Verbos

Lenguaje. Gramática. Conjugación verbal # Present perfect. Verbs

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  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Chile Chile
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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ( Part I)

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key

“He has lost his key” = He has lost it and he still hasn't got it

Have/has lost is the present perfect tense

I/we/they/you

have

(=I've, we've, etc)

finished

lost

He/she/it

have

(=he's, she's, etc)

...done

...been, etc

The present perfect is have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed ( finished/decided, etc.) but many important verbs are irregular ( lost/done/been/written, etc.)

When we use the presente perfect there is always a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

  • “Where's your key?”. “ I dont know. I've lost it” ( I haven't got it now)

  • “He told me his name but I've forgotten it ( I can't remember it now)

  • “Is Sally here?” “ No, she's gone out ( She is out now)

We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

  • Ow! I've cut my finger

  • The road is closed. There's been(= there has been) an accident

  • (from the news) The police has arrested two men in connection with the robbery

You can use the present perfect then with, just, already and yet:

JUST= `a short time ago':

  • `Would you like something to eat?

  • 'Hello! Have you just arrived?

No,thanks.I've just had lunch

Yes, I've just arrived!

We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected.

  • `Don't forget to post the letter !

`I've already posted it'

  • `What time is Mark leaving?'

`He's already gone'

YET = `until now' and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use “yet” only in questions and negative sentences.

  • Has it stopped raining yet?

  • I've written the letter but I haven't post it yet

Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to)

  • Jim is away on holidays. He has gone to Spain. (= he is there now or on his way there)

  • Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy (= she has now come back form Italy)

EXERCISES

1.- Your are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about you and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the Present Perfect Tense:

Dear Chris,

Many things have happened since I last wrote you.

I/buy/a new car

My father/start/ a new job

I/give up/smoking

Charles and Sarah/go/to Brazil

Suzanne/have / a baby

2.Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following

arrive break go up improve lose

Mike is looking for his key.He can't find it

He has lost his key

Margaret can't walk with her leg in plaster

Maria's English wasn't very good. Now it is much better

Tim didn't have a beard last month. Now has has a bear

This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it

Last week the bus far was $200. Now it's $300

3.Complete B's sentences. Use the verb in brackets ( ) + just/already/yet

A B

Would you like something to eat?

No,thanks. I've just had lunch( just/ have)

Do you know where Julia is?

Yes, I her(just/see)

What time is David leaving?

He ( already/leave)

What's in the newspaper today?

I don't know. I

(not/read/yet)

Is Anne coming to the cinema with us?

No,she the film(already/see)

Are your friend here yet?

Yes, they (just/arrive)

What does Tim thinks about the plan?

I (not/tell/yet)

PRESENT PERFECT ( PART II)

Study this example conversation:

Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Jane?

Jane: Yes, I've been to lots of places

Dave: Have you ever been to China?

Jane: Yes, I've been to China twice

Dave: What about India?

Jane: No, I haven't been to India

Past Now

When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now, we use the present perfect tense ( have been/have travelled, etc)

More examples:

  • Have you ever eaten caviar? ( in your life)

  • We've never had a car

  • Have you read Romeo and Juliet? No, I have never read any Shakespeare's plays

  • Susan really loves that film. She has seen it 8 times

Exercises

You are asking someone questions about the things he or she has done. Make questions from the words in brackets()

  • (ever/ride/horse? Have you ever ridden a horse?

  • (ever/be/California?)

  • (ever/run/marathon')

  • (ever/speak/famous person?

  • (always/live/in this city')

  • (ever/be/Antartic?)

  • (ever/be/Zoo')

  • (ever/be/arrested by police?)

  • (ever/visit/a museum?)

  • (ever/fly/an helicopter?

  • (ever/see/Charles Chaplin's movie?)

  • (ever/be/severely injured?)

  • (ever/stay up/6am?)

  • (ever/see/dolphin?)

  • (ever/eat/chocolate cake')

  • (ever/drive/drunk?)

  • (ever/wear/glasses?)

  • (ever/be/in hurricane?)

  • (ever/ride/a camel')

  • (ever/sail/a transatlantic?)

  • (ever/see/Matrix?)

  • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ( Part III)

    SINCE & FOR

    SINCE

    FOR

    8 o'clock

    Monday

    May12th

    April

    1977

    Christmas

    Lunchtime

    They were at school

    Two hours

    20 minutes

    five days

    six months

    A week

    50 years

    a long time

    ages

    Exercises

    I haven't seen you

    Christmas/three days

    We've been here

    And hour / January

    She hasn't spoken to me

    More than two years/last week

    They have lived in this street

    1919/the last 10 years/ a long time

    I haven't had time to do it

    I was ill/ last monday

    We haven't bought any new ones

    A week/ages/then

    There hasnt been famine here

    Centuries/the Middle Ages

    I haven't eaten any meat

    Over a year/ I was a boy

    Nobody has written to me

    Many weeks/my birthday

    You've asked the same question every day

    The beginning of the year/the last week

    She has worn the same old dress

    At leat a month/the beginning of the month

    I havent spoken Spanish

    1925/ ten years

    I haven't ridden a bike

    I was a boy/ my childhood

    It hasnt rained here

    Yesterday/ March

    Jane's life

    (a period until now )