US (United States) Code. Title 49. Subtitle VI: Motor vehicle. Part C. Chapter 331: Theft prevention

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-CITE-

49 USC CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-MISC1-

Sec.

33101. Definitions.

33102. Theft prevention standard for high theft lines.

33103. Theft prevention standard for other lines.

33104. Designation of high theft vehicle lines and parts.

33105. Cost limitations.

33106. Exemption for passenger motor vehicles equipped with

anti-theft devices.

33107. Voluntary vehicle identification standards.

33108. Monitoring compliance of manufacturers.

33109. National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information

System.

33110. Verifications involving junk and salvage motor

vehicles.

33111. Verifications involving motor vehicle major parts.

33112. Insurance reports and information.

33113. Theft reports.

33114. Prohibited acts.

33115. Civil penalties and enforcement.

33116. Confidentiality of information.

33117. Judicial review.

33118. Preemption of State and local law.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in section 32705 of this title; title

18 section 2721.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33101 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33101. Definitions

-STATUTE-

In this chapter -

(1) "chop shop" means a building, lot, facility, or other

structure or premise at which at least one person engages in

receiving, concealing, destroying, disassembling, dismantling,

reassembling, or storing a passenger motor vehicle or passenger

motor vehicle part that has been unlawfully obtained -

(A) to alter, counterfeit, deface, destroy, disguise,

falsify, forge, obliterate, or remove the identity of the

vehicle or part, including the vehicle identification number or

a derivative of that number; and

(B) to distribute, sell, or dispose of the vehicle or part in

interstate or foreign commerce.

(2) "covered major part" means a major part selected under

section 33104 of this title for coverage by the vehicle theft

prevention standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of

this title.

(3) "existing line" means a line introduced into commerce

before January 1, 1990.

(4) "first purchaser" means the person making the first

purchase other than for resale.

(5) "line" means a name that a manufacturer of motor vehicles

applies to a group of motor vehicle models of the same make that

have the same body or chassis, or otherwise are similar in

construction or design.

(6) "major part" means -

(A) the engine;

(B) the transmission;

(C) each door to the passenger compartment;

(D) the hood;

(E) the grille;

(F) each bumper;

(G) each front fender;

(H) the deck lid, tailgate, or hatchback;

(I) each rear quarter panel;

(J) the trunk floor pan;

(K) the frame or, for a unitized body, the supporting

structure serving as the frame; and

(L) any other part of a passenger motor vehicle that the

Secretary of Transportation by regulation specifies as

comparable in design or function to any of the parts listed in

subclauses (A)-(K) of this clause.

(7) "major replacement part" means a major part that is -

(A) an original major part in or on a completed motor vehicle

and customized or modified after manufacture of the vehicle but

before the time of its delivery to the first purchaser; or

(B) not installed in or on a motor vehicle at the time of its

delivery to the first purchaser and the equitable or legal

title to the vehicle has not been transferred to a first

purchaser.

(8) "model year" has the same meaning given that term in

section 32901(a) of this title.

(9) "new line" means a line introduced into commerce after

December 31, 1989.

(10) "passenger motor vehicle" includes a multipurpose

passenger vehicle or light duty truck when that vehicle or truck

is rated at not more than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight.

(11) "vehicle theft prevention standard" means a minimum

performance standard for identifying major parts of new motor

vehicles and major replacement parts by inscribing or affixing

numbers or symbols on those parts.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1076; Pub. L.

103-429, Sec. 6(44), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4383; Pub. L.

104-287, Sec. 6(d)(1)(B), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3399.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

PUB. L. 103-272

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33101(1) 15:2021(11). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

601(11); added Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

301(b), 106 Stat. 3394.

33101(2) 15:2021(6). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

601(2)-(7), (9), (10); added

Oct. 25, 1984, Pub. L.

98-547, Sec. 101(a), 98

Stat. 2755, 2756.

33101(3) 15:2021(3).

33101(4) 15:2021(5).

33101(5) 15:2021(2).

33101(6) 15:2021(7).

33101(7) 15:2021(8). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

601(1), (8); added Oct. 25,

1984, Pub. L. 98-547, Sec.

101(a), 98 Stat. 2755;

restated Oct. 25, 1992, Pub.

L. 102-519, Sec. 301(a),

(c), 106 Stat. 3393, 3394.

33101(8) 15:2021(9).

33101(9) 15:2021(4).

33101(10) 15:2021(1).

33101(11) 15:2021(10).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In clause (2), the words "section 33102(c)(1)" are substituted

for "section 2022(d)(1)(B)" to correct an erroneous

cross-reference. Section 302(1) of the Act of October 25, 1992

(Public Law 102-519, 106 Stat. 3394), restated section 602(d)(1)(A)

and (B) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act

(Public Law 92-513, 86 Stat. 947) as section 602(d)(1) without

making a corresponding change in the cross-reference restated in

this section.

In clause (3), the words "before January 1, 1990" are substituted

for "before the beginning of the 2-year period specified in section

2023(a)(1)(A) of this title" for clarity. See the revision notes

for section 33104 of the revised title.

In clause (5), the words "of motor vehicles" are added for

consistency in this chapter.

Clause (6)(I) is substituted for "rear quarter panels" for

clarity and consistency.

In clause (7)(A), the word "completed" is omitted as unnecessary

because of the restatement.

In clause (9), the words "after December 31, 1989" are

substituted for "on or after the beginning of the 2-year period

specified in section 2023(a)(1)(A) of this title" for clarity and

consistency.

PUB. L. 103-429, SEC. 6(44)(A)

This corrects a cross-reference in 49:33101(2) by eliminating the

reference to 49:33102(c)(1). Section 302(1) of the Anti Car Theft

Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-519, 106 Stat. 3394) restated section

602(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost

Savings Act (Public Law 92-513, 86 Stat. 947) as section 602(d)(1)

without making a change in the cross-reference in section 601(6) to

section 602(d)(1)(B).

PUB. L. 103-429, SEC. 6(44)(B)

This makes a conforming amendment for consistency with the style

of title 49.

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Pub. L. 104-287 made technical amendment to directory

language of Pub. L. 103-429, Sec. 6(44)(B). See 1994 Amendment note

below.

1994 - Par. (2). Pub. L. 103-429, Sec. 6(44)(B), as amended by

Pub. L. 104-287, inserted "of this title" before period at end.

Pub. L. 103-429, Sec. 6(44)(A), substituted "section 33104" for

"sections 33102(c)(1) and 33104".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Section 6(d) of Pub. L. 104-287 provided that the amendment made

by that section is effective Oct. 31, 1994.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 103-429 effective July 5, 1994, see section

9 of Pub. L. 103-429, set out as a note under section 321 of this

title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 32101 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33102 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33102. Theft prevention standard for high theft lines

-STATUTE-

(a) General. - (1) The Secretary of Transportation by regulation

shall prescribe a vehicle theft prevention standard that conforms

to the requirements of this chapter. The standard shall apply to -

(A) covered major parts that manufacturers install in passenger

motor vehicles in lines designated under section 33104 of this

title as high theft lines; and

(B) major replacement parts for the major parts described in

clause (A) of this paragraph.

(2) The standard may apply only to -

(A) major parts that manufacturers install in passenger motor

vehicles having a model year designation later than the calendar

year in which the standard takes effect; and

(B) major replacement parts manufactured after the standard

takes effect.

(b) Standard Requirements. - The standard shall be practicable

and provide relevant objective criteria.

(c) Limitations on Major Part and Replacement Part Standards. -

(1) For a major part installed by the manufacturer of the motor

vehicle, the standard may not require a part to have more than one

identification.

(2) For a major replacement part, the standard may not require -

(A) identification of a part not designed as a replacement for

a major part required to be identified under the standard; or

(B) the inscribing or affixing of identification except a

symbol identifying the manufacturer and a common symbol

identifying the part as a major replacement part.

(d) Records and Reports. - This chapter does not authorize the

Secretary to require a person to keep records or make reports,

except as provided in sections 33104(c), 33106(c), 33108(a), and

33112 of this title.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1077.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33102(a)(1) 15:2022(a). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

602(a), (b), (c)(1)-(3),

(5), (d)(2); added Oct. 25,

1984, Pub. L. 98-547, Sec.

101(a), 98 Stat. 2756.

33102(a)(2) 15:2022(c)(1)-(3),

(5).

33102(b) 15:2022(b).

33102(c) 15:2022(d)(1). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

602(d)(1); added Oct. 25,

1984, Pub. L. 98-547, Sec.

101(a), 98 Stat. 2756;

restated Oct. 25, 1992, Pub.

L. 102-519, Sec. 302(1), 106

Stat. 3394.

33102(d) 15:2022(e). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

602(e); added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2756; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "in accordance

with this section" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the text of 15:2022(c)(1)-(3) is omitted as

obsolete because the standard has already been prescribed. See 49

C.F.R. part 541.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33101, 33104, 33105,

33106, 33107, 33108, 33112, 33114, 33115, 33118 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33103 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33103. Theft prevention standard for other lines

-STATUTE-

(a) General. - Not later than October 25, 1994, the Secretary of

Transportation shall prescribe a vehicle theft standard that

conforms to the requirements of this chapter for covered major

parts that manufacturers install in passenger motor vehicles

(except light duty trucks) in not more than 50 percent of the lines

not designated under section 33104 of this title as high theft

lines.

(b) Extension of Application. - (1) Not later than 3 years after

the standard is prescribed under subsection (a) of this section and

based on the finding of the Attorney General under subsection (c)

of this section to apply the standard, the Secretary shall apply

that standard to covered major parts and major replacement parts

for covered parts that manufacturers install in the lines of

passenger motor vehicles (except light duty trucks) -

(A) not designated under section 33104 of this title as high

theft lines; and

(B) not covered by the standard prescribed under subsection (a)

of this section.

(2) The Secretary shall include as part of the regulatory

proceeding under this subsection the finding of, and the record

developed by, the Attorney General under subsection (c) of this

section.

(c) Initial Review of Effectiveness. - Before the Secretary

begins a regulatory proceeding under subsection (b) of this

section, the Attorney General shall make a finding that the

Secretary shall apply the standard prescribed under subsection (a)

of this section unless the Attorney General finds, based on

information collected and analyzed under section 33112 of this

title and other information the Attorney General develops after

providing notice and an opportunity for a public hearing, that

applying the standard prescribed in subsection (a) to the remaining

lines of passenger motor vehicles (except light duty trucks) not

covered by that standard would not substantially inhibit chop shop

operations and motor vehicle thefts. The Attorney General also

shall consider and include in the record additional costs,

effectiveness, competition, and available alternative factors. The

Attorney General shall submit to the Secretary the finding and

record on which the finding is based.

(d) Long Range Review of Effectiveness. - (1) Not later than

December 31, 1999, the Attorney General shall make separate

findings, after notice and an opportunity for a public hearing, on

the following:

(A) whether the application of the standard under subsection

(a) or (b) of this subsection, or both, have been effective in

substantially inhibiting the operation of chop shops and motor

vehicle theft.

(B) whether the anti-theft devices for which the Secretary has

granted exemptions under section 33106 of this title are an

effective substitute for parts marking in substantially

inhibiting motor vehicle theft.

(2)(A) In making the finding under paragraph (1)(A) of this

subsection, the Attorney General shall -

(i) consider the additional cost, competition, and available

alternatives;

(ii) base that finding on information collected and analyzed

under section 33112 of this title;

(iii) consider the effectiveness, the extent of use, and the

extent to which civil and criminal penalties under section

33115(b) of this title and section 2322 of title 18 on chop shops

have been effective in substantially inhibiting operation of chop

shops and motor vehicle theft;

(iv) base that finding on the 3-year and 5-year reports issued

by the Secretary under section 33113 of this title; and

(v) base that finding on other information the Attorney General

develops and includes in the public record.

(B) The Attorney General shall submit a finding under paragraph

(1)(A) of this subsection promptly to the Secretary. If the

Attorney General finds that the application of the standard under

subsection (a) or (b) of this section, or both, has not been

effective, the Secretary shall issue, not later than 180 days after

receiving that finding, an order terminating the standard the

Attorney General found was ineffective. The termination is

effective for the model year beginning after the order is issued.

(3) In making a finding under paragraph (1)(B) of this

subsection, the Secretary shall consider the additional cost,

competition, and available alternatives. If the Attorney General

finds that the anti-theft devices are an effective substitute, the

Secretary shall continue to grant exemptions under section 33106 of

this title for the model years after model year 2000 at one of the

following levels that the Attorney General decides: at the level

authorized before October 25, 1992, or at the level provided in

section 33106(b)(2)(C) of this title for model year 2000.

(e) Effective Date of Standard. - A standard prescribed under

this section takes effect at least 6 months after the date the

standard is prescribed, except that the Secretary may prescribe an

earlier effective date if the Secretary -

(1) decides with good cause that the earlier date is in the

public interest; and

(2) publishes the reasons for the decision.

(f) Notification of Congress. - The Secretary and the Attorney

General shall inform the appropriate legislative committees of

Congress with jurisdiction over this part and section 2322 of title

18 of actions taken or planned under this section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1078.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33103(a) 15:2022(f)(1) (1st Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

sentence). 92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

602(f); added Oct. 25, 1992,

Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

302(2), 106 Stat. 3394.

33103(b) 15:2022(f)(2) (1st,

2d sentences), (3)

(last sentence).

33103(c) 15:2022(f)(3)

(1st-3d sentences).

33103(d) 15:2022(f)(4), (5).

33103(e) 15:2022(c)(4). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

602(c)(4); added Oct. 25,

1984, Pub. L. 98-547, Sec.

101(a), 98 Stat. 2756.

15:2022(f)(1) (last

sentence), (2)

(last sentence).

33103(f) 15:2022(f)(6).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), the words "foreign and domestic" are omitted

as unnecessary. The words "as high theft lines" are added for

clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "to apply the standard" are added

for clarity. The words "shall apply that standard to covered major

parts and major replacement parts for covered parts that

manufacturers install in the lines of passenger motor vehicles

(except light duty trucks) . . . not designated under section 33104

of this title as high theft lines; and . . . not covered by the

standard prescribed under subsection (a) of this section" are

substituted for "the Secretary . . . shall designate all the

remaining such lines of such passenger motor vehicles (other than

light-duty trucks) and apply such standard to such lines in

conformance with the requirements of this subchapter" for clarity

and because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "The Secretary shall include as

part of the regulatory proceeding under this subsection . . .

developed by the Attorney General under subsection (c) of this

section" are substituted for "shall be a part of the Secretary's

rulemaking record" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "Before the Secretary begins a

regulatory proceeding under subsection (b) of this section" are

substituted for "prior to the Secretary's initiation and

promulgation of a rule" for clarity. The words "applying the

standard prescribed in subsection (a) to the remaining lines of

passenger motor vehicles (except light duty trucks) not covered by

that standard" are substituted for "requiring such additional parts

marking for all of the applicable passenger motor vehicles" for

clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (d)(1)(A), the words "whether the application of

the standard under subsection (a) or (b) of this subsection, or

both" are substituted for "whether one or both rules promulgated

under this subsection" for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2)(A)(iii), the words "civil . . . penalties

under section 33115(b) of this title" are substituted for "civil .

. . penalties under section 2027(b) of this title" to correct an

erroneous cross-reference.

In subsection (d)(3), the words "for the model years after model

year 2000" are substituted for "Nothing in this paragraph affects

exemptions granted in model year 2000 or earlier to any

manufacturer" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "at one of

the following levels that the Attorney General decides" are

substituted for "as determined by the Attorney General" for

clarity.

In subsection (e), the text of 15:2022(c)(4) (related to the

standard under 15:2022(c)(1)) is omitted as obsolete because the

standard under 15:2022(c)(1) has already been prescribed. See 49

C.F.R. 541.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33101, 33105, 33106,

33107, 33108, 33112, 33114, 33115, 33118 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33104 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33104. Designation of high theft vehicle lines and parts

-STATUTE-

(a) Designation, Nonapplication, Selection, and Procedures. - (1)

For purposes of the standard under section 33102 of this title, the

following are high theft lines:

(A) a passenger motor vehicle line determined under subsection

(b) of this section to have had a new passenger motor vehicle

theft rate in the 2-year period covering calendar years 1990 and

1991 greater than the median theft rate for all new passenger

motor vehicle thefts in that 2-year period.

(B) a passenger motor vehicle line initially introduced into

commerce in the United States after December 31, 1989, that is

selected under paragraph (3) of this subsection as likely to have

a theft rate greater than the median theft rate referred to in

clause (A) of this paragraph.

(C) subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection, a passenger

motor vehicle line having (for existing lines) or likely to have

(for new lines) a theft rate below the median theft rate referred

to in clause (A) of this paragraph, if the major parts in the

vehicles are selected under paragraph (3) of this subsection as

interchangeable with the majority of the major parts that are

subject to the standard and are contained in the motor vehicles

of a line described in clause (A) or (B) of this paragraph.

(2) The standard may not apply to any major part of a line

described in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection if all the

passenger motor vehicles of lines that are, or are likely to be,

below the median theft rate, and that contain parts interchangeable

with the major parts of the line involved, account (for existing

lines), or the Secretary of Transportation determines they are

likely to account (for new lines), for more than 90 percent of the

total annual production of all lines of that manufacturer

containing those interchangeable parts.

(3) The lines, and the major parts of the passenger motor

vehicles in those lines, that are to be subject to the standard may

be selected by agreement between the manufacturer and the

Secretary. If the manufacturer and the Secretary disagree on the

selection, the Secretary shall select the lines and parts, after

notice to the manufacturer and opportunity for written comment, and

subject to the confidentiality requirements of this chapter.

(4) To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall

prescribe reasonable procedures designed to ensure that a selection

under paragraph (3) of this subsection is made at least 6 months

before the first applicable model year beginning after the

selection.

(5) A manufacturer may not be required to comply with the

standard under a selection under paragraph (3) of this subsection

for a model year beginning earlier than 6 months after the date of

the selection.

(6) A passenger motor vehicle line subject on October 25, 1992,

to parts marking requirements under sections 602 and 603 of the

Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (Public Law 92-513,

86 Stat. 947), as added by section 101(a) of the Motor Vehicle

Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-547, 98 Stat.

2756), continues to be subject to the requirements of this section

and section 33102 of this title unless the line is exempted under

section 33106 of this title.

(b) Determining Theft Rate for Passenger Vehicles. - (1) In this

subsection, "new passenger motor vehicle thefts", when used in

reference to a calendar year, means thefts in the United States in

that year of passenger motor vehicles with the same model-year

designation as that calendar year.

(2) Under subsection (a) of this section, the theft rate for

passenger motor vehicles of a line shall be determined by a

fraction -

(A) the numerator of which is the number of new passenger motor

vehicle thefts for that line during the 2-year period referred to

in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section; and

(B) the denominator of which is the sum of the respective

production volumes of all passenger motor vehicles of that line

(as reported to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection

Agency under chapter 329 of this title) that are of model years

1990 and 1991 and are distributed for sale in commerce in the

United States.

(3) Under subsection (a) of this section, the median theft rate

for all new passenger motor vehicle thefts during that 2-year

period is the theft rate midway between the highest and the lowest

theft rates determined under paragraph (2) of this subsection. If

there is an even number of theft rates determined under paragraph

(2), the median theft rate is the arithmetic average of the 2

adjoining theft rates midway between the highest and the lowest of

those theft rates.

(4) In consultation with the Director of the Federal Bureau of

Investigation, the Secretary periodically shall obtain from the

most reliable source accurate and timely theft and recovery

information and publish the information for review and comment. To

the greatest extent possible, the Secretary shall use theft

information reported by United States Government, State, and local

police. After publication and opportunity for comment, the

Secretary shall use the theft information to determine the median

theft rate under this subsection. The Secretary and the Director

shall take any necessary actions to improve the accuracy,

reliability, and timeliness of the information, including ensuring

that vehicles represented as stolen are really stolen.

(5) The Secretary periodically (but not more often than once

every 2 years) may redetermine and prescribe by regulation the

median theft rate under this subsection.

(c) Providing Information. - The Secretary by regulation shall

require each manufacturer to provide information necessary to

select under subsection (a)(3) of this section the high theft lines

and the major parts to be subject to the standard.

(d) Application. - Except as provided in section 33106 of this

title, the Secretary may not make the standard inapplicable to a

line that has been subject to the standard.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1079.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33104(a) 15:2023(a)(1)-(4). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

603(a)(1)-(4), (b)-(d);

added Oct. 25, 1984, Pub. L.

98-547, Sec. 101(a), 98

Stat. 2757; Oct. 25, 1992,

Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

303(1)-(3), (5), 106 Stat.

3396.

15:2023(a)(5). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Secs.

602(g), 603(a)(5); added

Oct. 25, 1992, Pub. L.

102-519, Secs. 302(2),

303(4), 106 Stat. 3395, 3396.

33104(b) 15:2022(g).

15:2023(b).

33104(c) 15:2023(c).

33104(d) 15:2023(d).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the words "the 2-year period covering

calendar years 1990 and 1991" are substituted for "the 2 calendar

years immediately preceding the year in which the Anti Car Theft

Act of 1992 is enacted" because that Act was enacted on October 25,

1992. The substitution also makes it clear that the 2-year period

is to be treated as a single period.

In subsection (a)(1)(B), the words "after December 31, 1989," are

substituted for "after the beginning of the 2-year period specified

in subparagraph (A)" for consistency with clause (A).

In subsection (a)(6), the word "passenger" is added because the

source provisions in the revised chapter apply to passenger motor

vehicles.

In subsection (b)(2)(B), the words "Administrator of the" are

added for clarity and consistency because of section 1(b) of

Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970 (eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 84 Stat.

2086). The words "model years 1983 and 1984" are substituted for

"the 2 model years having the same model-year designations as the 2

calendar years specified in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section"

because the particular years are now known.

In subsection (b)(4), the words "Immediately upon enactment of

this subchapter" are omitted as executed. The words "or sources"

are omitted because of 1:1.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Sections 602 and 603 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost

Savings Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(6), are sections 602 and

603 of Pub. L. 92-513, which were classified to sections 2022 and

2023, respectively, of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and were

repealed and reenacted as sections 33102 to 33104 of this title by

Pub. L. 103-272, Secs. 1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1077,

1379.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33101, 33102, 33103,

33116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33105 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33105. Cost limitations

-STATUTE-

(a) Maximum Manufacturer Costs. - A standard under section 33102

or 33103 of this title may not impose -

(1) on a manufacturer of motor vehicles, compliance costs of

more than $15 a motor vehicle; or

(2) on a manufacturer of major replacement parts, compliance

costs for each part of more than the reasonable amount (but less

than $15) that the Secretary of Transportation specifies in the

standard.

(b) Costs Involved in Engines and Transmissions. - For a

manufacturer engaged in identifying engines or transmissions on

October 25, 1984, in a way that substantially complies with the

standard -

(1) the costs of identifying engines and transmissions may not

be considered in calculating the manufacturer's costs under

subsection (a) of this section; and

(2) the manufacturer may not be required under the standard to

conform to any identification system for engines and

transmissions that imposes greater costs on the manufacturer than

are incurred under the identification system used by the

manufacturer on October 25, 1984.

(c) Cost Adjustments. - (1) In this subsection -

(A) "base period" means calendar year 1984.

(B) "price index" means the average over a calendar year of the

Consumer Price Index (all items - United States city average)

published monthly by the Secretary of Labor.

(2) At the beginning of each calendar year, as necessary data

become available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Secretary

of Labor shall certify to the Secretary of Transportation and

publish in the Federal Register the percentage difference between

the price index for the 12 months before the beginning of the

calendar year and the price index for the base period. For model

years beginning in that calendar year, the amounts specified in

subsection (a) of this section shall be adjusted by the percentage

difference.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1081.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33105 15:2024. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

604; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2758.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1) and (2), the words "compliance costs" are

substituted for "costs . . . to comply with such standard" to

eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2), the words "reasonable

amount (but less than $15)" are substituted for "reasonable lesser

amount" for clarity.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "commencing on or after January

1, 1985" are omitted as obsolete.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33106 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33106. Exemption for passenger motor vehicles equipped with

anti-theft devices

-STATUTE-

(a) Definitions. - In this section -

(1) "anti-theft device" means a device to reduce or deter theft

that -

(A) is in addition to the theft-deterrent devices required by

motor vehicle safety standard numbered 114 in section 571.114

of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations;

(B) the manufacturer believes will be effective in reducing

or deterring theft of motor vehicles; and

(C) does not use a signaling device reserved by State law for

use on police, emergency, or official vehicles, or on

schoolbuses.

(2) "standard equipment" means equipment already installed in a

motor vehicle when it is delivered from the manufacturer and not

an accessory or other item that the first purchaser customarily

has the option to have installed.

(b) Granting Exemptions and Limitations. - (1) A manufacturer may

petition the Secretary of Transportation for an exemption from a

requirement of a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103

of this title for a line of passenger motor vehicles equipped as

standard equipment with an anti-theft device that the Secretary

decides is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring

motor vehicle theft as compliance with the standard.

(2) The Secretary may grant an exemption -

(A) for model year 1987, for not more than 2 lines of a

manufacturer;

(B) for each of the model years 1988-1996, for not more than 2

additional lines of a manufacturer;

(C) for each of the model years 1997-2000, for not more than

one additional line of a manufacturer; and

(D) for each of the model years after model year 2000, for the

number of lines that the Attorney General decides under section

33103(d)(3) of this title.

(3) An additional exemption granted under paragraph (2)(B) or (C)

of this subsection does not affect an exemption previously granted.

(c) Petitioning Procedure. - A petition must be filed not later

than 8 months before the start of production for the first model

year covered by the petition. The petition must include -

(1) a detailed description of the device;

(2) the reasons for the manufacturer's conclusion that the

device will be effective in reducing and deterring theft of motor

vehicles; and

(3) additional information the Secretary reasonably may require

to make the decision described in subsection (b)(1) of this

section.

(d) Decisions and Approvals. - The Secretary shall make a

decision about a petition filed under this section not later than

120 days after the date the petition is filed. A decision approving

a petition must be based on substantial evidence. The Secretary may

approve a petition in whole or in part. If the Secretary does not

make a decision within the 120-day period, the petition shall be

deemed to be approved and the manufacturer shall be exempt from the

standard for the line covered by the petition for the subsequent

model year.

(e) Rescissions. - The Secretary may rescind an exemption if the

Secretary decides that the anti-theft device has not been as

effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as

compliance with the standard. A rescission may be effective only -

(1) for a model year after the model year in which the

rescission occurs; and

(2) at least 6 months after the manufacturer receives written

notice of the rescission from the Secretary.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1082; Pub. L.

103-429, Sec. 6(45), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4383.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

PUB. L. 103-272

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33106(a)(1) 15:2025(e). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

605(a)(1), (3), (b)-(e);

added Oct. 25, 1984, Pub. L.

98-547, Sec. 101(a), 98

Stat. 2759.

33106(a)(2) 15:2025(a)(3).

33106(b) 15:2025(a)(1), (2). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

605(a)(2); added Oct. 25,

1984, Pub. L. 98-547, Sec.

101(a), 98 Stat. 2759; Oct.

25, 1992, Pub. L. 102-519,

Sec. 304, 106 Stat. 3396.

33106(c) 15:2025(b).

33106(d) 15:2025(c).

33106(e) 15:2025(d).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (b)(1), the words "the application of any of" are

omitted as surplus. The words "or lines" are omitted because of

1:1.

In subsection (b)(2)(A), the words "for model year 1987" are

substituted for "For the initial model year to which such standard

applies" for clarity. See 50 Fed. Reg. 43166 (1985). In clause (D),

the words "that the Attorney General decides" are substituted for

"for which the Secretary may grant such an exemption (if any) shall

be determined" for clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (d), the words "for the line covered by the

petition" are added for clarity.

Subsection (e) is substituted for 15:2025(d) for clarity and to

eliminate unnecessary words.

PUB. L. 103-429

This amends 49:33106(b)(3) to correct an error in the

codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994

(Public Law 103-272, 108 Stat. 1082).

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103-429 substituted "paragraph

(2)(B) or (C) of this subsection" for "subparagraph (2)(B) or (C)

of this paragraph".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 103-429 effective July 5, 1994, see section

9 of Pub. L. 103-429, set out as a note under section 321 of this

title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33102, 33103, 33104 of

this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33107 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33107. Voluntary vehicle identification standards

-STATUTE-

(a) Election To Inscribe or Affix Identifying Marks. - The

Secretary of Transportation by regulation may prescribe a vehicle

theft prevention standard under which a person may elect to

inscribe or affix an identifying number or symbol on major parts of

a motor vehicle manufactured or owned by the person for purposes of

section 511 of title 18 and related provisions. The standard may

include provisions for registration of the identification with the

Secretary or a person designated by the Secretary.

(b) Standard Requirements. - The standard under this section

shall be practicable and provide relevant objective criteria.

(c) Voluntary Compliance. - Compliance with the standard under

this section is voluntary. Failure to comply does not subject a

person to a penalty or enforcement under this chapter.

(d) Compliance With Other Standards. - Compliance with the

standard under this section does not relieve a manufacturer from a

requirement of a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103

of this title.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1083.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33107 15:2033. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

616; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2765; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33108 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33108. Monitoring compliance of manufacturers

-STATUTE-

(a) Records, Reports, Information, and Inspection. - To enable

the Secretary of Transportation to decide whether a manufacturer of

motor vehicles containing a part subject to a standard prescribed

under section 33102 or 33103 of this title, or a manufacturer of

major replacement parts subject to the standard, is complying with

this chapter and the standard, the Secretary may require the

manufacturer to -

(1) keep records;

(2) make reports;

(3) provide items and information; and

(4) allow an officer or employee designated by the Secretary to

inspect the vehicles and parts and relevant records of the

manufacturer.

(b) Entry and Inspection. - To enforce this chapter, an officer

or employee designated by the Secretary, on presenting appropriate

credentials and a written notice to the owner, operator, or agent

in charge, may inspect a facility in which motor vehicles

containing major parts subject to the standard, or major

replacement parts subject to the standard, are manufactured, held

for introduction into interstate commerce, or held for sale after

introduction into interstate commerce. An inspection shall be

conducted at a reasonable time, in a reasonable way, and with

reasonable promptness.

(c) Certification of Compliance. - (1) A manufacturer of a motor

vehicle subject to the standard, and a manufacturer of a major

replacement part subject to the standard, shall provide at the time

of delivery of the vehicle or part a certification that the vehicle

or part conforms to the applicable motor vehicle theft prevention

standard. The certification shall accompany the vehicle or part

until its delivery to the first purchaser. The Secretary by

regulation may prescribe the type and form of the certification.

(2) This subsection does not apply to a motor vehicle or major

replacement part that is -

(A) intended only for export;

(B) labeled only for export on the vehicle or replacement part

and the outside of any container until exported; and

(C) exported.

(d) Notification of Error. - A manufacturer shall notify the

Secretary if the manufacturer discovers that -

(1) there is an error in the identification (required by the

standard) applied to a major part installed by the manufacturer

in a motor vehicle during its assembly, or to a major replacement

part manufactured by the manufacturer; and

(2) the motor vehicle or major replacement part has entered

interstate commerce.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1083.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33108(a) 15:2026(a). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

606; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2760.

33108(b) 15:2026(b).

33108(c) 15:2026(c).

33108(d) 15:2026(d).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "is complying"

are substituted for "has acted or is acting in compliance" and

"determining whether such manufacturer has acted or is acting in

compliance" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "reasonably"

is omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the word "keep" is

substituted for "establish and maintain" for consistency in the

revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (4),

the words "upon request", "duly", and "such manufacturer shall make

available all such items and information in accordance with such

reasonable rules as the Secretary may prescribe" are omitted as

surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "duly" and "enter and" are omitted

as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), the words "or tagged" and "if any" are

omitted as surplus.

Subsection (d) is substituted for 15:2026(d) for clarity.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33102, 33114 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33109 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33109. National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information

System

-STATUTE-

(a) General Requirements. - (1) Not later than July 25, 1993, the

Attorney General shall establish, and thereafter maintain, a

National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information System

containing the vehicle identification numbers of stolen passenger

motor vehicles and stolen passenger motor vehicle parts. The System

shall be located in the National Crime Information Center and shall

include at least the following information on each passenger motor

vehicle reported to a law enforcement authority as stolen and not

recovered:

(A) the vehicle identification number.

(B) the make and model year.

(C) the date on which the vehicle was reported as stolen.

(D) the location of the law enforcement authority that received

the report of the theft of the vehicle.

(E) the identification numbers of the vehicle parts (or

derivatives of those numbers), at the time of the theft, if those

numbers are different from the vehicle identification number of

the vehicle.

(2) In establishing the System, the Attorney General shall

consult with -

(A) State and local law enforcement authorities; and

(B) the National Crime Information Center Policy Advisory Board

to ensure the security of the information in the System and that

the System will not compromise the security of stolen passenger

motor vehicle and passenger motor vehicle parts information in

the System.

(3) If the Attorney General decides that the Center is not able

to perform the functions of the System, the Attorney General shall

make an agreement for the operation of the System separate from the

Center.

(4) The Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation the

effective date of the System.

(b) Requests for Information. - (1) The Attorney General shall

prescribe by regulation procedures under which an individual or

entity intending to transfer a passenger motor vehicle or passenger

motor vehicle part may obtain information on whether the vehicle or

part is listed in the System as stolen.

(2) On request of an insurance carrier, a person lawfully selling

or distributing passenger motor vehicle parts in interstate

commerce, or an individual or enterprise engaged in the business of

repairing passenger motor vehicles, the Attorney General (or the

entity the Attorney General designates) immediately shall inform

the insurance carrier, person, individual, or enterprise whether

the System has a record of a vehicle or vehicle part with a

particular vehicle identification number (or derivative of that

number) being reported as stolen. The Attorney General may require

appropriate verification to ensure that the request is legitimate

and will not compromise the security of the System.

(c) Advisory Committee. - (1) Not later than December 24, 1992,

the Attorney General shall establish in the Department of Justice

an advisory committee. The Attorney General shall develop the

System with the advice and recommendations of the committee.

(2)(A) The committee is composed of the following 10 members:

(i) the Attorney General.

(ii) the Secretary of Transportation.

(iii) one individual who is qualified to represent the

interests of the law enforcement community at the State level.

(iv) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests

of the law enforcement community at the local level.

(v) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests

of the automotive recycling industry.

(vi) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests

of the automotive repair industry.

(vii) one individual who is qualified to represent the

interests of the automotive rebuilders industry.

(viii) one individual who is qualified to represent the

interests of the automotive parts suppliers industry.

(ix) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests

of the insurance industry.

(x) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests

of consumers.

(B) The Attorney General shall appoint the individuals described

in subparagraph (A)(iii)-(x) of this paragraph and shall serve as

chairman of the committee.

(3) The committee shall make recommendations on developing and

carrying out -

(A) the National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information

System; and

(B) the verification system under section 33110 of this title.

(4) Not later than April 25, 1993, the committee shall submit to

the Attorney General, the Secretary, and Congress a report

including the recommendations of the committee.

(d) Immunity. - Any person performing any activity under this

section or section 33110 or 33111 in good faith and with the

reasonable belief that such activity was in accordance with such

section shall be immune from any civil action respecting such

activity which is seeking money damages or equitable relief in any

court of the United States or a State.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1084; Pub. L.

104-152, Sec. 5, July 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1385.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33109(a) 15:2026c(a), (b) Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

(last sentence), 92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

(c), (f). 609; added Oct. 25, 1992,

Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(e), 106 Stat. 3398.

33109(b) 15:2026c(b) (1st

sentence), (e).

33109(c) 15:2026c(d).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In the section, the words "National Stolen Passenger Motor

Vehicle Information System" are substituted for "National Stolen

Auto Part Information System" for consistency with the terminology

used and with the source provisions restated in the revised

chapter.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "establish,

and thereafter maintain" are substituted for "maintain" for

clarity. The words "shall be located" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2)(B), the words "stolen passenger motor

vehicle and passenger motor vehicle parts information" are

substituted for "stolen vehicle and vehicle parts information" for

consistency with the terminology used in the revised chapter.

In subsection (a)(4), the text of 15:2026c(f) (1st sentence) is

omitted as surplus. The words "the effective date of the System"

are substituted for "shall be effective as provided" because of the

restatement.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "intending to transfer" are

substituted for "seeking to transfer" for clarity. The words

"passenger motor vehicle or passenger motor vehicle part" are

substituted for "a vehicle or vehicle parts" for consistency with

the terminology used in the revised chapter. The words "whether the

vehicle or part" are substituted for "whether a part" for

consistency with source provisions restated in the revised section.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "shall inform the insurance

carrier, person, individual, or enterprise whether" are substituted

for "provide such insurance carrier or person with a determination

as to whether" for clarity and consistency in the revised

subsection. The words "may require appropriate verification" are

substituted for "may require such verification as the Attorney

General deems appropriate" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "and appoint" are omitted as

unnecessary because of the restatement.

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-152 added subsec. (d).

TERMINATION OF ADVISORY COMMITTEES

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate

not later than the expiration of 2-year period beginning on date of

their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established

by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such

committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to expiration of

such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by

Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See

section 14 of Pub. L. 92-463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out

in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33110, 33111 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33110 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33110. Verifications involving junk and salvage motor vehicles

-STATUTE-

(a) Definition. - In this section, "vehicle identification

number" means a unique identification number (or derivative of that

number) assigned to a passenger motor vehicle by a manufacturer in

compliance with applicable regulations.

(b) General Requirements. - (1) If an insurance carrier selling

comprehensive motor vehicle insurance coverage obtains possession

of and transfers a junk motor vehicle or a salvage motor vehicle,

the carrier shall -

(A) under procedures the Attorney General prescribes by

regulation under section 33109 of this title in consultation with

the Secretary of Transportation, verify whether the vehicle is

reported as stolen; and

(B) provide the purchaser or transferee of the vehicle from the

insurance carrier verification identifying the vehicle

identification number and verifying that the vehicle has not been

reported as stolen or, if reported as stolen, that the carrier

has recovered the vehicle and has proper legal title to the

vehicle.

(2)(A) This subsection does not prohibit an insurance carrier

from transferring a motor vehicle if, within a reasonable period of

time during normal business operations (as decided by the Attorney

General under section 33109 of this title) using reasonable

efforts, the carrier -

(i) has not been informed under the procedures prescribed in

section 33109 of this title that the vehicle has not been

reported as stolen; or

(ii) has not otherwise established whether the vehicle has been

reported as stolen.

(B) When a carrier transfers a motor vehicle for which the

carrier has not established whether the vehicle has been reported

as stolen, the carrier shall provide written certification to the

transferee that the carrier has not established whether the vehicle

has been reported as stolen.

(c) Regulations. - In consultation with the Secretary, the

Attorney General shall prescribe regulations necessary to ensure

that verification performed and provided by an insurance carrier

under subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section is uniform, effective,

and resistant to fraudulent use.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1086.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33110(a) 15:2026a(a) (2d Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

sentence). 92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

607; added Oct. 25, 1992,

Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

33110(b) 15:2026a(a) (1st,

last sentences).

33110(c) 15:2026a(b).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (b)(1)(B), the words "or derivative thereof" are

omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "vehicle

identification number" in subsection (a) of the revised section.

In subsection (b)(2)(A)(i), the words "has not been informed

under the procedures prescribed" are substituted for "has not

received a determination under" for clarity and consistency in the

revised chapter. In clause (ii), the words "has not otherwise

established whether" are substituted for "to otherwise determine

whether" for clarity.

In subsection (b)(2)(B), the words "When a carrier transfers a

motor vehicle for which the carrier has not established whether the

vehicle has been reported as stolen, the carrier shall provide

written certification to the transferee that the carrier has not

established whether the vehicle has been reported as stolen" are

substituted for "except that such carrier shall provide a written

certification of such lack of determination" for clarity and

because of the restatement.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 4(u) of Pub. L. 103-272 provided that: "Not later than

April 25, 1993, the Attorney General shall prescribe the

regulations required under section 33110(c) of title 49, United

States Code, as enacted by section 1 of this Act. Section 33110(b)

of title 49 is effective not later than 3 months after those

regulations are prescribed but not before the date on which the

National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information System

established under section 33109 of title 49 is operational."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 30504, 33109, 33111 of

this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33111 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33111. Verifications involving motor vehicle major parts

-STATUTE-

(a) General Requirements. - A person engaged in the business of

salvaging, dismantling, recycling, or repairing passenger motor

vehicles may not knowingly sell in commerce or transfer or install

a major part marked with an identification number without -

(1) first establishing, through a procedure the Attorney

General by regulation prescribes in consultation with the

Secretary of Transportation under section 33109 of this title,

that the major part has not been reported as stolen; and

(2) providing the purchaser or transferee with a verification -

(A) identifying the vehicle identification number (or

derivative of that number) of that major part; and

(B) verifying that the major part has not been reported as

stolen.

(b) Nonapplication. - (1) Subsection (a) of this section does not

apply to a person that -

(A) is the manufacturer of the major part;

(B) has purchased the major part directly from the

manufacturer; or

(C) has received a verification from an insurance carrier under

section 33110 of this title that the motor vehicle from which the

major part is derived has not been reported as stolen, or that

the carrier has not established whether that vehicle has been

stolen.

(2) A person described under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection

that subsequently transfers or sells in commerce the motor vehicle

or a major part of the vehicle shall provide the verification

received from the carrier to the person to whom the vehicle or part

is transferred or sold.

(c) Regulations. - The Attorney General shall prescribe

regulations to carry out this section. The regulations shall

include regulations prescribed in consultation with the Secretary

that are necessary to ensure that a verification a person provides

under subsection (a)(2) of this section is uniform, effective, and

resistant to fraudulent use.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1086.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33111(a) 15:2026b(a). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

608; added Oct. 25, 1992,

Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(c), 106 Stat. 3397.

33111(b) 15:2026b(c) (1st,

2d sentences).

33111(c) 15:2026b(b), (c)

(last sentence).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "distribute" is

omitted as being included in "sell". In clause (1), the word

"establishing" is substituted for "determining" for clarity and

consistency in the revised title.

Subsection (b)(2) is substituted for 15:2026b(c) (2d sentence)

for clarity.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 4(v) of Pub. L. 103-272 provided that: "Section 33111 of

title 49, United States Code, as enacted by section 1 of this Act,

is effective on the date on which the National Stolen Passenger

Motor Vehicle Information System is established under section 33109

of title 49."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 33109 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33112 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33112. Insurance reports and information

-STATUTE-

(a) Purposes. - The purposes of this section are -

(1) to prevent or discourage the theft of motor vehicles,

particularly those stolen for the removal of certain parts;

(2) to prevent or discourage the sale and distribution in

interstate commerce of used parts that are removed from those

vehicles; and

(3) to help reduce the cost to consumers of comprehensive

insurance coverage for motor vehicles.

(b) Definitions. - In this section -

(1) "insurer" includes a person (except a governmental

authority) having a fleet of at least 20 motor vehicles that are

used primarily for rental or lease and are not covered by a theft

insurance policy issued by an insurer of passenger motor

vehicles.

(2) "motor vehicle" includes a truck, a multipurpose passenger

vehicle, and a motorcycle.

(c) Annual Information Requirement. - (1) An insurer providing

comprehensive coverage for motor vehicles shall provide annually to

the Secretary of Transportation information on -

(A) the thefts and recoveries (in any part) of motor vehicles;

(B) the number of vehicles that have been recovered intact;

(C) the rating rules and plans, such as loss information and

rating characteristics, used by the insurer to establish premiums

for comprehensive coverage, including the basis for the premiums,

and premium penalties for motor vehicles considered by the

insurer as more likely to be stolen;

(D) the actions taken by the insurer to reduce the premiums,

including changing rate levels for comprehensive coverage because

of a reduction in thefts of motor vehicles;

(E) the actions taken by the insurer to assist in deterring or

reducing thefts of motor vehicles; and

(F) other information the Secretary requires to carry out this

chapter and to make the report and findings required by this

chapter.

(2) The information on thefts and recoveries shall include an

explanation on how the information is obtained, the accuracy and

timeliness of the information, and the use made of the information,

including the extent and frequency of reporting the information to

national, public, and private entities such as the Federal Bureau

of Investigation and State and local police.

(d) Reports on Reduced Claims Payments. - An insurer shall report

promptly in writing to the Secretary if the insurer, in paying a

claim under an adjustment or negotiation between the insurer and

the insured for a stolen motor vehicle -

(1) reduces the payment to the insured by the amount of the

value, salvage or otherwise, of a recovered part subject to a

standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title;

and

(2) the reduction is not made at the express election of the

insured.

(e) General Exemptions. - The Secretary shall exempt from this

section, for one or more years, an insurer that the Secretary

decides should be exempted because -

(1) the cost of preparing and providing the information is

excessive in relation to the size of the insurer's business; and

(2) the information from that insurer will not contribute

significantly to carrying out this chapter.

(f) Small Insurer Exemptions. - (1) In this subsection, "small

insurer" means an insurer whose premiums for motor vehicle

insurance issued directly or through an affiliate, including a

pooling arrangement established under State law or regulation for

the issuance of motor vehicle insurance, account for -

(A) less than one percent of the total premiums for all forms

of motor vehicle insurance issued by insurers in the United

States; and

(B) less than 10 percent of the total premiums for all forms of

motor vehicle insurance issued by insurers in any State.

(2) The Secretary shall exempt by regulation a small insurer from

this section if the Secretary finds that the exemption will not

significantly affect the validity or usefulness of the information

collected and compiled under this section, nationally or

State-by-State. However, the Secretary may not exempt an insurer

under this paragraph that is considered an insurer only because of

subsection (b)(1) of this section.

(3) Regulations under this subsection shall provide that

eligibility as a small insurer shall be based on the most recent

calendar year for which adequate information is available, and

that, once attained, the eligibility shall continue without further

demonstration of eligibility for one or more years, as the

Secretary considers appropriate.

(g) Prescribed Form. - Information required by this section shall

be provided in the form the Secretary prescribes.

(h) Periodic Compilations. - Subject to section 552 of title 5,

the Secretary periodically shall compile and publish information

obtained by the Secretary under this section, in a form that will

be helpful to the public, the police, and Congress.

(i) Consultation. - In carrying out this section, the Secretary

shall consult with public and private agencies and associations the

Secretary considers appropriate.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1087.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33112(a) 15:2032(a)(1) (1st Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

sentence words 92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

before 4th comma). 615; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2763; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

33112(b)(1) 15:2032(a)(3).

33112(b)(2) 15:2032(f).

33112(c) 15:2032(a)(1) (1st

sentence words

after 4th comma,

last sentence), (2).

33112(d) 15:2032(d).

33112(e) 15:2032(a)(4).

33112(f) 15:2032(a)(5).

33112(g) 15:2032(e).

33112(h) 15:2032(b).

33112(i) 15:2032(c).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (b)(1), the word "authority" is substituted for

"entity" for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "(or their

designated agents)" are omitted as surplus. The words "beginning 2

years after October 25, 1984" are omitted as executed.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "by the insurer" are omitted as

surplus.

Subsection (f)(1)(B) is substituted for 15:2032(a)(5)(C)(ii) for

clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (f)(2), the words "the requirements of" are omitted

as surplus.

In subsection (g), the words "by regulation or otherwise" are

omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h), the words "the police" are substituted for

"including Federal, State, and local police" to eliminate

unnecessary words.

In subsection (i), the words "In carrying out this section" are

added for clarity. The words "public and private agencies and

associations" are substituted for "such State and insurance

regulatory agencies and other agencies and associations, both

public and private" to eliminate unnecessary words.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 33102, 33103 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33113 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33113. Theft reports

-STATUTE-

(a) Truck, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicle, and Motorcycle Report.

- Not later than October 25, 1995, the Secretary of Transportation

shall submit a report to Congress that includes -

(1) information on the number of trucks, multipurpose passenger

vehicles, and motorcycles distributed for sale in interstate

commerce that are stolen and recovered annually, compiled by

model, make, and line;

(2) information on the extent to which trucks, multipurpose

passenger vehicles, and motorcycles stolen annually are

dismantled to recover parts or are exported;

(3) a description of the market for the stolen parts;

(4) information on the premiums charged by insurers of

comprehensive coverage of trucks, multipurpose passenger

vehicles, or motorcycles, including any increase in the premiums

charged because any of those motor vehicles is a likely candidate

for theft;

(5) an assessment of whether the identification of parts of

trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and motorcycles is

likely -

(A) to decrease the theft rate of those motor vehicles;

(B) to increase the recovery rate of those motor vehicles;

(C) to decrease the trafficking in stolen parts of those

motor vehicles;

(D) to stem the export and import of those stolen motor

vehicles or parts; or

(E) to have benefits greater than the costs of the

identification; and

(6) recommendations on whether, and to what extent, the

identification of trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and

motorcycles should be required by law.

(b) Motor Vehicle Report. - Not later than October 25, 1997, the

Secretary shall submit a report to Congress that includes -

(1) information on -

(A) the methods and procedures used by public and private

entities to collect, compile, and disseminate information on

the theft and recovery of motor vehicles, including classes of

motor vehicles; and

(B) the reliability and timeliness of the information and how

the information can be improved;

(2) information on the number of motor vehicles distributed for

sale in interstate commerce that are stolen and recovered

annually, compiled by class, model, make, and line;

(3) information on the extent to which motor vehicles stolen

annually are dismantled to recover parts or are exported;

(4) a description of the market for the stolen parts;

(5) information on -

(A) the costs to manufacturers and purchasers of passenger

motor vehicles of compliance with the standards prescribed

under this chapter;

(B) the beneficial impacts of the standards and the monetary

value of the impacts; and

(C) the extent to which the monetary value is greater than

the costs;

(6) information on the experience of officials of the United

States Government, States, and localities in -

(A) making arrests and successfully prosecuting persons for

violating a law set forth in title II or III of the Motor

Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984;

(B) preventing or reducing the number and rate of thefts of

motor vehicles that are dismantled for parts subject to this

chapter; and

(C) preventing or reducing the availability of used parts

that are stolen from motor vehicles subject to this chapter;

(7) information on the premiums charged by insurers of

comprehensive coverage of motor vehicles subject to this chapter,

including any increase in the premiums charged because a motor

vehicle is a likely candidate for theft, and the extent to which

the insurers have reduced for the benefit of consumers the

premiums, or foregone premium increases, because of this chapter;

(8) information on the adequacy and effectiveness of laws of

the United States and the States aimed at preventing the

distribution and sale of used parts that have been removed from

stolen motor vehicles and the adequacy of systems available to

enforcement personnel for tracing parts to determine if they have

been stolen from a motor vehicle;

(9) an assessment of whether the identification of parts of

other classes of motor vehicles is likely -

(A) to decrease the theft rate of those vehicles;

(B) to increase the recovery rate of those vehicles;

(C) to decrease the trafficking in stolen parts of those

vehicles;

(D) to stem the export and import of those stolen vehicles,

parts, or components; or

(E) to have benefits greater than the costs of the

identification; and

(10) other relevant and reliable information available to the

Secretary about the impact, including the beneficial impact, of

the laws set forth in titles II and III of the Motor Vehicle

Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984 on law enforcement, consumers,

and manufacturers; and

(11) recommendations (including, as appropriate, legislative

and administrative recommendations) for -

(A) continuing without change the standards prescribed under

this chapter;

(B) amending this chapter to cover more or fewer lines of

passenger motor vehicles;

(C) amending this chapter to cover other classes of motor

vehicles; or

(D) ending the standards for all future motor vehicles.

(c) Bases of Reports. - (1) The reports under subsections (a) and

(b) of this section each shall be based on -

(A) information reported under this chapter by insurers of

motor vehicles and manufacturers of motor vehicles and major

replacement parts;

(B) information provided by the Federal Bureau of

Investigation;

(C) experience obtained in carrying out this chapter;

(D) experience of the Government under the laws set forth in

titles II and III of the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act

of 1984; and

(E) other relevant and reliable information available to the

Secretary.

(2) In preparing each report, the Secretary shall consult with

the Attorney General and State and local law enforcement officials,

as appropriate.

(3) The report under subsection (b) of this section shall -

(A) cover a period of at least 4 years after the standards

required by this chapter are prescribed; and

(B) reflect any information, as appropriate, from the report

under subsection (a) of this section, updated from the date of

the report.

(4) At least 90 days before submitting each report to Congress,

the Secretary shall publish a proposed report for public review and

an opportunity of at least 45 days for written comment. The

Secretary shall consider those comments in preparing the report to

be submitted and include a summary of the comments with the

submitted report.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1089.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33113 15:2034. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

617; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2765; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), (e), 106 Stat. 3397,

3400.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In this section, the word "information" is substituted for "data"

for consistency in the revised title. The word "standards" is

substituted for "standard" because there is more than one standard

prescribed under this chapter.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "October 25,

1995" are substituted for "3 years after October 25, 1992" (the

date of enactment of the Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992) for clarity

and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words

"distributed for sale in interstate commerce that are" are

substituted for "for all such motor vehicles distributed for sale

in interstate commerce" for clarity. In clause (5)(A), the word

"decrease" is substituted for "have . . . a beneficial impact in

decreasing" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "October 25,

1997" are substituted for "5 years after October 25, 1992" (the

date of enactment of the Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992) for clarity

and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1)(B), the word

"accuracy" is omitted as redundant. In clause (2), the words

"distributed for sale in interstate commerce that are" are

substituted for "for all such motor vehicles distributed for sale

in interstate commerce" for clarity. In clause (9)(A), the word

"decrease" is substituted for "have . . . a beneficial impact in

decreasing" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(1)(C), the words "carrying out" are substituted

for "the implementation, administration, and enforcement" for

consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984, referred to

in subsecs. (b)(6)(A), (10) and (c)(1)(D), is Pub. L. 98-547, Oct.

25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2754. Titles II and III of that act enacted

sections 511, 512, 553, and 2320 [now 2321] of Title 18, Crimes and

Criminal Procedure, and section 1627 of Title 19, Customs Duties,

and amended sections 1961, 2311, and 2313 of Title 18. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1984

Amendment note set out under section 1901 of Title 15, Commerce and

Trade, and Tables.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 33103 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33114 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33114. Prohibited acts

-STATUTE-

(a) General. - A person may not -

(1) manufacture for sale, sell, offer for sale, introduce or

deliver for introduction in interstate commerce, or import into

the United States, a motor vehicle or major replacement part

subject to a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of

this title, unless it conforms to the standard;

(2) fail to comply with a regulation prescribed by the

Secretary of Transportation or Attorney General under this

chapter;

(3) fail to keep specified records, refuse access to or copying

of records, fail to make reports or provide items or information,

or fail or refuse to allow entry or inspection, as required by

this chapter;

(4) fail to provide the certification required by section

33108(c) of this title, or provide a certification that the

person knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care has reason to

know, is false or misleading in a material respect; or

(5) knowingly -

(A) own, operate, maintain, or control a chop shop;

(B) conduct operations in a chop shop; or

(C) transport a passenger motor vehicle or passenger motor

vehicle part to or from a chop shop.

(b) Nonapplication. - Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not

apply to a person establishing that in the exercise of reasonable

care the person did not have reason to know that the motor vehicle

or major replacement part was not in conformity with the standard.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1091.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33114 15:2027(a), (b). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

610(a), (b); added Oct. 25,

1984, Pub. L. 98-547, Sec.

101(a), 98 Stat. 2761; Oct.

25, 1992, Pub. L. 102-519,

Secs. 305(a), 306(a), 106

Stat. 3396, 3397.

15:2027(c)(1). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

610(c)(1); added Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Secs.

305(b), 306(a), 106 Stat.

3396, 3397.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1), the words "which is manufactured on or

after the date the standard under section 2022 of this title takes

effect under this subchapter for such vehicle or major replacement

part" are omitted as obsolete because the standard applies to

passenger motor vehicles and major replacement parts starting with

the 1987 model year. See 50 Fed. Reg. 43166 (1985).

In subsection (a)(5)(A), the words "of any kind" are omitted as

unnecessary because of the definition of "chop shop" in section

33101 of the revised title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 33115 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33115 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33115. Civil penalties and enforcement

-STATUTE-

(a) General Penalty and Civil Actions To Collect. - (1) A person

that violates section 33114(a)(1)-(4) of this title is liable to

the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than

$1,000 for each violation. The failure of more than one part of a

single motor vehicle to conform to an applicable standard under

section 33102 or 33103 of this title is only a single violation.

The maximum penalty under this subsection for a related series of

violations is $250,000.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under

this subsection. The Secretary may compromise the amount of a

penalty.

(3) In determining the amount of a civil penalty or compromise

under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider the size of the

person's business and the gravity of the violation.

(4) The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a United

States district court to collect a civil penalty imposed under this

subsection.

(5) The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty

imposed or compromised under this subsection from amounts it owes

the person liable for the penalty.

(b) Chop Shop Penalty and Enforcement. - (1) A person that

violates section 33114(a)(5) of this title is liable to the

Government for a civil penalty of not more than $100,000 a day for

each violation.

(2) As appropriate and in consultation with the Attorney General,

the Secretary shall -

(A) bring a civil action for a temporary or permanent

injunction to restrain a person violating section 33114(a)(5) of

this section;

(B) impose and recover the penalty described in paragraph (1)

of this subsection; or

(C) take both the actions described in clauses (A) and (B) of

this paragraph.

(c) Civil Actions To Enforce. - (1) The Attorney General may

bring a civil action in a United States district court to enjoin a

violation of this chapter or the sale, offer for sale, introduction

or delivery for introduction in interstate commerce, or importation

into the United States, of a passenger motor vehicle containing a

major part, or of a major replacement part, that is subject to the

standard and is determined before the sale of the vehicle or part

to a first purchaser not to conform to the standard.

(2)(A) When practicable, the Secretary -

(i) shall notify a person against whom an action under this

subsection is planned;

(ii) shall give the person an opportunity to present that

person's views; and

(iii) except for a knowing and willful violation, shall give

the person a reasonable opportunity to comply.

(B) The failure of the Secretary to comply with subparagraph (A)

of this paragraph does not prevent a court from granting

appropriate relief.

(d) Jury Trial Demand. - In a trial for criminal contempt for

violating an injunction or restraining order issued under

subsection (c) of this section, the violation of which is also a

violation of this chapter, the defendant may demand a jury trial.

The defendant shall be tried as provided in rule 42(b) of the

Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (18 App. U.S.C.).

(e) Venue. - A civil action under subsection (a) or (c) of this

section may be brought in the judicial district in which the

violation occurred or the defendant resides, is found, or transacts

business. Process in the action may be served in any other judicial

district in which the defendant resides or is found. A subpena for

a witness in the action may be served in any judicial district.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1091.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33115(a) 15:2028(a). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

611; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2762; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

33115(b) 15:2027(c)(2). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, Sec. 86 Stat. 947,

Sec. 610(c)(2); added Oct.

25, 1992, Pub. L. 102-519,

Secs. 305(b), 306(a), 106

Stat. 3396, 3397.

33115(c)(1) 15:2028(b)(1) (1st

sentence).

33115(c)(2) 15:2028(b)(1) (2d,

last sentences).

33115(d) 15:2028(b)(2).

33115(e) 15:2028(b)(3), (4).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a)(1), the words "section 33114(a)(1)-(4)" are

used to correct an erroneous cross-reference in section 611(a)(1)

of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (Public Law

92-513, 86 Stat. 947) to section 607 of that Act. Sections 607 and

611 were redesignated by section 306(a) of the Anti Car Theft Act

of 1992 (Public Law 102-519, 106 Stat. 3397). The words "is liable

to the United States Government for a civil penalty" are

substituted for "may be assessed a civil penalty" for consistency

in the revised title and with other titles of the United States

Code.

In subsection (a)(2), the word "imposes" is substituted for

"assessed" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "the appropriateness of such

penalty to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(5), the words "United States district court"

are added for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "The Attorney General may bring a

civil action" are substituted for "Upon petition by the Attorney

General" for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil

Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words "on behalf of the United

States" are omitted as surplus. The words "shall have jurisdiction"

are omitted because of 28:1331. The words "for cause shown and

subject to the provisions of rule 65(a) and (b) of the Federal

Rules of Civil Procedure" are omitted as surplus because the rules

apply in the absence of an exception from them. The word "enjoin"

is substituted for "restrain" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (d), the words "the defendant may demand a jury

trial" are substituted for "trial shall be by the court, or, upon

demand of the accused, by a jury" to eliminate unnecessary words

and for consistency in the revised title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 33103 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33116 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33116. Confidentiality of information

-STATUTE-

(a) General. - Information obtained by the Secretary of

Transportation under this chapter related to a confidential matter

referred to in section 1905 of title 18 may be disclosed only -

(1) to another officer or employee of the United States

Government for use in carrying out this chapter; or

(2) in a proceeding under this chapter (except a proceeding

under section 33104(a)(3)).

(b) Withholding Information From Congress. - This section does

not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of

Congress authorized to have the information.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1093.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33116 15:2029. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

612; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2763; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "reported to, or

otherwise" and "or the Secretary's representative" are omitted as

surplus. The words "related to a confidential matter referred to"

are substituted for "contains or relates to a trade secret or other

matter referred to" to eliminate unnecessary words and for

consistency in the revised title. The words "or in section

552(b)(4) of title 5" are omitted as surplus because the language

in 18:1905 is broader than the language in 5:552(b)(4) and for

consistency with similar provisions in other chapters in this part.

The words "shall be considered confidential for the purpose of the

applicable section of this subchapter" are omitted as surplus. In

clause (1), the words "for use in carrying out" are substituted for

"concerned with carrying out" for consistency with similar

provisions in other chapters in this part. In clause (2), the words

"when relevant" are omitted as surplus. The cross-reference to

15:2023(a)(3) is omitted. The text of 15:2023(a)(3), originally

enacted as section 603(a)(3) of the Motor Vehicle Information and

Cost Savings Act (Public Law 92-513, 86 Stat. 947), was repealed by

section 303(2) of the Anti Car Theft Act of 1992 (Public Law

102-519, 106 Stat. 3396). Section 303(2) also redesignated

subsection (a)(4) as subsection (a)(3). However, a corresponding

amendment to correct the cross-reference in the source provisions

restated in this section was not made.

In subsection (b), the words "authorized to have the information"

are added for clarity and consistency with similar provisions in

other chapters in this part.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33117 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33117. Judicial review

-STATUTE-

A person that may be adversely affected by a regulation

prescribed under this chapter may obtain judicial review of the

regulation under section 32909 of this title. A remedy under this

section is in addition to any other remedies provided by law.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1093.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33117 15:2030. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

613; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2763; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

The words "regulation prescribed" are substituted for "any

provision of any standard or other rule" to eliminate unnecessary

words and because "rule" and "regulation" are synonymous. The words

"in the case of any standard, rule, or other action under this

subchapter" are omitted as surplus.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC Sec. 33118 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VI - MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

PART C - INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 331 - THEFT PREVENTION

-HEAD-

Sec. 33118. Preemption of State and local law

-STATUTE-

When a motor vehicle theft prevention standard prescribed under

section 33102 or 33103 of this title is in effect, a State or

political subdivision of a State may not have a different motor

vehicle theft prevention standard for a motor vehicle or major

replacement part.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1093.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Revised Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)

Section

--------------------------------------------------------------------

33118 15:2031. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L.

92-513, 86 Stat. 947, Sec.

614; added Oct. 25, 1984,

Pub. L. 98-547, Sec. 101(a),

98 Stat. 2763; Oct. 25,

1992, Pub. L. 102-519, Sec.

306(a), 106 Stat. 3397.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

The words "may not have" are substituted for "no . . . shall have

any authority either to establish, or to continue in effect" to

eliminate unnecessary words.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

-HEAD-

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

-MISC1-

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

SUBPART I - GENERAL

Chapter Sec.

401. General Provisions 40101

SUBPART II - ECONOMIC REGULATION

411. Air Carrier Certificates 41101

413. Foreign Air Transportation 41301

415. Pricing 41501

417. Operations of Carriers 41701

419. Transportation of Mail 41901

421. Labor-Management Provisions 42101

SUBPART III - SAFETY

441. Registration and Recordation of Aircraft 44101

443. Insurance 44301

445. Facilities, Personnel, and Research 44501

447. Safety Regulation 44701

449. Security 44901

451. Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing 45101

453. Fees 45301

SUBPART IV - ENFORCEMENT AND PENALTIES

461. Investigations and Proceedings 46101

463. Penalties 46301

465. Special Aircraft Jurisdiction of the United States 46501

PART B - AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT AND NOISE

471. Airport Development 47101

473. International Airport Facilities 47301

475. Noise 47501

PART C - FINANCING

481. Airport and Airway Trust Fund Authorizations 48101

482. Advance Appropriations for Airport and Airway Trust

Facilities 48201

483. Aviation Security Funding 48301

PART D - PUBLIC AIRPORTS

491. METROPOLITAN WASHINGTON AIRPORTS 49101

PART E - MISCELLANEOUS

501. Buy-American Preferences 50101

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-71, title I, Sec. 118(c)(2), Nov. 19, 2001,

115 Stat. 628, added item for chapter 483.

1997 - Pub. L. 105-102, Sec. 2(20), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat.

2205, substituted "PUBLIC AIRPORTS" for "RESERVED" in item for part

D and added item for chapter 491.

1996 - Pub. L. 104-287, Sec. 5(64), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat.

3395, substituted "RESERVED" for "MISCELLANEOUS" in item for part

D, struck out item for chapter 491 "Buy-American Preferences", and

added items for part E and chapter 501.

Pub. L. 104-264, title II, Sec. 277(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat.

3248, added item for chapter 482.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

-HEAD-

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

-SECREF-

PART REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This part is referred to in sections 329, 13102, 13531 of this

title; title 14 section 82; title 15 sections 21, 45, 1607, 1681s,

1691c, 1692l, 1693o, 6505; title 26 section 9502; title 39 sections

5401, 5402; title 42 sections 6362, 7572.

-End-

-CITE-

49 USC subpart i - general 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 49 - TRANSPORTATION

SUBTITLE VII - AVIATION PROGRAMS

PART A - AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETY

subpart i - general

-HEAD-

SUBPART I - GENERAL

-End-