US (United States) Code. Title 28. Part VI: Particular proceedings. Chapter 171: Tort claims procedure

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos). Legislación federal estadounidense # Judiciary and judicial procedure

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-CITE-

28 USC CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-MISC1-

Sec.

2671. Definitions.

2672. Administrative adjustment of claims.

2673. Reports to Congress.

2674. Liability of United States.

2675. Disposition by federal agency as prerequisite;

evidence.

2676. Judgment as bar.

2677. Compromise.

2678. Attorney fees; penalty.

2679. Exclusiveness of remedy.

2680. Exceptions.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

As printed in this report, this chapter should have read "173"

and not "171". It was properly numbered "173" in the bill. However,

the chapter was renumbered "171", without change in its section

numbers, by Senate amendment. See 80th Congress Senate Report No.

1559.

AMENDMENTS

1966 - Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 9(b), July 18, 1966, 80 Stat. 308,

substituted "claims" for "claims of $2,500 or less" in item 2672.

1959 - Pub. L. 86-238, Sec. 1(2), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 472,

substituted "$2,500" for "$1,000" in item 2672.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in sections 677, 995, 1346 of this

title; title 2 section 190g; title 5 sections 3102, 3111, 3161,

3373, 3374, 3703, 3704, 5564; title 7 sections 2272, 2279b, 2279c;

title 10 sections 1588, 2113, 2360, 2904; title 12 sections 209,

4621; title 14 sections 93, 821, 823a; title 15 sections 637, 4102,

4105; title 16 sections 450ss-3, 565a-2, 670c, 698u-3, 698v-5,

742f, 742l, 773a, 932, 952, 971a, 1421e, 1703, 3602, 3640, 4604,

5003, 5608, 5708, 5725; title 18 section 2712; title 19 section

1630; title 20 sections 76l, 4420; title 22 sections 2124c, 2504,

3508, 3761, 4606; title 24 sections 421, 422; title 25 sections

450k, 458aaa-15, 1638c, 1680c, 2012, 3115, 3733; title 29 section

1706; title 31 sections 3723, 3724; title 32 section 509; title 33

section 569c; title 36 section 2113; title 37 section 554; title 39

section 409; title 42 sections 233, 2021d, 2212, 3788, 5055, 7142,

7142c, 12620, 12651b, 12651g, 12655n, 15346; title 43 sections 50d,

373b, 1737; title 46 App. section 740; title 48 section 1905; title

49 sections 106, 20107, 44921.

-End-

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28 USC Sec. 2671 01/06/03

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TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2671. Definitions

-STATUTE-

As used in this chapter and sections 1346(b) and 2401(b) of this

title, the term "Federal agency" includes the executive

departments, the judicial and legislative branches, the military

departments, independent establishments of the United States, and

corporations primarily acting as instrumentalities or agencies of

the United States, but does not include any contractor with the

United States.

"Employee of the government" includes (1) officers or employees

of any federal agency, members of the military or naval forces of

the United States, members of the National Guard while engaged in

training or duty under section 115, 316, 502, 503, 504, or 505 of

title 32, and persons acting on behalf of a federal agency in an

official capacity, temporarily or permanently in the service of the

United States, whether with or without compensation, and (2) any

officer or employee of a Federal public defender organization,

except when such officer or employee performs professional services

in the course of providing representation under section 3006A of

title 18.

"Acting within the scope of his office or employment", in the

case of a member of the military or naval forces of the United

States or a member of the National Guard as defined in section

101(3) of title 32, means acting in line of duty.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 982; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec.

124, 63 Stat. 106; Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 8, July 18, 1966, 80 Stat.

307; Pub. L. 97-124, Sec. 1, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1666; Pub. L.

100-694, Sec. 3, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4564; Pub. L. 106-398,

Sec. 1 [[div. A], title VI, Sec. 665(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat.

1654, 1654A-169; Pub. L. 106-518, title IV, Sec. 401, Nov. 13,

2000, 114 Stat. 2421.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

1948 ACT

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 941 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 402, 60 Stat. 842).

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 ACT

This section corrects a typographical error in section 2671 of

title 28, U.S.C.

AMENDMENTS

2000 - Pub. L. 106-518, in par. defining "Employee of the

government", inserted "(1)" after "includes" and added cl. (2).

Pub. L. 106-398 inserted "115," after "members of the National

Guard while engaged in training or duty under section" in par.

defining "Employee of the government".

1988 - Pub. L. 100-694 inserted "the judicial and legislative

branches," after "departments," in first par.

1981 - Pub. L. 97-124 inserted "members of the National Guard

while engaged in training or duty under section 316, 502, 503, 504,

or 505 of title 32," in definition of "Employee of the government"

and "or a member of the National Guard as defined in section 101(3)

of title 32" in definition of "Acting within the scope of his

office or employment".

1966 - Pub. L. 89-506 expanded definition of "Federal agency" to

include military departments.

1949 - Act May 24, 1949, corrected spelling of "office".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2000 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 106-398, Sec. 1 [[div. A], title VI, Sec. 665(c)(2)],

Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-169, provided that: "The

amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall

apply with respect to acts and omissions occurring before, on, or

after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 100-694 effective Nov. 18, 1988, and

applicable to all claims, civil actions, and proceedings pending

on, or filed on or after, Nov. 18, 1988, see section 8 of Pub. L.

100-694, set out as a note under section 2679 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 97-124 applicable only with respect to

claims arising on or after Dec. 29, 1981, see section 4 of Pub. L.

97-124, set out as a note under section 1089 of Title 10, Armed

Forces.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-506 applicable to claims accruing six

months or more after July 18, 1966, see section 10 of Pub. L.

89-506, set out as a note under section 2672 of this title.

SEVERABILITY

Section 7 of Pub. L. 100-694 provided that: "If any provision of

this Act [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note under section 1 of

this title] or the amendments made by this Act or the application

of the provision to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the

remainder of this Act and such amendments and the application of

the provision to any other person or circumstance shall not be

affected by that invalidation."

LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER ACTING WITHIN SCOPE OF OFFICE OR EMPLOYMENT

Pub. L. 105-277, div. A, Sec. 101(h) [title VI, Sec. 627], Oct.

21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-480, 2681-519, as amended by Pub. L.

106-58, title VI, Sec. 623, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 471, provided

that:

"(a) Definitions. - In this section -

"(1) the term 'crime of violence' has the meaning given that

term in section 16 of title 18, United States Code; and

"(2) the term 'law enforcement officer' means any employee

described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of section 8401(17) of

title 5, United States Code; and any special agent in the

Diplomatic Security Service of the Department of State.

"(b) Rule of Construction. - Effective on the date of the

enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] and thereafter, and

notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of chapter

171 of title 28, United States Code, or any other provision of law

relating to tort liability, a law enforcement officer shall be

construed to be acting within the scope of his or her office or

employment, if the officer takes reasonable action, including the

use of force, to -

"(1) protect an individual in the presence of the officer from

a crime of violence;

"(2) provide immediate assistance to an individual who has

suffered or who is threatened with bodily harm; or

"(3) prevent the escape of any individual who the officer

reasonably believes to have committed in the presence of the

officer a crime of violence."

CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND PURPOSES

Section 2 of Pub. L. 100-694 provided that:

"(a) Findings. - The Congress finds and declares the following:

"(1) For more than 40 years the Federal Tort Claims Act [28

U.S.C. 1346(b), 2671 et seq.] has been the legal mechanism for

compensating persons injured by negligent or wrongful acts of

Federal employees committed within the scope of their employment.

"(2) The United States, through the Federal Tort Claims Act, is

responsible to injured persons for the common law torts of its

employees in the same manner in which the common law historically

has recognized the responsibility of an employer for torts

committed by its employees within the scope of their employment.

"(3) Because Federal employees for many years have been

protected from personal common law tort liability by a broad

based immunity, the Federal Tort Claims Act has served as the

sole means for compensating persons injured by the tortious

conduct of Federal employees.

"(4) Recent judicial decisions, and particularly the decision

of the United States Supreme Court in Westfall v. Erwin, have

seriously eroded the common law tort immunity previously

available to Federal employees.

"(5) This erosion of immunity of Federal employees from common

law tort liability has created an immediate crisis involving the

prospect of personal liability and the threat of protracted

personal tort litigation for the entire Federal workforce.

"(6) The prospect of such liability will seriously undermine

the morale and well being of Federal employees, impede the

ability of agencies to carry out their missions, and diminish the

vitality of the Federal Tort Claims Act as the proper remedy for

Federal employee torts.

"(7) In its opinion in Westfall v. Erwin, the Supreme Court

indicated that the Congress is in the best position to determine

the extent to which Federal employees should be personally liable

for common law torts, and that legislative consideration of this

matter would be useful.

"(b) Purpose. - It is the purpose of this Act [see Short Title of

1988 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] to protect

Federal employees from personal liability for common law torts

committed within the scope of their employment, while providing

persons injured by the common law torts of Federal employees with

an appropriate remedy against the United States."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 8

section 1357; title 16 section 4604; title 20 section 4420; title

25 section 450f; title 42 sections 7142c, 12555n.

-End-

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28 USC Sec. 2672 01/06/03

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TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2672. Administrative adjustment of claims

-STATUTE-

The head of each Federal agency or his designee, in accordance

with regulations prescribed by the Attorney General, may consider,

ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise, and settle any claim for

money damages against the United States for injury or loss of

property or personal injury or death caused by the negligent or

wrongful act or omission of any employee of the agency while acting

within the scope of his office or employment, under circumstances

where the United States, if a private person, would be liable to

the claimant in accordance with the law of the place where the act

or omission occurred: Provided, That any award, compromise, or

settlement in excess of $25,000 shall be effected only with the

prior written approval of the Attorney General or his designee.

Notwithstanding the proviso contained in the preceding sentence,

any award, compromise, or settlement may be effected without the

prior written approval of the Attorney General or his or her

designee, to the extent that the Attorney General delegates to the

head of the agency the authority to make such award, compromise, or

settlement. Such delegations may not exceed the authority delegated

by the Attorney General to the United States attorneys to settle

claims for money damages against the United States. Each Federal

agency may use arbitration, or other alternative means of dispute

resolution under the provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 5 of

title 5, to settle any tort claim against the United States, to the

extent of the agency's authority to award, compromise, or settle

such claim without the prior written approval of the Attorney

General or his or her designee.

Subject to the provisions of this title relating to civil actions

on tort claims against the United States, any such award,

compromise, settlement, or determination shall be final and

conclusive on all officers of the Government, except when procured

by means of fraud.

Any award, compromise, or settlement in an amount of $2,500 or

less made pursuant to this section shall be paid by the head of the

Federal agency concerned out of appropriations available to that

agency. Payment of any award, compromise, or settlement in an

amount in excess of $2,500 made pursuant to this section or made by

the Attorney General in any amount pursuant to section 2677 of this

title shall be paid in a manner similar to judgments and

compromises in like causes and appropriations or funds available

for the payment of such judgments and compromises are hereby made

available for the payment of awards, compromises, or settlements

under this chapter.

The acceptance by the claimant of any such award, compromise, or

settlement shall be final and conclusive on the claimant, and shall

constitute a complete release of any claim against the United

States and against the employee of the government whose act or

omission gave rise to the claim, by reason of the same subject

matter.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 983; Apr. 25, 1949, ch. 92, Sec.

2(b), 63 Stat. 62; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec. 125, 63 Stat. 106;

Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1010, Sec. 9, 64 Stat. 987; Pub. L. 86-238,

Sec. 1(1), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 471; Pub. L. 89-506, Secs. 1,

9(a), July 18, 1966, 80 Stat. 306, 308; Pub. L. 101-552, Sec. 8(a),

Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2746.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

1948 ACT

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 921 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 403, 60 Stat. 843).

The phrase "accruing on and after January 1, 1945" was omitted

because executed as of the date of the enactment of this revised

title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 ACT

This section corrects a typographical error in section 2672 of

title 28, U.S.C.

AMENDMENTS

1990 - Pub. L. 101-552 inserted at end of first par.

"Notwithstanding the proviso contained in the preceding sentence,

any award, compromise, or settlement may be effected without the

prior written approval of the Attorney General or his or her

designee, to the extent that the Attorney General delegates to the

head of the agency the authority to make such award, compromise, or

settlement. Such delegations may not exceed the authority delegated

by the Attorney General to the United States attorneys to settle

claims for money damages against the United States. Each Federal

agency may use arbitration, or other alternative means of dispute

resolution under the provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 5 of

title 5, to settle any tort claim against the United States, to the

extent of the agency's authority to award, compromise, or settle

such claim without the prior written approval of the Attorney

General or his or her designee."

1966 - Pub. L. 89-506 substituted "claims" for "claims of $2,500

or less" in section catchline, authorized administrative settlement

of tort claims, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the

Attorney General, of up to $25,000 and, with the prior written

approval of the Attorney General or his designee, in excess of

$25,000, inserted "compromise" and "settlement" to list of

administrative acts that would be final and conclusive on all

officers of the government, authorized the payment of

administrative settlements in excess of $2,500 in the manner

similar to judgments and compromises in like causes, and made

appropriations and funds which were available for the payment of

such judgments and compromises available for the payment of awards,

compromises, or settlements under this chapter.

1959 - Pub. L. 86-238 substituted "$2,500" for "$1,000" in

section catchline and text.

1950 - Act Sept. 23, 1950, struck out requirement for specific

authorization for payment of tort claims in appropriation acts.

1949 - Act Apr. 25, 1949, inserted "accruing on or after January

1, 1945" after "United States" in first par.

Act May 24, 1949, substituted "2677" for "2678" in third par.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Section 10 of Pub. L. 89-506 provided that: "This Act [amending

this section, sections 2401, 2671, 2675, 2677, 2678, and 2679 of

this title, section 724a of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and

former section 4116 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits], shall apply

to claims accruing six months or more after the date of its

enactment [July 18, 1966]."

LAWS UNAFFECTED

Section 424(b) of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title IV, 60 Stat.

856, provided that: "Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to

repeal any provision of law authorizing any Federal agency to

consider, ascertain, adjust, settle, determine, or pay any claim on

account of damage to or loss of property or on account of personal

injury or death, in cases in which such damage, loss, injury, or

death was not caused by any negligent or wrongful act or omission

of an employee of the Government while acting within the scope of

his office or employment, or any other claim not cognizable under

part 2 of this title."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 2678, 2679 of this title;

title 5 section 8477; title 7 sections 2262a, 7752, 8312; title 8

section 1357; title 10 sections 1054, 1089, 2733; title 15 section

2081; title 21 section 904; title 22 sections 1474, 2669, 2669-1,

2702; title 29 section 2897; title 31 section 1304; title 32

section 715; title 38 sections 515, 1151, 7316; title 39 section

2603; title 42 sections 233, 238q, 2212, 2458a, 5055.

-End-

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28 USC Sec. 2673 01/06/03

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TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2673. Reports to Congress

-STATUTE-

The head of each federal agency shall report annually to Congress

all claims paid by it under section 2672 of this title, stating the

name of each claimant, the amount claimed, the amount awarded, and

a brief description of the claim.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 983.)

-STATAMEND-

REPEAL

Section 1(1) of Pub. L. 89-348, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1310,

repealed the requirement that an annual report to Congress be made

of the administrative adjustment of tort claims of $2,500 or less,

stating the name of each claimant, the amount claimed, the amount

awarded, and a brief description of the claim.

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 922 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 404, 60 Stat. 843).

Changes were made in phraseology.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 8

section 1357.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2674 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2674. Liability of United States

-STATUTE-

The United States shall be liable, respecting the provisions of

this title relating to tort claims, in the same manner and to the

same extent as a private individual under like circumstances, but

shall not be liable for interest prior to judgment or for punitive

damages.

If, however, in any case wherein death was caused, the law of the

place where the act or omission complained of occurred provides, or

has been construed to provide, for damages only punitive in nature,

the United States shall be liable for actual or compensatory

damages, measured by the pecuniary injuries resulting from such

death to the persons respectively, for whose benefit the action was

brought, in lieu thereof.

With respect to any claim under this chapter, the United States

shall be entitled to assert any defense based upon judicial or

legislative immunity which otherwise would have been available to

the employee of the United States whose act or omission gave rise

to the claim, as well as any other defenses to which the United

States is entitled.

With respect to any claim to which this section applies, the

Tennessee Valley Authority shall be entitled to assert any defense

which otherwise would have been available to the employee based

upon judicial or legislative immunity, which otherwise would have

been available to the employee of the Tennessee Valley Authority

whose act or omission gave rise to the claim as well as any other

defenses to which the Tennessee Valley Authority is entitled under

this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 100-694, Secs. 4,

9(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4564, 4567.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 931(a) (Aug. 2, 1946,

ch. 753, Sec. 410(a), 60 Stat. 843).

Section constitutes the liability provisions in the second

sentence of section 931(a) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Other provisions of section 931(a) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,

are incorporated in sections 1346(b), 1402, 2402, 2411, and 2412 of

this title, but the provision of such section 931(a) that the

United States shall not be liable for interest prior to judgment

was omitted as unnecessary in view of section 2411 of this title,

which provides that interest on judgments against the United States

shall be computed from the date of judgment. Such section 2411 is

made applicable to tort-claim actions by section 932 of title 28,

U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Changes were made in phraseology.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

For Senate amendment to this section, see 80th Congress Senate

Report No. 1559, amendment No. 60.

AMENDMENTS

1988 - Pub. L. 100-694 inserted two pars. at end entitling the

United States and the Tennessee Valley Authority to assert any

defense based upon judicial or legislative immunity.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 100-694 effective Nov. 18, 1988, and

applicable to all claims, civil actions, and proceedings pending

on, or filed on or after, Nov. 18, 1988, see section 8 of Pub. L.

100-694 set out as a note under section 2679 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 8

section 1357.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2675 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2675. Disposition by federal agency as prerequisite; evidence

-STATUTE-

(a) An action shall not be instituted upon a claim against the

United States for money damages for injury or loss of property or

personal injury or death caused by the negligent or wrongful act or

omission of any employee of the Government while acting within the

scope of his office or employment, unless the claimant shall have

first presented the claim to the appropriate Federal agency and his

claim shall have been finally denied by the agency in writing and

sent by certified or registered mail. The failure of an agency to

make final disposition of a claim within six months after it is

filed shall, at the option of the claimant any time thereafter, be

deemed a final denial of the claim for purposes of this section.

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to such claims as

may be asserted under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure by third

party complaint, cross-claim, or counterclaim.

(b) Action under this section shall not be instituted for any sum

in excess of the amount of the claim presented to the federal

agency, except where the increased amount is based upon newly

discovered evidence not reasonably discoverable at the time of

presenting the claim to the federal agency, or upon allegation and

proof of intervening facts, relating to the amount of the claim.

(c) Disposition of any claim by the Attorney General or other

head of a federal agency shall not be competent evidence of

liability or amount of damages.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 983; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec.

126, 63 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 2, July 18, 1966, 80 Stat.

306.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

1948 ACT

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 931(b) (Aug. 2, 1946,

ch. 753, Sec. 410(b), 60 Stat. 844).

Section constitutes all of section 931(b), except the first

sentence, of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. The remainder of such

section 931(b) is incorporated in section 2677 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 ACT

This section corrects a typographical error in section 2675(b) of

title 28, U.S.C.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a),

are set out in the Appendix to this title.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

1966 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 2(a), required that all

administrative claims be filed with the agency or department and

finally denied by the agency and sent by certified or registered

mail prior to the filing of a court action against the United

States, provided that the claimant be given the option of

considering the claim to have been denied if the agency fails to

make final disposition of the claim within six months of

presentation of the claim to the agency, and provided that the

requirements of the subsection would not apply to claims asserted

under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure by third party

complaint, cross-claim, or counterclaim.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 2(b), struck out provisions

under which a claimant could, upon 15 days written notice, withdraw

a claim from the agency and institute an action thereon.

1949 - Subsec. (b). Act May 24, 1949, substituted "section" for

"subsection".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-506 applicable to claims accruing six

months or more after July 18, 1966, see section 10 of Pub. L.

89-506, set out as a note under section 2672 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2679 of this title; title

5 section 8477; title 8 section 1357.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2676 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2676. Judgment as bar

-STATUTE-

The judgment in an action under section 1346(b) of this title

shall constitute a complete bar to any action by the claimant, by

reason of the same subject matter, against the employee of the

government whose act or omission gave rise to the claim.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 984.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 931(b) (Aug. 2, 1946,

ch. 753, Sec. 410(b), 60 Stat. 844).

Section constitutes the first sentence of section 931(b) of title

28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of such section 931(b) are

incorporated in section 2675 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

This section was eliminated by Senate amendment. See 80th

Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 8

section 1357.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2677 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2677. Compromise

-STATUTE-

The Attorney General or his designee may arbitrate, compromise,

or settle any claim cognizable under section 1346(b) of this title,

after the commencement of an action thereon.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 3, July

18, 1966, 80 Stat. 307.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 934 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 413, 60 Stat. 845).

Changes were made in phraseology.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

This section was renumbered "2676" by Senate amendment. See 80th

Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

AMENDMENTS

1966 - Pub. L. 89-506 struck out provision requiring that

approval of court be obtained before Attorney General could

arbitrate, compromise, or settle a claim after commencement of an

action thereon.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-506 applicable to claims accruing six

months or more after July 18, 1966, see section 10 of Pub. L.

89-506, set out as a note under section 2672 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 2672, 2678 of this title;

title 5 section 8477; title 8 section 1357; title 10 sections 1054,

1089; title 22 section 2702; title 31 section 1304; title 38

sections 1151, 7316; title 42 sections 233, 2458a, 5055.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2678 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2678. Attorney fees; penalty

-STATUTE-

No attorney shall charge, demand, receive, or collect for

services rendered, fees in excess of 25 per centum of any judgment

rendered pursuant to section 1346(b) of this title or any

settlement made pursuant to section 2677 of this title, or in

excess of 20 per centum of any award, compromise, or settlement

made pursuant to section 2672 of this title.

Any attorney who charges, demands, receives, or collects for

services rendered in connection with such claim any amount in

excess of that allowed under this section, if recovery be had,

shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than one

year, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 4, July

18, 1966, 80 Stat. 307.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 944 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 422, 60 Stat. 846).

Words "shall be guilty of a misdemeanor" and "shall, upon

conviction thereof", in the second sentence, were omitted in

conformity with revised title 18, U.S.C., Crimes and Criminal

Procedure (H.R. 1600, 80th Cong.). See sections 1 and 2 of said

revised title 18.

Changes were made in phraseology.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

This section was renumbered "2677" by Senate amendment. See 80th

Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

AMENDMENTS

1966 - Pub. L. 89-506 raised the limitations on allowable

attorneys fees from 10 to 20 percent for administrative settlements

and from 20 to 25 percent for fees in cases after suit is filed and

removed the requirement of agency or court allowance of the amount

of attorneys fees.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-506 applicable to claims accruing six

months or more after July 18, 1966, see section 10 of Pub. L.

89-506, set out as a note under section 2672 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 8

section 1357.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2679 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2679. Exclusiveness of remedy

-STATUTE-

(a) The authority of any federal agency to sue and be sued in its

own name shall not be construed to authorize suits against such

federal agency on claims which are cognizable under section 1346(b)

of this title, and the remedies provided by this title in such

cases shall be exclusive.

(b)(1) The remedy against the United States provided by sections

1346(b) and 2672 of this title for injury or loss of property, or

personal injury or death arising or resulting from the negligent or

wrongful act or omission of any employee of the Government while

acting within the scope of his office or employment is exclusive of

any other civil action or proceeding for money damages by reason of

the same subject matter against the employee whose act or omission

gave rise to the claim or against the estate of such employee. Any

other civil action or proceeding for money damages arising out of

or relating to the same subject matter against the employee or the

employee's estate is precluded without regard to when the act or

omission occurred.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not extend or apply to a civil action

against an employee of the Government -

(A) which is brought for a violation of the Constitution of the

United States, or

(B) which is brought for a violation of a statute of the United

States under which such action against an individual is otherwise

authorized.

(c) The Attorney General shall defend any civil action or

proceeding brought in any court against any employee of the

Government or his estate for any such damage or injury. The

employee against whom such civil action or proceeding is brought

shall deliver within such time after date of service or knowledge

of service as determined by the Attorney General, all process

served upon him or an attested true copy thereof to his immediate

superior or to whomever was designated by the head of his

department to receive such papers and such person shall promptly

furnish copies of the pleadings and process therein to the United

States attorney for the district embracing the place wherein the

proceeding is brought, to the Attorney General, and to the head of

his employing Federal agency.

(d)(1) Upon certification by the Attorney General that the

defendant employee was acting within the scope of his office or

employment at the time of the incident out of which the claim

arose, any civil action or proceeding commenced upon such claim in

a United States district court shall be deemed an action against

the United States under the provisions of this title and all

references thereto, and the United States shall be substituted as

the party defendant.

(2) Upon certification by the Attorney General that the defendant

employee was acting within the scope of his office or employment at

the time of the incident out of which the claim arose, any civil

action or proceeding commenced upon such claim in a State court

shall be removed without bond at any time before trial by the

Attorney General to the district court of the United States for the

district and division embracing the place in which the action or

proceeding is pending. Such action or proceeding shall be deemed to

be an action or proceeding brought against the United States under

the provisions of this title and all references thereto, and the

United States shall be substituted as the party defendant. This

certification of the Attorney General shall conclusively establish

scope of office or employment for purposes of removal.

(3) In the event that the Attorney General has refused to certify

scope of office or employment under this section, the employee may

at any time before trial petition the court to find and certify

that the employee was acting within the scope of his office or

employment. Upon such certification by the court, such action or

proceeding shall be deemed to be an action or proceeding brought

against the United States under the provisions of this title and

all references thereto, and the United States shall be substituted

as the party defendant. A copy of the petition shall be served upon

the United States in accordance with the provisions of Rule 4(d)(4)

of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In the event the petition

is filed in a civil action or proceeding pending in a State court,

the action or proceeding may be removed without bond by the

Attorney General to the district court of the United States for the

district and division embracing the place in which it is pending.

If, in considering the petition, the district court determines that

the employee was not acting within the scope of his office or

employment, the action or proceeding shall be remanded to the State

court.

(4) Upon certification, any action or proceeding subject to

paragraph (1), (2), or (3) shall proceed in the same manner as any

action against the United States filed pursuant to section 1346(b)

of this title and shall be subject to the limitations and

exceptions applicable to those actions.

(5) Whenever an action or proceeding in which the United States

is substituted as the party defendant under this subsection is

dismissed for failure first to present a claim pursuant to section

2675(a) of this title, such a claim shall be deemed to be timely

presented under section 2401(b) of this title if -

(A) the claim would have been timely had it been filed on the

date the underlying civil action was commenced, and

(B) the claim is presented to the appropriate Federal agency

within 60 days after dismissal of the civil action.

(e) The Attorney General may compromise or settle any claim

asserted in such civil action or proceeding in the manner provided

in section 2677, and with the same effect.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 87-258, Sec. 1,

Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 539; Pub. L. 89-506, Sec. 5(a), July 18,

1966, 80 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 100-694, Secs. 5, 6, Nov. 18, 1988, 102

Stat. 4564.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 945 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 423, 60 Stat. 846).

Changes were made in phraseology.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

The catchline and text of this section were changed and the

section was renumbered "2678" by Senate amendment. See 80th

Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec.

(d)(3), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

1988 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100-694, Sec. 5, amended subsec. (b)

generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "The

remedy against the United States provided by sections 1346(b) and

2672 of this title for injury or loss of property or personal

injury or death, resulting from the operation by any employee of

the Government of any motor vehicle while acting within the scope

of his office or employment, shall hereafter be exclusive of any

other civil action or proceeding by reason of the same subject

matter against the employee or his estate whose act or omission

gave rise to the claim."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100-694, Sec. 6, amended subsec. (d)

generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "Upon a

certification by the Attorney General that the defendant employee

was acting within the scope of his employment at the time of the

incident out of which the suit arose, any such civil action or

proceeding commenced in a State court shall be removed without bond

at any time before trial by the Attorney General to the district

court of the United States for the district and division embracing

the place wherein it is pending and the proceedings deemed a tort

action brought against the United States under the provisions of

this title and all references thereto. Should a United States

district court determine on a hearing on a motion to remand held

before a trial on the merits that the case so removed is one in

which a remedy by suit within the meaning of subsection (b) of this

section is not available against the United States, the case shall

be remanded to the State court."

1966 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89-506 inserted reference to section

2672 of this title and substituted "remedy" for "remedy by suit".

1961 - Pub. L. 87-258 designated existing provisions as subsec.

(a) and added subsecs. (b) to (e).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Section 8 of Pub. L. 100-694 provided that:

"(a) General Rule. - This Act and the amendments made by this Act

[enacting section 831c-2 of Title 16, Conservation, amending this

section and sections 2671 and 2674 of this title, and enacting

provisions set out as notes under this section and section 2671 of

this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this

Act [Nov. 18, 1988].

"(b) Applicability to Proceedings. - The amendments made by this

Act [amending this section and sections 2671 and 2674 of this

title] shall apply to all claims, civil actions, and proceedings

pending on, or filed on or after, the date of the enactment of this

Act.

"(c) Pending State Proceedings. - With respect to any civil

action or proceeding pending in a State court to which the

amendments made by this Act apply, and as to which the period for

removal under section 2679(d) of title 28, United States Code (as

amended by section 6 of this Act), has expired, the Attorney

General shall have 60 days after the date of the enactment of this

Act during which to seek removal under such section 2679(d).

"(d) Claims Accruing Before Enactment. - With respect to any

civil action or proceeding to which the amendments made by this Act

apply in which the claim accrued before the date of the enactment

of this Act, the period during which the claim shall be deemed to

be timely presented under section 2679(d)(5) of title 28, United

States Code (as amended by section 6 of this Act) shall be that

period within which the claim could have been timely filed under

applicable State law, but in no event shall such period exceed two

years from the date of the enactment of this Act."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-506 applicable to claims accruing six

months or more after July 18, 1966, see section 10 of Pub. L.

89-506, set out as a note under section 2672 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1961 AMENDMENT

Section 2 of Pub. L. 87-258 provided that: "The amendments made

by this Act [amending this section] shall be deemed to be in effect

six months after the enactment hereof [Sept. 21, 1961] but any

rights or liabilities then existing shall not be affected."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 7

section 943; title 8 section 1357; title 19 sections 1920, 2350;

title 20 section 1082; title 25 section 450f; title 33 section

2718; title 42 sections 233, 238q, 2458a, 12651d.

-End-

-CITE-

28 USC Sec. 2680 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 171 - TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

-HEAD-

Sec. 2680. Exceptions

-STATUTE-

The provisions of this chapter and section 1346(b) of this title

shall not apply to -

(a) Any claim based upon an act or omission of an employee of the

Government, exercising due care, in the execution of a statute or

regulation, whether or not such statute or regulation be valid, or

based upon the exercise or performance or the failure to exercise

or perform a discretionary function or duty on the part of a

federal agency or an employee of the Government, whether or not the

discretion involved be abused.

(b) Any claim arising out of the loss, miscarriage, or negligent

transmission of letters or postal matter.

(c) Any claim arising in respect of the assessment or collection

of any tax or customs duty, or the detention of any goods,

merchandise, or other property by any officer of customs or excise

or any other law enforcement officer, except that the provisions of

this chapter and section 1346(b) of this title apply to any claim

based on injury or loss of goods, merchandise, or other property,

while in the possession of any officer of customs or excise or any

other law enforcement officer, if -

(1) the property was seized for the purpose of forfeiture under

any provision of Federal law providing for the forfeiture of

property other than as a sentence imposed upon conviction of a

criminal offense;

(2) the interest of the claimant was not forfeited;

(3) the interest of the claimant was not remitted or mitigated

(if the property was subject to forfeiture); and

(4) the claimant was not convicted of a crime for which the

interest of the claimant in the property was subject to

forfeiture under a Federal criminal forfeiture law..(!1)

(d) Any claim for which a remedy is provided by sections 741-752,

781-790 of Title 46, relating to claims or suits in admiralty

against the United States.

(e) Any claim arising out of an act or omission of any employee

of the Government in administering the provisions of sections 1-31

of Title 50, Appendix.

(f) Any claim for damages caused by the imposition or

establishment of a quarantine by the United States.

[(g) Repealed. Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, Sec. 13 (5), 64 Stat.

1043.]

(h) Any claim arising out of assault, battery, false

imprisonment, false arrest, malicious prosecution, abuse of

process, libel, slander, misrepresentation, deceit, or interference

with contract rights: Provided, That, with regard to acts or

omissions of investigative or law enforcement officers of the

United States Government, the provisions of this chapter and

section 1346(b) of this title shall apply to any claim arising, on

or after the date of the enactment of this proviso, out of assault,

battery, false imprisonment, false arrest, abuse of process, or

malicious prosecution. For the purpose of this subsection,

"investigative or law enforcement officer" means any officer of the

United States who is empowered by law to execute searches, to seize

evidence, or to make arrests for violations of Federal law.

(i) Any claim for damages caused by the fiscal operations of the

Treasury or by the regulation of the monetary system.

(j) Any claim arising out of the combatant activities of the

military or naval forces, or the Coast Guard, during time of war.

(k) Any claim arising in a foreign country.

(l) Any claim arising from the activities of the Tennessee Valley

Authority.

(m) Any claim arising from the activities of the Panama Canal

Company.

(n) Any claim arising from the activities of a Federal land bank,

a Federal intermediate credit bank, or a bank for cooperatives.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 984; July 16, 1949, ch. 340, 63

Stat. 444; Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, Secs. 2(a)(2), 13(5), 64 Stat.

1038, 1043; Pub. L. 86-168, title II, Sec. 202(b), Aug. 18, 1959,

73 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 93-253, Sec. 2, Mar. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 50;

Pub. L. 106-185, Sec. 3(a), Apr. 25, 2000, 114 Stat. 211.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 943 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch.

753, Sec. 421, 60 Stat. 845).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Section 946 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which was derived from

section 424(b) of the Federal Tort Claims Act, was omitted from

this revised title. It preserved the existing authority of federal

agencies to settle tort claims not cognizable under section 2672 of

this title. Certain enumerated laws granting such authority were

specifically repealed by section 424(a) of the Federal Tort Claims

Act, which section was also omitted from this revised title. These

provisions were not included in this revised title as they are not

properly a part of a code of general and permanent law.

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT

Sections 2680 and 2681 were renumbered "2679" and "2680",

respectively, by Senate amendment. See 80th Congress Senate Report

No. 1559.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Sections 741-752 of title 46, referred to in subsec. (d), are

popularly known as the "Suits in Admiralty Act" and are classified

to Title 46, Appendix, Shipping.

Sections 781-790 of title 46, referred to in subsec. (d), are

popularly known as the "Public Vessels Act" and are classified to

Title 46, Appendix.

Sections 1-31 of Title 50, Appendix, referred to in subsec. (e),

was in the original source of this section (section 943 of act Aug.

2, 1946) a reference to the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended.

The Trading with the Enemy Act is now comprised of sections 1 to

43, which are classified to sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44

of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

The date of the enactment of this proviso, referred to in subsec.

(h), means Mar. 16, 1974, the date on which Pub. L. 93-253, which

enacted the proviso, was approved.

Panama Canal Company, referred to in subsec. (m), deemed to refer

to Panama Canal Commission, see section 3602(b)(5) of Title 22,

Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

2000 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106-185 substituted "any goods,

merchandise, or other property" for "any goods or merchandise" and

"law enforcement" for "law-enforcement", inserted ", except that

the provisions of this chapter and section 1346(b) of this title

apply to any claim based on injury or loss of goods, merchandise,

or other property, while in the possession of any officer of

customs or excise or any other law enforcement officer, if - ", and

added pars. (1) to (4).

1974 - Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 93-253 inserted proviso.

1959 - Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 86-168 added subsec. (n).

1950 - Subsec. (g). Act Sept. 26, 1950, Sec. 13(5), repealed

subsec. (g).

Subsec. (m). Act Sept. 26, 1950, Sec. 2, substituted "Panama

Canal Company" for "Panama Railroad Company".

1949 - Subsec. (m). Act July 16, 1949, added subsec. (m).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2000 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 106-185 applicable to any forfeiture

proceeding commenced on or after the date that is 120 days after

Apr. 25, 2000, see section 21 of Pub. L. 106-185, set out as a note

under section 1324 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1959 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 86-168 effective Jan. 1, 1960, see section

203(c) of Pub. L. 86-168.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1950 AMENDMENT

Amendment by act Sept. 26, 1950, to take effect upon effective

date of transfer to the Panama Canal Company, pursuant to the

provisions of section 256 of the former Canal Zone Code, as added

by section 10 of that act, of the Panama Canal together with the

facilities and appurtenances related thereto, see section 14 of act

Sept. 26, 1950.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of

the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the

Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation and all

functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of

Secretary of the Treasury and of all other offices and officers of

Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of

Transportation by Pub. L. 89-670, Sec. 6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80

Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89-670, however, provided

that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall

operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as

provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of

Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of certain functions relating to claims and

litigation, insofar as they pertain to the Air Force, from

Secretary of the Army to Secretary of the Air Force, see Secretary

of Defense Transfer Order No. 34 [Sec. 1a(2)(4)], eff. July 1,

1949.

-MISC3-

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS - APPLICABILITY OF SUBSEC. (K)

Pub. L. 97-357, title II, Sec. 204, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1708,

provided: "That the Northern Mariana Islands shall not be

considered a foreign country for purposes of subsection (k) of

section 2680 of title 28, United States Code, with respect to

claims which accrued no more than two years prior to the effective

date of this Act [Oct. 19, 1982]."

TERMINATION OF NATIONAL EMERGENCY

Declaration of national emergency in effect on Sept. 14, 1976,

was terminated two years from that date by section 1601 of Title

50, War and National Defense.

APPLICABILITY OF SUBSEC. (J)

Joint Res. July 3, 1952, ch. 570, Sec. 1(a)(32), 66 Stat. 333, as

amended by Joint Res. Mar. 31, 1953, ch. 13, Sec. 1, 67 Stat. 18,

and Joint Res. June 30, 1953, ch. 172, 67 Stat. 132, provided that

subsec. (j) of this section, in addition to coming into full force

and effect in time of war, should continue in force until six

months after the termination of the national emergency proclaimed

by the President on Dec. 16, 1950 by 1950 Proc. No. 2914, 15 F.R.

9029, set out as a note preceding section 1 of Title 50 Appendix,

War and National Defense, or such earlier date or dates as may be

provided for by Congress, but in no event beyond Aug. 1, 1953.

Section 7 of Joint Res. July 3, 1952, provided that it should

become effective June 16, 1952.

Joint Res. July 3, 1952, ch. 570, Sec. 6, 66 Stat. 334, repealed

Joint Res. Apr. 14, 1952, ch. 204, 66 Stat. 54 as amended by Joint

Res. May 28, 1952, ch. 339, 66 Stat. 96; Joint Res. June 14, 1952,

ch. 437, 66 Stat. 137; Joint Res. June 30, 1952, ch. 526, 66 Stat.

296, which continued provisions of subsec. (j) of this section

until July 3, 1952. This repeal was made effective June 16, 1952,

by section 7 of Joint Res. July 3, 1952.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 8477; title 8

section 1357; title 10 sections 1054, 1089; title 15 section 2053;

title 19 section 1630; title 21 section 904; title 22 sections

1474, 2702; title 31 section 3724; title 38 section 7316; title 42

sections 233, 2458a.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original.

-End-