The anorexy is an feeding upheaval and it is characterized by a little food ingestion or the severe restriction caused by the fear intense to be fat, accompanied of desire to be thinner, with distortion of the own corporal image, which leads the patient to maintain a weight below the adapted limits, being able to arrive at one serious under nourishment.
CRITERION OF DIAGNOSE *
A. To Rejection to maintain the equal corporal weight or over the normal minimum value considering the age and the stature giving as result an inferior corporal weight to 85 % of expectable weight
B. intense Miedo to gain weight or to become obese, even being below the normal weight. C. Alteration of the perception of the corporal weight or the silhouette, exaggeration of its importance in the car evaluation or negation of the danger that tolerates the low corporal weight.
D. In the pos puberales women, presence of amenorrhoea; for example, absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles.
Restrictive type: during the episode of nervous anorexy, the individual does not resort regularly to stuffings or purges (limitation of ingestion).
Compulsive/purgative type: during the episode of nervous anorexy, the individual regularly resorts to stuffings or purges (provocation of the vomit or excessive use of laxatives, diuretics or enemas)
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISEASE:
PHASE 1: THE LOSS OF WEIGHT
The loss of weight begins and agrees, generally, with the puberty when the girl is constructing her feminine identity. It can have diverse causes.
a) From having (it is dominated if same to lower of weight and to remember that also it can be a medical indication by Diet and/or Disease)
b) From the seduction desire (to see Bonita.)
C) From the property desire (so that they accept the others, social model)
PHASE 2: I CAN BE WELL -known Re-
Regulation of the self-esteem with the weight:
The corporal image regulates the mood and the anguish. (The thin being other valoran. Te you see well. Y me therefore I value myself)
Sensation of “I can” as solution to “I cannot”:
An own recognition exists and of the others, this takes to me to that I can obtain what desire.
In this stage one is due to be alert with activation of mechanisms of stress
- Diminution of the food necessity
- Increase of the movement necessity
- Increase of the muscular tone
- Increase of the speed of cognitive processing
- Increase of the perception and revision of the surroundings
- Inhibition of the emocionalidad.
PHASE 3: APPEARANCE OF THE CONFLICTS
- Conflicts in the relation mother daughter
- Conflicts in the conjugal relation with the daughter
- Unconscious conflicts are influencing slowly in the appearance of the symptoms. They go no single modifying it to her, but to all familiar dynamics.
In order to face the conflicts the patient it maintains such schemes that has used with the feeding and she faces the same characteristics: Being perfectionist, maintaining always its objective, idealised the thinness, sacrificing itself by its objective, being rigidly stubborn and controller.
PHASE 4: THE PROTEST OF THE BODY (Critical Phase):
Diminution of the corporal functions:
- Alterations of the appetite
- Menstrual alterations
- Alterations of the basal metabolism
- Alterations of the vegetative functions: Heart internal-stomach
PHASE 5: The protest of the PSIQUIS (of greater gravity next to the 4)
Narrow Focalization of the psychic life, this talk about to that only it thinks and it feels a thing:
- Its thought is: the weight
- Its desire: the weight
- Its objective: the weight
- Its conflict: the weight
TREATMENS AND TECNICS OF INTERVENTION FOR THE UPHEAVALS OF THE FEEDING:
- Paradoxical Intention.
- Conductual Treatment
- Cognitive Therapy
- Psychotherapy of group.
- Psychology of self
- Familiar Therapy
- Psychotherapy Gestáltic.
- The disorder them of the feeding are only a symptom that conceals a deeper upheaval of personality, where the sociocultural factors are decisive.
Between the most important characteristics they emphasize the obsessive impulse to be thin, distorted image of his body, poor man self-esteem, incapacity to identify hunger sensations, perception of fatter areas of his body, presence of obsessive rituals and an extreme and superstitious thought.
It affects mainly to the adolescent women between 11 and 18 years.
The treatment must be founded on a suitable diagnosis and it is due to consider that exists cases where the hospitalization is absolutely necessary.
Independent of the selected treatment the communication between professionals with the purpose of carrying out a true interdisciplinary collaboration for the consistency of the handling of the case is important, providing to him to the patient physical, psychological and social a balance suitable, and where the therapeutic approach is flexible according to the variations of the state of the patient.