Verbos en Inglés

Gramática inglesa. Conjugación verbal

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  • Idioma: castellano
  • País: España España
  • 7 páginas
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Present simple------------------------------------------------------------pag2

Present continuous-----------------------------------------------------pag3

Future------------------------------------------------------------------------pag4

Present continuous for the future---------------------------------pag5

Past simple-----------------------------------------------------------------pag6

Past continuous----------------------------------------------------------pag7

Past perfect----------------------------------------------------------------pag8

Present perfect-----------------------------------------------------------pag9

Conditional:

If clauses (type 1 / type 2)-------------------------------------pag10

PRESENT SIMPLE

+) Subject + Verb infinitive + Complements

I drive a car

-) Subject + don't / doesn't (3ª persona singular) + Complements

I don't drive a car

?) Do / Does (3ª persona singular) + Subject + Verb infinitive + Complements?

Do you drive a car?

Uses:

  • Usamos el Present Simple para acciones que ocurren, acciones habituales (cosas que son ciertas siempre):

She speaks English

  • Lo usamos para situaciones que existen durante mucho tiempo, y para acciones que se repiten:

I work in a hospital

He plays football every week

  • Lo usamos con los verbos de pensamiento o de sentimiento:

I don't know which bus to catch

  • Para horarios y programas:

The bus leaves at 2:30

  • Para acciones programadas para el futuro:

Next month he plays a football match

+) You sing a song / She is pretty

-) We don't write so much / It doesn't sound like me

?) Do you live here? Does he play football?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

+) Subject + to be + Verb -ing + Complements

I am playing football now

-) Subject + to be + not + Verb -ing + Complements

He is not playing football

?) To be + Subject + Verb -ing + Complements?

Are you playing football?

Uses:

  • Acciones que están ocurriendo en el momento de hablar:

Now, I'm doing an exam

  • Acciones que ocurrirán en un futuro próximo:

She is going to the cinema this afternoon

  • Acciones repetidas, que expresan cierto tono de queja:

They are always copying the exercises

  • Acciones incompletes, que están en progreso en el presente y que se refieren a un espacio de tiempo más amplio:

These days we are giving newspapers to all neighbours

+) I'm going to work / She is playing the guitar at the moment

-) He is not going to school these days / They aren't laughing so much

?) Are we giving information? / Is he reading a book?

FUTURE

+) Subject + will + Verb Infinitive + Complements

He will go to work

-) Subject + will not / won't + Verb Infinitive + Complements

We won't go to work

?) Will + Subject + Verb Infinitive + Complements?

Will you go to work?

Uses:

  • Predicciones:

I think we will win

  • Acciones que ocurrirán en un momento concreto del futuro:

Tomorrow you'll go to work by car

  • Decisiones espontáneas:

I'm bored. I will not come with you another time

+) You will go to school / He'll stay with you

-) I won't work tomorrow / They'll think about this

?) Will she type a letter? / Will we take a break?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR THE FUTURE

+) Subject + to be + going to + Verb Infinitive + Complements

I'm going to watch TV

-) Subject + to be + not + going to + Verb Infinitive + Complements

He's not going to watch TV

?) To be + Subject + going to + Verb Infinitive + Complements?

Are you going to watch TV?

Uses:

  • Planes e intenciones a largo plazo en el futuro:

Are you going to do a travel around Europe?

  • Acciones que se ve positivamente que van a ocurrir porque se tiene una evidencia:

She is going to laugh

+) I'm going to have a party / She is going to speak

-) He is not going to say anything / They're going to paint with this colour

?) Are we going to go to the cinema? / Is he going to drive a car?

PAST SIMPLE

+) Subject + Verb past (-ed / 3ª columna lista verbos irregulares) + Complements

They drank an orange juice

-) Subject + did not + Verb Infinitive + Complements

I didn't drink an orange juice

?) Did + Subject + Verb Infinitive + Complements?

Did you drink an orange juice?

Uses:

  • Acciones terminadas ocurridas en un momento concreto del pasado:

I played golf last day

  • Acciones consecutivas en el pasado:

Yesterday I only ate a sandwich, so I was hungry and I had more food

  • Una acción que interrumpe a otra acción ya en progreso en el pasado:

We were having lunch when he arrived

+) They drank a coke / I had a shower last night

-) She didn't go to the concert / He didn't copy the text

?) Did you turn on the light? / Did we tidy the room?

PAST CONTINUOUS

+) Subject + to be + Verb -ing + Complements

I was jumping

-) Subject + to be + not + Verb -ing + Complements

She was not jumping

?) To be + Subject + Verb -ing + Complements?

Were you jumping?

Uses:

  • Acciones que estaban ocurriendo en un momento del pasado:

Yesterday I was eating something for dinner

  • Una acción ya en progreso que fue interrumpida por otra acción:

They were copying the exam when the teacher saw them

  • Acciones que ocurrían al mismo tiempo en el pasado:

While we were talking, a girl was listening what we said

  • Acciones repetidas o monótonas en el pasado, que denotan cierta queja:

He was always stopping the lesson

  • Descripciones y escenificaciones:

The sun was rising yesterday, like another day

+) I was waiting her / You were waiting the train

-) They were not playing squash / She wasn't dancing with him

?) Were you arriving late? / Was it doing a lot of noise?

PAST PERFECT

+) Subject + had + Verb participio (-ed / 3ª columna si es un verbo irregular) + Complements

She had been at the library

-) Subject + had + not + Verb participio + Complements

I hadn't been at the library

?) Had + Subject + Verb participio + Complements?

Had they been at the library?

Uses:

  • Para acciones que ocurrieron con anterioridad a otra acción también pasada:

I had gone before he arrived

  • Para acciones acabadas antes de un momento definido del pasado:

He had been at work by midday

+) You had arrived after me / She had drunk an orange juice

-) I had pushed it / We had waked up very late

?) Had he done the exercises? / Had they jumped in?

PRESENT PERFECT

+) Subject + have / has + been + Verb -ing + Complements

They have been playing basket with me

-) Subject + have / has + not + been + Verb -ing + Complements

We have not been watching the film

?) Have / has + Subject + been + Verb -ing + Complements?

Has he been listening to radio?

Uses:

  • Acciones pasadas que, aunque ya terminaron, guardan relación con el presente:

I have opened a shop in Next Street.

  • Acciones que acaban de terminar. En este caso la estructura es: have + just + participio, y se traduce por: acabar de + infinitivo:

She has just finished the project.

  • Acciones que empezaron en el pasado pero continúan en el presente:

They have lived in this house during two years.

  • Acciones pasadas sin dar ninguna indicación del momento en que ocurrieron:

You have played the guitar two times.

+) I have looked this book three times / You have bought a lot of things.

-) He has stayed at home this weekend / She has worked in the factory.

?) Have we watched TV? / Have they played tennis?

CONDITIONAL

+) Subject + Would + Verb Infinitive + Complements

I would meet a famous person

-) Subject + Wouldn't / Would not + Verb Infinitive + Complements

I wouldn't meet a famous person

?) Would + Subject + Verb Infinitive + Complements?

Would you meet a famous person?

Uses:

  • Se usa para expresar una acción futura:

He would be a famous person.

+) I would be rich / You would travel a lot

-) He wouldn't drive a Mercedes car / She wouldn't be a famous person

?) Would you be a king? / Would they play football with FC.Barcelona?

IF CLAUSES

TYPE 1:

If + Subject + Verb Present, Subject + Verb Future + Complements

If she wants to buy a car, she will learn to drive

If you are rich, you will buy a lot of things.

They will travel a lot, if they had a car.

TYPE 2:

If + Subject + Verb Past, Subject + Verb Conditional + Complements

If she had a radio, she would listen music

If we stayed at home, we would watch TV

You would buy a computer, If your parents had money

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