US (United States) Code. Title 45. Chapter 1: Safety appliances and equipment on railroad engines and cars

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos). Legislación federal estadounidense # Railroads

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-CITE-

45 USC CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON

RAILROAD ENGINES AND CARS, AND PROTECTION OF

EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-End-

-CITE-

45 USC Secs. 1 to 14 01/06/03

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TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1 to 14. Repealed. Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5, 1994,

108 Stat. 1379

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Section 1, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 1, 27 Stat. 531; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(1)(A), 102 Stat. 630, related to

use of power driving-wheel brakes and appliances for operating

train-brake systems. See section 20302 of Title 49, Transportation.

Section 2, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 2, 27 Stat. 531; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(1)(B), 102 Stat. 630, related to

use of cars not equipped with automatic couplers. See section 20302

of Title 49.

Section 3, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 3, 27 Stat. 531; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(1)(C), 102 Stat. 630, related to

refusal to receive insufficiently equipped cars from connecting

lines. See section 20302 of Title 49.

Section 4, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 4, 27 Stat. 531; Oct.

15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(A), 80 Stat. 939; June 22,

1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(1)(D), 102 Stat. 630, related to

grab irons or handholds for security in coupling and uncoupling

cars. See section 20302 of Title 49.

Section 5, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 5, 27 Stat. 531; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(1)(E), 102 Stat. 630, related to

exclusion from traffic of freight cars not complying with

prescribed standard for height of drawbars.

Section 6, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 6, 27 Stat. 532; Apr.

1, 1896, ch. 87, 29 Stat. 85; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, Sec. 1, 62

Stat. 909; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-135, Sec. 1(1), 71 Stat. 352;

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(A), 80 Stat. 939; July

8, 1976, Pub. L. 94-348, Sec. 3(a), 90 Stat. 818; Nov. 2, 1978,

Pub. L. 95-574, Sec. 7(a), 92 Stat. 2461; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L.

96-423, Sec. 8(b), 94 Stat. 1814; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342,

Sec. 13(1)(F), 102 Stat. 630; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102-365, Secs.

4(a)(1), (c)(3), 9(a)(3), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 977, related to use

of cars in violation of sections 1 to 7 of this title and

enforcement duties of United States attorneys and Secretary of

Transportation. See sections 20301, 21302, and 21304 of Title 49,

Transportation.

Section 7, acts Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, Sec. 8, 27 Stat. 532; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(1)(H), 102 Stat. 631, related to

assumption of risk by railroad employees. See section 20304 of

Title 49.

Section 8, acts Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, Sec. 1, 32 Stat. 943; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(2)(A), 102 Stat. 631, extended

provisions of sections 1 to 7 of this title to include railroads in

the Territories and the District of Columbia and to apply in other

cases. See sections 20301, 20302, 20304, and 21302 of Title 49.

Section 9, acts Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, Sec. 2, 32 Stat. 943; Apr.

11, 1958, Pub. L. 85-375, 72 Stat. 86; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L.

89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(B), 80 Stat. 939; June 22, 1988, Pub. L.

100-342, Sec. 13(2)(B), 102 Stat. 631, provided that locomotive

engineers were to operate power and train brakes on not less than

50 percent of cars of trains operated with power or train brakes,

and retained rules, standards, and instructions of Association of

American Railroads for installation, inspection, maintenance, and

repair of such brakes. See sections 20301, 20302, and 21302 of

Title 49.

Section 10, acts Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, Sec. 3, 32 Stat. 943;

June 25, 1948, ch. 646, Sec. 1, 62 Stat. 909; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub.

L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(B), 80 Stat. 939; June 22, 1988, Pub. L.

100-342, Sec. 13(2)(C), 102 Stat. 631; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L.

102-365, Sec. 9(a)(4), 106 Stat. 977, related to continuation of

duties, requirements, and liabilities specified under sections 1 to

7 of this title unless specifically amended by sections 8 to 10 of

this title. See section 21302 of Title 49.

Section 11, acts Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, Sec. 2, 36 Stat. 298;

June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(3)(A), 102 Stat. 631,

related to use of cars not equipped as required by sections 11 to

16 of this title. See section 20302 of Title 49.

Section 12, acts Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, Sec. 3, 36 Stat. 298;

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(C), 80 Stat. 939; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(3)(B), 102 Stat. 631, continued

to maintain designations of safety appliances by Secretary of

Transportation as standards of equipment for railroad cars, unless

changed by order of Secretary, and authorized Secretary to modify

standard height of drawbars. See sections 20302 and 21302 of Title

49.

Section 13, acts Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, Sec. 4, 36 Stat. 299;

Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-135, Sec. 1(2), 71 Stat. 352; July 8,

1976, Pub. L. 94-348, Sec. 3(b), 90 Stat. 818; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub.

L. 95-574, Sec. 7(b), 92 Stat. 2461; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97-468,

title VII, Sec. 704, 96 Stat. 2580; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342,

Sec. 13(3)(C), 102 Stat. 632; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102-365, Secs.

4(a)(1), (c)(4), 9(a)(5), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 978, related to

penalty for using cars not equipped as provided by sections 1 to 16

of this title, with provisos for hauling cars for repairs when

equipment becomes defective, liability for death or injury to

employees in connection with such hauling, and use of chains

instead of drawbars in conducting such hauling. See sections 20303,

21302, and 21304 of Title 49.

Section 14, acts Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, Sec. 5, 36 Stat. 299;

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(C), 80 Stat. 939; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(3)(D), 102 Stat. 632, related to

liability for using cars with defective or insecure equipment. See

section 21302 of Title 49.

-End-

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45 USC Sec. 15 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

Sec. 15. Repealed. Pub. L. 97-449, Sec. 7(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96

Stat. 2444

-MISC1-

Section, acts Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, Sec. 6, 36 Stat. 299; Oct.

15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(C), 80 Stat. 939, provided

that it was the duty of the Secretary of Transportation to enforce

the provisions of sections 11 to 16 of this title as to equipment

of each car with safety appliances and that all powers theretofore

granted to the Interstate Commerce Commission were extended to the

Secretary for the purpose of such enforcement. See section 501(b)

of Title 49, Transportation.

-End-

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45 USC Sec. 16 01/06/03

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TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

Sec. 16. Repealed. Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108

Stat. 1379

-MISC1-

Section, acts Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, Sec. 1, 36 Stat. 298; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 13(3)(E), 102 Stat. 632, defined

"railroad" as used in sections 1 to 16 of this title. See section

20102 of Title 49, Transportation.

-End-

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45 USC Secs. 17 to 21 01/06/03

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TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

Secs. 17 to 21. Repealed. Pub. L. 97-468, title VII, Sec. 705, Jan.

14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2580

-MISC1-

Section 17, act May 30, 1908, ch. 225, Secs. 1, 2, 35 Stat. 476,

related to locomotives to be equipped with safety ash pans.

Section 18, acts May 30, 1908, ch. 225, Sec. 3, 35 Stat. 476;

June 25, 1948, ch. 646, Sec. 1, 62 Stat. 909; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub.

L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(D), 80 Stat. 939, set forth penalties for

violations and authorized United States attorneys to bring actions

for enforcement of provisions.

Section 19, acts May 30, 1908, ch. 225, Sec. 4, 35 Stat. 476;

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(D), 80 Stat. 939,

provided for enforcement of the provisions of sections 17 to 21 of

this title by the Secretary of Transportation.

Section 20, act May 30, 1908, ch. 225, Sec. 5, 35 Stat. 476,

specified those to be included in the term "common carrier".

Section 21, act May 30, 1908, ch. 225, Sec. 6, 35 Stat. 476,

provided that the provisions of sections 17 to 21 of this title not

be applicable to locomotives on which an ash pan is not necessary.

-End-

-CITE-

45 USC Secs. 22 to 43a 01/06/03

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TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

Secs. 22 to 43a. Repealed. Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5,

1994, 108 Stat. 1379

-MISC1-

Section 22, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 1, 36 Stat. 913;

June 7, 1924, ch. 355, Sec. 1, 43 Stat. 659; June 22, 1988, Pub. L.

100-342, Sec. 14(1), 102 Stat. 632, defined "railroad" as used in

sections 22 to 29 and 31 to 34 of this title. See section 20102 of

Title 49, Transportation.

Section 23, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 2, 36 Stat. 913;

Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, Sec. 1, 38 Stat. 1192; June 7, 1924, ch.

355, Sec. 2, 43 Stat. 659; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec.

14(2), 102 Stat. 632, made it unlawful for railroads to use

locomotives and appurtenances unless they were safe and inspected

in accordance with provisions of sections 22 to 29 and 31 to 34 of

this title and tested as prescribed by rules and regulations. See

section 20701 of Title 49.

Section 24, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 3, 36 Stat. 914;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; May 27, 1947, ch. 85,

Sec. 1, 61 Stat. 120; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, Sec.

1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 14(3),

102 Stat. 633, provided for appointment and salaries of a director

of locomotive inspection and two assistant directors of locomotive

inspection, and was previously omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan No.

3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 30 F.R. 9351, 79 Stat. 1320,

formerly set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government

Organization and Employees, which abolished the offices of director

of locomotive inspection, assistant directors of locomotive

inspection, and district inspectors of locomotives. Acts June 26,

1918, ch. 105, 40 Stat. 616; June 7, 1924, ch. 355, Sec. 6, 43

Stat. 659; June 27, 1930, ch. 644, Sec. 1, 46 Stat. 822, which

provided for the pay of chief inspector, assistant inspectors, and

district directors of locomotives, and related to office allowances

for each inspector, and which were cited as a credit to section 24,

were repealed by Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat.

643, 646, 648.

Section 25, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 3, 36 Stat. 914;

June 7, 1924, ch. 355, Sec. 3, 43 Stat. 659; Apr. 22, 1940, ch.

124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; May 27, 1947, ch. 85, Sec. 1, 61 Stat.

120, provided for location of office of director of locomotive

inspection in Washington, D.C., and for staffing of such office,

and was previously omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965,

formerly set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Section 26, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 4, 36 Stat. 914;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; May 27, 1947, ch. 85,

Sec. 2, 61 Stat. 120, directed director of locomotive inspection to

divide country into 50 locomotive boiler inspection districts so as

to most effectively divide up work of inspector for each such

district, and was previously omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 3

of 1965, formerly set out in the Appendix to Title 5, which

abolished the offices of director of locomotive inspection,

assistant directors of locomotive inspection, and district

inspectors of locomotives, together with the function of the

director of locomotive inspection with respect to dividing the

country into districts. Acts June 26, 1918, ch. 105, 40 Stat. 616;

June 27, 1930, ch. 644, Sec. 2, 46 Stat. 823, which were cited as a

credit to section 26, were repealed by Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 8(a),

Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 643, 648.

Section 27, act Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 4 (par), as added

June 7, 1924, ch. 355, Sec. 4, 43 Stat. 659; amended Apr. 22, 1940,

ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148, authorized appointment of 15

additional boiler inspectors over and above number authorized by

section 26 of this title as the needs of the service may require,

and was previously omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965,

formerly set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Section 28, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 5, 36 Stat. 914;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub.

L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(E), 80 Stat. 939; June 22, 1988, Pub. L.

100-342, Sec. 14(4), 102 Stat. 633, related to rules and

instructions for inspection of locomotive boilers. See section

20702 of Title 49, Transportation.

Section 29, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 6, 36 Stat. 915;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub.

L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(E), 80 Stat. 939; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L.

96-423, Sec. 13, 94 Stat. 1816; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342,

Sec. 14(5), 102 Stat. 633, related to duties of district inspectors

to make railroads inspect and repair locomotive boilers and notify

railroads when boilers were not in serviceable condition and

provided that railroads could appeal to director of locomotive

inspection to have boiler reexamined and could then appeal to

Secretary of Transportation if district inspector's decision was

sustained by director. See section 20702 of Title 49.

Section 30, acts Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, Sec. 2, 38 Stat. 1192;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 2, 54 Stat. 148, related to powers,

duties, and examinations of locomotive inspectors and provided that

provisions of sections 22 to 29 and 31 to 34 of this title were

applicable to all parts of locomotives and tenders. See sections

20701 to 20703 and 21302 of Title 49.

Section 31, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 7, 36 Stat. 916;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub.

L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(E), 80 Stat. 939, related to annual report

of director of locomotive inspection to Secretary of

Transportation.

Section 32, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 8, 36 Stat. 916;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; June 22, 1988, Pub.

L. 100-342, Sec. 14(6), 102 Stat. 633, required railroad to report

accidents resulting from failure of locomotive boilers or

appurtenances to director of locomotive inspection and to preserve

disabled parts for inspection, investigation, and report by

director. See section 20703 of Title 49, Transportation.

Section 33, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 8, 36 Stat. 916;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub.

L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(E), 80 Stat. 939; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L.

93-633, title III, Sec. 304, 88 Stat. 2168, related to reports by

Secretary of Transportation of accident investigations conducted

pursuant to section 32 of this title. See section 20703 of Title

49.

Section 34, acts Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, Sec. 9, 36 Stat. 916;

Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 148; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub.

L. 85-135, Sec. 3, 71 Stat. 352; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94-348, Sec.

3(c), 90 Stat. 818; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95-574, Sec. 7(c), 92

Stat. 2461; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96-423, Sec. 8(c), 94 Stat.

1814; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 14(7), 102 Stat. 633;

Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102-365, Secs. 4(a)(1), (c)(7), 9(a)(8), 106

Stat. 973, 975, 978, related to penalty for willful violations of

sections 22 to 29 and 31 to 34 of this title, or rules or

regulations made thereunder, or any lawful order of any inspector,

duty of United States attorney to sue for such violations, and duty

of director of locomotive inspection to inform proper United States

attorney of violations coming to his knowledge. See sections 21302

and 21304 of Title 49.

Section 35, acts June 30, 1906, No. 46, 34 Stat. 838; Oct. 15,

1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(H), 80 Stat. 939, directed

Secretary of Transportation to investigate and report on

block-signal systems and appliances for automatic control of trains

and empowered Secretary to obtain evidence to carry out and give

effect to this provision.

Section 36, acts May 27, 1908, ch. 200, Sec. 1, 35 Stat. 325;

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(I), 80 Stat. 939,

related to investigation and testing by Secretary of Transportation

of appliances or systems to promote safety of railway operation.

See section 20504 of Title 49, Transportation.

Section 37, acts May 27, 1908, ch. 200, Sec. 1, 35 Stat. 325;

Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 299, Sec. 1, 35 Stat. 965; Aug. 12, 1970, Pub. L.

91-375, Sec. 4(a), 84 Stat. 773, related to inspection of mail

cars. See section 20305 of Title 49.

Section 38, acts May 6, 1910, ch. 208, Sec. 1, 36 Stat. 350;

Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86-762, Sec. 1, 74 Stat. 903; Oct. 15,

1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(K), 80 Stat. 939; June 22, 1988,

Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 15(1), 102 Stat. 633, related to duty of

railroad to make monthly reports of railroad accidents to Secretary

of Transportation and defined "railroad" for purposes of sections

38 to 43 of this title. See sections 20102 and 20901 of Title 49.

Section 39, acts May 6, 1910, ch. 208, Sec. 2, 36 Stat. 351; Jan.

3, 1975, Pub. L. 93-633, title II, Sec. 204(b), 88 Stat. 2166; June

22, 1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 15(2), 102 Stat. 634; Sept. 3,

1992, Pub. L. 102-365, Sec. 4(a)(3), 106 Stat. 973, related to

penalty for failure of railroad to make report provided for in

section 38 of this title. See sections 20901 and 21311 of Title 49.

Section 40, acts May 6, 1910, ch. 208, Sec. 3, 36 Stat. 351; Oct.

15, 1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(K), 80 Stat. 939; Jan. 3,

1975, Pub. L. 93-633, title III, Sec. 304, 88 Stat. 2168; June 22,

1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 15(3), 102 Stat. 634, authorized

Secretary of Transportation to investigate railroad accidents, with

proviso that Secretary cooperate with State commissions in such

investigations if convenient and make reports of such

investigations when in the public interest. See section 20902 of

Title 49.

Section 41, act May 6, 1910, ch. 208, Sec. 4, 36 Stat. 351,

provided that reports required by sections 38 and 40 of this title

were not admissible as evidence in suits for damages. See section

20903 of Title 49.

Section 42, acts May 6, 1910, ch. 208, Sec. 5, 36 Stat. 351;

Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86-762, Sec. 2, 74 Stat. 904; Oct. 15,

1966, Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(e)(1)(K), 80 Stat. 939, authorized

Secretary of Transportation to prescribe rules, regulations, and

forms for making reports as necessary to implement and effectuate

purposes of sections 38 to 43 of this title.

Section 43, acts May 6, 1910, ch. 208, Sec. 7, 36 Stat. 351;

Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86-762, Sec. 3, 74 Stat. 904; June 22,

1988, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 15(4), 102 Stat. 634; Sept. 3, 1992,

Pub. L. 102-365, Secs. 4(a)(1), (c)(5), 9(a)(6), 106 Stat. 973,

974, 978, related to penalty for willful violations by any person

of sections 38 to 43 of this title or any rule, regulation, order,

or standard issued under such sections or the Federal Railroad

Safety Act of 1970 (formerly 45 U.S.C. Sec. 431 et seq.) and duty

of United States attorney to sue for such violations. See sections

21302 and 21304 of Title 49, Transportation.

Section 43a, Pub. L. 100-342, Sec. 24, June 22, 1988, 102 Stat.

639, related to accident reports in which railroads assign human

error as cause of accident or incident and provision that such

reports contain an explanatory statement by employees involved. See

section 20901 of Title 49.

SHORT TITLE

Act May 6, 1910, ch. 208, 36 Stat. 350, as amended, popularly

known as the "Accident Reports Act", was classified to sections 38

to 43 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b),

July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379.

-End-

-CITE-

45 USC Secs. 44 to 46 01/06/03

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TITLE 45 - RAILROADS

CHAPTER 1 - SAFETY APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT ON RAILROAD ENGINES AND

CARS, AND PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES AND TRAVELERS

-HEAD-

Secs. 44 to 46. Transferred

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Sections 44 to 46 were transferred to sections 1201 to 1203,

respectively, of former Title 49, Transportation, and were

subsequently repealed and restated in section 80504 of Title 49,

Transportation, by Pub. L. 103-272, Secs. 1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994,

108 Stat. 1358, 1379.

Section 44, acts Feb. 23, 1905, ch. 744, Sec. 1, 33 Stat. 743;

June 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85-50, Sec. 1(1), 71 Stat. 69, related to

awards for acts of heroism involving railroads or motor vehicles.

Section 45, act Feb. 23, 1905, ch. 744, Sec. 2, 33 Stat. 743,

related to issuance of rosettes and ribbons.

Section 46, acts Feb. 23, 1905, ch. 744, Sec. 3, 33 Stat. 743;

June 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85-50, Sec. 1(2), 71 Stat. 69, related to

authorization of appropriations for carrying out sections 44 and 45

of this title.

-End-