 850 words.
In 1953 the General Service List determined that 2000 words were basic to speak English.
We usually understand that 850 words involve some 12.000 different meanings.
In the other hand, a common vocabulary to everybody implies a problem because there are different needs and interests.
Now, you find a list of topics: everyday life for instance. By analysing words formation or how each word associate can be helpful for learning:
Coinage: invention of new words
Borrowing: words from other languages
Eponyms: words originated from a previous name.
Aspirin: Coinage: new word
Nylon: Coinage: new word
Kleenex: Coinage: new word
Learners invent and borrow new words. Sometime children try to give an English pronunciation to words:
The panch (la pancha)
Germanic words French origin equivalent
Pig pork, bacon
There are also blended words (mixed words):
Clipping: to reduce a word to a piece of it
Abbreviations and acronyms:
Acronyms: NATO, AIDS, LASER.
MP.........Member of Parliament
BBC.......British Broadcasting Corporation
CIA.......Central Intelligence Agency
Two or more words combine to create a meaning that differs from that of its parts:
A change is introduced in the function of the word:
Have you buttered the toast?
The team summered in Colorado.
Fax it tomorrow
The formulation of new words by adding affixes (prefixes and suffixes)
Retype / reread
Monologue / monotonous
Undercooked / under worked
Misinform / mislead
Task: Morpheme identification18-IV-2005
9. Morphology. Morphemes: Free and bound morphemes. Derivational versus inflectional
Morphology is the study of morphemes and their different forms (allomorphs) and the way they combine.
The morpheme is the minimal part of a word with a meaning: the smallest meaningful unit in a language.
Kind (one morpheme)
If the d is removed, then the word changes to kin, which has a different meaning.
If the K is removed, then you have IN.
Unkindness (3 morphemes)
The stem kind is the main part, it has a prefix which is un- and a noun forming suffix -ness.
There are different types of morphemes:
If we say SHE TALKS
Talk is the stem
-s is the third person
The -s and -ed are grammatical morphemes. There are not many grammatical morphemes in English although there are a lot in Spanish.
Grammatical morphemes do not have a meaning by themselves.
To form words, children use the prefixes and suffixes.
Kinds of morphemes:
Free lexical morphemes: they have a meaning by themselves. Connect words or open class words: adjectives lexical verbs (not to be) and nouns
Free functional morphemes: closed class words: articles, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns.
Bound derivational: are useful to create new words:
-er -ness -ly
Bound inflectional: third person -s, plurals -s, past -ed
Levels of analysis
Linguistic Context Social context
Graphological: writing system/spelling Discourse: the
Phonological: phonemes, intonation use of language
Words: morphology, lexemes in speech and
Syntax: structure of sentences writing to
Cohesion: the ties that connect up achieve a
Different units of speech pragmatic
The larger the units we deal with, the less we idealise the data.
10. Syntax. Sentence. Clause. Constituent. Phrase: Noun phrase, verb phrase. Preposition phrase.
The sentence is the language unit with a minimum sense of completeness and unity. In the written language we recognise sentences because the begin with a capital letter and have a full stop at the end.
In a sentence we can find:
Simple sentences (clauses)
Complex sentences (co-ordinated and subordinated clauses
A sentence may have different clauses. Each clause has got a verb. Clause may have linkers as: and, but, when...
Usually for children to learn a second language or a foreign language we use books called bridge books, that have a simplified construction to let a easy reading with simple sentences. They may include some co-ordinated clauses. Never subordinated.
Clause: A single sentence consists of only one clause. Whereas a complex sentence consist of more than one clause.
The term refers generally to a linguistic unit which is a component of a larger construction. For example phrases (sintagmas) that make up any clause, the words that make up a phrase or the morphemes that make up a word.
His elbow rested on his hand
NP VP PP
Noun phrase Verb phrase preposition phrase
His: posses. Adj (rest-ed)
Task: Grammar sentences. Grammar for English Teachers. Martin Parrot
Sentences: Oración. Begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. Simple = clause Compuesta = sentence
But must have sense:
El lindo se pajaro al comió gatito.
We know the meaning of the individual words, but the sequence as a whole does not make sense, so, we cannot consider this structure as a sentence.
El gatito lindo se comió al pájaro.
Sintagma: cuando no tiene verbo: el lindo gatito (phrase)
Constituents: parts of a sentence that can be replaced by any word or group of words.
El lindo gatito camina por la calle Pedro camina por la calle
The order of the information provided in a sentence is a crucial factor to be clearly understood: the familiar information and basic information is at the beginning of the clause.
There are different kind of phrases:
noun phrases : This old kettle
verb phrases : want to speak
preposition phrase : on the corner
adjective phrases : not very old
adverb phrases : only once5.5.2005
A proform is a word to refer to something that has been stated before.
Det N V P Det N
This present is from my sister
NP. Noun phrase
VP: verb phrase
PP: preposition phrase
There are also one word phrases: Angela, She, people.
Groups of words including a headword as in:
An illness, my sister, this present, this old kettle.
Analysing the noun phrases we can find the difficulty degree of a text.
Are the part of the sentence which contains the main verbs and also any object(s), complements(s) and adverbial(s)
One word: came
Multiword: look up
Auxiliary verbs: has, been doing, will not come
Two main verbs: like playing, want to go
Det noun V Adj. Phrase
Her brain is clear
Proform V P Pos N
You are sitting on my chair
11. Semantics. Lexical relations. Pragmatics. Discourse analysis
The componential analysis is the inventory of the semantic features encoded in lexical forms.
+ male + the one who has the first academic degree
+ Who has not married
Words have different meanings in the dictionary. Each word has a Denotation.
We may analyse the different semantic possibilities.
Even if you know the word, may be you don't do an accurate use of it. Depending on the culture and language, meanings chance.
An even a native speaker may not have a complete idea of all its meaning or at least, the accurate features of all its meanings.
In the other hand, affixes and suffixes may add more meanings. So, semantics have to consider anything that adds meaning t a word.
Synonyms: cease / stop - broad / wide
Antonyms: quick / slow - North / South - hot / cold
Hyponyms: Rose / flower - meat / food - lettuce / vegetable
Co-hyponyms: horse, dog, hen, pig, etc.
A lexical field are families of words:
- means of transport: train, ship, car
Different synonyms require a careful use, because the context has something to do with it.
Homophones: different spelling same pronunciation
Sale - sail
Homonyms: Same spelling, different meaning
The Bank - The bank of a river
Applications at school are the lexical families to learn vocabulary:
With lexical families, find the wrong one (odd word out)
And the same with synonyms and antonyms.
Also allows to copy words and play with them. For instance, different association of words as:
Dinner / mother / cook / hot / table / chair / cushion / soft / hard / stone / fall / cut / blood / hospital / doctor / home
Each one said by one of the students as in a chain, producing a lexical relationship between this series of words.
It is very difficult to teach vocabulary, so all resources to facilitating this task are necessary.
Pragmatics. Discourse analysis
It is not enough to know the rules or system of a language. We need to know the social context and the social use of a language to be able to interact with it to other speakers.
And there are rules of use of a language: it is not the same to speak to a little girl than speaking to an adult.: speech varies with our different necessities to communicate and to relate with other people.
All communicative acts have an intention: when we talk we have a representation about something or a belief that is communicated to another person.
The paralinguistic information is all the information that is not oral: gesture, intonation, etc. Some sentences change completely its meaning through this phenomena of paralinguistics.
Pragmatics studies all that information together with oral information, focusing on meaning. People tries to adapt their speaking rules or dialect to the geographical area where they are talking.
There is always an adaptation to the place where you are.
Young people, as well, have their own register and probably an adult or older one would not understand.
Registers have to do with intention and not only with literal meaning of the words.
As a conclusion, pragmatics is the study of the speaker meaning (invisible meaning including context, culture, attitudes, situation and paralanguage)
12. Applications. Syllabus Design. Types of syllabus. Language in textbooks The teaching of grammar: deductive, inductive teaching. Explicit and implicit learning/teaching. Focus on form. Incidental focus on form: pre-emptive and reactive.
The Grammar-translation method
GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
It is the traditional method of learning a second language: a system of rules with isolated sentences that are not related to communication.
In the communicative approach, the rules of grammar are implicit in the examples. Tendencies in teaching have follow the pendulum law. And from grammar-translation method, the tendency went to DIRECT METHOD.
|Enviado por:||Víctor Cassi|