US (United States) Code. Title 46. Appendix

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos). Legislación federal estadounidense # Shipping

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-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1289 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XII - WAR RISK INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1289. Administrative provisions

-STATUTE-

(a) Issuance of policies, rules, and regulations; settlement of

claims; valuation; rejection and review of valuation

(1) The Secretary, in the administration of this subchapter, may

issue such policies, rules, and regulations as he deems proper and

may adjust and pay losses, compromise and settle claims, whether in

favor of or against the United States and pay the amount of any

judgment rendered against the United States in any suit, or the

amount of any settlement agreed upon, in respect of any claim under

insurance authorized by this subchapter.

(2) In respect of hull insurance, the valuation in the policy for

actual or constructive total loss of the vessel insured shall be a

stated valuation (exclusive of National Defense features paid for

by the Government) determined by the Secretary which shall not

exceed the amount that would be payable if the vessel had been

requisitioned for title under section 1242(a) of this Appendix at

the time of the attachment of the insurance under said policy:

Provided, That the insured shall have the right within sixty days

after the attachment of the insurance under said policy, or within

sixty days after determination of such valuation by the Secretary,

whichever is later, to reject such valuation, and shall pay, at the

rate provided for in said policy, premiums upon such asserted

valuation as the insured shall specify at the time of rejection,

but such asserted valuation shall not operate to the prejudice of

the Government in any subsequent action on the policy. In the event

of the actual or constructive total loss of the vessel, if the

insured has not rejected such valuation the amount of any claim

therefor which is adjusted, compromised, settled, adjudged, or paid

shall not exceed such stated amount, but if the insured has so

rejected such valuation, the insured shall be paid as a tentative

advance only, 75 per centum of such valuation so determined by the

Secretary and shall be entitled to sue the United States in a court

having jurisdiction of such claims to recover such valuation as

would be equal to the just compensation which such court determines

would have been payable if the vessel had been requisitioned for

title under section 1242(a) of this Appendix at the time of the

attachment of the insurance under said policy: Provided, That in

the event of an election by the insured to reject the stated

valuation fixed by the Secretary and to sue in the courts, the

amount of the judgment will be payable without regard to the

limitations contained in section 1242-1 (!1) of this Appendix,

although the excess of any amounts advanced on account of just

compensation over the amount of the court judgment will be required

to be refunded. In the event of such court determination, premiums

under the policy shall be adjusted on the basis of the valuation as

finally determined and of the rate provided for in said policy.

(b) Forms and policies; rates; fees

The Secretary may prescribe and change forms and policies, and

fix, adjust, and change the amounts insured and rates of premium

provided for in this subchapter. The Secretary may charge and

collect an annual fee in an amount calculated to cover the expenses

of processing applications for insurance, the employment of

underwriting agents, and the appointment of experts.

(c) Commercial practice controlling; limitation on fees

The Secretary, in administering this subchapter, may exercise his

powers, perform his duties and functions, and make his

expenditures, in accordance with commercial practice in the marine

insurance business. Except as authorized in subsection (d) of this

section, no insurance broker or other person acting in a similar

intermediary capacity shall be paid any fee or other consideration

by the Secretary by virtue of his participation in arranging any

insurance wherein the Secretary directly insures any of the risk

thereof.

(d) Underwriting agents

The Secretary may, and whenever he finds it practical to do so

shall, employ domestic companies or groups of domestic companies

authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the

United States, to act as his underwriting agent. The Secretary may

allow such companies or groups of companies fair and reasonable

compensation for servicing insurance written by such companies or

groups of companies as underwriting agent for the Secretary. The

services of such underwriting agents may be utilized in the

adjustment of claims under insurance provided by this subchapter,

but no claim shall be paid unless and until it has been approved by

the Secretary. Such compensation may include an allowance for

expenses reasonably incurred by such agent, but such allowance

shall not include any payment by such agent on account of

solicitation for or stimulation of insurance business.

(e) Employment of marine insurance experts

The Secretary without regard to the laws, rules, or regulations

relating to the employment of employees of the United States may

appoint and prescribe the duties of such number of experts in

marine insurance as he deems necessary under this subchapter.

(f) Utilization of services of other Government agencies

The Secretary with the consent of any executive department,

independent establishment, or other agency of the Government,

including any field service thereof, may avail himself of the use

of information, services, facilities, officers, and employees

thereof in carrying out the provisions of this subchapter.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, Sec. 1209, as added Sept. 7,

1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 775; amended Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 929, Sec. 1,

70 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 88-478, Sec. 1, Aug. 22, 1964, 78 Stat. 587;

Pub. L. 94-523, Sec. 4, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2474.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 1242-1 of this Appendix, referred to in subsec. (a)(2),

was in the original "the twelfth paragraph under the heading

Maritime Activities in title I of the Department of Commerce and

Related Agencies Appropriation Act, 1956, in the tenth paragraph

under the heading Maritime Activities in title III of the

Department of State, Justice, and Commerce, and the United States

Information Agency Appropriation Act, 1955, in the eleventh

paragraph under the heading 'Maritime Activities' in title III of

the Department of Justice, State, and Commerce Appropriation Act,

1954, the tenth paragraph under the heading 'Operating Differential

Subsidies' in title II of the Independent Offices Appropriation

Act, 1953, the corresponding paragraphs of the Independent Offices

Appropriation Act, 1952, and the Third Supplemental Appropriation

Act, 1951". Section 1242-1 was not repeated in appropriation acts

subsequent to Pub. L. 85-469 and was omitted from the Code.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1976 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-523 authorized imposition and

collection of an annual fee to cover expenses of processing

applications for insurance, employment of underwriting agents, and

appointment of experts.

1964 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 88-478 struck out provisions which

required for purposes of hull insurance, in the case of a

construction-subsidized vessel, that the valuation determined for

actual or constructive loss for the period of insurance prior to

requisition for title or use, be reduced by such proportion as the

amount of construction subsidy paid with respect to the vessel

bears to the entire construction cost and capital improvements

thereof (excluding the cost of national defense features), and for

the period of insurance after requisition for use limited the

valuation to the amount which would be payable under section 1212

of this Appendix.

1956 - Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 3, 1956, struck out provisions

limiting settlement of claims of vessels insured under this

subchapter to vessel's fair and reasonable value, designating the

remaining provisions, as so amended, as par. (1), and added par.

(2).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1964 AMENDMENT

Section 2 of Pub. L. 88-478 provided that: "The amendments made

by this Act [amending this section] shall be applicable to war risk

insurance coverage attaching after the date of enactment [Aug. 22,

1964]."

AMENDMENT OF INSURANCE IN FORCE ON AUGUST 3, 1956

Section 4 of act Aug. 3, 1956, provided that: "All war-risk

insurance issued under title XII of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936

[this subchapter], which is in force on the date of the enactment

of this Act [Aug. 3, 1956] shall, as of the beginning of such date,

be deemed to have been amended to conform to the requirements of

section 1209 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [this section], as

amended by this Act unless the insured, within ten days after such

date, objects to such amendment."

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1290 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XII - WAR RISK INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1290. Seamen's rights unaffected

-STATUTE-

This subchapter shall not affect rights of seamen under existing

law.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, Sec. 1210, as added Sept. 7,

1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 776.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1291 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XII - WAR RISK INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1291. Reports to Congress

-STATUTE-

The Secretary shall include in his annual report to Congress a

detailed statement of all activities and of all expenditures and

receipts under this subchapter for the period covered by such

report.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, Sec. 1211, as added Sept. 7,

1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 776; amended Pub. L. 89-348, Sec. 1(7),

Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1310.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1965 - Pub. L. 89-348 repealed provisions which required

quarterly reports of contracts entered into, proposed contracts,

and general progress with respect to war risk insurance activities

under this chapter.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1292 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XII - WAR RISK INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1292. Actions on claims for losses; jurisdiction of courts;

limitation of actions

-STATUTE-

Upon disagreement as to a loss insured under this subchapter,

suit may be maintained against the United States in admiralty in

the district in which the claimant or his agent resides, and this

remedy shall be exclusive of any other action by reason of the same

subject matter against any agent or employee of the United States

employed or retained under this subchapter. If the claimant has no

residence in the United States, suit may be brought in the district

court of the District of Columbia or in such other district court

in which the Attorney General of the United States agrees to accept

service. Such suits shall be heard and determined under the

provisions of the Act of March 9, 1920, as amended (known as the

Suits in Admiralty Act) [46 App. U.S.C. 741 et seq.]. All persons

having or claiming or who might have an interest in such insurance,

may be made parties either initially or upon the motion of either

party. In any case where the Secretary acknowledges the

indebtedness of the United States on account of such insurance, and

there is a dispute as to the persons entitled to receive payment,

the United States may bring an action in the nature of a bill of

interpleader against such parties, in the District Court for the

District of Columbia, or in the district court of the district in

which any such person resides. In such actions any party, if not a

resident of or found within the district, may be brought in by

order of court served in such reasonable manner as the court

directs. If the court is satisfied that persons unknown might

assert a claim on account of such insurance, it may direct service

upon such persons unknown by publication in the Federal Register.

Judgment in any such suit shall discharge the United States from

further liability to any parties to such action, and to all persons

when service by publication upon persons unknown is directed by the

court. The period within which suits may be commenced contained in

said Suits in Admiralty Act shall, if claim be filed therefor

within such period, be suspended from such time of filing until the

claim shall have been administratively denied by the Secretary and

for sixty days thereafter: Provided, however, That such claim shall

be deemed to have been administratively denied if not acted upon

within six months after the time of filing, unless the Secretary

for good cause shown shall have otherwise agreed with the claimant.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, Sec. 1212, as added Sept. 7,

1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 776.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Suits in Admiralty Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 9,

1920, ch. 95, 41 Stat. 525, as amended, which is classified

generally to chapter 20 (Sec. 741 et seq.) of this Appendix. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title

note set out under section 741 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1293 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XII - WAR RISK INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1293. Additional insurance with other underwriters

-STATUTE-

A person having an insurable interest in a vessel may, with the

approval of the Secretary, insure with other underwriters in an

amount in excess of the amount insured with the Secretary of

Transportation, and in that event the Secretary of Transportation

shall not be entitled to the benefit of such insurance.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, Sec. 1213, as added Sept. 7,

1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 777; amended Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 12(141),

Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1981 - Pub. L. 97-31 substituted "Secretary of Transportation"

for "Secretary of Commerce" in two places.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1294 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XII - WAR RISK INSURANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1294. Expiration of authority to provide insurance

-STATUTE-

The authority of the Secretary to provide insurance and

reinsurance under this subchapter shall expire June 30, 2005.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, Sec. 1214, as added Sept. 7,

1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 777; amended Aug. 3, 1955, ch. 492, 69

Stat. 440; Pub. L. 86-120, July 31, 1959, 73 Stat. 266; Pub. L.

89-89, July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 91-469, Sec. 34, Oct.

21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 94-523, Sec. 5, Oct. 17, 1976, 90

Stat. 2474; Pub. L. 96-195, Feb. 25, 1980, 94 Stat. 63; Pub. L.

99-59, July 3, 1985, 99 Stat. 110; Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 7(b), Oct.

13, 1989, 103 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 104-106, div. A, title X, Sec.

1094, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 461; Pub. L. 104-239, Sec. 12, Oct.

8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3134; Pub. L. 106-65, div. C, title XXXVI, Sec.

3603, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 976.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1999 - Pub. L. 106-65 substituted "June 30, 2005" for "June 30,

2000".

1996 - Pub. L. 104-106 and Pub. L. 104-239 amended section

identically, substituting "June 30, 2000" for "June 30, 1995".

1989 - Pub. L. 101-115 substituted "June 30, 1995" for "June 30,

1990".

1985 - Pub. L. 99-59 substituted "June 30, 1990" for "September

30, 1984".

1980 - Pub. L. 96-195 substituted "September 30, 1984" for

"September 30, 1979".

1976 - Pub. L. 94-523 substituted "September 30, 1979" for

"September 7, 1975".

1970 - Pub. L. 91-469 substituted "September 7, 1975" for "twenty

years from September 7, 1950".

1965 - Pub. L. 89-89 extended authority of Secretary to provide

insurance and reinsurance for an additional five years.

1959 - Pub. L. 86-120 extended authority of Secretary to provide

insurance and reinsurance for an additional five years.

1955 - Act Aug. 3, 1955, extended authority of Secretary to

provide insurance and reinsurance for an additional five years.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME

EDUCATION AND TRAINING 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-SECREF-

SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This subchapter is referred to in section 1119 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295. Congressional declaration of policy

-STATUTE-

It is the policy of the United States that merchant marine

vessels of the United States should be operated by highly trained

and efficient citizens of the United States and that the United

States Navy and the merchant marine of the United States should

work closely together to promote the maximum integration of the

total seapower forces of the United States. In furtherance of this

policy -

(1) the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to take the

steps necessary to provide for the education and training of

citizens of the United States who are capable of providing for

the safe and efficient operation of the merchant marine of the

United States at all times and as a naval and military auxiliary

in time of war or national emergency; and

(2) the Secretary of Navy, in cooperation with the Maritime

Administrator and the head of each State maritime academy, shall

assure that the training of future merchant marine officers at

the United States Merchant Marine Academy and at the State

maritime academies includes programs for naval science training

in the operation of merchant marine vessels as a naval and

military auxiliary and that naval officer training programs for

the training of future officers, insofar as possible, be

maintained at designated maritime academies consistent with

United States Navy standards and needs.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1301, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; amended Pub. L.

97-31, Sec. 12(142), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1981 - Par. (1). Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 12(142)(A), substituted

"Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of Commerce".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 12(142)(B), substituted "Maritime

Administrator" for "Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Maritime

Affairs".

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 4 of Pub. L. 96-453 provided that: "This Act [enacting

this subchapter, amending sections 1119 and 1244 of this Appendix,

and repealing sections 1126, 1126a-1 to 1126d, 1331 to 1334, and

1381 to 1388 of former Title 46, Shipping] shall take effect on

October 1, 1981."

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96-453 provided that: "This Act [enacting

this subchapter, amending sections 1119 and 1244 of this Appendix,

and repealing sections 1126, 1126a-1 to 1126d, 1331 to 1334, and

1381 to 1388 of former Title 46, Shipping] may be cited as the

'Maritime Education and Training Act of 1980'."

MARITIME POLLUTION PREVENTION TRAINING PROGRAM STUDY

Pub. L. 101-380, title IV, Sec. 4117, Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat.

523, provided that: "The Secretary shall conduct a study to

determine the feasibility of a Maritime Oil Pollution Prevention

Training program to be carried out in cooperation with approved

maritime training institutions. The study shall assess the costs

and benefits of transferring suitable vessels to selected maritime

training institutions, equipping the vessels for oil spill

response, and training students in oil pollution response skills.

The study shall be completed and transmitted to the Congress no

later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act

[Aug. 18, 1990]."

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295a. Definitions

-STATUTE-

For purposes of this subchapter -

(1) the term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation;

(2) the term "Academy" means the United States Merchant Marine

Academy located at Kings Point, New York which is maintained

under section 1295b of this Appendix;

(3) the term "State maritime academy" means any maritime

academy or college which is assisted under section 1295c of this

Appendix and which is sponsored by any State or territory of the

United States or, in the case of a regional maritime academy or

college, sponsored by any group of States or territories of the

United States, or both; and

(4) the term "merchant marine officer" means any person who

holds a license issued by the United States Coast Guard which

authorizes service -

(A) as a master, mate, or pilot on board any vessel of 1,000

gross tons or more as measured under section 14502 of title 46,

or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of that

title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of

that title which is documented under the laws of the United

States and which operates on the oceans or on the Great Lakes;

or

(B) as an engineer officer on board any vessel propelled by

machinery of 4,000 horsepower or more which is documented under

the laws of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1302, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; amended Pub. L.

97-31, Sec. 12(143), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 104-324,

title VII, Sec. 708, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3934.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Par. (4)(A). Pub. L. 104-324 inserted "as measured under

section 14502 of title 46, or an alternate tonnage measured under

section 14302 of that title as prescribed by the Secretary under

section 14104 of that title" after "1,000 gross tons or more".

1981 - Par. (1). Pub. L. 97-31 substituted "Secretary of

Transportation" for "Secretary of Commerce".

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 46 section 3306.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295b 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295b. Maintenance of Academy

-STATUTE-

(a) Duty of Secretary

The Secretary shall maintain the Academy for providing

instruction to individuals to prepare them for service in the

merchant marine of the United States.

(b) Nomination and appointment of cadets; designation and licensing

of individuals from Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, Western

Hemisphere nations and nations other than United States

(1) Each Senator and Member of the House of Representatives, the

Panama Canal Commission, the Governor of the Northern Mariana

Islands, and the Delegate from American Samoa may nominate for

appointment as a cadet at the Academy any individual who is -

(A) a citizen of the United States or a national of the United

States; and

(B) a resident of the State represented by such Senator if the

individual is nominated by a Senator, a resident of the State in

which the congressional district represented by such Member of

the House of Representatives is located if the individual is

nominated by a Member of the House of Representatives (or a

resident of Guam, the Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia,

the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or American Samoa if the

individual is nominated by a Member of the House of

Representatives representing such area), a resident of the area

or installation described in paragraph (3)(A)(ii), or a son or

daughter of the personnel described in such paragraph, if the

individual is nominated by the Panama Canal Commission, or a

resident of the Northern Mariana Islands if the individual is

nominated by the Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall establish minimum requirements for the

individuals nominated pursuant to paragraph (1) and shall establish

a system of competition for the selection of individuals qualified

for appointment as cadets at the Academy.

(B) Such system of competition shall determine the relative merit

of appointing each such individual to the Academy through the use

of competitive examinations, an assessment of the academic

background of the individual, and such other factors as are

considered effective indicators of motivation and the probability

of successful completion of training at the Academy.

(3)(A) Qualified individuals nominated pursuant to paragraph (1)

shall be selected each year for appointment as cadets at the

Academy to fill positions allocated as follows:

(i) Positions shall be allocated each year for individuals who

are residents of each State and are nominated by the Members of

the Congress from such State in proportion to the representation

in Congress from that State.

(ii) Two positions shall be allocated each year for individuals

nominated by the Panama Canal Commission who are sons or

daughters of residents of any area or installation located in the

Republic of Panama which is made available to the United States

pursuant to the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, the agreements

relating to and implementing that Treaty, signed September 7,

1977, and the Agreement Between the United States of America and

the Republic of Panama Concerning Air Traffic Control and Related

Services, concluded January 8, 1979, and sons or daughters of

personnel of the United States Government and the Panama Canal

Commission residing in the Republic of Panama, nominated by the

Panama Canal Commission.

(iii) One position shall be allocated each year for an

individual who is a resident of Guam and is nominated by the

Delegate to the House of Representatives from Guam.

(iv) One position shall be allocated each year for an

individual who is a resident of the Virgin Islands and is

nominated by the Delegate to the House of Representatives from

the Virgin Islands.

(v) One position shall be allocated each year for an individual

who is a resident of the Northern Mariana Islands and is

nominated by the Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(vi) One position shall be allocated each year for an

individual who is a resident of American Samoa and is nominated

by the Delegate to the House of Representatives from American

Samoa.

(vii) Four positions shall be allocated each year for

individuals who are residents of the District of Columbia and are

nominated by the Delegate to the House of Representatives from

the District of Columbia.

(viii) One position shall be allocated each year for an

individual who is a resident of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

and is nominated by the Resident Commissioner to the United

States from Puerto Rico.

(B) The Secretary shall make appointments of qualified

individuals to fill the positions allocated pursuant to

subparagraph (A) (from among the individuals nominated pursuant to

paragraph (1)) in the order of merit determined pursuant to

paragraph (2)(B) among residents of each State, Guam, the Virgin

Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the District

of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and among

individuals nominated by the Panama Canal Commission.

(C) If positions are not filled after the appointments are made

pursuant to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall make appointments

of qualified individuals to fill such positions from among all

individuals nominated pursuant to paragraph (1) in the order of

merit determined pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) among all such

individuals.

(D) In addition, the Secretary may each year appoint without

competition as cadets at the Academy not more than 40 qualified

individuals possessing qualities deemed to be of special value to

the Academy. In making such appointments the Secretary shall

attempt to achieve a national demographic balance at the Academy.

(E) No preference shall be granted in selecting individuals for

appointment as cadets at the Academy because one or more members of

the immediate family of any such individual are alumni of the

Academy.

(F) Any citizen of the United States selected for appointment

pursuant to this paragraph must agree to apply for midshipman

status in the United States Naval Reserve (including the Merchant

Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve) before being appointed

as a cadet at the Academy.

(G) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "State" means the

several States.

(4)(A) In addition to paragraph (3), the Secretary may permit,

upon designation by the Secretary of the Interior, individuals from

the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to receive instruction

at the Academy.

(B) Not more than 4 individuals may receive instruction under

this paragraph at any one time.

(C) Any individual receiving instruction under the authority of

this paragraph shall receive the same allowances and shall be

subject to the same rules and regulations governing admission,

attendance, discipline, resignation, discharge, dismissal, and

graduation as cadets at the Academy appointed from the United

States, subject to such exceptions as shall be jointly agreed upon

by the Secretary and the Secretary of the Interior.

(5)(A) In addition to paragraphs (3) and (4), the President may

designate individuals from nations located in the Western

Hemisphere other than the United States to receive instruction at

the Academy.

(B) Not more than 12 individuals may receive instruction under

this paragraph at any one time, and not more than 2 individuals

receiving instruction under this paragraph at any one time may be

from the same nation.

(C) Any individual receiving instruction under this subparagraph

is entitled to the same allowances and shall be subject to the same

rules and regulations governing admission, attendance, discipline,

resignation, discharge, dismissal, and graduation as cadets at the

Academy appointed from the United States.

(6)(A) In addition to paragraphs (3), (4), and (5), the Secretary

may permit, upon approval of the Secretary of State, individuals

from nations other than the United States to receive instruction at

the Academy.

(B) Not more than 30 individuals may receive instruction under

this paragraph at any one time.

(C) The Secretary shall insure that each nation from which an

individual comes to receive instruction under this paragraph shall

reimburse the Secretary for the cost of such instructions

(including the same allowances as received by cadets at the Academy

appointed from the United States), as determined by the Secretary.

(D) Any individual receiving instruction at the Academy under

this paragraph shall be subject to the same rules and regulations

governing admission, attendance, discipline, resignation,

discharge, dismissal, and graduation as cadets at the Academy

appointed from the United States.

(7)(A) The Secretary may permit, upon approval of the Secretary

of State, additional individuals from the Republic of Panama to

receive instruction at the Academy, in addition to those

individuals appointed under paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) of

this subsection.

(B) The Secretary shall be reimbursed for the cost of that

instruction (including the same allowances as received by cadets at

the Academy appointed from the United States) as determined by the

Secretary.

(C) An individual receiving instructions at the Academy under

this paragraph shall be subject to the same rules and regulations

governing admission, attendance, discipline, resignation,

discharge, dismissal, and graduation as cadets at the Academy

appointed from the United States.

(8) An individual appointed as a cadet under paragraph (3), or

receiving instruction under paragraph (4), (5), (6), or (7) of this

subsection is not entitled to hold a license authorizing service on

a merchant marine vessel of the United States solely by reason of

graduation from the Academy.

(c) Appointment of cadet as midshipman in United States Naval

Reserve; rights and privileges

(1) Any citizen of the United States who is appointed as a cadet

at the Academy shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a

midshipman in the United States Naval Reserve (including the

Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve).

(2) The Secretary of the Navy shall provide for cadets of the

Academy who are midshipmen in the United States Naval Reserve to be

issued an identification card (referred to as a "military ID card")

and to be entitled to all rights and privileges in accordance with

the same eligibility criteria as apply to other members of the

Ready Reserve of the reserve components of the Armed Forces.

(3) The Secretary of the Navy shall carry out paragraphs (1) and

(2) in coordination with the Secretary.

(d) Uniforms, textbooks, and transportation allowances

The Secretary shall provide to any cadet at the Academy all

required uniforms and textbooks and allowances for transportation

(including reimbursement of traveling expenses) while traveling

under orders as a cadet of the Academy.

(e) Commitment agreements

(1) Each individual appointed as a cadet at the Academy after the

date occurring 6 months after October 1, 1981, who is a citizen of

the United States, shall as a condition of appointment to the

Academy sign an agreement committing such individual -

(A) to complete the course of instruction at the Academy,

unless the individual is separated by the Academy;

(B) to fulfill the requirements for a license as an officer in

the merchant marine of the United States on or before the date of

graduation from the Academy of such individual;

(C) to maintain a license as an officer in the merchant marine

of the United States for at least 6 years following the date of

graduation from the Academy of such individual;

(D) to apply for an appointment as, to accept if tendered an

appointment as, and to serve as a commissioned officer in the

United States Naval Reserve (including the Merchant Marine

Reserve, United States Naval Reserve), the United States Coast

Guard Reserve, or any other Reserve unit of an armed force of the

United States, for at least 6 years following the date of

graduation from the Academy of such individual;

(E) to serve the foreign and domestic commerce and the national

defense of the United States for at least 5 years following the

date of graduation from the Academy -

(i) as a merchant marine officer serving on vessels

documented under the laws of the United States or on vessels

owned and operated by the United States or by any State or

territory of the United States;

(ii) as an employee in a United States maritime-related

industry, profession, or marine science (as determined by the

Secretary), if the Secretary determines that service under

clause (i) is not available to such individual;

(iii) as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed

force of the United States or in the National Oceanic and

Atmospheric Administration; or

(iv) by combining the services specified in clauses (i),

(ii), and (iii); and

(F) to report to the Secretary on the compliance by the

individual to this paragraph.

(2) If the Secretary determines that any individual who has

attended the Academy for not less than 2 years has failed to

fulfill the part of the agreement (required by paragraph (1))

described in paragraph (1)(A), such individual may be ordered by

the Secretary of the Navy to active duty in the United States Navy

to serve for a period of time not to exceed 2 years. In cases of

hardship as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary may waive

this paragraph.

(3)(A) If the Secretary determines that any individual has failed

to fulfill any part of the agreement (required by paragraph (1))

described in subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph

(1), such individual may be ordered to active duty to serve a

period of time not less than 3 years and not more than the

unexpired portion (as determined by the Secretary) of the service

required by subparagraph (E) of such paragraph. The Secretary, in

consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall determine in

which service the individual shall be ordered to active duty to

serve such period of time. In cases of hardship as determined by

the Secretary, the Secretary may waive this paragraph.

(B) If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order

an individual to active duty under subparagraph (A), the Secretary

of Transportation -

(i) may recover from the individual the cost of education

provided by the Federal Government; and

(ii) shall request the Attorney General to begin court

proceedings to recover the costs of education if the Secretary

decides to seek recovery under clause (i).

(4) The Secretary may defer the service commitment of any

individual pursuant to subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) (as

specified in the agreement required by such paragraph) for a period

of not more than 2 years if such individual is engaged in a

graduate course of study approved by the Secretary, except that any

deferment of service as a commissioned officer pursuant to

paragraph (1)(E) must be approved by the Secretary of the military

department (including the Secretary of Commerce with respect to the

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) which has

jurisdiction over such service.

(f) Places of training

The Secretary may provide for the training of cadets at the

Academy -

(1) on vessels owned or subsidized by the United States;

(2) on other vessels documented under the laws of the United

States if the owner of any such vessel cooperates in such use;

and

(3) in shipyards or plants and with any industrial or

educational organizations.

(g) Bachelor of science degrees awarded

The Superintendent of the Academy may confer the degree of

bachelor of science upon any individual who has met the conditions

prescribed by the Secretary and who, if a citizen of the United

States, has passed the examination for a merchant marine officer's

license. No individual may be denied a degree under this subsection

because the individual is not permitted to take such examination

solely because of physical disqualification.

(h) Board of Visitors

(1) A Board of Visitors to the Academy shall be established, for

a term of two years commencing at the beginning of each Congress,

to visit the Academy annually on a date determined by the Secretary

and to make recommendations on the operation of the Academy.

(2) The Board shall be composed of -

(A) 2 Senators appointed by the chairman of the Commerce,

Science, and Transportation Committee of the Senate;

(B) 3 Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the

chairman of the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee of the

House of Representatives;

(C) 1 Senator appointed by the Vice President;

(D) 2 Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the

Speaker of the House of Representatives; and

(E) the chairman of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Committee of the Senate and the chairman of the Merchant Marine

and Fisheries Committee of the House of Representatives, as ex

officio members.

(3) Whenever a member of the Board is unable to attend the annual

meeting provided in paragraph (1), another individual may be

appointed in the manner provided by paragraph (2) as a substitute

for such member.

(4) The chairmen of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Committee of the Senate and the Merchant Marine and Fisheries

Committee of the House of Representatives may designate staff

members of such committees to serve without reimbursement as staff

for the Board.

(5) While away from their homes or regular places of business in

the performance of services for the Board, members of the Board and

any staff members designated under paragraph (4) shall be allowed

travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the

same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government

service are allowed expenses under section 5703 of title 5.

(i) Advisory Board

(1) An Advisory Board to the Academy shall be established to

visit the Academy at least once during each academic year, for the

purpose of examining the course of instruction and management of

the Academy and advising the Maritime Administrator and the

Superintendent of the Academy.

(2) The Advisory Board shall be composed of not more than 7

persons of distinction in education and other fields relating to

the Academy who shall be appointed by the Secretary for terms not

to exceed 3 years and may be reappointed.

(3) The Secretary shall appoint a chairman from among the members

of the Advisory Board.

(4) While away from their homes or regular places of business in

the performance of service for the Advisory Board, members of the

Advisory Board shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem

in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed

intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under

section 5703 of title 5.

(5) The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.)

shall not apply to the Advisory Board established pursuant to this

subsection.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1303, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1998; amended Pub. L.

97-31, Sec. 12(144), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 97-35,

title XVI, Sec. 1607, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 99-368,

Sec. 5, Aug. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 101-595, title VII,

Secs. 703, 707(a), 708, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994, 2995; Pub.

L. 105-261, div. A, title V, Sec. 568, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat.

2031; Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1066(b)(5), Oct. 5,

1999, 113 Stat. 772.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec.

(i)(5), is Pub. L. 92-463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended,

which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government

Organization and Employees.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1999 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106-65 made technical correction to

Pub. L. 105-261, Sec. 568. See 1998 Amendment note below.

1998 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-261, as amended by Pub. L.

106-65, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted

"shall" for "may", and added pars. (2) and (3).

1990 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101-595, Sec. 708(1), in

introductory provisions, substituted "Delegate from American Samoa"

for "Governor of American Samoa (until a delegate to the House of

Representatives from American Samoa takes office)" and "any

individual who is - " for "any individual who is" and, in subpar.

(B), inserted "or" after "Canal Commission," and struck out before

period at end ", or a resident of American Samoa if the individual

is nominated by the Governor of American Samoa".

Subsec. (b)(3)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 101-595, Sec. 708(2), substituted

"Delegate to the House of Representatives from American Samoa" for

"Governor of American Samoa (until a delegate to the House of

Representatives from American Samoa takes office)".

Subsec. (b)(7)(A). Pub. L. 101-595, Sec. 708(3)(A), struck out

"annually" after "Secretary may", "until September 30, 1995,"

before "upon approval", and "up to six" before "additional".

Subsec. (b)(7)(B). Pub. L. 101-595, Sec. 708(3)(B), which

directed the substitution of "The Secretary shall be reimbursed"

for "the Secretary shall insure that the Republic of Panama

reimburse the Secretary", was executed by making the substitution

for "The Secretary shall insure that the Republic of Panama

reimburse the Secretary" to reflect the probable intent of

Congress.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 101-595, Sec. 707(a), designated existing

provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 101-595, Sec. 703, amended par. (1)

generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "A Board

of Visitors to the Academy shall be established to visit the

Academy annually on a date determined by the Secretary and to make

recommendations on the operation of the Academy."

1986 - Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 99-368 added pars. (7) and

(8) and struck out former par. (7) which provided that any

individual appointed as a cadet to the Academy under par. (3), or

receiving instruction at the Academy under par. (4), (5), or (6),

was not entitled to hold any license authorizing service on any

merchant marine vessel of the United States solely by reason of

graduation from the Academy.

1981 - Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 12(144)(A), struck out

"and the Secretary of Transportation" after "Secretary of Defense".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 12(144)(B), struck out "the

Secretary of the department in which the United States Coast Guard

is operating with respect to the United States Coast Guard and"

before "the Secretary of Commerce".

Subsec. (h)(2)(D). Pub. L. 97-35 increased the membership on the

Board from 1 to 2 Members of the House of Representatives.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 12(144)(C), substituted

"Maritime Administrator" for "Assistant Secretary of Commerce for

Maritime Affairs".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1999 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1066(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113

Stat. 772, provided that the amendment made by section 1066(b) is

effective Oct. 17, 1998, and as if included in the Strom Thurmond

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, Pub. L.

105-261, as enacted.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Section 707(b) of Pub. L. 101-595 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

individuals who sign agreements after the date of enactment of this

Act [Nov. 16, 1990] under section 1303(e) of the Merchant Marine

Act, 1936 (46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(e))."

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

ABOLITION OF HOUSE COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES

Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of House of

Representatives abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by House

Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Jan. 4, 1995.

Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of House of

Representatives treated as referring to Committee on National

Security [now Committee on Armed Services] of House of

Representatives, in case of provisions relating to interoceanic

canals, Merchant Marine Academy and State Maritime Academies, or

national security aspects of merchant marine, by section 1(b)(3) of

Pub. L. 104-14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2,

The Congress.

TERMINATION OF TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see

note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and

Insular Possessions.

-MISC2-

DEGREES FOR PERSONS WHO GRADUATED BEFORE ACCREDITING OF MERCHANT

MARINE ACADEMY

Act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, Sec. 35, 70A Stat. 634, provided in

part that, under conditions prescribed by the Secretary of

Commerce, the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine

Academy may confer the degree of bachelor of science upon living

graduates of the Academy who were graduated before the date of

accrediting of the Academy and who have met the requirements of the

Academy for that degree.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1295a, 1295f of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295c 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295c. State maritime academies

-STATUTE-

(a) Cooperation and assistance

The Secretary shall cooperate with and assist any State maritime

academy in providing instruction to individuals to prepare them for

service in the merchant marine of the United States.

(b) Regional maritime academies

The Governors of all States or territories of the United States,

or both, cooperating to sponsor a regional maritime academy shall

designate in writing one State or territory of the United States,

from among the sponsoring States or territories, or both, to

conduct the affairs of such regional maritime academy. Any regional

maritime academy shall be eligible for assistance from the Federal

Government on the same basis as any State maritime academy

sponsored by a single State or territory of the United States.

(c) Training vessels

(1)(A) The Secretary may furnish for training purposes any

suitable vessel under the control of the Secretary or provided

under subparagraph (B), or construct and furnish a suitable vessel

if such a vessel is not available, to any State maritime academy

meeting the requirements of subsection (f)(1) of this section. Any

such vessel -

(i) shall be repaired, reconditioned, and equipped (including

supplying all apparel, charts, books, and instruments of

navigation) as necessary for use as a training ship;

(ii) shall be furnished to such State maritime academy only

after application for such vessel is made in writing by the

Governor of the State or territory sponsoring such State maritime

academy or, with respect to a regional maritime academy the

Governor of the State or territory designated pursuant to

subsection (b) of this section;

(iii) shall be furnished to such State maritime academy only if

a suitable port for the safe mooring of such vessel is available

while it is being used by such academy;

(iv) shall be maintained in good repair by the Secretary; and

(v) shall remain the property of the United States.

(B) Any department or agency of the United States may provide to

the Secretary to be furnished to any State maritime academy any

vessel (including equipment) which is suitable for the purposes of

this paragraph and which can be provided without detriment to the

service to which such vessel is assigned.

(2) The Secretary may pay to any State maritime academy the

amount of the costs of all fuel consumed by any vessel furnished

under paragraph (1) while such vessel is being used for training

purposes by such academy.

(3)(A) The Secretary may provide for the training of individuals

attending a State maritime academy -

(i) on vessels owned or subsidized by the United States;

(ii) on other vessels documented under the laws of the United

States if the owner of any such vessel cooperates in such use;

and

(iii) in shipyards or plants and with any industrial or

educational organizations.

(B) While traveling under orders for purposes of receiving

training under this paragraph, any individual who is attending a

State maritime academy shall receive from the Secretary allowances

for transportation (including reimbursement of traveling expenses)

in accordance with any regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(d) Annual payments

(1)(A) The Secretary may enter into an agreement, which shall be

effective for not more than 4 years, with one State maritime

academy (not including regional maritime academies) located in each

State or territory of the United States which meets the

requirements of subsection (f)(1) of this section, and with each

regional maritime academy which meets the requirements of

subsection (f)(1) of this section, to make annual payments to each

such academy for the maintenance and support of such academy.

(B) Subject to subparagraph (C), the annual payment to such State

maritime academy shall be at least equal to the amount given to the

academy for its maintenance and support by the State in which it is

located, and to such regional maritime academy shall be at least

equal to the amount given the academy by all States and territories

cooperating to sponsor the academy.

(C) The amount under subparagraph (B) may not be more than

$25,000, except that the amount shall be -

(i) $100,000 to such State maritime academy if the academy

meets the condition set forth in subsection (f)(2) of this

section; or

(ii) $200,000 to such regional maritime academy if the academy

meets the condition set forth in subsection (f)(2) of this

section.

(2) The Secretary shall provide to each State maritime academy

guidance and assistance in developing courses on the operation and

maintenance of new vessels, on equipment, and on innovations being

introduced to the merchant marine of the United States.

(e) Detailing of personnel

Upon the request of the Governor of any State or territory, the

President may detail, without reimbursement, any of the personnel

of the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, or the

United States Maritime Service to any State maritime academy to

serve as superintendents, professors, lecturers, or instructors at

such academy.

(f) Conditions to receiving payments or use of vessels

(1) As a condition to receiving any payment or the use of any

vessel under this section, any State maritime academy shall -

(A) provide courses of instruction on navigation, marine

engineering (including steam and diesel propulsion), the

operation and maintenance of new vessels and equipment, and

innovations being introduced to the merchant marine of the United

States;

(B) agree in writing to conform to such standards for courses,

training facilities, admissions, and instruction as are

established by the Secretary after consultation with the

superintendents of the State maritime academies; and

(C) agree in writing to require, as a condition for graduation,

that each individual who is a citizen of the United States and

who is attending the academy in a merchant marine officer

preparation program shall pass the examination administered by

the Coast Guard required for issuance of a license under section

7101 of title 46.

(2) As a condition to receiving an annual payment of any amount

in excess of $25,000 under subsection (d) of this section, a State

maritime academy shall agree to admit to such academy each year a

number of individuals who meet the admission requirements of such

academy and who are citizens of the United States residing in

States and territories of the United States other than the States

or territories, or both, supporting such academy. The Secretary

shall determine the number of individuals under this paragraph for

each State maritime academy so that such number does not exceed

one-third of the total number of individuals attending such academy

at any time.

(g) Student incentive payment agreements

(1) The Secretary may enter into an agreement, which shall be

effective for not more than 4 academic years, with any individual,

who is a citizen of the United States and is attending a State

maritime academy which entered into an agreement with the Secretary

under subsection (d)(1) of this section, to make student incentive

payments to such individual, which payments shall be in amounts

equaling $3,000 for each academic year and which payments shall be

-

(A) allocated among the various State maritime academies in a

fair and equitable manner;

(B) used to assist the individual in paying the cost of

uniforms, books, and subsistence; and

(C) paid by the Secretary as the Secretary shall prescribe

while the individual is attending the academy.

(2) Each agreement entered into under paragraph (1) shall require

the individual to accept midshipman and enlisted reserve status in

the United States Naval Reserve (including the Merchant Marine

Reserve, United States Naval Reserve) before receiving any student

incentive payments under this subsection.

(3) Each agreement entered into under paragraph (1) shall

obligate the individual receiving student incentive payments under

the agreement -

(A) to complete the course of instruction at the State maritime

academy which the individual is attending, unless the individual

is separated by such academy;

(B) to take the examination for a license as an officer in the

merchant marine of the United States on or before the date of

graduation from such State maritime academy of such individual

and to fulfill the requirements for such license not later than 3

months after such graduation date;

(C) to maintain a license as an officer in the merchant marine

of the United States for at least 6 years following the date of

graduation from such State maritime academy of such individual;

(D) to accept if tendered an appointment as, and to serve as a

commissioned officer in the United States Naval Reserve

(including the Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval

Reserve), the United States Coast Guard Reserve, or any other

reserve unit of an armed force of the United States, for at least

6 years following the date of graduation from such State maritime

academy of such individual;

(E) to serve the foreign and domestic commerce and the national

defense of the United States for at least 3 years following the

date of graduation from the Academy -

(i) as a merchant marine officer serving on vessels

documented under the laws of the United States or on vessels

owned and operated by the United States or by any State or

territory of the United States;

(ii) as an employee in a United States maritime-related

industry, profession, or marine science (as determined by the

Secretary), if the Secretary determines that service under

clause (i) is not available to such individual;

(iii) as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed

force of the United States or in the National Oceanic and

Atmospheric Administration; or

(iv) by combining the services specified in clauses (i),

(ii), and (iii); and

(F) to report to the Secretary on the compliance by the

individual to this paragraph.

(4) If the Secretary determines that any individual who has

accepted the payment described in paragraph (1) has failed to

fulfill the part of the agreement (required by paragraph (1))

described in paragraph (3)(A), such individual may be ordered by

the Secretary of the Navy to active duty in the United States Navy

to serve for a period of time not to exceed 2 years. In cases of

hardship as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary may waive

this paragraph.

(5) If the Secretary determines that any individual has failed to

fulfill any part of the agreement (required by paragraph (1))

described in subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph

(3), such individual may be ordered to active duty to serve a

period of time not less than 2 years and not more than the

unexpired portion (as determined by the Secretary) of the service

required by subparagraph (E) of such paragraph. The Secretary, in

consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall determine in

which service the individual shall be ordered to active duty to

serve such period of time. In cases of hardship as determined by

the Secretary, the Secretary may waive this paragraph.

(6) The Secretary may defer the service commitment of any

individual pursuant to subparagraph (E) of paragraph (3) (as

specified in the agreement required by such paragraph) for a period

of not more than 2 years if such individual is engaged in a

graduate course of study approved by the Secretary, except that any

deferment of service as a commissioned officer pursuant to

subparagraph (E) of such paragraph must be approved by the

Secretary of the military department (including the Secretary of

Commerce with respect to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration) which has jurisdiction over such service.

(7) This subsection shall apply only to individuals first

entering a State maritime academy after the date occurring 6 months

after October 1, 1981.

(h) Appointment of cadet as midshipman in United States Naval

Reserve

Any citizen of the United States attending a State maritime

academy may be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a

midshipman in the United States Naval Reserve (including the

Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve).

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1304, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003; amended Pub. L.

97-31, Sec. 12(145), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 101-115,

Secs. 2(a)-(d), 3(a), 5, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 691-693; Pub. L.

102-587, title VI, Sec. 6201(a)(1), (b), (c), Nov. 4, 1992, 106

Stat. 5093.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1992 - Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 102-587, Sec. 6201(a)(1),

substituted "$3,000" for "$1,200".

Subsec. (g)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 102-587, Sec. 6201(b), inserted

"and" at end of subpar. (B), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C) and

struck out ", for the academic years after those years specified in

subparagraph (C)," after "paid by the Secretary", and struck out

former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "paid by the Secretary to

the individual for the first complete or partial academic year of

attendance in a lump sum of $1,200 or in amounts prorated on the

basis of actual attendance, and at a time during the second

academic year when the individual enters into an agreement

accepting midshipman and enlisted reserve status as required under

paragraph (2); and".

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 102-587, Sec. 6201(c), substituted

"paragraph (1)" for "paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection" after

"payment described in".

1989 - Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 5, designated

existing provisions as subpar. (A), struck out second sentence

which read as follows: "The amount of each such annual payment

shall be not less than the amount furnished to such academy for its

maintenance and support by the State or territory in which such

academy is located or, in the case of a regional maritime academy

an amount equal to the amount furnished to such academy for its

maintenance and support by all States or territories, or both,

cooperating to support such academy, but shall not exceed $25,000,

or $100,000 if such academy meets the requirements of subsection

(f)(2) of this section.", and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 3(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 2(a), added

subpars. (C) and (D) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read

as follows: "paid by the Secretary to the individual in such

payments as the Secretary shall prescribe while such individual is

attending such academy."

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 2(b), substituted "accept

midshipman and enlisted reserve status" for "apply for midshipman

status".

Subsec. (g)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 2(c), struck out "to

apply for an appointment as," before "to accept if tendered".

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 2(d), substituted "has

accepted the payment described in paragraph (1)(C) of this

subsection" for "has attended a State maritime academy for not less

than 2 years".

1981 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97-31 in par. (5) struck out "and the

Secretary of Transportation" after "Secretary of Defense", and in

par. (6) struck out "the Secretary of the department in which the

United States Coast Guard is operating with respect to the United

States Coast Guard and" before "the Secretary of Commerce".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Section 6201(a)(2) of Pub. L. 102-587 provided that: "The

amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall

apply to payments under section 1304(g)(1) of the Merchant Marine

Act, 1936 (46 App. U.S.C. 1295c(g)(1)) made with respect to

academic years beginning after the date of the enactment of this

Act [Nov. 4, 1992]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1989 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 101-595, title VII, Sec. 706, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

2995, provided that: "Section 3 of the Act of October 13, 1989

(Public Law 101-115; 103 Stat. 692) [adding subsec. (f)(1)(C) of

this section and enacting provisions set out below], shall not be

effective prior to October 1, 1994."

Section 2(e) of Pub. L. 101-115 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] apply to individuals

who commence attendance after December 31, 1989, at a State

maritime academy in accordance with section 1304 of the Merchant

Marine Act, 1936 (46 App. U.S.C. 1295c)."

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101-115 provided that: "The requirement

set forth in subsection (f)(1)(C) of section 1304 of the Merchant

Marine Act, 1936 [46 App. U.S.C. 1295c(f)(1)(C)], as added by

subsection (a) of this section, shall be a condition to any payment

or use of any vessel received by a State maritime academy under

such section 1304 after December 31, 1989."

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-MISC2-

STUDY TO DETERMINE POSSIBLE USE OF SHIP SHARING PROGRAM TO PROVIDE

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES FOR MARITIME ACADEMY STUDENTS

Section 4 of Pub. L. 101-115, as amended by Pub. L. 101-595,

title VII, Sec. 705, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994, provided that:

"With the funds authorized under this Act [Pub. L. 101-115, Sec. 1,

Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 691], the Secretary of Transportation,

after consultation with other agencies in the executive branch and

the State, regional, and Federal maritime academies, shall submit

to the Congress a study within one year to determine how currently

employed training vessels, United States-flag commercial vessels,

vessels in the Ready Reserve Force, and other vessels under the

control of the United States Government may be used to provide

training opportunities for State, regional, and Federal maritime

academy students that will produce licensed graduate officers. The

study shall include data on the cost effectiveness to the United

States Government; the cost impact on the affected State

governments; the safety of any vessels involved; the safety of the

students; the operational and scheduling impact upon the several

entities involved; liability exposure; and the impact on national

security sealift. The Secretary shall not implement any ship

sharing program until not less than sixty legislative days after

the submission of the study to the Congress. The Secretary shall

not take any vessel, currently in service as a State academy

training vessel, out of service for the purpose of implementing any

alternative program, including ship sharing, until or unless the

vessel is incapable of being maintained in good repair as required

under section 1304(c)(1)(A) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [46

App. U.S.C. 1295c(c)(1)(A)]. The Secretary shall not implement any

program requiring that any State academy share its training vessel

with another State academy without having first received the

express consent of Congress to do so."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1119, 1295a, 1295f of

this Appendix; title 10 section 5985; title 46 section 3302.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295c-1 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295c-1. Plan for sharing training vessels

-STATUTE-

On and after December 22, 1987, no funds shall be appropriated

for the purchase or construction of training vessels for State

maritime academies unless a plan for sharing training vessels

between State maritime academies has been approved by the Maritime

Administration.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-202, Sec. 101(a) [title V], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat.

1329, 1329-28.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was not enacted as part of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936,

which comprises this chapter.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295d 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295d. Additional training

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

The Secretary may provide additional training on maritime

subjects, as the Secretary deems necessary, to supplement other

training opportunities and may make any such training available to

the personnel of the merchant marine of the United States and to

individuals preparing for a career in the merchant marine of the

United States.

(b) Equipment or supplies required for training

The Secretary may prepare or purchase any equipment or supplies

required for any training provided under subsection (a) of this

section and may contract with any person, partnership, firm,

association, or corporation (without regard to section 5 of title

41) for the performance of any services deemed necessary by the

Secretary in the preparation of any such equipment or supplies and

in the supervision and administration of any such training.

(c) Oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up program

(1) The Secretary shall assist maritime training institutions

approved by the Secretary in establishing a maritime oil pollution

prevention, response, and clean-up training program.

(2) Under the program established under paragraph (1) -

(A) the Secretary may provide, to maritime training

institutions approved by the Secretary, vessels described in

paragraph (4), with title free of all liens, subject to the

requirements specified under paragraph (3); and

(B) in return for receipt of such vessels, such institutions

shall -

(i) employ the vessels for the training of students and

appropriate maritime industry personnel in oil spill

prevention, response, clean-up, and related skills; and

(ii) make the vessels and qualified students available to

appropriate Federal, State, and local oil spill response

authorities in the event of a maritime oil spill.

(3) The requirements referred to in paragraph (2)(A) are as

follows:

(i) any vessel provided under paragraph (2)(A) shall be

tendered to the approved maritime training institution at a

location determined by the Secretary;

(ii) no such vessel may be sold, traded, chartered, donated,

scrapped, or in any way altered or disposed of without the prior

approval of the Secretary;

(iii) no such vessel may be used in competition with any

privately-owned vessel documented under the laws of the United

States or any State, unless necessary to carry out the purposes

of this subsection;

(iv) any approved maritime training institution in possession

of such a vessel which can no longer utilize the vessel for

training purposes shall return the vessel to the Secretary, who

shall take possession of the vessel at the training institution

and thereafter may dispose of the vessel, or provide the vessel

to another approved maritime training institution, as the

Secretary determines appropriate; and

(v) such other requirements or conditions as the Secretary

determines appropriate.

(4) The vessels referred to in paragraph (2)(A) are United

States-built offshore supply vessels and United States-built

tug/supply vessels in the possession of the Maritime Administration

as a result of defaults on loans guaranteed under subchapter XI of

this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1305, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006; amended Pub. L.

101-595, title VII, Sec. 712, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2998.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1990 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101-595 added subsec. (c).

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1119 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295e 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295e. United States Maritime Service

-STATUTE-

(a) Establishment and maintenance

The Secretary may establish and maintain a voluntary organization

for the training of citizens of the United States to serve on

merchant marine vessels of the United States to be known as the

United States Maritime Service.

(b) Enrollment; compensation; course of study and periods of

training; uniforms

The Secretary may determine the number of individuals to be

enrolled for training and reserve purposes in such service, to fix

the rates of pay and allowances of such individuals without regard

to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of

title 5 (relating to classification and General Schedule pay

rates), to prescribe the course of study and the periods of

training in such service, and to prescribe the uniform of such

service and the rules governing the wearing and furnishing of such

uniform.

(c) Ranks, grades, and ratings same as for United States Coast

Guard

The ranks, grades, and ratings for personnel of the United States

Maritime Service shall be the same as are then prescribed for the

personnel of the United States Coast Guard.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1306, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006.)

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295f 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295f. Civilian nautical school

-STATUTE-

(a) "Civilian nautical school" defined

As used in this section, the term "civilian nautical school"

means any school operated and conducted in the United States

(except the Academy maintained under section 1295b of this

Appendix, any State maritime academy assisted under section 1295c

of this Appendix, and any other school operated by the United

States or any agency of the United States) which offers instruction

to individuals quartered on board any vessel for the primary

purpose of training them for service in the merchant marine.

(b) Examination and inspection of school; rating and certification

Each civilian nautical school shall be subject to examination and

inspection by the Secretary, and the Secretary may (under such

rules and regulations as the Secretary may prescribe) provide for

the rating and certification of such schools as to the adequacy of

the course of instruction, the competency of the instructors, and

the suitability of the equipment used by, or in connection with,

such school.

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-89, Sec. 4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 603

(d) Fines and penalties

Whoever -

(1) violates this section or any regulations promulgated to

implement this section;

(2), (3) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-89, Sec. 4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97

Stat. 603.

shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more

than one year, or both, for each offense.

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1307, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2007; amended Pub. L.

98-89, Sec. 4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 603.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1983 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98-89 struck out subsec. (c). See

sections 2101(17), 3301(2), 3306, and 3307(1) of Title 46,

Shipping.

Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 98-89 struck out pars. (2) and (3).

See section 3318(g) of Title 46.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1295g 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 27 - MERCHANT MARINE ACT, 1936

SUBCHAPTER XIII - MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

-HEAD-

Sec. 1295g. Powers and duties of Secretary

-STATUTE-

(a) Rules and regulations

The Secretary shall establish such rules and regulations as may

be necessary to carry out this subchapter.

(b) Excess vessels and equipment

The Secretary may cooperate with and assist the Academy, any

State maritime academy, and any nonprofit training institution

which has been jointly approved by the Secretary and the Secretary

of the department in which the United States Coast Guard is

operating as offering training courses which meet Federal

regulations for maritime training, by making vessels, shipboard

equipment, and other marine equipment, owned by the United States

which have been determined to be excess or surplus, available by

gift, loan, sale, lease, or charter to such institution for

instructional purposes on such terms as the Secretary deems

appropriate.

(c) Securing of information, facilities, or equipment; detailing of

personnel

(1) The Secretary may secure directly from any department or

agency of the United States any information, facilities, or

equipment, on a reimbursable basis, necessary to carry out this

subchapter.

(2) Upon the request of the Secretary, the head of any department

or agency of the United States (including any military department

of the United States) may detail, on a reimbursable basis, any of

the personnel of such department or agency to the Secretary to

assist in carrying out this subchapter.

(d) Employment of personnel

To carry out this subchapter, the Secretary may employ at the

Academy any individual as a professor, lecturer, or instructor,

without regard to the provisions of title 5 (governing appointments

in the competitive service), and may pay such individual without

regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of

chapter 53 of such title (relating to classification and General

Schedule pay rates).

-SOURCE-

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, Sec. 1308, as added Pub. L.

96-453, Sec. 2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2007; amended Pub. L.

98-89, Sec. 4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 603.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The provisions of title 5 (governing appointments in the

competitive service), referred to in subsec. (d), are classified

generally to section 3301 et seq. of Title 5, Government

Organization and Employees.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1983 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98-89 struck out subsec. (e). See

section 2101(17) of Title 46, Shipping.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS

BY SEA 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-MISC1-

Sec.

1300. Bills of lading subject to chapter.

1301. Definitions.

1302. Duties and rights of carrier.

1303. Responsibilities and liabilities of carrier and ship.

(1) Seaworthiness.

(2) Cargo.

(3) Contents of bill.

(4) Bill as prima facie evidence.

(5) Guaranty of statements.

(6) Notice of loss or damage; limitation of

actions.

(7) "Shipped" bill of lading.

(8) Limitation of liability for negligence.

1304. Rights and immunities of carrier and ship.

(1) Unseaworthiness.

(2) Uncontrollable causes of loss.

(3) Freedom from negligence.

(4) Deviations.

(5) Amount of liability; valuation of cargo.

(6) Inflammable, explosive, or dangerous cargo.

1305. Surrender of rights; increase of liabilities; charter

parties; general average.

1306. Special agreement as to particular goods.

1307. Agreement as to liability prior to loading or after

discharge.

1308. Rights and liabilities under other provisions.

1309. Discrimination between competing shippers.

1310. Weight of bulk cargo.

1311. Liabilities before loading and after discharge; effect

on other laws.

1312. Scope of chapter; "United States"; "foreign trade".

1313. Suspension of provisions by President.

1314. Effective date; retroactive effect.

1315. Short title.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1300 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1300. Bills of lading subject to chapter

-STATUTE-

Every bill of lading or similar document of title which is

evidence of a contract for the carriage of goods by sea to or from

ports of the United States, in foreign trade, shall have effect

subject to the provisions of this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, Sec. 1, 49 Stat. 1207.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1301 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1301. Definitions

-STATUTE-

When used in this chapter -

(a) The term "carrier" includes the owner or the charterer who

enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper.

(b) The term "contract of carriage" applies only to contracts of

carriage covered by a bill of lading or any similar document of

title, insofar as such document relates to the carriage of goods by

sea, including any bill of lading or any similar document as

aforesaid issued under or pursuant to a charter party from the

moment at which such bill of lading or similar document of title

regulates the relations between a carrier and a holder of the same.

(c) The term "goods" includes goods, wares, merchandise, and

articles of every kind whatsoever, except live animals and cargo

which by the contract of carriage is stated as being carried on

deck and is so carried.

(d) The term "ship" means any vessel used for the carriage of

goods by sea.

(e) The term "carriage of goods" covers the period from the time

when the goods are loaded on to the time when they are discharged

from the ship.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 1, 49 Stat. 1208.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1313 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1302 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1302. Duties and rights of carrier

-STATUTE-

Subject to the provisions of section 1306 of this Appendix, under

every contract of carriage of goods by sea, the carrier in relation

to the loading, handling, stowage, carriage, custody, care, and

discharge of such goods, shall be subject to the responsibilities

and liabilities and entitled to the rights and immunities set forth

in sections 1303 and 1304 of this Appendix.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 2, 49 Stat. 1208.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1313 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1303 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1303. Responsibilities and liabilities of carrier and ship

-STATUTE-

(1) Seaworthiness

The carrier shall be bound, before and at the beginning of the

voyage, to exercise due diligence to -

(a) Make the ship seaworthy;

(b) Properly man, equip, and supply the ship;

(c) Make the holds, refrigerating and cooling chambers, and all

other parts of the ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe

for their reception, carriage, and preservation.

(2) Cargo

The carrier shall properly and carefully load, handle, stow,

carry, keep, care for, and discharge the goods carried.

(3) Contents of bill

After receiving the goods into his charge the carrier, or the

master or agent of the carrier, shall, on demand of the shipper,

issue to the shipper a bill of lading showing among other things -

(a) The leading marks necessary for identification of the goods

as the same are furnished in writing by the shipper before the

loading of such goods starts, provided such marks are stamped or

otherwise shown clearly upon the goods if uncovered, or on the

cases or coverings in which such goods are contained, in such a

manner as should ordinarily remain legible until the end of the

voyage.

(b) Either the number of packages or pieces, or the quantity or

weight, as the case may be, as furnished in writing by the shipper.

(c) The apparent order and condition of the goods: Provided, That

no carrier, master, or agent of the carrier, shall be bound to

state or show in the bill of lading any marks, number, quantity, or

weight which he has reasonable ground for suspecting not accurately

to represent the goods actually received, or which he has had no

reasonable means of checking.

(4) Bill as prima facie evidence

Such a bill of lading shall be prima facie evidence of the

receipt by the carrier of the goods as therein described in

accordance with paragraphs (3)(a), (b), and (c), of this section:

Provided, That nothing in this chapter shall be construed as

repealing or limiting the application of any part of chapter 801 of

title 49.

(5) Guaranty of statements

The shipper shall be deemed to have guaranteed to the carrier the

accuracy at the time of shipment of the marks, number, quantity,

and weight, as furnished by him; and the shipper shall indemnify

the carrier against all loss, damages, and expenses arising or

resulting from inaccuracies in such particulars. The right of the

carrier to such indemnity shall in no way limit his responsibility

and liability under the contract of carriage to any person other

than the shipper.

(6) Notice of loss or damage; limitation of actions

Unless notice of loss or damage and the general nature of such

loss or damage be given in writing to the carrier or his agent at

the port of discharge before or at the time of the removal of the

goods into the custody of the person entitled to delivery thereof

under the contract of carriage, such removal shall be prima facie

evidence of the delivery by the carrier of the goods as described

in the bill of lading. If the loss or damage is not apparent, the

notice must be given within three days of the delivery.

Said notice of loss or damage may be endorsed upon the receipt

for the goods given by the person taking delivery thereof.

The notice in writing need not be given if the state of the goods

has at the time of their receipt been the subject of joint survey

or inspection.

In any event the carrier and the ship shall be discharged from

all liability in respect of loss or damage unless suit is brought

within one year after delivery of the goods or the date when the

goods should have been delivered: Provided, That if a notice of

loss or damage, either apparent or concealed, is not given as

provided for in this section, that fact shall not affect or

prejudice the right of the shipper to bring suit within one year

after the delivery of the goods or the date when the goods should

have been delivered.

In the case of any actual or apprehended loss or damage the

carrier and the receiver shall give all reasonable facilities to

each other for inspecting and tallying the goods.

(7) "Shipped" bill of lading

After the goods are loaded the bill of lading to be issued by the

carrier, master, or agent of the carrier to the shipper shall, if

the shipper so demands, be a "shipped" bill of lading: Provided,

That if the shipper shall have previously taken up any document of

title to such goods, he shall surrender the same as against the

issue of the "shipped" bill of lading, but at the option of the

carrier such document of title may be noted at the port of shipment

by the carrier, master, or agent with the name or names of the ship

or ships upon which the goods have been shipped and the date or

dates of shipment, and when so noted the same shall for the purpose

of this section be deemed to constitute a "shipped" bill of lading.

(8) Limitation of liability for negligence

Any clause, covenant, or agreement in a contract of carriage

relieving the carrier or the ship from liability for loss or damage

to or in connection with the goods, arising from negligence, fault,

or failure in the duties and obligations provided in this section,

or lessening such liability otherwise than as provided in this

chapter, shall be null and void and of no effect. A benefit of

insurance in favor of the carrier, or similar clause, shall be

deemed to be a clause relieving the carrier from liability.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 3, 49 Stat. 1208.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

In par. (4), "chapter 801 of title 49" substituted for "the Act

of August 29, 1916, commonly known as the 'Pomerene Bills of Lading

Act' [49 App. U.S.C. 81 et seq.]" on authority of Pub. L. 103-272,

Sec. 6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which

enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1302, 1304, 1306, 1313 of

this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1304 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1304. Rights and immunities of carrier and ship

-STATUTE-

(1) Unseaworthiness

Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be liable for loss or

damage arising or resulting from unseaworthiness unless caused by

want of due diligence on the part of the carrier to make the ship

seaworthy, and to secure that the ship is properly manned,

equipped, and supplied, and to make the holds, refrigerating and

cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which goods are

carried fit and safe for their reception, carriage, and

preservation in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (1) of

section 1303 of this Appendix. Whenever loss or damage has resulted

from unseaworthiness, the burden of proving the exercise of due

diligence shall be on the carrier or other persons claiming

exemption under this section.

(2) Uncontrollable causes of loss

Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible for loss or

damage arising or resulting from -

(a) Act, neglect, or default of the master, mariner, pilot, or

the servants of the carrier in the navigation or in the management

of the ship;

(b) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault or privity of the

carrier;

(c) Perils, dangers, and accidents of the sea or other navigable

waters;

(d) Act of God;

(e) Act of war;

(f) Act of public enemies;

(g) Arrest or restraint of princes, rulers, or people, or seizure

under legal process;

(h) Quarantine restrictions;

(i) Act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his

agent or representative;

(j) Strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labor from

whatever cause, whether partial or general: Provided, That nothing

herein contained shall be construed to relieve a carrier from

responsibility for the carrier's own acts;

(k) Riots and civil commotions;

(l) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea;

(m) Wastage in bulk or weight or any other loss or damage arising

from inherent defect, quality, or vice of the goods;

(n) Insufficiency of packing;

(o) Insufficiency or inadequacy of marks;

(p) Latent defects not discoverable by due diligence; and

(q) Any other cause arising without the actual fault and privity

of the carrier and without the fault or neglect of the agents or

servants of the carrier, but the burden of proof shall be on the

person claiming the benefit of this exception to show that neither

the actual fault or privity of the carrier nor the fault or neglect

of the agents or servants of the carrier contributed to the loss or

damage.

(3) Freedom from negligence

The shipper shall not be responsible for loss or damage sustained

by the carrier or the ship arising or resulting from any cause

without the act, fault, or neglect of the shipper, his agents, or

his servants.

(4) Deviations

Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at

sea, or any reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an

infringement or breach of this chapter or of the contract of

carriage, and the carrier shall not be liable for any loss or

damage resulting therefrom: Provided, however, That if the

deviation is for the purpose of loading or unloading cargo or

passengers it shall, prima facie, be regarded as unreasonable.

(5) Amount of liability; valuation of cargo

Neither the carrier nor the ship shall in any event be or become

liable for any loss or damage to or in connection with the

transportation of goods in an amount exceeding $500 per package

lawful money of the United States, or in case of goods not shipped

in packages, per customary freight unit, or the equivalent of that

sum in other currency, unless the nature and value of such goods

have been declared by the shipper before shipment and inserted in

the bill of lading. This declaration, if embodied in the bill of

lading, shall be prima facie evidence, but shall not be conclusive

on the carrier.

By agreement between the carrier, master, or agent of the

carrier, and the shipper another maximum amount than that mentioned

in this paragraph may be fixed: Provided, That such maximum shall

not be less than the figure above named. In no event shall the

carrier be liable for more than the amount of damage actually

sustained.

Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any

event for loss or damage to or in connection with the

transportation of the goods if the nature or value thereof has been

knowingly and fraudulently misstated by the shipper in the bill of

lading.

(6) Inflammable, explosive, or dangerous cargo

Goods of an inflammable, explosive, or dangerous nature to the

shipment whereof the carrier, master or agent of the carrier, has

not consented with knowledge of their nature and character, may at

any time before discharge be landed at any place or destroyed or

rendered innocuous by the carrier without compensation, and the

shipper of such goods shall be liable for all damages and expenses

directly or indirectly arising out of or resulting from such

shipment. If any such goods shipped with such knowledge and consent

shall become a danger to the ship or cargo, they may in like manner

be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the

carrier without liability on the part of the carrier except to

general average, if any.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 4, 49 Stat. 1210.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1302, 1306, 1313 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1305 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1305. Surrender of rights; increase of liabilities; charter

parties; general average

-STATUTE-

A carrier shall be at liberty to surrender in whole or in part

all or any of his rights and immunities or to increase any of his

responsibilities and liabilities under this chapter, provided such

surrender or increase shall be embodied in the bill of lading

issued to the shipper.

The provisions of this chapter shall not be applicable to charter

parties; but if bills of lading are issued in the case of a ship

under a charter party, they shall comply with the terms of this

chapter. Nothing in this chapter shall be held to prevent the

insertion in a bill of lading of any lawful provision regarding

general average.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 1211.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1306, 1309, 1313 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1306 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1306. Special agreement as to particular goods

-STATUTE-

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 1303 to 1305 of this

Appendix, a carrier, master or agent of the carrier, and a shipper

shall, in regard to any particular goods be at liberty to enter

into any agreement in any terms as to the responsibility and

liability of the carrier for such goods, and as to the rights and

immunities of the carrier in respect of such goods, or his

obligation as to seaworthiness (so far as the stipulation regarding

seaworthiness is not contrary to public policy), or the care or

diligence of his servants or agents in regard to the loading,

handling, stowage, carriage, custody, care, and discharge of the

goods carried by sea: Provided, That in this case no bill of lading

has been or shall be issued and that the terms agreed shall be

embodied in a receipt which shall be a nonnegotiable document and

shall be marked as such.

Any agreement so entered into shall have full legal effect:

Provided, That this section shall not apply to ordinary commercial

shipments made in the ordinary course of trade but only to other

shipments where the character or condition of the property to be

carried or the circumstances, terms, and conditions under which the

carriage is to be performed are such as reasonably to justify a

special agreement.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 6, 49 Stat. 1211.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1302, 1313 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1307 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1307. Agreement as to liability prior to loading or after

discharge

-STATUTE-

Nothing contained in this chapter shall prevent a carrier or a

shipper from entering into any agreement, stipulation, condition,

reservation, or exemption as to the responsibility and liability of

the carrier or the ship for the loss or damage to or in connection

with the custody and care and handling of goods prior to the

loading on and subsequent to the discharge from the ship on which

the goods are carried by sea.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 7, 49 Stat. 1212.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1313 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1308 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1308. Rights and liabilities under other provisions

-STATUTE-

The provisions of this chapter shall not affect the rights and

obligations of the carrier under the provisions of the Shipping

Act, 1916 [46 App. U.S.C. 801 et seq.], or under the provisions of

sections 4281 to 4289, inclusive, of the Revised Statutes of the

United States [46 App. 181-188] or of any amendments thereto; or

under the provisions of any other enactment for the time being in

force relating to the limitation of the liability of the owners of

seagoing vessels.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title I, Sec. 8, 49 Stat. 1212.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Shipping Act, 1916, referred to in text, is act Sept. 7,

1916, ch. 451, 39 Stat. 728, as amended, which is classified

generally to chapter 23 (Sec. 801 et seq.) of this Appendix. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 842 of

this Appendix and Tables.

Section 4288 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was

classified to section 175 of former Title 46, Shipping, and was

repealed by act Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 777, Sec. 7, 54 Stat. 1028.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1313 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1309 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1309. Discrimination between competing shippers

-STATUTE-

Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed as

permitting a common carrier by water to discriminate between

competing shippers similarly placed in time and circumstances,

either (a) with respect to their right to demand and receive bills

of lading subject to the provisions of this chapter; or (b) when

issuing such bills of lading, either in the surrender of any of the

carrier's rights and immunities or in the increase of any of the

carrier's responsibilities and liabilities pursuant to section 1305

of this Appendix; or (c) in any other way prohibited by the

Shipping Act, 1916, as amended [46 App. U.S.C. 801 et seq.].

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 9, 49 Stat. 1212.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Shipping Act, 1916, as amended, referred to in text, is act

Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, 39 Stat. 728, as amended, which is

classified generally to chapter 23 (Sec. 801 et seq.) of this

Appendix. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

section 842 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1310 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1310. Weight of bulk cargo

-STATUTE-

Where under the customs of any trade the weight of any bulk cargo

inserted in the bill of lading is a weight ascertained or accepted

by a third party other than the carrier or the shipper, and the

fact that the weight is so ascertained or accepted is stated in the

bill of lading, then, notwithstanding anything in this chapter, the

bill of lading shall not be deemed to be prima facie evidence

against the carrier of the receipt of goods of the weight so

inserted in the bill of lading, and the accuracy thereof at the

time of shipment shall not be deemed to have been guaranteed by the

shipper.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 11, 49 Stat. 1212.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1311 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1311. Liabilities before loading and after discharge; effect

on other laws

-STATUTE-

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as superseding any

part of sections 190 to 196 of this Appendix, or of any other law

which would be applicable in the absence of this chapter, insofar

as they relate to the duties, responsibilities, and liabilities of

the ship or carrier prior to the time when the goods are loaded on

or after the time they are discharged from the ship.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 12, 49 Stat. 1212.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1312 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1312. Scope of chapter; "United States"; "foreign trade"

-STATUTE-

This chapter shall apply to all contracts for carriage of goods

by sea to or from ports of the United States in foreign trade. As

used in this chapter the term "United States" includes its

districts, territories, and possessions. The term "foreign trade"

means the transportation of goods between the ports of the United

States and ports of foreign countries. Nothing in this chapter

shall be held to apply to contracts for carriage of goods by sea

between any port of the United States or its possessions, and any

other port of the United States or its possessions: Provided,

however, That any bill of lading or similar document of title which

is evidence of a contract for the carriage of goods by sea between

such ports, containing an express statement that it shall be

subject to the provisions of this chapter, shall be subjected

hereto as fully as if subject hereto by the express provisions of

this chapter: Provided further, That every bill of lading or

similar document of title which is evidence of a contract for the

carriage of goods by sea from ports of the United States, in

foreign trade, shall contain a statement that it shall have effect

subject to the provisions of this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 13, 49 Stat. 1212; Proc.

No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

A proviso in second sentence that the Philippine Legislature

might by law exclude its application to transportation to or from

ports of the Philippine Islands was omitted in view of Proc. No.

2695, set out under section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and

Intercourse, which proclaimed the independence of the Philippines.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1313 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1313. Suspension of provisions by President

-STATUTE-

Upon the certification of the Secretary of Transportation that

the foreign commerce of the United States in its competition with

that of foreign nations is prejudiced by the provisions, or any of

them, of sections 1301 to 1308 of this Appendix, or by the laws of

any foreign country or countries relating to the carriage of goods

by sea, the President of the United States may, from time to time,

by proclamation, suspend any or all provisions of said sections for

such periods of time or indefinitely as may be designated in the

proclamation. The President may at any time rescind such suspension

of said sections, and any provisions thereof which may have been

suspended shall thereby be reinstated and again apply to contracts

thereafter made for the carriage of goods by sea. Any proclamation

of suspension or rescission of any such suspension shall take

effect on a date named therein, which date shall be not less than

ten days from the issue of the proclamation.

Any contract for the carriage of goods by sea, subject to the

provisions of this chapter, effective during any period when

sections 1301 to 1308 of this Appendix, or any part thereof, are

suspended, shall be subject to all provisions of law now or

hereafter applicable to that part of said sections which may have

thus been suspended.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 14, 49 Stat. 1213; Pub. L.

97-31, Sec. 12(146), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1981 - Pub. L. 97-31 substituted in first par. "Secretary of

Transportation" for "Secretary of Commerce".

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1314 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1314. Effective date; retroactive effect

-STATUTE-

This chapter shall take effect ninety days after April 16, 1936;

but nothing in this chapter shall apply during a period not to

exceed one year following April 16, 1936, to any contract for the

carriage of goods by sea, made before April 16, 1936, nor to any

bill of lading or similar document of title issued, whether before

or after such date in pursuance of any such contract as aforesaid.

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 15, 49 Stat. 1213.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1315 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 28 - CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

-HEAD-

Sec. 1315. Short title

-STATUTE-

This chapter may be cited as the "Carriage of Goods by Sea Act."

-SOURCE-

(Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, title II, Sec. 16, 49 Stat. 1213.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "This

Act", meaning act Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 229, 49 Stat. 1207, as

amended, which enacted this chapter and amended section 25 of

former Title 49, Transportation. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR

INTERNATIONAL CARGO 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-MISC1-

Sec.

1501. Definitions.

1502. Duties of owners of containers.

(a) Initial approval of containers; periodic

examination.

(b) Repealed.

1503. Duties of Secretary of Transportation.

(a) Enforcement.

(b) Regulations.

(c) Affixation of approval plate; delegation of

authority; fees.

(d) Method of delegating authority.

(e) Intermodal transport.

1504. Areas of enforcement.

(a) Examination of containers; detention orders;

restriction or removal of containers from

service.

(b) Costs of examinations.

(c) Presumption of safe condition.

(d) Notification of detention or other order;

duration of order.

(e) Notification to foreign country of defect at

time of approval.

1505. Penalties.

(a) Civil penalty.

(b) Assessment, collection, remission, mitigation,

and compromise of penalties.

1506. Employee protection.

(a) Discrimination against a reporting employee

prohibited.

(b) Complaint alleging discrimination.

(c) Investigation by Secretary of Labor; judicial

relief.

(d) Notification to complainant of intended action.

1507. Amendments to Convention.

(a) Proposed amendments; advice and consent of

Senate; declaration of non-acceptance.

(b) Amendment of Convention annexes.

(c) Appointment of arbitrator.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1501 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1501. Definitions

-STATUTE-

As used in this chapter -

(a) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) The term "Convention" means the International Convention for

Safe Containers, and the annexes thereto, done at Geneva,

Switzerland, December 2, 1972.

(c) The term "container" shall have the same meaning as that term

is defined in the Convention.

(d) The term "international transport" means the transportation

of a container -

(1) to any place within the jurisdiction of the United States

from a place within a foreign country;

(2) by United States carriers between two points both of which

are outside of the United States; or

(3) from any place within the jurisdiction of the United States

to any place within a foreign country.

(e) The term "United States" includes the several States, the

District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Canal

Zone, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any other territory or

possession of the United States.

(f) The term "new container" means a container (other than a

container specially designed for air transport) which is used or is

designed for use in international transport, the construction of

which began on or after September 6, 1977.

(g) The term "existing container" means a container (other than a

container specially designed for air transport) which is used or is

designed for use in international transport and which is not a new

container.

(h) The term "owner" means a person who owns a container, or, if

a written lease or bailment provides for the lessee or bailee to

exercise the owner's responsibility for maintaining and examining

the container, the lessee or bailee of a container, to the extent

such agreement so provides.

(i) The term "safety approval plate" shall have the same meaning

as that term is defined in annex I of the Convention.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 2, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1475.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (e), see

section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 95-208 provided: "That this Act [enacting

this chapter] may be cited as the 'International Safe Container

Act'."

-TRANS-

TERMINATION OF TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see

note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and

Insular Possessions.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1502 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1502. Duties of owners of containers

-STATUTE-

(a) Initial approval of containers; periodic examination

Beginning on the date the instrument of ratification is deposited

by the United States in accordance with the provisions of article

VII of the Convention, for new containers, and beginning on

September 6, 1982, for existing containers, the owner of each such

container -

(1) who is domiciled and has his principal office in the United

States, shall have each such container initially approved in

accordance with the procedure established by the Secretary or by

the administration of another contracting party to the

Convention; and shall, thereafter, have each such container

periodically examined, as provided in the Convention, in

accordance with the procedure established by the Secretary; and

(2) who is either domiciled or has his principal office in the

United States, shall have each such container initially approved

in accordance with the procedure established by the Secretary or

by the administration of another contracting party to the

Convention; and shall, thereafter, have each such container

periodically examined, as provided in the Convention, in

accordance with the procedure established by the administration

of either the country where he is domiciled or has his principal

office (so long as such country is a party to the Convention).

Any owner of either a new or existing container who is neither

domiciled nor maintains a principal office in the United States, or

in any other country which is a party to the Convention, may submit

their containers for approval and periodic examination according to

the procedure established by the Secretary.

(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 101-225, title III, Sec. 307(10), Dec. 12,

1989, 103 Stat. 1925

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 3, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1476; Pub. L.

97-249, Sec. 1(1), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 101-225,

title III, Sec. 307(10), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1925.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1989 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-225 struck out subsec. (b) which

related to approval of existing containers.

1982 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97-249 substituted "before January 1,

1985, an owner of an approved existing container may have a safety

approval plate affixed to it, if that container" for "before

September 6, 1982, an owner of an existing container may have such

container approved according to the procedure established by the

Secretary, and have a safety approval plate affixed to it, if such

container".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT

Section 2 of Pub. L. 97-249 provided that: "This Act [amending

this section and section 1504 of this Appendix] shall take effect

on the later of the date of its enactment [Sept. 8, 1982] or

September 6, 1982."

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1503 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1503. Duties of Secretary of Transportation

-STATUTE-

(a) Enforcement

On and after the date the instrument of ratification is deposited

by the United States in accordance with the provisions of article

VII of the Convention, the Secretary shall enforce and carry out

the provisions of the Convention, and, unless an earlier date is

specifically provided, the provisions of this chapter, in the

United States.

(b) Regulations

The Secretary shall, as soon as practicable after December 13,

1977, promulgate, and from time to time, amend, those regulations

he deems necessary for such enforcement. Such regulations, among

other things, shall -

(1) establish procedures for the testing, inspection, and

initial approval of existing and new containers and of designs

for new containers, including procedures relating to the

affixing, invalidating, and removal of safety approval plates for

containers;

(2) establish procedures to be followed by owners of containers

relating to the periodic examination of containers, as provided

in the Convention; and

(3) provide a method for developing, collecting, and

disseminating data concerning container safety and the

international transport of containers.

(c) Affixation of approval plate; delegation of authority; fees

At any time after December 13, 1977, the Secretary may -

(1) authorize the affixation of a safety approval plate to any

container which, after examination, is found not to have a safety

approval plate attached to it and which the owner has established

meets the standards of the Convention;

(2) delegate and withdraw the delegation of authority to

initially approve existing and new containers and designs for new

containers, and to authorize the affixing of safety approval

plates; and

(3) establish a schedule of fees to be charged and collected

for services performed by the Secretary, or under authority

delegated by the Secretary, relating to the testing, inspection,

and initial approval of containers and container designs.

(d) Method of delegating authority

Those delegations made under subsection (c)(2) of this section

may be made to any person, including any public or private agency

or nonprofit organization. The Secretary (!1) before making any

delegation under such subsection, shall promulgate regulations

relating to -

(1) the criteria to be followed in selecting a person, public

or private agency, or nonprofit organization as a recipient of

delegated functions under such subsection;

(2) the manner in which such recipient shall carry out such

delegated functions, including the records such recipient must

keep, and a detailed description of the exact functions such

recipient may exercise; and

(3) the review that will be carried out by the Secretary to

determine that any recipient of delegated functions is performing

properly the functions so delegated.

No recipient of authority delegated under such subsection may

assess or collect, or attempt to assess or collect, any penalty for

violation of any provision of this chapter, the Convention, or any

order of the Secretary issued under this chapter, or issue or

attempt to issue any detention or other order. Any records required

to be kept by regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this

subsection shall be available to the Secretary, for inspection,

upon request. The name and address of the recipient, if other than

the owner, together with the functions so delegated and the period

of designation, shall be published in the Federal Register and

otherwise publicized as appropriate.

(e) Intermodal transport

The Secretary shall, to the maximum possible extent, encourage

the development and use of intermodal transport, using containers

constructed to facilitate economical, safe, and expeditious

handling of containerized cargo without intermediate reloading

while such cargo is in transport over land, air, and sea areas.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 4, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1476.)

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1504 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1504. Areas of enforcement

-STATUTE-

(a) Examination of containers; detention orders; restriction or

removal of containers from service

(1) On and after the date the instrument of ratification is

deposited by the United States in accordance with the provisions of

article VII of the Convention, to ensure compliance with this

chapter, and with the Convention, the Secretary may -

(A) examine, or require to be examined, new containers, and

existing containers which are subject to this chapter, in

international transport, and test, inspect, and approve designs

for new containers and new containers being manufactured;

(B) issue a detention order removing or excluding a container

from service until the owner of the container establishes to the

Secretary's satisfaction that the container meets the standards

of the Convention, if the container is subject to this chapter

and does not have a valid safety approval plate attached to it,

or if there is significant evidence that such a container bearing

a safety approval plate is in a condition which creates an

obvious risk to safety; and

(C) take whatever other appropriate action he deems necessary,

including issuance of any necessary orders, to remove the

container involved from service, or restrict its use, in those

instances where he finds that a container is not in compliance

with the provisions of this chapter or the Convention but does

not present an obvious risk to safety.

The Secretary may permit the movement to another location of a

container which he finds to be unsafe or which does not have a

valid safety approval plate affixed to it, under whatever

restriction he considers necessary and consistent with the intent

of the Convention, for repair or other appropriate disposition.

(2) Beginning on January 1, 1985, the Secretary may examine or

require to be examined any existing container in international

transport.

(b) Costs of examinations

The owner of the container involved in any action taken by the

Secretary under this section with respect to an examination of a

container, shall pay for or reimburse the Secretary for expenses

arising from such actions, except for the costs of routine

examinations of containers or safety approval plates. In addition,

the owner of containers submitted to the procedure established by

the Secretary for testing, inspection, and initial approval, and

the manufacturers who submit designs of containers to the

procedures established by the Secretary for testing, inspection,

and initial approval shall pay for or reimburse the Secretary for

the expenses arising from such testing, inspection or approval.

Funds received by the Secretary in reimbursement shall be credited

to the appropriations bearing the cost thereof.

(c) Presumption of safe condition

A container bearing a safety approval plate authorized by a

country which is a party to the Convention shall be presumed to be

in a safe condition unless there is significant evidence that the

container creates an obvious risk to safety.

(d) Notification of detention or other order; duration of order

Whenever the Secretary issues a detention or other order under

this section, he shall promptly notify, in writing, either the

owner of the container subject to such order, his agent, or, when

the identity of such owner is not apparent from the container of

(!1) shipping documents, the custodian. The notification shall

reasonably identify the container involved, give the location of

the container, and reasonably describe the condition or situation

which gave rise to the order. An order issued by the Secretary

under this section shall remain in effect until the container is

declared by the Secretary, or under regulations promulgated by the

Secretary, to be in compliance with the standards of the

Convention, or until it is permanently removed from service,

whichever first occurs.

(e) Notification to foreign country of defect at time of approval

If there is reason to believe that a container to which there is

affixed a safety approval plate issued by a foreign country was

defective at the time of approval, the Secretary shall notify the

country which issued the approval of such defect.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 5, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1477; Pub. L.

97-249, Sec. 1(2), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 708.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1982 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97-249 substituted "January 1,

1985" for "September 6, 1982".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 97-249 effective Sept. 8, 1982, see section

2 of Pub. L. 97-249, set out as a note under section 1502 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1505 of this Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be "or".

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1505 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1505. Penalties

-STATUTE-

(a) Civil penalty

On and after the date the instrument of ratification is deposited

by the United States in accordance with the provisions of article

VII of the Convention, any owner, agent, or custodian who -

(1) has been notified of an order issued by the Secretary under

section 1504 of this Appendix; and

(2) fails to take reasonable and prompt action to prevent or

stop a container subject to that order from being moved in

violation of that order;

shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for

each container so moved. Each day the container remains in service

while the order is in effect shall be treated as a separate

violation.

(b) Assessment, collection, remission, mitigation, and compromise

of penalties

The Secretary shall assess and collect any penalty incurred under

this section, and, in his discretion may remit, mitigate, or

compromise any such penalty. No penalty shall be assessed until

after the person charged has been given notice and an opportunity

for a hearing. In assessing, remitting, mitigating, or compromising

a penalty the Secretary shall consider the gravity of the

violation, the hazards involved, and the record of the person

charged with respect to violations of this chapter or of the

Convention. Upon failure of any person to pay any penalty assessed

against him by the Secretary, the Secretary shall request the

Attorney General to begin an action in any district court of the

United States to recover the amount of the penalty unpaid.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 6, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1478.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1506 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1506. Employee protection

-STATUTE-

(a) Discrimination against a reporting employee prohibited

No person shall discharge or in any manner discriminate against

an employee because the employee has reported the existence of an

unsafe container or reported a violation of this chapter to the

Secretary or his agents.

(b) Complaint alleging discrimination

An employee who believes that he has been discharged or

discriminated against in violation of this section may, within 60

days after the violation occurs, file a complaint alleging

discrimination with the Secretary of Labor.

(c) Investigation by Secretary of Labor; judicial relief

The Secretary of Labor may investigate the complaint and, if he

determines that this section has been violated, bring an action in

an appropriate United States district court. The district court

shall have jurisdiction to restrain violations of subsection (a) of

this section and to order appropriate relief, including rehiring

and reinstatement of the employee to his former position with back

pay.

(d) Notification to complainant of intended action

Within 30 days after the receipt of a complaint filed under this

section the Secretary of Labor shall notify the complainant of his

intended action regarding the complaint.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 7, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1479.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1507 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 34 - SAFE CONTAINERS FOR INTERNATIONAL CARGO

-HEAD-

Sec. 1507. Amendments to Convention

-STATUTE-

(a) Proposed amendments; advice and consent of Senate; declaration

of non-acceptance

The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary,

may propose amendments to the Convention or may request a

conference for amending the Convention in accordance with article

IX of the Convention. An amendment communicated to the United

States in accordance with article IX(2) of the Convention may be

accepted for the United States by the President, with the advice

and consent of the Senate. The President may make a declaration

that the United States does not accept an amendment.

(b) Amendment of Convention annexes

The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary,

may propose amendments to the annexes of the Convention, may

propose a conference for amending annexes to the Convention and

shall consider and act on amendments to the annexes of the

Convention adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee and

communicated to the United States in accordance with article X(2)

of the Convention. If a proposed amendment is approved by the

United States, the amendment shall enter into force in accordance

with article X of the Convention. If any proposed amendment is

objected to, the Secretary of State shall promptly communicate the

objection as provided in article X(3) of the Convention.

(c) Appointment of arbitrator

The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary,

shall appoint an arbitrator when one is required to resolve a

dispute within the meaning of article XIII of the Convention.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 95-208, Sec. 8, Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1479.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME

ADMINISTRATION 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-MISC1-

Sec.

1601. Transfer of Administration.

1602. Transfer of functions, powers, and duties.

1603. Administrator; appointment, compensation, etc.

1604. Exercise of authorities.

1605. Transfer of personnel and funds.

1607. Use of personnel for implementation of transfer

provisions.

1608. Administrative determinations and proceedings.

(a) Continuation in effect of orders,

determinations, etc., issued, made, granted,

or effective in performance of functions

transferred.

(b) Continuation of pending proceedings and

applications during transfer period; Maritime

Subsidy Board actions pending on review;

promulgation of regulations for orderly

transfer of continued proceedings.

(c) Actions and proceedings commenced prior to

transfer of functions.

(d) Abatement of actions, proceedings, etc.

(e) Substitution of parties.

(f) Administrative and judicial review procedures

applicable.

1609. References in other Federal laws to functions or

offices transferred.

1610. Severability.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1601 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1601. Transfer of Administration

-STATUTE-

The Maritime Administration of the Department of Commerce is

transferred to the Department of Transportation.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 2, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.)

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 97-31 provided: "That this Act [see Tables

for classification] may be cited as the 'Maritime Act of 1981'."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 49 section 109.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1602 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1602. Transfer of functions, powers, and duties

-STATUTE-

There are transferred to the Department of Transportation and

vested in the Secretary of Transportation all functions, powers,

and duties relating to the Maritime Administration of the Secretary

of Commerce and of officers and offices of the Department of

Commerce.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 3, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 10 section 2664.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1603 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1603. Administrator; appointment, compensation, etc.

-STATUTE-

There shall be at the head of the Maritime Administration an

Administrator, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with

the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall be compensated

at the rate provided for level III of the Executive Schedule. The

Maritime Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary of

Transportation and shall perform such duties as the Secretary of

Transportation shall prescribe.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 4, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Level III of the Executive Schedule, referred to in text, is set

out in section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and

Employees.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 49 section 109.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1604 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1604. Exercise of authorities

-STATUTE-

In carrying out any function transferred by this Act, the

Secretary of Transportation may exercise any authority available by

law to the Secretary of Commerce with respect to such function and

the actions of the Secretary of Transportation in exercising such

authority shall have the same force and effect as if exercised by

the Secretary of Commerce on the day preceding August 6, 1981.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 5, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97-31, Aug. 6, 1981, 95

Stat. 151, known as the Maritime Act of 1981. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1601 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1605 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1605. Transfer of personnel and funds

-STATUTE-

The personnel employed in connection with, and the assets,

liabilities, contracts, property, facilities, records, and

unexpended balance of appropriations, and other funds employed,

held, used, arising from, available to, or to be made available in

connection with the functions and offices, or portions thereof,

transferred by this Act, including all Senior Executive Service

positions, subject to section 1531 of title 31, shall be

transferred to the Secretary of Transportation for appropriate

allocation. Personnel employed in connection with functions

transferred by this Act shall be transferred in accordance with any

applicable laws and regulations relating to transfer of functions.

Unexpended funds transferred pursuant to this section shall be used

only for the purposes for which the funds were originally

authorized and appropriated, except that such funds may be used for

the expenses associated with the transfer pursuant to this Act.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 6, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97-31, Aug. 6, 1981, 95

Stat. 151, known as the Maritime Act of 1981. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1601 of this Appendix and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

"Section 1531 of title 31" substituted in text for "section 202

of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 [31 U.S.C.

581c]" on authority of Pub. L. 97-258, Sec. 4(b), Sept. 13, 1982,

96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money

and Finance.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1607 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1607. Use of personnel for implementation of transfer

provisions

-STATUTE-

With the consent of the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of

Transportation may use the services of such officers, employees,

and other personnel of the Department of Commerce as needed to

implement this Act.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 8, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 152.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97-31, Aug. 6, 1981, 95

Stat. 151, known as the Maritime Act of 1981. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1601 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1608 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1608. Administrative determinations and proceedings

-STATUTE-

(a) Continuation in effect of orders, determinations, etc., issued,

made, granted, or effective in performance of functions

transferred

All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants,

contracts, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges -

(1) which have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become

effective by the President, any Federal department or agency or

official thereof, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the

performance of functions which are transferred under this Act to

the Secretary of Transportation or the Department of

Transportation, and

(2) which are in effect on August 6, 1981,

shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified,

terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with

law by the President, the Secretary of Transportation, or other

authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or by

operation of law.

(b) Continuation of pending proceedings and applications during

transfer period; Maritime Subsidy Board actions pending on

review; promulgation of regulations for orderly transfer of

continued proceedings

(1) This Act does not affect any proceedings, including notices

of proposed rulemaking, or any application for any license, permit,

certificate, or financial assistance, pending on August 6, 1981,

but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they

relate to functions so transferred and except as provided in

paragraph (2), shall be continued at the Department of

Transportation. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals

shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to

such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued

in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified,

terminated, superseded, or revoked by the Secretary of

Transportation, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by

operation of law. This subsection does not prohibit the

discontinuance or modification of any such proceeding under the

same terms and conditions and to the same extent that the

proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had

not been enacted.

(2) Actions of the Maritime Subsidy Board pending on review

before the Secretary of Commerce on the day preceding August 6,

1981, shall remain with the Secretary of Commerce, unless otherwise

agreed between the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of

Transportation, for final administrative disposition as though this

Act had not been enacted.

(3) The Secretary of Transportation may promulgate regulations

providing for the orderly transfer of proceedings continued under

paragraph (1).

(c) Actions and proceedings commenced prior to transfer of

functions

Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section -

(1) the provisions of this Act shall not affect actions

commenced prior to August 6, 1981, and

(2) in all such actions, proceedings shall be had, appeals

taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and effect as if

this Act had not been enacted.

(d) Abatement of actions, proceedings, etc.

No action or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer

of the Maritime Administration in his official capacity shall abate

by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or

against the Maritime Administration or by or against any officer of

the Maritime Administration in his official capacity shall abate by

reason of the enactment of this Act.

(e) Substitution of parties

If, before August 6, 1981, the Secretary of Commerce is a party

to an action, and under this Act any function of the Secretary of

Commerce which is the subject of the action is transferred to the

Secretary of Transportation, then such action shall be continued

with the Secretary of Transportation substituted as a party.

(f) Administrative and judicial review procedures applicable

Orders and actions of the Secretary of Transportation in the

exercise of functions transferred under this Act shall be subject

to judicial review as if such orders and actions had been by the

Secretary of Commerce exercising such functions immediately

preceding their transfer. Any statutory requirements relating to

notice, hearings, action upon the record, or administrative review

that apply to any function transferred by this Act shall apply to

the exercise of such function by the Secretary of Transportation.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 9, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 152.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97-31, Aug. 6, 1981, 95

Stat. 151, known as the Maritime Act of 1981. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1601 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1609 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1609. References in other Federal laws to functions or offices

transferred

-STATUTE-

With respect to any function or office transferred by this Act

and exercised on or after August 6, 1981, reference in any other

Federal law to the Maritime Administration or any of its

predecessor agencies or any officer or office the functions of

which are so transferred shall be deemed to refer to the Secretary

of Transportation, other official, or component of the Department

of Transportation to which this Act transfers such functions.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 10, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 153.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97-31, Aug. 6, 1981, 95

Stat. 151, known as the Maritime Act of 1981. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1601 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1610 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 35 - MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1610. Severability

-STATUTE-

If any provisions of this Act or the application thereof to any

person or circumstance is held invalid, neither the remainder of

this Act nor the application of such provision to other persons or

circumstances shall be affected thereby.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 97-31, Sec. 11, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 153.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97-31, Aug. 6, 1981, 95

Stat. 151, known as the Maritime Act of 1981. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1601 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN

COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-MISC1-

Sec.

1701. Declaration of policy.

1702. Definitions.

1703. Agreements within scope of chapter.

(a) Ocean common carriers.

(b) Marine terminal operators.

(c) Acquisitions.

1704. Agreements.

(a) Filing requirements.

(b) Conference agreements.

(c) Ocean common carrier agreements.

(d) Interconference agreements.

(e) Assessment agreements.

(f) Maritime labor agreements.

(g) Vessel sharing agreements.

1705. Action on agreements.

(a) Notice.

(b) Review standard.

(c) Review and effective date.

(d) Additional information.

(e) Request for expedited approval.

(f) Term of agreements.

(g) Substantially anticompetitive agreements.

(h) Injunctive relief.

(i) Compliance with informational needs.

(j) Nondisclosure of submitted material.

(k) Representation.

1706. Exemption from antitrust laws.

(a) In general.

(b) Exceptions.

(c) Limitations.

1707. Tariffs.

(a) In general.

(b) Time-volume rates.

(c) Service contracts.

(d) Tariff rates.

(e) Refunds.

(f) Marine terminal operator schedules.

(g) Regulations.

1708. Controlled carriers.

(a) Controlled carrier rates.

(b) Rate standards.

(c) Effective date of rates.

(d) Prohibition of rates.

(e) Presidential review.

(f) Exceptions.

1709. Prohibited acts.

(a) In general.

(b) Common carriers.

(c) Concerted action.

(d) Common carriers, ocean transportation

intermediaries, and marine terminal operators.

(e) Joint ventures.

1710. Complaints, investigations, reports, and reparations.

(a) Filing of complaints.

(b) Satisfaction or investigation of complaints.

(c) Commission investigations.

(d) Conduct of investigation.

(e) Undue delays.

(f) Reports.

(g) Reparations.

(h) Injunction.

1710a. Foreign laws and practices.

(a) Definitions.

(b) Authority to conduct investigations.

(c) Investigations.

(d) Information requests.

(e) Action against foreign carriers.

(f) Actions upon request of Commission.

(g) Report.

(h) Administration and enforcement of other laws.

(i) Review of rules, regulations, and final orders

of Commission; exclusive procedure.

1711. Subpenas and discovery.

(a) In general.

(b) Witness fees.

1712. Penalties.

(a) Assessment of penalty.

(b) Additional penalties.

(c) Assessment procedures.

(d) Review of civil penalty.

(e) Failure to pay assessment.

(f) Limitations.

1713. Commission orders.

(a) In general.

(b) Reversal or suspension of orders.

(c) Enforcement of nonreparation orders.

(d) Enforcement of reparation orders.

(e) Statute of limitations.

1714. Reports.

1715. Exemptions.

1716. Regulations.

1718. Ocean transportation intermediaries.

(a) License.

(b) Financial responsibility.

(c) Suspension or revocation.

(d) Exception.

(e) Compensation of intermediaries by carriers.

1719. Contracts, agreements, and licenses under prior

shipping legislation.

(a) to (c) Omitted.

(d) Effects on certain agreements and contracts.

(e) Savings provisions.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in sections 817d, 817e, 1241f, 1273a

of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1701 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1701. Declaration of policy

-STATUTE-

The purposes of this chapter are -

(1) to establish a nondiscriminatory regulatory process for the

common carriage of goods by water in the foreign commerce of the

United States with a minimum of government intervention and

regulatory costs;

(2) to provide an efficient and economic transportation system

in the ocean commerce of the United States that is, insofar as

possible, in harmony with, and responsive to, international

shipping practices;

(3) to encourage the development of an economically sound and

efficient United States-flag liner fleet capable of meeting

national security needs; and

(4) to promote the growth and development of United States

exports through competitive and efficient ocean transportation

and by placing a greater reliance on the marketplace.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 2, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 67; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 101, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1902.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act"

meaning Pub. L. 98-237, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 67, as amended,

known as the Shipping Act of 1984. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Par. (4). Pub. L. 105-258 added par. (4).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 2, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1902, provided

that: "Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act [see

Tables for classification], this Act and the amendments made by

this Act take effect May 1, 1999."

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 21 of Pub. L. 98-237, which provided that Pub. L. 98-237

(see Short Title note below) shall become effective 90 days after

Mar. 20, 1984, except that sections 1716 and 1717 of this Appendix

shall become effective Mar. 20, 1984, was repealed by Pub. L.

101-225, title III, Sec. 307(11), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1925.

SHORT TITLE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 1, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1902, provided

that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the

'Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 102-251, title II, Sec. 201(a), Mar. 9, 1992, 106 Stat.

60, provided that: "This section [amending sections 1709 and 1721

of this Appendix and enacting provisions set out as notes under

sections 1709 and 1721 of this Appendix] may be cited as the

'Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Act of 1991'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 101-595, title VII, Sec. 710(a), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

2996, provided that: "This section [enacting section 1721 of this

Appendix, amending section 1709 of this Appendix, and enacting

provisions set out as notes under sections 1709 and 1721 of this

Appendix] may be cited as the 'Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier

Amendments of 1990'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 100-418, title X, Sec. 10001, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat.

1570, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (Secs. 10001-10003)

of title X of Pub. L. 100-418, enacting section 1710a of this

Appendix, amending section 1122b of this Appendix, and enacting

provisions set out as a note under section 3302 of Title 46,

Shipping] may be cited as the 'Foreign Shipping Practices Act of

1988'."

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 98-237 provided: "That this Act [enacting

this chapter, amending sections 801, 812, 814, 815, 816, 817, 819,

820, 821, 824, 828, 829, 830, 831, 841c, 1122, and 1124 of this

Appendix, repealing sections 813, 813a, 825, and 841b of this

Appendix, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section,

and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 801 of

this Appendix] may be cited as the 'Shipping Act of 1984'."

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1702 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1702. Definitions

-STATUTE-

As used in this chapter -

(1) "agreement" means an understanding, arrangement, or

association (written or oral) and any modification or

cancellation thereof; but the term does not include a maritime

labor agreement.

(2) "antitrust laws" means the Act of July 2, 1890 (ch. 647, 26

Stat. 209), as amended [15 U.S.C. 1 et seq.]; the Act of October

15, 1914 (ch. 323, 38 Stat. 730), as amended [15 U.S.C. 12 et

seq.]; the Federal Trade Commission Act (38 Stat. 717), as

amended [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.]; sections 73 and 74 of the Act of

August 27, 1894 (28 Stat. 570), as amended [15 U.S.C. 8 and 9];

the Act of June 19, 1936 (ch. 592, 49 Stat. 1526), as amended [15

U.S.C. 13, 13a, 13b, 21a]; the Antitrust Civil Process Act (76

Stat. 548), as amended [15 U.S.C. 1311 et seq.]; and amendments

and Acts supplementary thereto.

(3) "assessment agreement" means an agreement, whether part of

a collective-bargaining agreement or negotiated separately, to

the extent that it provides for the funding of collectively

bargained fringe benefit obligations on other than a uniform

man-hour basis, regardless of the cargo handled or type of vessel

or equipment utilized.

(4) "bulk cargo" means cargo that is loaded and carried in bulk

without mark or count.

(5) "Commission" means the Federal Maritime Commission.

(6) "common carrier" means a person holding itself out to the

general public to provide transportation by water of passengers

or cargo between the United States and a foreign country for

compensation that -

(A) assumes responsibility for the transportation from the

port or point of receipt to the port or point of destination,

and

(B) utilizes, for all or part of that transportation, a

vessel operating on the high seas or the Great Lakes between a

port in the United States and a port in a foreign country,

except that the term does not include a common carrier engaged

in ocean transportation by ferry boat, ocean tramp, or chemical

parcel-tanker or by vessel when primarily engaged in the

carriage of perishable agricultural commodities (i) if the

common carrier and the owner of those commodities are

wholly-owned, directly or indirectly, by a person primarily

engaged in the marketing and distribution of those commodities

and (ii) only with respect to the carriage of those

commodities. As used in this paragraph, "chemical

parcel-tanker" means a vessel whose cargo-carrying capability

consists of individual cargo tanks for bulk chemicals that are

a permanent part of the vessel, that have segregation

capability with piping systems to permit simultaneous carriage

of several bulk chemical cargoes with minimum risk of

cross-contamination, and that has a valid certificate of

fitness under the International Maritime Organization Code for

the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous

Chemicals in Bulk.

(7) "conference" means an association of ocean common carriers

permitted, pursuant to an approved or effective agreement, to

engage in concerted activity and to utilize a common tariff; but

the term does not include a joint service, consortium, pooling,

sailing, or transshipment arrangement.

(8) "controlled carrier" means an ocean common carrier that is,

or whose operating assets are, directly or indirectly, owned or

controlled by a government; ownership or control by a government

shall be deemed to exist with respect to any carrier if -

(A) a majority portion of the interest in the carrier is

owned or controlled in any manner by that government, by any

agency thereof, or by any public or private person controlled

by that government; or

(B) that government has the right to appoint or disapprove

the appointment of a majority of the directors, the chief

operating officer, or the chief executive officer of the

carrier.

(9) "deferred rebate" means a return by a common carrier of any

portion of freight money to a shipper as a consideration for that

shipper giving all, or any portion, of its shipments to that or

any other common carrier over a fixed period of time, the payment

of which is deferred beyond the completion of service for which

it is paid, and is made only if the shipper has agreed to make a

further shipment or shipments with that or any other common

carrier.

(10) "forest products" means forest products including, but not

limited to lumber in bundles, rough timber, ties, poles, piling,

laminated beams, bundled siding, bundled plywood, bundled core

stock or veneers, bundled particle or fiber boards, bundled

hardwood, wood pulp in rolls, wood pulp in unitized bales, paper

and paper board in rolls or in pallet or skid-sized sheets.

(11) "inland division" means the amount paid by a common

carrier to an inland carrier for the inland portion of through

transportation offered to the public by the common carrier.

(12) "inland portion" means the charge to the public by a

common carrier for the nonocean portion of through

transportation.

(13) "loyalty contract" means a contract with an ocean common

carrier or agreement by which a shipper obtains lower rates by

committing all or a fixed portion of its cargo to that carrier or

agreement and the contract provides for a deferred rebate

arrangement.

(14) "marine terminal operator" means a person engaged in the

United States in the business of furnishing wharfage, dock,

warehouse, or other terminal facilities in connection with a

common carrier, or in connection with a common carrier and a

water carrier subject to subchapter II of chapter 135 of title

49.

(15) "maritime labor agreement" means a collective-bargaining

agreement between an employer subject to this chapter, or group

of such employers, and a labor organization representing

employees in the maritime or stevedoring industry, or an

agreement preparatory to such a collective-bargaining agreement

among members of a multiemployer bargaining group, or an

agreement specifically implementing provisions of such a

collective-bargaining agreement or providing for the formation,

financing, or administration of a multiemployer bargaining group;

but the term does not include an assessment agreement.

(16) "ocean common carrier" means a vessel-operating common

carrier.

(17) "ocean transportation intermediary" means an ocean freight

forwarder or a non-vessel-operating common carrier. For purposes

of this paragraph, the term -

(A) "ocean freight forwarder" means a person that -

(i) in the United States, dispatches shipments from the

United States via a common carrier and books or otherwise

arranges space for those shipments on behalf of shippers; and

(ii) processes the documentation or performs related

activities incident to those shipments; and

(B) "non-vessel-operating common carrier" means a common

carrier that does not operate the vessels by which the ocean

transportation is provided, and is a shipper in its

relationship with an ocean common carrier.

(18) "person" includes individuals, corporations, partnerships,

and associations existing under or authorized by the laws of the

United States or of a foreign country.

(19) "service contract" means a written contract, other than a

bill of lading or a receipt, between one or more shippers and an

individual ocean common carrier or an agreement between or among

ocean common carriers in which the shipper or shippers makes a

commitment to provide a certain volume or portion of cargo over a

fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or the agreement

commits to a certain rate or rate schedule and a defined service

level, such as assured space, transit time, port rotation, or

similar service features. The contract may also specify

provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of any

party.

(20) "shipment" means all of the cargo carried under the terms

of a single bill of lading.

(21) "shipper" means -

(A) a cargo owner;

(B) the person for whose account the ocean transportation is

provided;

(C) the person to whom delivery is to be made;

(D) a shippers' association; or

(E) an ocean transportation intermediary, as defined in

paragraph (17)(B) of this section, that accepts responsibility

for payment of all charges applicable under the tariff or

service contract.

(22) "shippers' association" means a group of shippers that

consolidates or distributes freight on a nonprofit basis for the

members of the group in order to secure carload, truckload, or

other volume rates or service contracts.

(23) "through rate" means the single amount charged by a common

carrier in connection with through transportation.

(24) "through transportation" means continuous transportation

between origin and destination for which a through rate is

assessed and which is offered or performed by one or more

carriers, at least one of which is a common carrier, between a

United States point or port and a foreign point or port.

(25) "United States" includes the several States, the District

of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of

the Northern Marianas, and all other United States territories

and possessions.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 3, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 67; Pub. L.

99-307, Sec. 11, May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 447; Pub. L. 105-258,

title I, Sec. 102, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 105-383,

title IV, Sec. 424(d), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3441.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Act of July 2, 1890 (ch. 647, 26 Stat. 209), as amended, referred

to in par. (2), is known as the Sherman Act, which is classified to

sections 1 to 7 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1 of Title 15 and Tables.

Act of October 15, 1914 (ch. 323, 38 Stat. 730), as amended,

referred to in par. (2), is known as the Clayton Act, which is

classified generally to sections 12, 13, 14 to 19, 20, 21, and 22

to 27 of Title 15 and sections 52 and 53 of Title 29, Labor. For

further details and complete classification of this Act to the

Code, see References in Text note set out under section 12 of Title

15 and Tables.

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in par. (2), is act

Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, as amended, which is

classified generally to subchapter I (Sec. 41 et seq.) of chapter 2

of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see section 58 of Title 15 and Tables.

Sections 73 and 74 of the Act of August 27, 1894, referred to in

par. (2), are sections 73 and 74 of act Aug. 27, 1894, ch. 349, 28

Stat. 570. Sections 73 to 77 of such Act are known as the Wilson

Tariff Act. Sections 73 to 76 enacted sections 8 to 11 of Title 15.

Section 77 was not classified to the Code. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note under

section 8 of Title 15 and Tables.

Act of June 19, 1936 (ch. 592, 49 Stat. 1526), as amended,

referred to in par. (2), is popularly known as the Robinson-Patman

Antidiscrimination Act and also as the Robinson-Patman Price

Discrimination Act, which enacted sections 13a, 13b, and 21a of

Title 15 and amended section 13 of Title 15. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 13 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Antitrust Civil Process Act, referred to in par. (2), is Pub.

L. 87-664, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 548, as amended, which is

classified generally to chapter 34 (Sec. 1311 et seq.) of Title 15.

For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short

Title note set out under section 1311 of Title 15 and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Par. (6)(B). Pub. L. 105-383, in first sentence,

substituted "parcel-tanker or by vessel when primarily engaged in

the carriage of perishable agricultural commodities (i) if the

common carrier and the owner of those commodities are wholly-owned,

directly or indirectly, by a person primarily engaged in the

marketing and distribution of those commodities and (ii) only with

respect to the carriage of those commodities." for "parcel-tanker."

Par. (8). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(1), substituted "a

government;" for "the government under whose registry the vessels

of the carrier operate;" in introductory provisions.

Par. (9). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(2), added par. (9) and struck

out former par. (9) which read as follows: " 'deferred rebate'

means a return by a common carrier of any portion of the freight

money to a shipper as a consideration for that shipper giving all,

or any portion, of its shipments to that or any other common

carrier, or for any other purpose, the payment of which is deferred

beyond the completion of the service for which it is paid, and is

made only if, during both the period for which computed and the

period of deferment, the shipper has complied with the terms of the

rebate agreement or arrangement."

Par. (10). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(5), substituted "paper and

paper board in rolls or in pallet or skid-sized sheets." for "paper

board in rolls, and paper in rolls."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(4), struck out "in an unfinished or

semifinished state that require special handling moving in lot

sizes too large for a container," after "means forest products".

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (11) as (10) and

struck out former par. (10) which read as follows: " 'fighting

ship' means a vessel used in a particular trade by an ocean common

carrier or group of such carriers for the purpose of excluding,

preventing, or reducing competition by driving another ocean common

carrier out of that trade."

Pars. (11), (12). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated

pars. (12) and (13) as (11) and (12), respectively. Former par.

(11) redesignated (10).

Par. (13). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(7), substituted "agreement

and the contract provides for a deferred rebate arrangement." for

"conference."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(6), substituted "agreement" for

"conference, other than a service contract or contract based upon

time-volume rates,".

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (14) as (13).

Former par. (13) redesignated (12).

Par. (14). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), (8), redesignated par.

(15) as (14) and substituted "carrier, or in connection with a

common carrier and a water carrier subject to subchapter II of

chapter 135 of title 49." for "carrier." Former par. (14)

redesignated (13).

Par. (15). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated former par.

(16) as (15). Former par. (15) redesignated (14).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(9), redesignated par. (17)

as (16) and struck out former par. (16) which read as follows: "

'non-vessel-operating common carrier' means a common carrier that

does not operate the vessels by which the ocean transportation is

provided, and is a shipper in its relationship with an ocean common

carrier."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (17) as (16).

Former par. (16) redesignated (15).

Par. (17). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(10), added par. (17) and

struck out former par. (17) which read as follows: " 'ocean freight

forwarder' means a person in the United States that -

"(A) dispatches shipments from the United States via common

carriers and books or otherwise arranges space for those

shipments on behalf of shippers; and

"(B) processes the documentation or performs related activities

incident to those shipments."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(9), redesignated par. (18) as (17).

Former par. (17) redesignated (16).

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (18) as (17).

Former par. (17) redesignated (16).

Par. (18). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(9), redesignated par. (19)

as (18). Former par. (18) redesignated (17).

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (19) as (18).

Former par. (18) redesignated (17).

Par. (19). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(11), added par. (19) and

struck out former par. (19) which read as follows: " 'service

contract' means a contract between a shipper and an ocean common

carrier or conference in which the shipper makes a commitment to

provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo over a fixed time

period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a

certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level -

such as, assured space, transit time, port rotation, or similar

service features; the contract may also specify provisions in the

event of nonperformance on the part of either party."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(9), redesignated par. (20) as (19).

Former par. (19) redesignated (18).

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (20) as (19).

Former par. (19) redesignated (18).

Par. (20). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(9), redesignated par. (21)

as (20). Former par. (20) redesignated (19).

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (21) as (20).

Former par. (20) redesignated (19).

Par. (21). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(12), added par. (21) and

struck out former par. (21) which read as follows: " 'shipper'

means an owner or person for whose account the ocean transportation

of cargo is provided or the person to whom delivery is to be made."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(9), redesignated par. (22) as (21).

Former par. (21) redesignated (20).

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), redesignated par. (22) as (21).

Former par. (21) redesignated (20).

Pars. (22) to (27). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 102(3), (9),

redesignated pars. (24) to (27) as (22) to (25), respectively.

Former pars. (22) and (23) redesignated (20) and (21),

respectively.

1986 - Par. (6)(B). Pub. L. 99-307, Sec. 11(1), inserted

provision that "common carrier" not include common carrier engaged

in ocean transportation by ferry boat, ocean tramp, or chemical

parcel-tanker, and defined "chemical parcel-tanker".

Par. (18). Pub. L. 99-307, Sec. 11(2), struck out "; but the term

does not include one engaged in ocean transportation by ferry boat

or ocean tramp" after "common carrier".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1241s, 1707, 1709, 1710a,

1718, 1807 of this Appendix; title 19 sections 1431a, 1641; title

41 section 431; title 49 section 5901.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1703 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1703. Agreements within scope of chapter

-STATUTE-

(a) Ocean common carriers

This chapter applies to agreements by or among ocean common

carriers to -

(1) discuss, fix, or regulate transportation rates, including

through rates, cargo space accommodations, and other conditions

of service;

(2) pool or apportion traffic, revenues, earnings, or losses;

(3) allot ports or restrict or otherwise regulate the number

and character of sailings between ports;

(4) limit or regulate the volume or character of cargo or

passenger traffic to be carried;

(5) engage in exclusive, preferential, or cooperative working

arrangements among themselves or with one or more marine terminal

operators;

(6) control, regulate, or prevent competition in international

ocean transportation; or

(7) discuss and agree on any matter related to service

contracts.

(b) Marine terminal operators

This chapter applies to agreements among marine terminal

operators and among one or more marine terminal operators and one

or more ocean common carriers to -

(1) discuss, fix, or regulate rates or other conditions of

service; or

(2) engage in exclusive, preferential, or cooperative working

arrangements, to the extent that such agreements involve ocean

transportation in the foreign commerce of the United States.

(c) Acquisitions

This chapter does not apply to an acquisition by any person,

directly or indirectly, of any voting security or assets of any

other person.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 4, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 70; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 103, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1904.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 103(a)(1),

substituted "operators;" for "operators or non-vessel-operating

common carriers;".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 103(a)(2), substituted "or"

for "and" at end.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 103(a)(3), added par. (7)

and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "regulate or

prohibit their use of service contracts."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 103(b)(1), struck out "(to the

extent the agreements involve ocean transportation in the foreign

commerce of the United States)" after "agreements" in introductory

provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 103(b)(2), substituted "or"

for "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 103(b)(3), substituted

"arrangements, to the extent that such agreements involve ocean

transportation in the foreign commerce of the United States." for

"arrangements."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1704 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1704 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1704. Agreements

-STATUTE-

(a) Filing requirements

A true copy of every agreement entered into with respect to an

activity described in section 1703(a) or (b) of this Appendix shall

be filed with the Commission, except agreements related to

transportation to be performed within or between foreign countries

and agreements among common carriers to establish, operate, or

maintain a marine terminal in the United States. In the case of an

oral agreement, a complete memorandum specifying in detail the

substance of the agreement shall be filed. The Commission may by

regulation prescribe the form and manner in which an agreement

shall be filed and the additional information and documents

necessary to evaluate the agreement.

(b) Conference agreements

Each conference agreement must -

(1) state its purpose;

(2) provide reasonable and equal terms and conditions for

admission and readmission to conference membership for any ocean

common carrier willing to serve the particular trade or route;

(3) permit any member to withdraw from conference membership

upon reasonable notice without penalty;

(4) at the request of any member, require an independent

neutral body to police fully the obligations of the conference

and its members;

(5) prohibit the conference from engaging in conduct prohibited

by section 1709(c)(1) or (3) of this Appendix;

(6) provide for a consultation process designed to promote -

(A) commercial resolution of disputes, and

(B) cooperation with shippers in preventing and eliminating

malpractices;

(7) establish procedures for promptly and fairly considering

shippers' requests and complaints; and

(8) provide that any member of the conference may take

independent action on any rate or service item upon not more than

5 calendar days' notice to the conference and that, except for

exempt commodities not published in the conference tariff, the

conference will include the new rate or service item in its

tariff for use by that member, effective no later than 5 calendar

days after receipt of the notice, and by any other member that

notifies the conference that it elects to adopt the independent

rate or service item on or after its effective date, in lieu of

the existing conference tariff provision for that rate or service

item;

(c) Ocean common carrier agreements

An ocean common carrier agreement may not -

(1) prohibit or restrict a member or members of the agreement

from engaging in negotiations for service contracts with 1 or

more shippers;

(2) require a member or members of the agreement to disclose a

negotiation on a service contract, or the terms and conditions of

a service contract, other than those terms or conditions required

to be published under section 1707(c)(3) of this Appendix; or

(3) adopt mandatory rules or requirements affecting the right

of an agreement member or agreement members to negotiate and

enter into service contracts.

An agreement may provide authority to adopt voluntary guidelines

relating to the terms and procedures of an agreement member's or

agreement members' service contracts if the guidelines explicitly

state the right of members of the agreement not to follow the

guidelines. These guidelines shall be confidentially submitted to

the Commission.

(d) Interconference agreements

Each agreement between carriers not members of the same

conference must provide the right of independent action for each

carrier. Each agreement between conferences must provide the right

of independent action for each conference.

(e) Assessment agreements

Assessment agreements shall be filed with the Commission and

become effective on filing. The Commission shall thereafter, upon

complaint filed within 2 years of the date of the agreement,

disapprove, cancel, or modify any such agreement, or charge or

assessment pursuant thereto, that it finds, after notice and

hearing, to be unjustly discriminatory or unfair as between

carriers, shippers, or ports. The Commission shall issue its final

decision in any such proceeding within 1 year of the date of filing

of the complaint. To the extent that an assessment or charge is

found in the proceeding to be unjustly discriminatory or unfair as

between carriers, shippers, or ports, the Commission shall remedy

the unjust discrimination or unfairness for the period of time

between the filing of the complaint and the final decision by means

of assessment adjustments. These adjustments shall be implemented

by prospective credits or debits to future assessments or charges,

except in the case of a complainant who has ceased activities

subject to the assessment or charge, in which case reparation may

be awarded. Except for this subsection and section 1706(a) of this

Appendix, this chapter does not apply to assessment agreements.

(f) Maritime labor agreements

This chapter does not apply to maritime labor agreements. This

subsection does not exempt from this chapter any rates, charges,

regulations, or practices of a common carrier that are required to

be set forth in a tariff or are essential terms of a service

contract, whether or not those rates, charges, regulations, or

practices arise out of, or are otherwise related to, a maritime

labor agreement.

(g) Vessel sharing agreements

An ocean common carrier that is the owner, operator, or bareboat,

time, or slot charterer of a United States-flag liner vessel

documented pursuant to sections (!1) 12102(a) or (d) of title 46 is

authorized to agree with an ocean common carrier that is not the

owner, operator or bareboat charterer for at least 1 year of United

States-flag liner vessels which are eligible to be included in the

Maritime Security Fleet Program and are enrolled in an Emergency

Preparedness Program pursuant to subtitle B of title VI of the

Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. App. 1187 et seq.), to which

it charters or subcharters the United States-flag vessel or space

on the United States-flag vessel that such charterer or

subcharterer may not use or make available space on the vessel for

the carriage of cargo reserved by law for United States-flag

vessels.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 5, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 70; Pub. L.

98-595, Sec. 3(b)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3132; Pub. L. 104-88,

title III, Sec. 335(c)(2), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 954; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 104, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1904; Pub. L.

105-383, title IV, Sec. 424(a), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3440.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsec. (g), is act

June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985, as amended. Subtitle B of

title VI of the Act is classified generally to part B (Sec. 1187 et

seq.) of subchapter VI of chapter 27 of this Appendix. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1245 of this

Appendix and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(a)(1), added

par. (8) and struck out former par. (8) which read as follows:

"provide that any member of the conference may take independent

action on any rate or service item required to be filed in a tariff

under section 1707(a) of this Appendix upon not more than 10

calendar days' notice to the conference and that the conference

will include the new rate or service item in its tariff for use by

that member, effective no later than 10 calendar days after receipt

of the notice, and by any other member that notifies the conference

that it elects to adopt the independent rate or service item on or

after its effective date, in lieu of the existing conference tariff

provision for that rate or service item."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(a)(2), (3), added subsec.

(c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(a)(2), redesignated former

subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(a)(2), (b)(1),

redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e) and substituted "this

chapter does" for "this chapter, the Shipping Act, 1916, and the

Intercoastal Shipping Act, 1933, do". Former subsec. (e)

redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(b)(2)(C), inserted "or are

essential terms of a service contract" after "tariff".

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(b)(2)(B), which directed amendment of

subsec. (f) by striking out "or the Shipping Act, 1916," was

executed by striking out "or the Shipping Act, 1916" before "any

rates, charges", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(b)(2)(A), which directed amendment of

subsec. (f) by substituting "does" for "and the Shipping Act, 1916,

do", was executed by making the substitution for "and the Shipping

Act, 1916 do" after "This chapter", to reflect the probable intent

of Congress.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 104(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-383 added subsec. (g).

1995 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104-88 substituted "This chapter and

the Shipping Act 1916" for "This chapter, the Shipping Act, 1916

[46 App. U.S.C. 801 et seq.], and the Intercoastal Shipping Act,

1933," and "this chapter or the Shipping Act, 1916" for "this

chapter, the Shipping Act, 1916, or the Intercoastal Shipping Act,

1933,".

1984 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-595 substituted "section 1703(a)

or (b) of this Appendix" for "section 1703 of this Appendix".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1995 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 104-88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2

of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as an Effective Date note under section

701 of Title 49, Transportation.

AUTHORITY OR EFFECTIVENESS OF ORDERS

Pub. L. 105-383, title IV, Sec. 424(c), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat.

3441, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this

section and sections 1702 and 1709 of this Appendix] shall affect

or in any way diminish the authority or effectiveness of orders

issued by the Maritime Administration pursuant to sections 9 and 41

of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 808 and 839)."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1705, 1706, 1709, 1710 of

this Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be "section".

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1705 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1705. Action on agreements

-STATUTE-

(a) Notice

Within 7 days after an agreement is filed, the Commission shall

transmit a notice of its filing to the Federal Register for

publication.

(b) Review standard

The Commission shall reject any agreement filed under section

1704(a) of this Appendix that, after preliminary review, it finds

does not meet the requirements of section 1704 of this Appendix.

The Commission shall notify in writing the person filing the

agreement of the reason for rejection of the agreement.

(c) Review and effective date

Unless rejected by the Commission under subsection (b) of this

section, agreements, other than assessment agreements, shall become

effective -

(1) on the 45th day after filing, or on the 30th day after

notice of the filing is published in the Federal Register,

whichever day is later; or

(2) if additional information or documentary material is

requested under subsection (d) of this section, on the 45th day

after the Commission receives -

(A) all the additional information and documentary material

requested; or

(B) if the request is not fully complied with, the

information and documentary material submitted and a statement

of the reasons for noncompliance with the request. The period

specified in paragraph (2) may be extended only by the United

States District Court for the District of Columbia upon an

application of the Commission under subsection (i) of this

section.

(d) Additional information

Before the expiration of the period specified in subsection

(c)(1) of this section, the Commission may request from the person

filing the agreement any additional information and documentary

material it deems necessary to make the determinations required by

this section.

(e) Request for expedited approval

The Commission may, upon request of the filing party, shorten the

review period specified in subsection (c) of this section, but in

no event to a date less than 14 days after notice of the filing of

the agreement is published in the Federal Register.

(f) Term of agreements

The Commission may not limit the effectiveness of an agreement to

a fixed term.

(g) Substantially anticompetitive agreements

If, at any time after the filing or effective date of an

agreement, the Commission determines that the agreement is likely,

by a reduction in competition, to produce an unreasonable reduction

in transportation service or an unreasonable increase in

transportation cost, it may, after notice to the person filing the

agreement, seek appropriate injunctive relief under subsection (h)

of this section.

(h) Injunctive relief

The Commission may, upon making the determination specified in

subsection (g) of this section, bring suit in the United States

District Court for the District of Columbia to enjoin operation of

the agreement. The court may issue a temporary restraining order or

preliminary injunction and, upon a showing that the agreement is

likely, by a reduction in competition, to produce an unreasonable

reduction in transportation service or an unreasonable increase in

transportation cost, may enter a permanent injunction. In a suit

under this subsection, the burden of proof is on the Commission.

The court may not allow a third party to intervene with respect to

a claim under this subsection.

(i) Compliance with informational needs

If a person filing an agreement, or an officer, director,

partner, agent, or employee thereof, fails substantially to comply

with a request for the submission of additional information or

documentary material within the period specified in subsection (c)

of this section, the United States District Court for the District

of Columbia, at the request of the Commission -

(1) may order compliance;

(2) shall extend the period specified in subsection (c)(2) of

this section until there has been substantial compliance; and

(3) may grant such other equitable relief as the court in its

discretion determines necessary or appropriate.

(j) Nondisclosure of submitted material

Except for an agreement filed under section 1704 of this

Appendix, information and documentary material filed with the

Commission under section 1704 of this Appendix or this section is

exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and may not be

made public except as may be relevant to an administrative or

judicial action or proceeding. This section does not prevent

disclosure to either body of Congress or to a duly authorized

committee or subcommittee of Congress.

(k) Representation

Upon notice to the Attorney General, the Commission may represent

itself in district court proceedings under subsections (h) and (i)

of this section and section 1710(h) of this Appendix. With the

approval of the Attorney General, the Commission may represent

itself in proceedings in the United States Courts of Appeal under

subsections (h) and (i) of this section and section 1710(h) of this

Appendix.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 6, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 72.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1706, 1709, 1710 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1706 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1706. Exemption from antitrust laws

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

The antitrust laws do not apply to -

(1) any agreement that has been filed under section 1704 of

this Appendix and is effective under section 1704(d) (!1) or

section 1705 of this Appendix or is exempt under section 1715 of

this Appendix from any requirement of this chapter;

(2) any activity or agreement within the scope of this chapter,

whether permitted under or prohibited by this chapter, undertaken

or entered into with a reasonable basis to conclude that (A) it

is pursuant to an agreement on file with the Commission and in

effect when the activity took place, or (B) it is exempt under

section 1715 of this Appendix from any filing or publication

requirement of this chapter;

(3) any agreement or activity that relates to transportation

services within or between foreign countries, whether or not via

the United States, unless that agreement or activity has a

direct, substantial, and reasonably foreseeable effect on the

commerce of the United States;

(4) any agreement or activity concerning the foreign inland

segment of through transportation that is part of transportation

provided in a United States import or export trade;

(5) any agreement or activity to provide or furnish wharfage,

dock, warehouse, or other terminal facilities outside the United

States; or

(6) subject to section 1719(e)(2) of this Appendix, any

agreement, modification, or cancellation approved by the

Commission before the effective date of this chapter under

section 15 (!1) of the Shipping Act, 1916, or permitted under

section 14b (!1) thereof, and any properly published tariff,

rate, fare, or charge, classification, rule, or regulation

explanatory thereof implementing that argeement,(!2)

modification, or cancellation.

(b) Exceptions

This chapter does not extend antitrust immunity -

(1) to any agreement with or among air carriers, rail carriers,

motor carriers, or common carriers by water not subject to this

chapter with respect to transportation within the United States;

(2) to any discussion or agreement among common carriers that

are subject to this chapter regarding the inland divisions (as

opposed to the inland portions) of through rates within the

United States;

(3) to any agreement among common carriers subject to this

chapter to establish, operate, or maintain a marine terminal in

the United States; or

(4) to any loyalty contract.

(c) Limitations

(1) Any determination by an agency or court that results in the

denial or removal of the immunity to the antitrust laws set forth

in subsection (a) of this section shall not remove or alter the

antitrust immunity for the period before the determination.

(2) No person may recover damages under section 4 of the Clayton

Act (15 U.S.C. 15), or obtain injunctive relief under section 16 of

that Act (15 U.S.C. 26), for conduct prohibited by this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 7, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 73; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 105, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1905.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 1704(d) of this Appendix, referred to in subsec. (a)(1),

was redesignated section 1704(e) of this Appendix by Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 104(a)(2), Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1904.

For the effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec.

(a)(6), as 90 days after Mar. 20, 1984, see section 21 of Pub. L.

98-237, formerly set out as an Effective Date note under section

1701 of this Appendix.

Section 15 of the Shipping Act, 1916, referred to in subsec.

(a)(6), which was classified to section 814 of this Appendix, was

repealed by Pub. L. 104-88, title III, Sec. 335(b)(3), Dec. 29,

1996, 109 Stat. 954.

Section 14b of the Shipping Act, 1916, referred to in subsec.

(a)(6), which was classified to section 813a of former Title 46,

Shipping, was repealed by Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 20(a), Mar. 20,

1984, 98 Stat. 88.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 105(1), inserted "or

publication" after "filing".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 105(2)-(4), added par. (4).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1704 of this Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

(!2) So in original. Probably should be "agreement,".

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1707 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1707. Tariffs

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

(1) Except with regard to bulk cargo, forest products, recycled

metal scrap, new assembled motor vehicles, waste paper, and paper

waste, each common carrier and conference shall keep open to public

inspection in an automated tariff system, tariffs showing all its

rates, charges, classifications, rules, and practices between all

points or ports on its own route and on any through transportation

route that has been established. However, common carriers shall not

be required to state separately or otherwise reveal in tariffs the

inland divisions of a through rate. Tariffs shall -

(A) state the places between which cargo will be carried;

(B) list each classification of cargo in use;

(C) state the level of ocean transportation intermediary, as

defined in section 1702(17)(A) of this Appendix, compensation, if

any, by a carrier or conference;

(D) state separately each terminal or other charge, privilege,

or facility under the control of the carrier or conference and

any rules or regulations that in any way change, affect, or

determine any part or the aggregate of the rates or charges;

(E) include sample copies of any bill of lading, contract of

affreightment, or other document evidencing the transportation

agreement; and

(F) include copies of any loyalty contract, omitting the

shipper's name.

(2) Tariffs shall be made available electronically to any person,

without time, quantity, or other limitation, through appropriate

access from remote locations, and a reasonable charge may be

assessed for such access. No charge may be assessed a Federal

agency for such access.

(b) Time-volume rates

Rates shown in tariffs filed under subsection (a) of this section

may vary with the volume of cargo offered over a specified period

of time.

(c) Service contracts

(1) In general

An individual ocean common carrier or an agreement between or

among ocean common carriers may enter into a service contract

with one or more shippers subject to the requirements of this

chapter. The exclusive remedy for a breach of a contract entered

into under this subsection shall be an action in an appropriate

court, unless the parties otherwise agree. In no case may the

contract dispute resolution forum be controlled by or in any way

affiliated with a controlled carrier as defined in section

1702(8) of this Appendix, or by the government which owns or

controls the carrier.

(2) Filing requirements

Except for service contracts dealing with bulk cargo, forest

products, recycled metal scrap, new assembled motor vehicles,

waste paper, or paper waste, each contract entered into under

this subsection by an individual ocean common carrier or an

agreement shall be filed confidentially with the Commission. Each

service contract shall include the following essential terms -

(A) the origin and destination port ranges;

(B) the origin and destination geographic areas in the case

of through intermodal movements;

(C) the commodity or commodities involved;

(D) the minimum volume or portion;

(E) the line-haul rate;

(F) the duration;

(G) service commitments; and

(H) the liquidated damages for nonperformance, if any.

(3) Publication of certain terms

When a service contract is filed confidentially with the

Commission, a concise statement of the essential terms described

in paragraphs 2(A),(!1) (C), (D), and (F) shall be published and

made available to the general public in tariff format.

(4) Disclosure of certain terms

(A) An ocean common carrier, which is a party to or is subject

to the provisions of a collective bargaining agreement with a

labor organization, shall, in response to a written request by

such labor organization, state whether it is responsible for the

following work at dock areas and within port areas in the United

States with respect to cargo transportation under a service

contract described in paragraph (1) of this subsection -

(i) the movement of the shipper's cargo on a dock area or

within the port area or to or from railroad cars on a dock area

or within the port area;

(ii) the assignment of intraport carriage of the shipper's

cargo between areas on a dock or within the port area;

(iii) the assignment of the carriage of the shipper's cargo

between a container yard on a dock area or within the port area

and a rail yard adjacent to such container yard; and

(iv) the assignment of container freight station work and

container maintenance and repair work performed at a dock area

or within the port area.

(B) The common carrier shall provide the information described

in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph to the requesting labor

organization within a reasonable period of time.

(C) This paragraph requires the disclosure of information by an

ocean common carrier only if there exists an applicable and

otherwise lawful collective bargaining agreement which pertains

to that carrier. No disclosure made by an ocean common carrier

shall be deemed to be an admission or agreement that any work is

covered by a collective bargaining agreement. Any dispute

regarding whether any work is covered by a collective bargaining

agreement and the responsibility of the ocean common carrier

under such agreement shall be resolved solely in accordance with

the dispute resolution procedures contained in the collective

bargaining agreement and the National Labor Relations Act [29

U.S.C. 151 et seq.], and without reference to this paragraph.

(D) Nothing in this paragraph shall have any effect on the

lawfulness or unlawfulness under this chapter, the National Labor

Relations Act [29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.], the Taft-Hartley Act [29

U.S.C. 141 et seq.], the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C.

41 et seq.], the antitrust laws, or any other Federal or State

law, or any revisions or amendments thereto, of any collective

bargaining agreement or element thereof, including any element

that constitutes an essential term of a service contract under

this subsection.

(E) For purposes of this paragraph the terms "dock area" and

"within the port area" shall have the same meaning and scope as

in the applicable collective bargaining agreement between the

requesting labor organization and the carrier.

(d) Tariff rates

No new or initial rate or change in an existing rate that results

in an increased cost to the shipper may become effective earlier

than 30 calendar days after publication. The Commission, for good

cause, may allow such a new or initial rate or change to become

effective in less than 30 calendar days. A change in an existing

rate that results in a decreased cost to the shipper may become

effective upon publication.

(e) Refunds

The Commission may, upon application of a carrier or shipper,

permit a common carrier or conference to refund a portion of

freight charges collected from a shipper or to waive the collection

of a portion of the charges from a shipper if -

(1) there is an error in a,(!2) in failing to publish a new

tariff, or an error in quoting a tariff, and the refund will not

result in discrimination among shippers, ports, or carriers;

(2) the common carrier or conference has, prior to filing an

application for authority to make a refund for an error in a

tariff or a failure to publish a tariff, published a new tariff

that sets forth the rate on which the refund or waiver would be

based; and

(3) the application for refund or waiver is filed with the

Commission within 180 days from the date of shipment.

(f) Marine terminal operator schedules

A marine terminal operator may make available to the public,

subject to section 1709(d) of this Appendix, a schedule of rates,

regulations, and practices, including limitations of liability for

cargo loss or damage, pertaining to receiving, delivering,

handling, or storing property at its marine terminal. Any such

schedule made available to the public shall be enforceable by an

appropriate court as an implied contract without proof of actual

knowledge of its provisions.

(g) Regulations

The Commission shall by regulation prescribe the requirements for

the accessibility and accuracy of automated tariff systems

established under this section. The Commission may, after periodic

review, prohibit the use of any automated tariff system that fails

to meet the requirements established under this section. The

Commission may not require a common carrier to provide a remote

terminal for access under subsection (a)(2) of this section. The

Commission shall by regulation prescribe the form and manner in

which marine terminal operator schedules authorized by this section

shall be published.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 8, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 74; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 106, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1905.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The National Labor Relations Act, referred to in subsec.

(c)(4)(C), (D), is act July 5, 1935, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 449, as

amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (Sec. 151

et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 29, Labor. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see section 167 of Title 29

and Tables.

The Taft-Hartley Act, also known as the Labor Management

Relations Act, 1947, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(D), is act June

23, 1947, ch. 120, 61 Stat. 136, as amended, which is classified

principally to chapter 7 (Sec. 141 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 141 of

Title 29 and Tables.

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in subsec.

(c)(4)(D), is act Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, as

amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (Sec. 41 et

seq.) of chapter 2 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see section 58 of Title 15

and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(a)(1)-(4), in

introductory provisions, in first sentence, inserted "new assembled

motor vehicles," after "scrap,", struck out "file with the

Commission, and" after "conference shall", and substituted

"inspection in an automated tariff system," for "inspection,", and

in second sentence, substituted "tariffs" for "tariff filings".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(a)(5), substituted

"transportation intermediary, as defined in section 1702(17)(A) of

this Appendix," for "freight forwarder".

Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(a)(7), struck out

"loyalty contract," before "bill of lading".

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(a)(6), (8), (9),

added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(a)(10), added par. (2)

and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Copies of

tariffs shall be made available to any person, and a reasonable

charge may be assessed for them."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(b), amended heading and

text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as

follows: "An ocean common carrier or conference may enter into a

service contract with a shipper or shippers' association subject to

the requirements of this chapter. Except for service contracts

dealing with bulk cargo, forest products, recycled metal scrap,

waste paper, or paper waste, each contract entered into under this

subsection shall be filed confidentially with the Commission, and

at the same time, a concise statement of its essential terms shall

be filed with the Commission and made available to the general

public in tariff format, and those essential terms shall be

available to all shippers similarly situated. The essential terms

shall include -

"(1) the origin and destination port ranges in the case of

port-to-port movements, and the origin and destination geographic

areas in the case of through intermodal movements;

"(2) the commodity or commodities involved;

"(3) the minimum volume;

"(4) the line-haul rate;

"(5) the duration;

"(6) service commitments; and

"(7) the liquidated damages for nonperformance, if any.

The exclusive remedy for a breach of a contract entered into under

this subsection shall be an action in an appropriate court, unless

the parties otherwise agree."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(c), substituted "Tariff

rates" for "Rates" in heading and substituted "30 calendar days

after publication." for "30 days after filing with the Commission."

in first sentence, inserted "calendar" after "30" in second

sentence, and substituted "publication." for "publication and

filing with the Commission." in last sentence.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(d)(2), which directed

amendment of par. (1) by substituting "publish a new tariff, or an

error in quoting a tariff," for "file a new tariff," was executed

by making the substitution for "file a new tariff" after "in

failing to", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(d)(1), substituted "error in a," for

"error in a tariff of a clerical or administrative nature or an

error due to inadvertence".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(d)(3), (4), substituted

"refund for an error in a tariff or a failure to publish a tariff,

published a new tariff" for "refund, filed a new tariff with the

Commission" and inserted "and" at end.

Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(d)(5),

redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which

read as follows: "the common carrier or conference agrees that if

permission is granted by the Commission, an appropriate notice will

be published in the tariff, or such other steps taken as the

Commission may require that give notice of the rate on which the

refund or waiver would be based, and additional refunds or waivers

as appropriate shall be made with respect to other shipments in the

manner prescribed by the Commission in its order approving the

application; and".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(e), amended heading and

text of subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as

follows: "The Commission may by regulation prescribe the form and

manner in which the tariffs required by this section shall be

published and filed. The Commission may reject a tariff that is not

filed in conformity with this section and its regulations. Upon

rejection by the Commission, the tariff is void and its use is

unlawful."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 106(f), added subsec. (g).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1704, 1708, 1709, 1719 of

this Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be "(2)(A),".

(!2) So in original.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1708 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1708. Controlled carriers

-STATUTE-

(a) Controlled carrier rates

No controlled carrier subject to this section may maintain rates

or charges in its tariffs or service contracts, or charge or assess

rates, that are below a level that is just and reasonable, nor may

any such carrier establish (!1) maintain, or enforce unjust or

unreasonable classifications, rules, or regulations in those

tariffs or service contracts. An unjust or unreasonable

classification, rule, or regulation means one that results or is

likely to result in the carriage or handling of cargo at rates or

charges that are below a just and reasonable level. The Commission

may, at any time after notice and hearing, prohibit the publication

or use of any rates, charges, classifications, rules, or

regulations that the controlled carrier has failed to demonstrate

to be just and reasonable. In a proceeding under this subsection,

the burden of proof is on the controlled carrier to demonstrate

that its rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations are

just and reasonable. Rates, charges, classifications, rules, or

regulations that have been suspended or prohibited by the

Commission are void and their use is unlawful.

(b) Rate standards

For the purpose of this section, in determining whether rates,

charges, classifications, rules, or regulations by a controlled

carrier are just and reasonable, the Commission shall take into

account whether the rates or charges which have been published or

assessed or which would result from the pertinent classifications,

rules, or regulations are below a level which is fully compensatory

to the controlled carrier based upon that carrier's actual costs or

upon its constructive costs. For purposes of the preceding

sentence, the term "constructive costs" means the costs of another

carrier, other than a controlled carrier, operating similar vessels

and equipment in the same or a similar trade. The Commission may

also take into account other appropriate factors, including but not

limited to, whether -

(1) the rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations

are the same as or similar to those published or assessed or

assessed (!2) by other carriers in the same trade;

(2) the rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations

are required to assure movement of particular cargo in the trade;

or

(3) the rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations

are required to maintain acceptable continuity, level, or quality

of common carrier service to or from affected ports.

(c) Effective date of rates

Notwithstanding section 1707(d) of this Appendix and except for

service contracts, the rates, charges, classifications, rules, or

regulations of controlled carriers may not, without special

permission of the Commission, become effective sooner than the 30th

day after the date of publication. Each controlled carrier shall,

upon the request of the Commission, file, within 20 days of request

(with respect to its existing or proposed rates, charges,

classifications, rules, or regulations), a statement of

justification that sufficiently details the controlled carrier's

need and purpose for such rates, charges, classifications, rules,

or regulations upon which the Commission may reasonably base its

determination of the lawfulness thereof.

(d) Prohibition of rates

Within 120 days after the receipt of information requested by the

Commission under this section, the Commission shall determine

whether the rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations

of a controlled carrier may be unjust and unreasonable. Whenever

the Commission is of the opinion that the rates, charges,

classifications, rules, or regulations published or assessed by a

controlled carrier may be unjust and unreasonable, the Commission

shall issue an order to the controlled carrier to show cause why

those rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations should

not be prohibited. Pending a determination as to their lawfulness

in such a proceeding, the Commission may suspend the rates,

charges, classifications, rules, or regulations at any time before

their effective date. In the case of rates, charges,

classifications, rules, or regulations that have already become

effective, the Commission may, upon the issuance of an order to

show cause, suspend those rates, charges, classifications, rules,

or regulations on not less than 30 days' notice to the controlled

carrier. No period of suspension under this subsection may be

greater than 180 days. Whenever the Commission has suspended any

rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations under this

subsection, the affected controlled carrier may publish new rates,

charges, classifications, rules, or regulations to take effect

immediately during the suspension period in lieu of the suspended

rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations - except

that the Commission may reject the new rates, charges,

classifications, rules, or regulations if it is of the opinion that

they are unjust and unreasonable.

(e) Presidential review

Concurrently with the publication thereof, the Commission shall

transmit to the President each order of suspension or final order

of prohibition of rates, charges, classifications, rules, or

regulations of a controlled carrier subject to this section. Within

10 days after the receipt or the effective date of the Commission

order, the President may request the Commission in writing to stay

the effect of the Commission's order if the President finds that

the stay is required for reasons of national defense or foreign

policy, which reasons shall be specified in the report.

Notwithstanding any other law, the Commission shall immediately

grant the request by the issuance of an order in which the

President's request shall be described. During any such stay, the

President shall, whenever practicable, attempt to resolve the

matter in controversy by negotiation with representatives of the

applicable foreign governments.

(f) Exceptions

This section does not apply to -

(1) a controlled carrier of a state whose vessels are entitled

by a treaty of the United States to receive national or

most-favored-nation treatment; or

(2) a trade served exclusively by controlled carriers.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 9, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 76; Pub. L.

102-100, Sec. 5, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 492; Pub. L. 105-258,

title I, Sec. 108, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1908.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(1)-(4), substituted

"service contracts, or charge or assess rates," for "service

contracts filed with the Commission" and "maintain, or enforce" for

"or maintain" in first sentence, "prohibit the publication or use

of" for "disapprove" in third sentence, and "that have been

suspended or prohibited by the Commission" for "filed by a

controlled carrier that have been rejected, suspended, or

disapproved by the Commission" in last sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(5), substituted "shall

take into account whether the rates or charges which have been

published or assessed or which would result from the pertinent

classifications, rules, or regulations are below a level which is

fully compensatory to the controlled carrier based upon that

carrier's actual costs or upon its constructive costs. For purposes

of the preceding sentence, the term 'constructive costs' means the

costs of another carrier, other than a controlled carrier,

operating similar vessels and equipment in the same or a similar

trade. The Commission may also take into account other appropriate

factors, including but not limited to, whether - " for "may take

into account appropriate factors including, but not limited to,

whether - " in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(6), (7), redesignated

par. (2) as (1), substituted "published or assessed" for "filed",

and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "the rates or

charges which have been filed or which would result from the

pertinent classifications, rules, or regulations are below a level

which is fully compensatory to the controlled carrier based upon

that carrier's actual costs or upon its constructive costs, which

are hereby defined as the costs of another carrier, other than a

controlled carrier, operating similar vessels and equipment in the

same or a similar trade;".

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(6), redesignated

pars. (2) to (4) as (1) to (3), respectively.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(8), substituted

"publication." for "filing with the Commission." in first sentence.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(9)-(15), substituted

"Prohibition" for "Disapproval" in heading, inserted first sentence

to read as follows: "Within 120 days after the receipt of

information requested by the Commission under this section, the

Commission shall determine whether the rates, charges,

classifications, rules, or regulations of a controlled carrier may

be unjust and unreasonable.", substituted "published or assessed"

for "filed", "shall issue" for "may issue", and "prohibited." for

"disapproved." in second sentence, substituted "30" for "60" in

fourth sentence, and in last sentence inserted "controlled" after

"affected" and substituted "publish" for "file".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(16), substituted

"prohibition" for "disapproval" in first sentence.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(17), inserted "or" at

end.

Subsec. (f)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 108(18), (19),

redesignated par. (5) as (2) and struck out former pars. (2) to (4)

which read as follows:

"(2) a controlled carrier of a state which, on the effective date

of this section, has subscribed to the statement of shipping policy

contained in note 1 to annex A of the Code of Liberalization of

Current Invisible Operations, adopted by the Council of the

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development;

"(3) rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations of a

controlled carrier in any particular trade that are covered by an

agreement effective under section 1705 of this Appendix, other than

an agreement in which all of the members are controlled carriers

not otherwise excluded from the provisions of this subsection;

"(4) rates, charges, classifications, rules, or regulations

governing the transportation of cargo by a controlled carrier

between the country by whose government it is owned or controlled,

as defined herein and the United States; or".

1991 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102-100, Sec. 5(a), inserted "or

service contracts" after "tariffs" in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102-100, Sec. 5(b), inserted "and except for

service contracts" after "Notwithstanding section 1707(d) of this

Appendix".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1709 of this Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

(!2) So in original.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1709 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1709. Prohibited acts

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

No person may -

(1) knowingly and willfully, directly or indirectly, by means

of false billing, false classification, false weighing, false

report of weight, false measurement, or by any other unjust or

unfair device or means obtain or attempt to obtain ocean

transportation for property at less than the rates or charges

that would otherwise be applicable;

(2) operate under an agreement required to be filed under

section 1704 of this Appendix that has not become effective under

section 1705 of this Appendix, or that has been rejected,

disapproved, or canceled; or

(3) operate under an agreement required to be filed under

section 1704 of this Appendix except in accordance with the terms

of the agreement or any modifications made by the Commission to

the agreement.

(b) Common carriers

No common carrier, either alone or in conjunction with any other

person, directly or indirectly, may -

(1) allow any person to obtain transportation for property at

less than the rates or charges established by the carrier in its

tariff or service contract by means of false billing, false

classification, false weighing, false measurement, or by any

other unjust or unfair device or means;

(2) provide service in the liner trade that -

(A) is not in accordance with the rates, charges,

classifications, rules, and practices contained in a tariff

published or a service contract entered into under section 1707

of this Appendix unless excepted or exempted under section

1707(a)(1) or 1715 of this Appendix; or

(B) is under a tariff or service contract which has been

suspended or prohibited by the Commission under section 1708 of

this Appendix or the Foreign Shipping Practices Act of 1988 (46

U.S.C. App. 1710a);

(3) retaliate against any shipper by refusing, or threatening

to refuse, cargo space accommodations when available, or resort

to other unfair or unjustly discriminatory methods because the

shipper has patronized another carrier, or has filed a complaint,

or for any other reason;

(4) for service pursuant to a tariff, engage in any unfair or

unjustly discriminatory practice in the matter of -

(A) rates or charges;

(B) cargo classifications;

(C) cargo space accommodations or other facilities, due

regard being had for the proper loading of the vessel and the

available tonnage;

(D) the loading and landing of freight; or

(E) the adjustment and settlement of claims;

(5) for service pursuant to a service contract, engage in any

unfair or unjustly discriminatory practice in the matter of rates

or charges with respect to any port;

(6) use a vessel or vessels in a particular trade for the

purpose of excluding, preventing, or reducing competition by

driving another ocean common carrier out of that trade;

(7) offer or pay any deferred rebates;

(8) for service pursuant to a tariff, give any undue or

unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or

unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage;

(9) for service pursuant to a service contract, give any undue

or unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or

unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage with respect to any port;

(10) unreasonably refuse to deal or negotiate;

(11) knowingly and willfully accept cargo from or transport

cargo for the account of an ocean transportation intermediary

that does not have a tariff and a bond, insurance, or other

surety as required by sections 1707 and 1718 of this Appendix;

(12) knowingly and willfully enter into a service contract with

an ocean transportation intermediary that does not have a tariff

and a bond, insurance, or other surety as required by sections

1707 and 1718 of this Appendix, or with an affiliate of such

ocean transportation intermediary; or

(13) knowingly disclose, offer, solicit, or receive any

information concerning the nature, kind, quantity, destination,

consignee, or routing of any property tendered or delivered to a

common carrier without the consent of the shipper or consignee if

that information -

(A) may be used to the detriment or prejudice of the shipper

or consignee;

(B) may improperly disclose its business transaction to a

competitor; or

(C) may be used to the detriment or prejudice of any common

carrier.

Nothing in paragraph (13) shall be construed to prevent providing

such information, in response to legal process, to the United

States, the Commission, or to an independent neutral body operating

within the scope of its authority to fulfill the policing

obligations of the parties to an agreement effective under this

chapter. Nor shall it be prohibited for any ocean common carrier

that is a party to a conference agreement approved under this

chapter, or any receiver, trustee, lessee, agent, or employee of

that carrier, or any other person authorized by that carrier to

receive information, to give information to the conference or any

person, firm, corporation, or agency designated by the conference,

or to prevent the conference or its designee from soliciting or

receiving information for the purpose of determining whether a

shipper or consignee has breached an agreement with the conference

or its member lines or for the purpose of determining whether a

member of the conference has breached the conference agreement, or

for the purpose of compiling statistics of cargo movement, but the

use of such information for any other purpose prohibited by this

chapter or any other Act is prohibited.

(c) Concerted action

No conference or group of two or more common carriers may -

(1) boycott or take any other concerted action resulting in an

unreasonable refusal to deal;

(2) engage in conduct that unreasonably restricts the use of

intermodal services or technological innovations;

(3) engage in any predatory practice designed to eliminate the

participation, or deny the entry, in a particular trade of a

common carrier not a member of the conference, a group of common

carriers, an ocean tramp, or a bulk carrier;

(4) negotiate with a nonocean carrier or group of nonocean

carriers (for example, truck, rail, or air operators) on any

matter relating to rates or services provided to ocean common

carriers within the United States by those non-ocean carriers,

unless such negotiations and any resulting agreements are not in

violation of the antitrust laws and are consistent with the

purposes of this chapter: Provided, That this paragraph does not

prohibit the setting and publishing of a joint through rate by a

conference, joint venture, or an association of ocean common

carriers;

(5) deny in the export foreign commerce of the United States

compensation to an ocean transportation intermediary, as defined

by section 1702(17)(A) of this Appendix, or limit that

compensation to less than a reasonable amount;

(6) allocate shippers among specific carriers that are parties

to the agreement or prohibit a carrier that is a party to the

agreement from soliciting cargo from a particular shipper, except

as authorized by section 1704(g) of this Appendix, or as

otherwise required by the law of the United States or the

importing or exporting country, or as agreed to by a shipper in a

service contract;

(7) for service pursuant to a service contract, engage in any

unjustly discriminatory practice in the matter of rates or

charges with respect to any locality, port, or persons due to

those persons' status as shippers' associations or ocean

transportation intermediaries; or

(8) for service pursuant to a service contract, give any undue

or unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or

unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage with respect to any

locality, port, or persons due to those persons' status as

shippers' associations or ocean transportation intermediaries;

(d) Common carriers, ocean transportation intermediaries, and

marine terminal operators

(1) No common carrier, ocean transportation intermediary, or

marine terminal operator may fail to establish, observe, and

enforce just and reasonable regulations and practices relating to

or connected with receiving, handling, storing, or delivering

property.

(2) No marine terminal operator may agree with another marine

terminal operator or with a common carrier to boycott, or

unreasonably discriminate in the provision of terminal services to,

any common carrier or ocean tramp.

(3) The prohibitions in subsections (b)(10) and (13) of this

section apply to marine terminal operators.

(4) No marine terminal operator may give any undue or

unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or

unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage with respect to any person.

(5) The prohibition in subsection (b)(13) of this section applies

to ocean transportation intermediaries, as defined by section

1702(17)(A) of this Appendix.

(e) Joint ventures

For purposes of this section, a joint venture or consortium of

two or more common carriers but operated as a single entity shall

be treated as a single common carrier.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 10, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 77; Pub. L.

101-595, title VII, Sec. 710(c), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2997;

Pub. L. 102-251, title II, Sec. 201(b), Mar. 9, 1992, 106 Stat. 60;

Pub. L. 105-258, title I, Sec. 109, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1909;

Pub. L. 105-383, title IV, Sec. 424(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat.

3441.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Foreign Shipping Practices Act of 1988, referred to in

subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 100-418, title X, subtitle A (Secs.

10001-10003), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1570, which enacted section

1710a of this Appendix, amended section 1122b of this Appendix, and

enacted provisions set out as a note under section 3302 of Title

46, Shipping. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 1701

of this Appendix and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(16), (17),

substituted "paragraph (13)" for "paragraph (16)" and inserted "the

Commission," after "United States," in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(1), (2),

redesignated par. (4) as (1) and struck out former par. (1) which

read as follows: "charge, demand, collect, or receive greater,

less, or different compensation for the transportation of property

or for any service in connection therewith than the rates and

charges that are shown in its tariffs or service contracts;".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(1), (3), added par.

(2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "rebate,

refund, or remit in any manner, or by any device, any portion of

its rates except in accordance with its tariffs or service

contracts;".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(1), (4),

redesignated par. (5) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which

read as follows: "extend or deny to any person any privilege,

concession, equipment, or facility except in accordance with its

tariffs or service contracts;".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(5), substituted "for

service pursuant to a tariff," for "except for service contracts,"

in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(4), redesignated par. (6) as (4).

Former par. (4) redesignated (1).

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(6), substituted

"rates or charges;" for "rates;".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(7), added par. (5).

Former par. (5) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(9), added par. (6)

and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "employ any

fighting ship;".

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(8), redesignated par. (7) as (6).

Former par. (6) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(8), redesignated

par. (8) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(10), added par. (8).

Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (b)(9), (10). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(10), added

pars. (9) and (10) and struck out former pars. (9) and (10) which

read as follows:

"(9) use a loyalty contract, except in conformity with the

antitrust laws;

"(10) demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge that is

unjustly discriminatory between shippers or ports;".

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(10)-(13),

redesignated par. (14) as (11), substituted "an ocean

transportation intermediary" for "a non-vessel-operating common

carrier" and "sections 1707 and 1718" for "sections 1707 and 1721",

and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "except for

service contracts, make or give any undue or unreasonable

preference or advantage to any particular person, locality, or

description of traffic in any respect whatsoever;".

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(10)-(15),

redesignated par. (15) as (12), substituted "an ocean

transportation intermediary" for "a non-vessel-operating common

carrier" in two places, substituted "sections 1707 and 1718" for

"sections 1707 and 1721", struck out "or in which an ocean

transportation intermediary is listed as an affiliate" before "that

does not", substituted "Appendix, or with an affiliate of such

ocean transportation intermediary;" for "Appendix;", and struck out

former par. (12) which read as follows: "subject any particular

person, locality, or description of traffic to an unreasonable

refusal to deal or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or

disadvantage in any respect whatsoever;".

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(10), (11),

redesignated par. (16) as (13) and struck out former par. (13)

which read as follows: "refuse to negotiate with a shippers'

association;".

Subsec. (b)(14) to (16). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(a)(11),

redesignated pars. (14) to (16) as (11) to (13), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(b)(1), which directed

amendment of subsec. (c)(4) by substituting "non-ocean carriers,

unless such negotiations and any resulting agreements are not in

violation of the antitrust laws and are consistent with the

purposes of this chapter" for "non-ocean carriers", was executed by

making the substitution for "nonocean carriers" the second place it

appeared, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(b)(2), substituted

"transportation intermediary, as defined by section 1702(17)(A) of

this Appendix," for "freight forwarder".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 105-383 inserted "authorized by section

1704(g) of this Appendix, or as" before "otherwise".

Subsec. (c)(7), (8). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(b)(3)-(5), added

pars. (7) and (8).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(c)(1), substituted

"transportation intermediaries," for "freight forwarders," in

heading.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(c)(2), substituted

"transportation intermediary," for "freight forwarder,".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(c)(3), which directed

amendment of subsec. (d) by substituting "subsections (b)(10) and

(13)" for "subsection (b)(11), (12), and (16)", was executed by

making the substitution for "subsection (b)(11), (12), and (14)" in

par. (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(4), (5). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 109(c)(4), added pars.

(4) and (5).

1992 - Subsec. (b)(14), (15). Pub. L. 102-251 inserted ",

insurance, or other surety" after "bond".

1990 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-595 added pars. (14) and (15),

redesignated former par. (14) as (16), and substituted "paragraph

(16)" for "paragraph (14)" in penultimate sentence.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Section 201(f) of Pub. L. 102-251 provided that: "This section

[amending this section and section 1721 of this Appendix and

enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1701 and 1721

of this Appendix] shall become effective 90 days after the date of

its enactment [Mar. 9, 1992]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Section 710(e) of Pub. L. 101-595 provided that: "This section

[enacting section 1721 of this Appendix, amending this section, and

enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1701 and 1721

of this Appendix] shall become effective 90 days after the date of

its enactment [Nov. 16, 1990]."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1704, 1707, 1710, 1712 of

this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1710 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1710. Complaints, investigations, reports, and reparations

-STATUTE-

(a) Filing of complaints

Any person may file with the Commission a sworn complaint

alleging a violation of this chapter, other than section 1705(g) of

this Appendix, and may seek reparation for any injury caused to the

complainant by that violation.

(b) Satisfaction or investigation of complaints

The Commission shall furnish a copy of a complaint filed pursuant

to subsection (a) of this section to the person named therein who

shall, within a reasonable time specified by the Commission,

satisfy the complaint or answer it in writing. If the complaint is

not satisfied, the Commission shall investigate it in an

appropriate manner and make an appropriate order.

(c) Commission investigations

The Commission, upon complaint or upon its own motion, may

investigate any conduct or agreement that it believes may be in

violation of this chapter. Except in the case of an injunction

granted under subsection (h) of this section, each agreement under

investigation under this section remains in effect until the

Commission issues an order under this subsection. The Commission

may by order disapprove, cancel, or modify any agreement filed

under section 1704(a) of this Appendix that operates in violation

of this chapter. With respect to agreements inconsistent with

section 1705(g) of this Appendix, the Commission's sole remedy is

under section 1705(h) of this Appendix.

(d) Conduct of investigation

Within 10 days after the initiation of a proceeding under this

section, the Commission shall set a date on or before which its

final decision will be issued. This date may be extended for good

cause by order of the Commission.

(e) Undue delays

If, within the time period specified in subsection (d) of this

section, the Commission determines that it is unable to issue a

final decision because of undue delays caused by a party to the

proceedings, the Commission may impose sanctions, including

entering a decision adverse to the delaying party.

(f) Reports

The Commission shall make a written report of every investigation

made under this chapter in which a hearing was held stating its

conclusions, decisions, findings of fact, and order. A copy of this

report shall be furnished to all parties. The Commission shall

publish each report for public information, and the published

report shall be competent evidence in all courts of the United

States.

(g) Reparations

For any complaint filed within 3 years after the cause of action

accrued, the Commission shall, upon petition of the complainant and

after notice and hearing, direct payment of reparations to the

complainant for actual injury (which, for purposes of this

subsection, also includes the loss of interest at commercial rates

compounded from the date of injury) caused by a violation of this

chapter plus reasonable attorney's fees. Upon a showing that the

injury was caused by activity that is prohibited by section

1709(b)(3) or (6) of this Appendix or section 1709(c)(1) or (3) of

this Appendix, or that violates section 1709(a)(2) or (3) of this

Appendix, the Commission may direct the payment of additional

amounts; but the total recovery of a complainant may not exceed

twice the amount of the actual injury. In the case of injury caused

by an activity that is prohibited by section 1709(b)(4)(A) or (B)

of this Appendix, the amount of the injury shall be the difference

between the rate paid by the injured shipper and the most favorable

rate paid by another shipper.

(h) Injunction

(1) In connection with any investigation conducted under this

section, the Commission may bring suit in a district court of the

United States to enjoin conduct in violation of this chapter. Upon

a showing that standards for granting injunctive relief by courts

of equity are met and after notice to the defendant, the court may

grant a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction for a

period not to exceed 10 days after the Commission has issued an

order disposing of the issues under investigation. Any such suit

shall be brought in a district in which the defendant resides or

transacts business.

(2) After filing a complaint with the Commission under subsection

(a) of this section, the complainant may file suit in a district

court of the United States to enjoin conduct in violation of this

chapter. Upon a showing that standards for granting injunctive

relief by courts of equity are met and after notice to the

defendant, the court may grant a temporary restraining order or

preliminary injunction for a period not to exceed 10 days after the

Commission has issued an order disposing of the complaint. Any such

suit shall be brought in the district in which the defendant has

been sued by the Commission under paragraph (1); or, if no suit has

been filed, in a district in which the defendant resides or

transacts business. A defendant that prevails in a suit under this

paragraph shall be allowed reasonable attorney's fees to be

assessed and collected as part of the costs of the suit.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 11, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 80; Pub. L.

98-595, Sec. 3(b)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3132; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 110, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1911.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-258 substituted "1709(b)(3) or

(6)" for "1709(b)(5) or (7)" and "1709(b)(4)(A) or (B)" for

"1709(b)(6)(A) or (B)".

1984 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98-595 substituted "section

1709(c)(1) or (3) of this Appendix" for "section 1709(c)(1) or (4)

of this Appendix".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1705, 1718 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1710a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1710a. Foreign laws and practices

-STATUTE-

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section -

(1) "common carrier", "marine terminal operator", "ocean

transportation intermediary", "ocean common carrier", "person",

"shipper", "shippers' association", and "United States" have the

meanings given each such term, respectively, in section 1702 of

this Appendix;

(2) "foreign carrier" means an ocean common carrier a majority

of whose vessels are documented under the laws of a country other

than the United States;

(3) "maritime services" means port-to-port carriage of cargo by

the vessels operated by ocean common carriers;

(4) "maritime-related services" means intermodal operations,

terminal operations, cargo solicitation, agency services, ocean

transportation intermediary services and operations, and all

other activities and services integral to total transportation

systems of ocean common carriers and their foreign domiciled

affiliates on their own and others' behalf;

(5) "United States carrier" means an ocean common carrier which

operates vessels documented under the laws of the United States;

and

(6) "United States oceanborne trade" means the carriage of

cargo between the United States and a foreign country, whether

direct or indirect, by an ocean common carrier.

(b) Authority to conduct investigations

The Federal Maritime Commission shall investigate whether any

laws, rules, regulations, policies, or practices of foreign

governments, or any practices of foreign carriers or other persons

providing maritime or maritime-related services in a foreign

country result in the existence of conditions that -

(1) adversely affect the operations of United States carriers

in United States oceanborne trade; and

(2) do not exist for foreign carriers of that country in the

United States under the laws of the United States or as a result

of acts of United States carriers or other persons providing

maritime or maritime-related services in the United States.

(c) Investigations

(1) Investigations under subsection (b) of this section may be

initiated by the Commission on its own motion or on the petition of

any person, including any common carrier, shipper, shippers'

association, ocean transportation intermediary, or marine terminal

operator, or any branch, department, agency, or other component of

the Government of the United States.

(2) The Commission shall complete any such investigation and

render a decision within 120 days after it is initiated, except

that the Commission may extend such 120-day period for an

additional 90 days if the Commission is unable to obtain sufficient

information to determine whether a condition specified in

subsection (b) of this section exists. Any notice providing such an

extension shall clearly state the reasons for such extension.

(d) Information requests

(1) In order to further the purposes of subsection (b) of this

section, the Commission may, by order, require any person

(including any common carrier, shipper, shippers' association,

ocean transportation intermediary, or marine terminal operator, or

any officer, receiver, trustee, lessee, agent or employee thereof)

to file with the Commission any periodic or special report, answers

to questions, documentary material, or other information which the

Commission considers necessary or appropriate. The Commission may

require that the response to any such order shall be made under

oath. Such response shall be furnished in the form and within the

time prescribed by the Commission.

(2) In an investigation under subsection (b) of this section, the

Commission may issue subpoenas to compel the attendance and

testimony of witnesses and the production of records or other

evidence.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commission

may, in its discretion, determine that any information submitted to

it in response to a request under this subsection, or otherwise,

shall not be disclosed to the public.

(e) Action against foreign carriers

(1) Whenever, after notice and opportunity for comment or

hearing, the Commission determines that the conditions specified in

subsection (b) of this section exist, the Commission shall take

such action as it considers necessary and appropriate against any

foreign carrier that is a contributing cause to, or whose

government is a contributing cause to, such conditions, in order to

offset such conditions. Such action may include -

(A) limitations on sailings to and from United States ports or

on the amount or type of cargo carried;

(B) suspension, in whole or in part, of any or all tariffs and

service contracts, including the right of an ocean common carrier

to use any or all tariffs and service contracts of conferences in

United States trades of which it is a member for such period as

the Commission specifies;

(C) suspension, in whole or in part, of the right of an ocean

common carrier to operate under any agreement filed with the

Commission, including agreements authorizing preferential

treatment at terminals, preferential terminal leases, space

chartering, or pooling of cargo or revenues with other ocean

common carriers; and

(D) a fee, not to exceed $1,000,000 per voyage.

(2) The Commission may consult with, seek the cooperation of, or

make recommendations to other appropriate Government agencies prior

to taking any action under this subsection.

(3) Before a determination under this subsection becomes

effective or a request is made under subsection (f) of this

section, the determination shall be submitted immediately to the

President who may, within 10 days after receiving such

determination, disapprove the determination in writing, setting

forth the reasons for the disapproval, if the President finds that

disapproval is required for reasons of the national defense or the

foreign policy of the United States.

(f) Actions upon request of Commission

Whenever the conditions specified in subsection (b) of this

section are found by the Commission to exist, upon the request of

the Commission -

(1) the collector of customs at any port or place of

destination in the United States shall refuse the clearance

required by section 91 of this Appendix to any vessel of a

foreign carrier that is identified by the Commission under

subsection (e) of this section; and

(2) the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is

operating shall deny entry, for purposes of oceanborne trade, of

any vessel of a foreign carrier that is identified by the

Commission under subsection (e) of this section to any port or

place in the United States or the navigable waters of the United

States, or shall detain any such vessel at the port or place in

the United States from which it is about to depart for any other

port or place in the United States.

(g) Report

The Commission shall include in its annual report to Congress -

(1) a list of the twenty foreign countries which generated the

largest volume of oceanborne liner cargo for the most recent

calendar year in bilateral trade with the United States;

(2) an analysis of conditions described in subsection (b) of

this section being investigated or found to exist in foreign

countries;

(3) any actions being taken by the Commission to offset such

conditions;

(4) any recommendations for additional legislation to offset

such conditions; and

(5) a list of petitions filed under subsection (c) of this

section that the Commission rejected, and the reasons for each

such rejection.

(h) Administration and enforcement of other laws

The actions against foreign carriers authorized in subsections

(e) and (f) of this section may be used in the administration and

enforcement of section 1712(b)(6) of this Appendix or section

876(1)(b) (!1) of this Appendix.

(i) Review of rules, regulations, and final orders of Commission;

exclusive procedure

Any rule, regulation or final order of the Commission issued

under this section shall be reviewable exclusively in the same

forum and in the same manner as provided in section 2342(3)(B) of

title 28.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-418, title X, Sec. 10002, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat.

1570; Pub. L. 105-258, title I, Sec. 111, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat.

1911.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 876(1)(b) of this Appendix, referred to in subsec. (h),

was redesignated section 876(a)(2) of this Appendix by Pub. L.

105-258, title III, Sec. 301(b)(1), (2), Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat.

1915, 1916.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was enacted as part of the Foreign Shipping

Practices Act of 1988 and also as part of the Omnibus Trade and

Competitiveness Act of 1988, and not as part of the Shipping Act of

1984 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 111(1), substituted

" 'ocean transportation intermediary'," for " 'non-vessel-operating

common carrier',".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 111(2), (3), struck out

"forwarding and" before "agency services" and substituted "ocean

transportation intermediary services and" for "non-vessel-operating

common carrier".

Subsecs. (c)(1), (d)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 111(4),

substituted "transportation intermediary," for "freight

forwarder,".

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 111(5), (6), substituted

"and service contracts," for "filed with the Commission," and

inserted "and service contracts" before "of conferences".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 111(7), substituted "(b)(6)"

for "(b)(5)".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1273a, 1709 of this

Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1711 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1711. Subpenas and discovery

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

In investigations and adjudicatory proceedings under this chapter

-

(1) depositions, written interrogatories, and discovery

procedures may be utilized by any party under rules and

regulations issued by the Commission that, to the extent

practicable, shall be in conformity with the rules applicable in

civil proceedings in the district courts of the United States;

and

(2) the Commission may by subpena compel the attendance of

witnesses and the production of books, papers, documents, and

other evidence.

(b) Witness fees

Witnesses shall, unless otherwise prohibited by law, be entitled

to the same fees and mileage as in the courts of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 12, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 81.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1712 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1712 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1712. Penalties

-STATUTE-

(a) Assessment of penalty

Whoever violates a provision of this chapter, a regulation issued

thereunder, or a Commission order is liable to the United States

for a civil penalty. The amount of the civil penalty, unless

otherwise provided in this chapter, may not exceed $5,000 for each

violation unless the violation was willfully and knowingly

committed, in which case the amount of the civil penalty may not

exceed $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing

violation constitutes a separate offense. The amount of any penalty

imposed upon a common carrier under this subsection shall

constitute a lien upon the vessels operated by that common carrier

and any such vessel may be libeled therefore in the district court

of the United States for the district in which it may be found.

(b) Additional penalties

(1) For a violation of section 1709(b)(1), (2), or (7) of this

Appendix, the Commission may suspend any or all tariffs of the

common carrier, or that common carrier's right to use any or all

tariffs of conferences of which it is a member, for a period not to

exceed 12 months.

(2) For failure to supply information ordered to be produced or

compelled by subpena under section 1711 of this Appendix, the

Commission may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing,

suspend any or all tariffs of a common carrier, or that common

carrier's right to use any or all tariffs of conferences of which

it is a member.

(3) A common carrier that accepts or handles cargo for carriage

under a tariff that has been suspended or after its right to

utilize that tariff has been suspended is subject to a civil

penalty of not more than $50,000 for each shipment.

(4) If the Commission finds, after notice and an opportunity for

a hearing, that a common carrier has failed to supply information

ordered to be produced or compelled by subpoena under section 1711

of this Appendix, the Commission may request that the Secretary of

the Treasury refuse or revoke any clearance required for a vessel

operated by that common carrier. Upon request by the Commission,

the Secretary of the Treasury shall, with respect to the vessel

concerned, refuse or revoke any clearance required by section 91 of

this Appendix.

(5) If, in defense of its failure to comply with a subpena or

discovery order, a common carrier alleges that documents or

information located in a foreign country cannot be produced because

of the laws of that country, the Commission shall immediately

notify the Secretary of State of the failure to comply and of the

allegation relating to foreign laws. Upon receiving the

notification, the Secretary of State shall promptly consult with

the government of the nation within which the documents or

information are alleged to be located for the purpose of assisting

the Commission in obtaining the documents or information sought.

(6) If, after notice and hearing, the Commission finds that the

action of a common carrier, acting alone or in concert with any

person, or a foreign government has unduly impaired access of a

vessel documented under the laws of the United States to ocean

trade between foreign ports, the Commission shall take action that

it finds appropriate, including the imposition of any of the

penalties authorized under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) of

this subsection.

(7) Before an order under this subsection becomes effective, it

shall be immediately submitted to the President who may, within 10

days after receiving it, disapprove the order if the President

finds that disapproval is required for reasons of the national

defense or the foreign policy of the United States.

(c) Assessment procedures

Until a matter is referred to the Attorney General, the

Commission may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing, assess

each civil penalty provided for in this chapter. In determining the

amount of the penalty, the Commission shall take into account the

nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation

committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of

culpability, history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and such

other matters as justice may require. The Commission may

compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil

penalty.

(d) Review of civil penalty

A person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this

section may obtain review thereof under chapter 158 of title 28.

(e) Failure to pay assessment

If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after

it has become final or after the appropriate court has entered

final judgment in favor of the Commission, the Attorney General at

the request of the Commission may seek to recover the amount

assessed in an appropriate district court of the United States. In

such an action, the court shall enforce the Commission's order

unless it finds that the order was not regularly made or duly

issued.

(f) Limitations

(1) No penalty may be imposed on any person for conspiracy to

violate section 1709(a)(1), (b)(1), or (b)(2) of this Appendix, or

to defraud the Commission by concealment of such a violation.

Neither the Commission nor any court shall order any person to pay

the difference between the amount billed and agreed upon in writing

with a common carrier or its agent and the amount set forth in any

tariff or service contract by that common carrier for the

transportation service provided.

(2) Each proceeding to assess a civil penalty under this section

shall be commenced within 5 years from the date the violation

occurred.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 13, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 82; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 112, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1911.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(a), inserted at end

"The amount of any penalty imposed upon a common carrier under this

subsection shall constitute a lien upon the vessels operated by

that common carrier and any such vessel may be libeled therefore in

the district court of the United States for the district in which

it may be found."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(b)(1), substituted

"section 1709(b)(1), (2), or (7)" for "section 1709(b)(1), (2),

(3), (4), or (8)".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(b)(3), added par. (4).

Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(b)(2), redesignated

par. (4) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(b)(2), (4),

redesignated par. (5) as (6) and substituted "paragraphs (1), (2),

(3), and (4)" for "paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)". Former par. (6)

redesignated (7).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(b)(2), redesignated

par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(c)(3), inserted at end

"Neither the Commission nor any court shall order any person to pay

the difference between the amount billed and agreed upon in writing

with a common carrier or its agent and the amount set forth in any

tariff or service contract by that common carrier for the

transportation service provided."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(c)(2), which directed that "(b)(1),

(2)" be substituted for "(b)(1), (4)", could not be executed,

because "(b)(1), (4)" does not appear in text.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 112(c)(1), substituted "or (b)(2)" for "or

(b)(4)".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1710a, 1718 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1713 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1713. Commission orders

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

Orders of the Commission relating to a violation of this chapter

or a regulation issued thereunder shall be made, upon sworn

complaint or on its own motion, only after opportunity for hearing.

Each order of the Commission shall continue in force for the period

of time specified in the order or until suspended, modified, or set

aside by the Commission or a court of competent jurisdiction.

(b) Reversal or suspension of orders

The Commission may reverse, suspend, or modify any order made by

it, and upon application of any party to a proceeding may grant a

rehearing of the same or any matter determined therein. No

rehearing may, except by special order of the Commission, operate

as a stay of that order.

(c) Enforcement of nonreparation orders

In case of violation of an order of the Commission, or for

failure to comply with a Commission subpena, the Attorney General,

at the request of the Commission, or any party injured by the

violation, may seek enforcement by a United States district court

having jurisdiction over the parties. If, after hearing, the court

determines that the order was properly made and duly issued, it

shall enforce the order by an appropriate injunction or other

process, mandatory or otherwise.

(d) Enforcement of reparation orders

(1) In case of violation of an order of the Commission for the

payment of reparation, the person to whom the award was made may

seek enforcement of the order in a United States district court

having jurisdiction of the parties.

(2) In a United States district court the findings and order of

the Commission shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein

stated, and the petitioner shall not be liable for costs, nor for

the costs of any subsequent stage of the proceedings, unless they

accrue upon his appeal. A petitioner in a United States district

court who prevails shall be allowed reasonable attorney's fees to

be assessed and collected as part of the costs of the suit.

(3) All parties in whose favor the Commission has made an award

of reparation by a single order may be joined as plaintiffs, and

all other parties in the order may be joined as defendants, in a

single suit in a district in which any one plaintiff could maintain

a suit against any one defendant. Service of process against a

defendant not found in that district may be made in a district in

which is located any office of, or point of call on a regular route

operated by, that defendant. Judgment may be entered in favor of

any plaintiff against the defendant liable to that plaintiff.

(e) Statute of limitations

An action seeking enforcement of a Commission order must be filed

within 3 years after the date of the violation of the order.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 14, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 83.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1718 of this Appendix;

title 28 section 2342.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1714 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1714. Reports

-STATUTE-

The Commission may require any common carrier, or any officer,

receiver, trustee, lessee, agent, or employee thereof, to file with

it any periodical or special report or any account, record, rate,

or charge, or memorandum of any facts and transactions appertaining

to the business of that common carrier. The report, account,

record, rate, charge, or memorandum shall be made under oath

whenever the Commission so requires, and shall be furnished in the

form and within the time prescribed by the Commission. Conference

minutes required to be filed with the Commission under this section

shall not be released to third parties or published by the

Commission.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 15, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 84; Pub. L.

98-595, Sec. 3(b)(3), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3133; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 113, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1912.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Pub. L. 105-258 struck out "and certificates" after

"Reports" in section catchline, struck out "(a) Reports" before

"The Commission", and struck out heading and text of subsec. (b).

Text read as follows: "The Commission shall require the chief

executive officer of each common carrier and, to the extent it

deems feasible, may require any shipper, shippers' association,

marine terminal operator, ocean freight forwarder, or broker to

file a periodic written certification made under oath with the

Commission attesting to -

"(1) a policy prohibiting the payment, solicitation, or receipt

of any rebate that is unlawful under the provisions of this

chapter;

"(2) the fact that this policy has been promulgated recently to

each owner, officer, employee, and agent thereof;

"(3) the details of the efforts made within the company or

otherwise to prevent or correct illegal rebating; and

"(4) a policy of full cooperation with the Commission in its

efforts to end those illegal practices.

Whoever fails to file a certificate required by the Commission

under this subsection is liable to the United States for a civil

penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day the violation

continues."

1984 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-595 substituted "Whoever fails to

file a certificate required by the Commission under this subsection

is liable to the United States for" for "Failure to file a

certificate shall result in" before "a civil penalty".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1715 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1715. Exemptions

-STATUTE-

The Commission, upon application or on its own motion, may by

order or rule exempt for the future any class of agreements between

persons subject to this chapter or any specified activity of those

persons from any requirement of this chapter if it finds that the

exemption will not result in substantial reduction in competition

or be detrimental to commerce. The Commission may attach conditions

to any exemption and may, by order, revoke any exemption. No order

or rule of exemption or revocation of exemption may be issued

unless opportunity for hearing has been afforded interested persons

and departments and agencies of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 16, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 84; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 114, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1912.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Pub. L. 105-258 substituted "result in substantial

reduction in competition or be detrimental to commerce." for

"substantially impair effective regulation by the Commission, be

unjustly discriminatory, result in a substantial reduction in

competition, or be detrimental to commerce."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1706, 1709 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1716 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1716. Regulations

-STATUTE-

(a) The Commission may prescribe rules and regulations as

necessary to carry out this chapter.

(b) The Commission may prescribe interim rules and regulations

necessary to carry out this chapter. For this purpose, the

Commission is excepted from compliance with the notice and comment

requirements of section 553 of title 5. All rules and regulations

prescribed under the authority of this subsection that are not

earlier superseded by final rules shall expire no later than 270

days after March 20, 1984.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 17, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 84.)

-MISC1-

REGULATIONS

Pub. L. 105-258, title II, Sec. 203, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat.

1915, provided that: "Not later than March 1, 1999, the Federal

Maritime Commission shall prescribe final regulations to implement

the changes made by this Act [see Tables for classification]."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 28 section 2342.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1718 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1718. Ocean transportation intermediaries

-STATUTE-

(a) License

No person in the United States may act as an ocean transportation

intermediary unless that person holds a license issued by the

Commission. The Commission shall issue an intermediary's license to

any person that the Commission determines to be qualified by

experience and character to act as an ocean transportation

intermediary.

(b) Financial responsibility

(1) No person may act as an ocean transportation intermediary

unless that person furnishes a bond, proof of insurance, or other

surety in a form and amount determined by the Commission to insure

financial responsibility that is issued by a surety company found

acceptable by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(2) A bond, insurance, or other surety obtained pursuant to this

section -

(A) shall be available to pay any order for reparation issued

pursuant to section 1710 or 1713 of this Appendix, or any penalty

assessed pursuant to section 1712 of this Appendix;

(B) may be available to pay any claim against an ocean

transportation intermediary arising from its

transportation-related activities described in section 1702(17)

of this Appendix with the consent of the insured ocean

transportation intermediary and subject to review by the surety

company, or when the claim is deemed valid by the surety company

after the ocean transportation intermediary has failed to respond

to adequate notice to address the validity of the claim; and

(C) shall be available to pay any judgment for damages against

an ocean transportation intermediary arising from its

transportation-related activities under section 1702(17) of this

Appendix, provided the claimant has first attempted to resolve

the claim pursuant to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph and the

claim has not been resolved within a reasonable period of time.

(3) The Commission shall prescribe regulations for the purpose of

protecting the interests of claimants, ocean transportation

intermediaries, and surety companies with respect to the process of

pursuing claims against ocean transportation intermediary bonds,

insurance, or sureties through court judgments. The regulations

shall provide that a judgment for monetary damages may not be

enforced except to the extent that the damages claimed arise from

the transportation-related activities of the insured ocean

transportation intermediary, as defined by the Commission.

(4) An ocean transportation intermediary not domiciled in the

United States shall designate a resident agent in the United States

for receipt of service of judicial and administrative process,

including subpoenas.

(c) Suspension or revocation

The Commission shall, after notice and hearing, suspend of (!1)

revoke a license if it finds that the ocean transportation

intermediary is not qualified to render intermediary services or

that it willfully failed to comply with a provision of this chapter

or with a lawful order, rule, or regulation of the Commission. The

Commission may also revoke an intermediary's license for failure to

maintain a bond, proof of insurance, or other surety in accordance

with subsection (b)(1) of this section.

(d) Exception

A person whose primary business is the sale of merchandise may

forward shipments of the merchandise for its own account without a

license.

(e) Compensation of intermediaries by carriers

(1) A common carrier may compensate an ocean transportation

intermediary, as defined in section 1702(17)(A) of this Appendix,

in connection with a shipment dispatched on behalf of others only

when the ocean transportation intermediary has certified in writing

that it holds a valid license, if required by subsection (a) of

this section, and has performed the following services:

(A) Engaged, booked, secured, reserved, or contracted directly

with the carrier or its agent for space aboard a vessel or

confirmed the availability of that space.

(B) Prepared and processed the ocean bill of lading, dock

receipt, or other similar document with respect to the shipment.

(2) No common carrier may pay compensation for services described

in paragraph (1) more than once on the same shipment.

(3) No ocean transportation intermediary may receive compensation

from a common carrier with respect to a shipment in which the

intermediary has a direct or indirect beneficial interest nor shall

a common carrier knowingly pay compensation on that shipment.

(4) No conference or group of 2 or more ocean common carriers in

the foreign commerce of the United States that is authorized to

agree upon the level of compensation paid to an ocean

transportation intermediary, as defined in section 1702(17)(A) of

this Appendix, may -

(A) deny to any member of the conference or group the right,

upon notice of not more than 5 calendar days, to take independent

action on any level of compensation paid to an ocean

transportation intermediary, as so defined; or

(B) agree to limit the payment of compensation to an ocean

transportation intermediary, as so defined, to less than 1.25

percent of the aggregate of all rates and charges which are

applicable under a tariff and which are assessed against the

cargo on which the intermediary services are provided.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 19, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 87; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 116, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1912.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(1), substituted "transportation

intermediaries" for "freight forwarders" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(2), added subsec. (a) and

struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as

follows: "No person may act as an ocean freight forwarder unless

that person holds a license issued by the Commission. The

Commission shall issue a forwarder's license to any person that -

"(1) the Commission determines to be qualified by experience

and character to render forwarding services; and

"(2) furnishes a bond in a form and amount determined by the

Commission to insure financial responsibility that is issued by a

surety company found acceptable by the Secretary of the

Treasury."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(4), added subsec. (b).

Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(6), substituted "a bond,

proof of insurance, or other surety in accordance with subsection

(b)(1) of this section." for "a bond in accordance with subsection

(a)(2) of this section."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(D), substituted "intermediary

services" for "forwarding services" in first sentence.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(B), substituted "an intermediary's"

for "a forwarder's" in second sentence.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(A), substituted "transportation

intermediary" for "freight forwarder" in first sentence.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(3), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c).

Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(3), redesignated subsec.

(c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(3), (7), redesignated

subsec. (d) as (e) and substituted "intermediaries" for

"forwarders" in heading.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(9), substituted

"license, if required by subsection (a) of this section," for

"license" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(8), substituted "an ocean

transportation intermediary, as defined in section 1702(17)(A) of

this Appendix," for "an ocean transportation intermediary" in

introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(A), substituted "transportation

intermediary" for "freight forwarder" in two places in introductory

provisions.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(10), redesignated par.

(4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows:

"No compensation may be paid to an ocean transportation

intermediary except in accordance with the tariff requirements of

this chapter."

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(A), substituted "transportation

intermediary" for "freight forwarder".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(11), added par. (4).

Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(C), substituted "intermediary has"

for "forwarder has".

Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 116(5)(A), substituted "transportation

intermediary" for "freight forwarder".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1709 of this Appendix.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be "or".

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1719 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 36 - INTERNATIONAL OCEAN COMMERCE TRANSPORTATION

-HEAD-

Sec. 1719. Contracts, agreements, and licenses under prior shipping

legislation

-STATUTE-

(a) to (c) Omitted

(d) Effects on certain agreements and contracts

All agreements, contracts, modifications, licenses, and

exemptions previously issued, approved, or effective under the

Shipping Act, 1916, or the Shipping Act of 1984, shall continue in

force and effect as if issued or effective under this Act, as

amended by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998, and all new

agreements, contracts, and modifications to existing, pending, or

new contracts or agreements shall be considered under this Act, as

amended by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998.

(e) Savings provisions

(1) Each service contract entered into by a shipper and an ocean

common carrier or conference before March 20, 1984, may remain in

full force and effect and need not comply with the requirements of

section 1707(c) of this Appendix until 15 months after March 20,

1984.

(2) This Act and the amendments made by it shall not affect any

suit -

(A) filed before March 20, 1984; or

(B) with respect to claims arising out of conduct engaged in

before March 20, 1984, filed within 1 year after March 20, 1984.

(3) The Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998 shall not affect any

suit -

(A) filed before the effective date of that Act; or

(B) with respect to claims arising out of conduct engaged in

before the effective date of that Act filed within 1 year after

the effective date of that Act.

(4) Regulations issued by the Federal Maritime Commission shall

remain in force and effect where not inconsistent with this Act, as

amended by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 98-237, Sec. 20, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90; Pub. L.

105-258, title I, Sec. 117, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat. 1914.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Shipping Act, 1916, referred to in subsec. (d), is act Sept.

7, 1916, ch. 451, 39 Stat. 728, as amended, which is classified

generally to chapter 23 (Sec. 801 et seq.) of this Appendix. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 842 of

this Appendix and Tables.

The Shipping Act of 1984 and this Act and the amendments made by

it, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 98-237, Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat.

67, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter

(Sec. 1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the

Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of this

Appendix and Tables.

The Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998, referred to in subsecs.

(d) and (e)(3), (4), is Pub. L. 105-258, Oct. 14, 1998, 112 Stat.

1902. For the effective date of this Act, see section 2 of Pub. L.

105-258, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under

section 1701 of this Appendix. For complete classification of this

Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1998 Amendment note set out

under section 1701 of this Appendix and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section is comprised of subsecs. (d) and (e) of section 20 of

Pub. L. 98-237. Subsecs. (a) to (c) of section 20 amended sections

801, 812, 814, 815, 816, 817, 819, 820, 821, 824, 828, 829, 830,

831, 841c, 1122, and 1124 of this Appendix and repealed sections

813, 813a, 825, and 841b of this Appendix and provisions set out as

a note under section 801 of this Appendix.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 117(1), added subsec.

(d) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (d). Text

read as follows: "All agreements, contracts, modifications, and

exemptions previously approved or licenses previously issued by the

Commission shall continue in force and effect as if approved or

issued under this chapter; and all new agreements, contracts, and

modifications to existing, pending, or new contracts or agreements

shall be considered under this chapter."

Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105-258, Sec. 117(2), added pars.

(3) and (4).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-258 effective May 1, 1999, see section 2

of Pub. L. 105-258, set out as a note under section 1701 of this

Appendix.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1706 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL

MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-MISC1-

Sec.

1801. International measures for seaport and shipboard

security.

1802. Threat of terrorism to United States ports and

vessels.

1803. Security standards at foreign ports.

(a) Assessment of security measures.

(b) Consultation with Secretary of State.

(c) Report of assessments.

(d) Determination and notification to foreign

country.

(e) Antiterrorism assistance related to maritime

security.

1804. Travel advisories concerning security at foreign

ports.

(a) Travel advisory.

(b) Lifting of travel advisory.

(c) Notification to Congress.

1805. Suspension of passenger service.

(a) President's determination.

(b) Prohibition.

(c) Penalty.

1806. Sanctions for seizure of vessels by terrorists.

1807. Definitions.

1808. Authorization of appropriations.

1809. Reports.

(a) Consolidation.

(b) Submission to committees.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1801 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1801. International measures for seaport and shipboard

security

-STATUTE-

The Congress encourages the President to continue to seek

agreement through the International Maritime Organization on

matters of international seaport and shipboard security, and

commends him on his efforts to date. In developing such agreement,

each member country of the International Maritime Organization

should consult with appropriate private sector interests in that

country. Such agreement would establish seaport and vessel security

measures and could include -

(1) seaport screening of cargo and baggage similar to that done

at airports;

(2) security measures to restrict access to cargo, vessels, and

dockside property to authorized personnel only;

(3) additional security on board vessels;

(4) licensing or certification of compliance with appropriate

security standards; and

(5) other appropriate measures to prevent unlawful acts against

passengers and crews on board vessels.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 902, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 889.)

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Section 901 of title IX of Pub. L. 99-399 provided that: "This

title [enacting this chapter and section 1226 of Title 33,

Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacting provisions set out as

notes below] may be cited as the 'International Maritime and Port

Security Act'."

MEASURES TO PREVENT UNLAWFUL ACTS AGAINST PASSENGERS AND CREWS ON

BOARD SHIPS

Section 903 of Pub. L. 99-399 provided that:

"(a) Report on Progress of IMO. - The Secretary of Transportation

and the Secretary of State, jointly, shall report to the Congress

by February 28, 1987, on the progress of the International Maritime

Organization in developing recommendations on Measures to Prevent

Unlawful Acts Against Passengers and Crews On Board Ships.

"(b) Content of Report. - The report required by subsection (a)

shall include the following information -

"(1) the specific areas of agreement and disagreement on the

recommendations among the member nations of the International

Maritime Organization;

"(2) the activities of the Maritime Safety Committee, the

Facilitation Committee, and the Legal Committee of the

International Maritime Organization in regard to the proposed

recommendations; and

"(3) the security measures specified in the recommendations.

"(c) Security Measures at United States Ports. - If the member

nations of the International Maritime Organization have not

finalized and accepted the proposed recommendations by February 28,

1987, the Secretary of Transportation shall include in the report

required by this section a proposed plan of action (including

proposed legislation if necessary) for the implementation of

security measures at United States ports and on vessels operating

from those ports based on the assessment of threat from acts of

terrorism reported by the Secretary of Transportation under section

905 [46 App. U.S.C. 1802]."

PANAMA CANAL SECURITY

Section 904 of Pub. L. 99-399 provided that: "Not later than 6

months after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 27, 1986], the

President shall report to the Congress on the status of physical

security at the Panama Canal with respect to the threat of

terrorism."

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1802 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1802. Threat of terrorism to United States ports and vessels

-STATUTE-

Not later than February 28, 1987, and annually thereafter, the

Secretary of Transportation shall report to the Congress on the

threat from acts of terrorism to United States ports and vessels

operating from those ports. Beginning with the first report

submitted under this section after the date of enactment of the

Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 [November 25, 2002],

the Secretary shall include a description of activities undertaken

under title I of that Act and an analysis of the effect of those

activities on port security against acts of terrorism.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 905, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 890;

Pub. L. 107-295, title I, Sec. 110(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat.

2091.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, referred to in

text, is Pub. L. 107-295, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2064. Title I of

the Act enacted subtitle VI of Title 46, Shipping, amended this

section, sections 661 and 724 of Title 14, Coast Guard, section

1431a of Title 19, Customs Duties, sections 1226, 1501 to 1504,

1507, and 1520 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and

sections 192 and 195 of Title 50, War and National Defense, enacted

provisions set out as notes under sections 1226 and 1504 of Title

33 and sections 70101, 70103, 70104, 70111, 70114, and 70116 of

Title 46, amended provisions set out as a note under section 2071

of Title 19, and repealed provisions set out as a note under

section 2071 of Title 19. For complete classification of title I to

the Code, see Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Pub. L. 107-295 inserted at end "Beginning with the first

report submitted under this section after the date of enactment of

the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, the Secretary

shall include a description of activities undertaken under title I

of that Act and an analysis of the effect of those activities on

port security against acts of terrorism."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1809 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1803 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1803. Security standards at foreign ports

-STATUTE-

(a) Assessment of security measures

The Secretary of Transportation shall develop and implement a

plan to assess the effectiveness of the security measures

maintained at those foreign ports which the Secretary, in

consultation with the Secretary of State, determines pose a high

risk of acts of terrorism directed against passenger vessels.

(b) Consultation with Secretary of State

In carrying out subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of

Transportation shall consult the Secretary of State with respect to

the terrorist threat which exists in each country and poses a high

risk of acts of terrorism directed against passenger vessels.

(c) Report of assessments

Not later than 6 months after August 27, 1986, the Secretary of

Transportation shall report to the Congress on the plan developed

pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and how the Secretary

will implement the plan.

(d) Determination and notification to foreign country

If, after implementing the plan in accordance with subsection (a)

of this section, the Secretary of Transportation determines that a

port does not maintain and administer effective security measures,

the Secretary of State (after being informed by the Secretary of

Transportation) shall notify the appropriate government authorities

of the country in which the port is located of such determination,

and shall recommend the steps necessary to bring the security

measures in use at that port up to the standard used by the

Secretary of Transportation in making such assessment.

(e) Antiterrorism assistance related to maritime security

The President is encouraged to provide antiterrorism assistance

related to maritime security under chapter 8 of part II of the

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2349aa et seq.] to

foreign countries, especially with respect to a port which the

Secretary of Transportation determines under subsection (d) of this

section does not maintain and administer effective security

measures.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 907, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 891.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (e),

is Pub. L. 97-195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. Chapter

8 of part II of that Act is classified generally to part VIII (Sec.

2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 32 of Title 22, Foreign

Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act

to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of

Title 22 and Tables.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1804, 1809 of this

Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1804 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1804. Travel advisories concerning security at foreign ports

-STATUTE-

(a) Travel advisory

Upon being notified by the Secretary of Transportation that the

Secretary has determined that a condition exists that threatens the

safety or security of passengers, passenger vessels, or crew

traveling to or from a foreign port which the Secretary of

Transportation has determined pursuant to section 1803(d) of this

Appendix to be a port which does not maintain and administer

effective security measures, the Secretary of State shall

immediately issue a travel advisory with respect to that port. The

Secretary of State shall take the necessary steps to widely

publicize that travel advisory.

(b) Lifting of travel advisory

The travel advisory required to be issued under subsection (a) of

this section may be lifted only if the Secretary of Transportation,

in consultation with the Secretary of State, has determined that

effective security measures are maintained and administered at the

port with respect to which the Secretary of Transportation had made

the determination described in section 1803(d) of this Appendix.

(c) Notification to Congress

The Secretary of State shall immediately notify the Congress of

any change in the status of a travel advisory imposed pursuant to

this section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 908, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 891;

Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, title XXII, Sec. 2224(b), Oct. 21, 1998,

112 Stat. 2681-819.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-277 struck out second sentence

which read as follows: "Any travel advisory issued pursuant to this

subsection shall be published in the Federal Register."

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1805 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1805. Suspension of passenger service

-STATUTE-

(a) President's determination

Whenever the President determines that a foreign nation permits

the use of territory under its jurisdiction as a base of operations

or training for, or as a sanctuary for, or in any way arms, aids,

or abets, any terrorist or terrorist group which knowingly uses the

illegal seizure of passenger vessels or the threat thereof as an

instrument of policy, the President may, without notice or hearing

and for as long as the President determines necessary to assure the

security of passenger vessels against unlawful seizure, suspend the

right of any passenger vessel common carrier to operate to and

from, and the right of any passenger vessel of the United States to

utilize, any port in that foreign nation for passenger service.

(b) Prohibition

It shall be unlawful for any passenger vessel common carrier, or

any passenger vessel of the United States, to operate in violation

of the suspension of rights by the President under this section.

(c) Penalty

(1) If a person operates a vessel in violation of this section,

the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is

operating may deny the vessels of that person entry to United

States ports.

(2) A person violating this section is liable to the United

States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $50,000.

Each day a vessel utilizes a prohibited port shall be a separate

violation of this section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 909, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 892.)

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1806 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1806. Sanctions for seizure of vessels by terrorists

-STATUTE-

The Congress encourages the President -

(1) to review the adequacy of domestic and international

sanctions against terrorists who seize or attempt to seize

vessels; and

(2) to strengthen where necessary, through bilateral and

multilateral efforts, the effectiveness of such sanctions.

Not later than one year after August 27, 1986, the President shall

submit a report to the Congress which includes the review of such

sanctions and the efforts to improve such sanctions.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 910, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 892.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1807 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1807. Definitions

-STATUTE-

For purposes of this chapter -

(1) the term "common carrier" has the same meaning given such

term in section 1702(6) of this Appendix; and

(2) the terms "passenger vessel" and "vessel of the United

States" have the same meaning given such terms in section 2101 of

title 46.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 911, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 892.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this

title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 99-399, Aug. 27, 1986, 100

Stat. 889, known as the International Maritime and Port Security

Act, which enacted this chapter and section 1226 of Title 33,

Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacted provisions set out as

notes under section 1801 of this Appendix. For complete

classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1801 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1808 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1808. Authorization of Appropriations

-STATUTE-

There are authorized to be appropriated $12,500,000 for each of

the fiscal years 1987 through 1991, to be available to the

Secretary of Transportation to carry out this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 912, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 892.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this

title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 99-399, Aug. 27, 1986, 100

Stat. 889, known as the International Maritime and Port Security

Act, which enacted this chapter and section 1226 of Title 33,

Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacted provisions set out as

notes under section 1801 of this Appendix. For complete

classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1801 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1809 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 37 - INTERNATIONAL MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY

-HEAD-

Sec. 1809. Reports

-STATUTE-

(a) Consolidation

To the extent practicable, the reports required under sections

903, 905, and 907 [46 App. U.S.C. 1801 note, 1802, 1803] shall be

consolidated into a single document before being submitted to the

Congress. Any classified material in those reports shall be

submitted separately as an addendum to the consolidated report.

(b) Submission to committees

The reports required to be submitted to the Congress under this

chapter shall be submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and

the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of

Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the

Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation of the Senate.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 99-399, title IX, Sec. 913, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 892;

Pub. L. 107-295, title IV, Sec. 408(c)(3), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat.

2117.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Sections 903, 905, and 907, referred to in subsec. (a), are

sections 903, 905, and 907 of Pub. L. 99-399, which enacted a

provision set out as a note under section 1801 of this Appendix and

sections 1802 and 1803 of this Appendix, respectively.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original

"this title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 99-399, Aug. 27, 1986,

100 Stat. 889, known as the International Maritime and Port

Security Act, which enacted this chapter and section 1226 of Title

33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacted provisions set out

as notes under section 1801 of this Appendix. For complete

classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1801 of this Appendix and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107-295 substituted "Transportation

and Infrastructure" for "Merchant Marine and Fisheries".

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives treated

as referring to Committee on International Relations of House of

Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104-14, set out as a

note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW

ENFORCEMENT 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT

-MISC1-

Sec.

1901. Short title.

1902. Congressional declaration of findings.

1903. Manufacture, distribution, or possession with intent

to manufacture or distribute controlled substances on

board vessels.

(a) Vessels of United States or vessels subject to

jurisdiction of United States.

(b) "Vessel of the United States" defined.

(c) "Vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the

United States" and "vessel without

nationality" defined; claim of nationality or

registry.

(d) Claim of failure to comply with international

law; standing; jurisdiction of court.

(e) Exception; burden of proof.

(f) Jurisdiction and venue.

(g) Penalties.

(h) Extension beyond territorial jurisdiction of

United States.

(i) Definitions of drug abuse terms.

(j) Attempt or conspiracy to commit offense.

1904. Seizure or forfeiture of property.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in title 10 section 374; title 18

sections 924, 929, 3142; title 28 section 994.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1901 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT

-HEAD-

Sec. 1901. Short title

-STATUTE-

This chapter may be cited as the "Maritime Drug Law Enforcement

Act".

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 96-350, Sec. 1, Sept. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1159; Pub. L.

99-570, title III, Sec. 3202, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-95;

Pub. L. 99-640, Sec. 17, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3552.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was formerly classified to section 955a of Title 21, Food

and Drugs.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Pub. L. 99-570 and Pub. L. 99-640 generally amended

section identically, substituting provisions relating to short

title for provisions relating to manufacture, distribution, or

possession with intent to manufacture or distribute controlled

substances on board vessels.

SHORT TITLE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Section 3201 of title III of Pub. L. 99-570 provided that: "This

subtitle [subtitle C (Secs. 3201, 3202) of title III of Pub. L.

99-570, amending this chapter] may be cited as the 'Maritime Drug

Law Enforcement Prosecution Improvements Act of 1986'."

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1902 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT

-HEAD-

Sec. 1902. Congressional declaration of findings

-STATUTE-

The Congress finds and declares that trafficking in controlled

substances aboard vessels is a serious international problem and is

universally condemned. Moreover, such trafficking presents a

specific threat to the security and societal well-being of the

United States.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 96-350, Sec. 2, Sept. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1160; Pub. L.

99-307, Sec. 7, May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 447; Pub. L. 99-570, title

III, Sec. 3202, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-95; Pub. L. 99-640,

Sec. 17, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3552.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was formerly classified to section 955b of Title 21, Food

and Drugs.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Pub. L. 99-570 and Pub. L. 99-640 generally amended

section identically, substituting provisions relating to

Congressional declaration of findings for provisions relating to

definitions.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-307 inserted provision that an event

otherwise qualifying as an arrangement not lose that qualification

by the fact that consent to, or the terms of, such arrangement are

communicated by radio, telephone, or other similar means, or by how

specific such arrangement is as to the vessel to which such

arrangement applies.

INTERDICTION PROCEDURES FOR VESSELS OF FOREIGN REGISTRY

Section 2015 of Pub. L. 99-570, as amended by Pub. L. 100-690,

title IV, Sec. 4802(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4294, provided

for interdiction procedures for vessels of foreign registry, prior

to repeal by Pub. L. 103-447, title I, Sec. 103(c), Nov. 2, 1994,

108 Stat. 4694.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1903 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT

-HEAD-

Sec. 1903. Manufacture, distribution, or possession with intent to

manufacture or distribute controlled substances on board vessels

-STATUTE-

(a) Vessels of United States or vessels subject to jurisdiction of

United States

It is unlawful for any person on board a vessel of the United

States, or on board a vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the

United States, or who is a citizen of the United States or a

resident alien of the United States on board any vessel, to

knowingly or intentionally manufacture or distribute, or to possess

with intent to manufacture or distribute, a controlled substance.

(b) "Vessel of the United States" defined

For purposes of this section, a "vessel of the United States"

means -

(1) a vessel documented under chapter 121 of title 46 or a

vessel numbered as provided in chapter 123 of that title;

(2) a vessel owned in whole or part by -

(A) the United States or a territory, commonwealth, or

possession of the United States;

(B) a State or political subdivision thereof;

(C) a citizen or national of the United States; or

(D) a corporation created under the laws of the United States

or any State, the District of Columbia, or any territory,

commonwealth, or possession of the United States;

unless the vessel has been granted the nationality of a foreign

nation in accordance with article 5 of the 1958 Convention on the

High Seas and a claim of nationality or registry for the vessel

is made by the master or individual in charge at the time of the

enforcement action by an officer or employee of the United States

authorized to enforce applicable provisions of United States law;

and

(3) a vessel that was once documented under the laws of the

United States and, in violation of the laws of the United States,

was either sold to a person not a citizen of the United States or

placed under foreign registry or a foreign flag, whether or not

the vessel has been granted the nationality of a foreign nation.

(c) "Vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States" and

"vessel without nationality" defined; claim of nationality or

registry

(1) For purposes of this section, a "vessel subject to the

jurisdiction of the United States" includes -

(A) a vessel without nationality;

(B) a vessel assimilated to a vessel without nationality, in

accordance with paragraph (2) of article 6 of the 1958 Convention

on the High Seas;

(C) a vessel registered in a foreign nation where the flag

nation has consented or waived objection to the enforcement of

United States law by the United States;

(D) a vessel located within the customs waters of the United

States;

(E) a vessel located in the territorial waters of another

nation, where the nation consents to the enforcement of United

States law by the United States; and

(F) a vessel located in the contiguous zone of the United

States, as defined in Presidential Proclamation 7219 of September

2, 1999, and (i) is entering the United States, (ii) has departed

the United States, or (iii) is a hovering vessel as defined in

section 1401 of title 19.

Consent or waiver of objection by a foreign nation to the

enforcement of United States law by the United States under

subparagraph (C) or (E) of this paragraph may be obtained by radio,

telephone, or similar oral or electronic means, and is conclusively

proved by certification of the Secretary of State or the

Secretary's designee.

(2) For purposes of this section, a "vessel without nationality"

includes -

(A) a vessel aboard which the master or person in charge makes

a claim of registry, which claim is denied by the flag nation

whose registry is claimed;

(B) any vessel aboard which the master or person in charge

fails, upon request of an officer of the United States empowered

to enforce applicable provisions of United States law, to make a

claim of nationality or registry for that vessel; and

(C) a vessel aboard which the master or person in charge makes

a claim of registry and the claimed nation of registry does not

affirmatively and unequivocally assert that the vessel is of its

nationality.

A claim of registry under subparagraph (A) or (C) may be verified

or denied by radio, telephone, or similar oral or electronic means.

The denial of such claim of registry by the claimed flag nation is

conclusively proved by certification of the Secretary of State or

the Secretary's designee.

(3) For purposes of this section, a claim of nationality or

registry only includes:

(A) possession on board the vessel and production of documents

evidencing the vessel's nationality in accordance with article 5

of the 1958 Convention on the High Seas;

(B) flying its flag nation's ensign or flag; or

(C) a verbal claim of nationality or registry by the master or

person in charge of the vessel.

(d) Claim of failure to comply with international law; standing;

jurisdiction of court

Any person charged with a violation of this section shall not

have standing to raise the claim of failure to comply with

international law as a basis for a defense. A claim of failure to

comply with international law in the enforcement of this chapter

may be invoked solely by a foreign nation, and a failure to comply

with international law shall not divest a court of jurisdiction or

otherwise constitute a defense to any proceeding under this

chapter.

(e) Exception; burden of proof

This section does not apply to a common or contract carrier or an

employee thereof, who possesses or distributes a controlled

substance in the lawful and usual course of the carrier's business

or to a public vessel of the United States, or any person on board

such a vessel who possesses or distributes a controlled substance

in the lawful course of such person's duties, if the controlled

substance is a part of the cargo entered in the vessel's manifest

and is intended to be lawfully imported into the country of

destination for scientific, medical, or other legitimate purposes.

It shall not be necessary for the United States to negative the

exception set forth in this subsection in any complaint,

information, indictment, or other pleading or in any trial or other

proceeding. The burden of going forward with the evidence with

respect to this exception is upon the person claiming its benefit.

(f) Jurisdiction and venue

Any person who violates this section shall be tried in the United

States district court at the point of entry where that person

enters the United States, or in the United States District Court of

the District of Columbia. Jurisdiction of the United States with

respect to vessels subject to this chapter is not an element of any

offense. All jurisdictional issues arising under this chapter are

preliminary questions of law to be determined solely by the trial

judge.

(g) Penalties

(1) Any person who commits an offense defined in this section

shall be punished in accordance with the penalties set forth in

section 1010 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control

Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 960).

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, any person

convicted of an offense under this chapter shall be punished in

accordance with the penalties set forth in section 1012 of the

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21

U.S.C. 962) if such offense is a second or subsequent offense as

defined in section 1012(b) of that Act.

(h) Extension beyond territorial jurisdiction of United States

This section is intended to reach acts of possession,

manufacture, or distribution committed outside the territorial

jurisdiction of the United States.

(i) Definitions of drug abuse terms

The definitions in the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and

Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802) apply to terms used in this

chapter.

(j) Attempt or conspiracy to commit offense

Any person who attempts or conspires to commit any offense

defined in this chapter shall be subject to the same penalties as

those prescribed for the offense, the commission of which was the

object of the attempt or conspiracy.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 96-350, Sec. 3, Sept. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1160; Pub. L.

99-570, title III, Sec. 3202, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-95;

Pub. L. 99-640, Sec. 17, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3552; Pub. L.

100-690, title VII, Sec. 7402, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4483; Pub.

L. 101-647, title XII, Sec. 1203, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4830;

Pub. L. 104-324, title XI, Sec. 1138, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat.

3988; Pub. L. 107-295, title IV, Sec. 418(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116

Stat. 2123.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Presidential Proclamation 7219 of September 2, 1999, referred to

in subsec. (c)(1)(F), is set out as a note under section 1331 of

Title 43, Public Lands.

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970,

referred to in subsec. (i), is Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84

Stat. 1236, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter

13 (Sec. 801 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. Section 802 of

Title 21 contains provisions relating to definitions used in title

II (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse

Prevention and Control Act of 1970. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

801 of Title 21 and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was formerly classified to section 955c of Title 21, Food

and Drugs.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 107-295 added subpar. (F).

1996 - Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104-324, Sec. 1138(a)(2),

substituted "and is conclusively" for "and may be" in closing

provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104-324, Sec. 1138(a)(3), (b), in closing

provisions, inserted "or (C)" after "under subparagraph (A)" and

substituted "nation is conclusively" for "nation may be".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104-324, Sec. 1138(a)(1), added

subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-324, Sec. 1138(a)(4), inserted "Any

person charged with a violation of this section shall not have

standing to raise the claim of failure to comply with international

law as a basis for a defense." before "A claim of failure".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104-324, Sec. 1138(a)(5), inserted at end

"Jurisdiction of the United States with respect to vessels subject

to this chapter is not an element of any offense. All

jurisdictional issues arising under this chapter are preliminary

questions of law to be determined solely by the trial judge."

1990 - Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101-647 substituted "shall be subject

to the same penalties as those" for "is punishable by imprisonment

or fine, or both, which may not exceed the maximum punishment".

1988 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7402(a), inserted "or

who is a citizen of the United States or a resident alien of the

United States on board any vessel," after "jurisdiction of the

United States,".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7402(b), inserted "and a

claim of nationality or registry for the vessel is made by the

master or individual in charge at the time of the enforcement

action by an officer or employee of the United States authorized to

enforce applicable provisions of United States law" after "High

Seas".

1986 - Pub. L. 99-570 and Pub. L. 99-640 generally amended

section in substantially identical manner, substituting provisions

relating to manufacture, distribution, or possession with intent to

manufacture or distribute controlled substances on board vessels

for provisions relating to attempt or conspiracy.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 16 sections 1802, 5502;

title 18 sections 229F, 924; title 22 section 6701.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 1904 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 38 - MARITIME DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT

-HEAD-

Sec. 1904. Seizure or forfeiture of property

-STATUTE-

(a) Any property described in section 881(a) of title 21 that is

used or intended for use to commit, or to facilitate the commission

of, an offense under this chapter shall be subject to seizure and

forfeiture in the same manner as similar property seized or

forfeited under section 881 of title 21.

(b) Practices commonly recognized as smuggling tactics may

provide prima facie evidence of intent to use a vessel to commit,

or to facilitate the commission of, an offense under this chapter,

and may support seizure and forfeiture of the vessel, even in the

absence of controlled substances aboard the vessel. The following

indicia, among others, may be considered, in the totality of the

circumstances, to be prima facie evidence that a vessel is intended

to be used to commit, or to facilitate the commission of an offense

under this chapter:

(1) The construction or adaptation of the vessel in a manner

that facilitates smuggling, including -

(A) the configuration of the vessel to ride low in the water

or present a low hull profile to avoid being detected visually

or by radar;

(B) the presence of any compartment or equipment which is

built or fitted out for smuggling, not including items such as

a safe or lock-box reasonably used for the storage of personal

valuables;

(C) the presence of an auxiliary tank not installed in

accordance with applicable law or installed in such a manner as

to enhance the vessel's smuggling capability;

(D) the presence of engines that are excessively over-powered

in relation to the design and size of the vessel;

(E) the presence of materials used to reduce or alter the

heat or radar signature of the vessel and avoid detection;

(F) the presence of a camouflaging paint scheme, or of

materials used to camouflage the vessel, to avoid detection; or

(G) the display of false vessel registration numbers, false

indicia of vessel nationality, false vessel name, or false

vessel homeport.

(2) The presence or absence of equipment, personnel, or cargo

inconsistent with the type or declared purpose of the vessel.

(3) The presence of excessive fuel, lube oil, food, water, or

spare parts, inconsistent with legitimate vessel operation,

inconsistent with the construction or equipment of the vessel, or

inconsistent with the character of the vessel's stated purpose.

(4) The operation of the vessel without lights during times

lights are required to be displayed under applicable law or

regulation and in a manner of navigation consistent with

smuggling tactics used to avoid detection by law enforcement

authorities.

(5) The failure of the vessel to stop or respond or heave to

when hailed by government authority, especially where the vessel

conducts evasive maneuvering when hailed.

(6) The declaration to government authority of apparently false

information about the vessel, crew, or voyage or the failure to

identify the vessel by name or country of registration when

requested to do so by government authority.

(7) The presence of controlled substance residue on the vessel,

on an item aboard the vessel, or on a person aboard the vessel,

of a quantity or other nature which reasonably indicates

manufacturing or distribution activity.

(8) The use of petroleum products or other substances on the

vessel to foil the detection of controlled substance residue.

(9) The presence of a controlled substance in the water in the

vicinity of the vessel, where given the currents, weather

conditions, and course and speed of the vessel, the quantity or

other nature is such that it reasonably indicates manufacturing

or distribution activity.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 96-350, Sec. 4, Sept. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1160; Pub. L.

99-570, title III, Sec. 3202, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-97;

Pub. L. 99-640, Sec. 17, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3554; Pub. L.

107-295, title IV, Sec. 418(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2123.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was formerly classified to section 955d of Title 21, Food

and Drugs.

Pub. L. 96-350, as amended generally by Pub. L. 99-570, contained

two sections designated 3, the first of which is classified to

section 1903 of this Appendix, and the second of which was

classified to this section. Subsequently, Pub. L. 99-640 amended

Pub. L. 96-350 generally designating this section as section 4.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Pub. L. 107-295 designated existing provisions as subsec.

(a) and added subsec. (b).

1986 - Pub. L. 99-570 and Pub. L. 99-640 generally amended

section identically, substituting provisions relating to seizure or

forfeiture of property for provisions of the same general subject

matter.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE

DECORATIONS AND MEDALS 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-MISC1-

Sec.

2001. Award of decorations and medals by Secretary of

Transportation.

2002. Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal and

Meritorious Service Medal; other decorations or

medals.

2003. Gallant Ship Award; citation; plaque; citation ribbon

bar; consultation with Secretary of State.

2004. Administrative provisions.

(a) Restriction on award of more than one of any

type.

(b) Receipt by personal representative.

(c) Manufacture and sale; replacements.

(d) Design.

2005. Flag and grave marker for deceased individual who

served in periods of war or national emergency.

2006. Issuance of special certificate in recognition of

service; effect.

2007. Unauthorized manufacture, sale, possession, or display

of decoration or medal; penalty.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2001 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2001. Award of decorations and medals by Secretary of

Transportation

-STATUTE-

The Secretary of Transportation may award decorations and medals

of appropriate design (including ribbons, ribbon bars, emblems,

rosettes, miniature facsimiles, plaques, citations, or other

suitable devices or insignia) for individual acts or service in the

United States merchant marine.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 2, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.)

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 100-324 provided that: "This Act [enacting

this chapter and repealing sections 249 to 249c of this Appendix

and provisions set out as a note under section 753 of Title 50,

Appendix, War and National Defense] may be cited as the 'Merchant

Marine Decorations and Medals Act'."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2004 of this Appendix.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2002 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2002. Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal and

Meritorious Service Medal; other decorations or medals

-STATUTE-

The Secretary of Transportation may award -

(1) a Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal to an

individual for outstanding acts, conduct, or valor beyond the

line of duty;

(2) a Merchant Marine Meritorious Service Medal to an

individual for meritorious acts, conduct, or valor in the line of

duty, but not of the outstanding character as would warrant the

award of the Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal;

(3) a decoration or medal to an individual for service in time

of war or national emergency proclaimed by the President or

Congress, or during operations by the Armed Forces of the United

States outside the continental United States under conditions of

danger to life and property; and

(4) a decoration or medal to an individual for other acts or

service of conspicuous gallantry, intrepidity, and extraordinary

heroism under conditions of danger to life and property that

would warrant a similar decoration or medal for a member of the

Armed Forces of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 3, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2003 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2003. Gallant Ship Award; citation; plaque; citation ribbon

bar; consultation with Secretary of State

-STATUTE-

The Secretary of Transportation may issue a Gallant Ship Award

and a citation to a United States vessel or to a foreign-flag

vessel participating in outstanding or gallant action in marine

disasters or other emergencies for the purpose of saving life or

property at sea. The Secretary may award a plaque to a vessel so

cited, and a replica of the plaque may be preserved as a permanent

historical record. The Secretary may also award an appropriate

citation ribbon bar to the master and each individual serving on

board the vessel at the time of the action for which the citation

is made. The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of State

before giving an award or citation to a foreign-flag vessel or its

crew under this section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 4, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2004 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2004. Administrative provisions

-STATUTE-

(a) Restriction on award of more than one of any type

The Secretary of Transportation may not award more than one of

any type of decoration or medal to an individual. For each

succeeding act or service justifying the same decoration or medal,

a suitable device may be awarded to be worn with the decoration or

medal.

(b) Receipt by personal representative

When an individual scheduled to receive a decoration or medal

under this chapter is unable to accept it, the Secretary may make

the award to an appropriate personal representative.

(c) Manufacture and sale; replacements

The Secretary may provide at cost, or authorize for the

manufacture and sale at reasonable prices by private persons -

(1) the decorations and medals authorized under section 2001 of

this Appendix and replacements for those decorations and medals;

and

(2) replacements for decorations and medals issued under a

prior law.

(d) Design

Decorations and medals authorized under section 2001 of this

Appendix may be of similar design as are authorized for members of

the Armed Forces of the United States for similar acts or service.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 5, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original

"this Act", meaning Pub. L. 100-324, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576,

known as the Merchant Marine Decorations and Medals Act, which

enacted this chapter and repealed sections 249 to 249c of this

Appendix and provisions set out as a note under section 753 of

Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 2001 of this Appendix and Tables.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2005 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2005. Flag and grave marker for deceased individual who served

in periods of war or national emergency

-STATUTE-

Except as authorized under another law, the Secretary of

Transportation may issue at no cost a flag of the United States and

a grave marker to the family or personal representative of a

deceased individual, who served in the United States merchant

marine in support of the Armed Forces of the United States or its

allies in periods of war or national emergency.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 6, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.)

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2006 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2006. Issuance of special certificate in recognition of

service; effect

-STATUTE-

(a) The Maritime Administrator may issue a special certificate in

recognition of service to an individual, or the personal

representative of an individual, whose service in the United States

merchant marine has been determined to be active duty under section

401 of Public Law 95-202 (38 U.S.C. 106, Note).

(b) Issuance of a certificate to any individual under subsection

(a) of this section does not entitle that individual to any rights,

privileges, or benefits under any law of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 7, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 401 of Public Law 95-202, referred to in subsec. (a), is

section 401 of Pub. L. 95-202, title IV, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat.

1449, as amended, which is set out as a note under section 106 of

Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

-End-

-CITE-

46 USC APPENDIX Sec. 2007 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 46, APPENDIX - SHIPPING

CHAPTER 39 - MERCHANT MARINE DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

-HEAD-

Sec. 2007. Unauthorized manufacture, sale, possession, or display

of decoration or medal; penalty

-STATUTE-

Except as authorized by this chapter, a person may not

manufacture, sell, possess, or display a decoration or medal

provided for in this chapter. A person violating this section is

liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of

$2,000.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-324, Sec. 8, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.)

-End-