US (United States) Code. Title 26. Chapter 1: Normal taxes and surtaxes

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos) Legislación Federal estadounidense # Internal revenue code

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EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1989 AMENDMENT

Section 7205(c) of Pub. L. 101-239 provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as otherwise provided in this

subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this

section and section 382 of this title] shall apply to ownership

changes and acquisitions after October 2, 1989, in taxable years

ending after such date.

"(2) Binding contract. - The amendments made by this section

shall not apply to any ownership change or acquisition pursuant to

a written binding contract in effect on October 2, 1989, and at all

times thereafter before such change or acquisition.

"(3) Bankruptcy proceedings. - In the case of a reorganization

described in section 368(a)(1)(G) of the Internal Revenue Code of

1986, or an exchange of debt for stock in a title 11 or similar

case (as defined in section 368(a)(3) of such Code), the amendments

made by this section shall not apply to any ownership change

resulting from such a reorganization or proceeding if a petition in

such case was filed with the court before October 3, 1989.

"(4) Subsidiaries of bankrupt parent. - The amendments made by

this section shall not apply to any built-in loss of a corporation

which is a member (on October 2, 1989) of an affiliated group the

common parent of which (on such date) was subject to title 11 or

similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3) of such Code). The

preceding sentence shall apply only if the ownership change or

acquisition is pursuant to the plan approved in such proceeding and

is before the date 2 years after the date on which the petition

which commenced such proceeding was filed."

Section 7611(g) of Pub. L. 101-239 provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as otherwise provided in this

subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this

section and sections 59 and 312 of this title] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1989.

"(2) Intangible drilling costs. - The amendments made by

subsection (f)(5) [amending sections 59 and 312 of this title]

shall apply to costs paid or incurred in taxable years beginning

after December 31, 1989.

"(3) Regulations on earnings and profits rules. - Not later than

March 15, 1991, the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall

prescribe initial regulations providing guidance as to which items

of income are included in adjusted current earnings under section

56(g)(4)(B)(i) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and which items

of deduction are disallowed under section 56(g)(4)(C) of such

Code."

Section 7612(c)(2) of Pub. L. 101-239 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply

to contracts entered into in taxable years beginning after

September 30, 1990."

Section 7612(d)(2) of Pub. L. 101-239 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply

to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990."

Amendment by sections 7811(d)(3) and 7815(e)(2), (4) of Pub. L.

101-239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in

the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of

1988, Pub. L. 100-647, to which such amendment relates, see section

7817 of Pub. L. 101-239, set out as a note under section 1 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Section 1007(b)(14)(C) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The

amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and

section 57 of this title] shall apply with respect to options

exercised after December 31, 1987."

Amendment by sections 1002(a)(12) and 1007(b)(1)-(13), (15)-(19)

of Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if

included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L.

99-514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of

Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 2001(e) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "Except as

otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this

section [amending this section, sections 59A, 882, 4041, 4081,

4091, 4662, 4672, 6416, 6421, and 6427 of this title, and

provisions set out as a note under section 4081 of this title]

shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Superfund

Revenue Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99-499, title V] to which it relates."

Section 2004(u) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "Except as

otherwise provided in this section, any amendment made by this

section [amending this section, sections 163, 244, 280H, 301, 304,

355, 384, 444, 453, 453A, 469, 514, 811, 812, 816, 842, 904, 1201,

1363, 1503, 1561, 4093, 5113, 5123, 5276, 5881, 6427, 6655, 7519,

and 7704 of this title, and provisions set out as notes under

sections 21, 219, 243, 301, 304, 444, 453, 1503, and 7704 of this

title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the

Revenue Act of 1987 [Pub. L. 100-203, title X] to which such

amendment relates."

Amendment by section 5041(b)(4) of Pub. L. 100-647 applicable to

contracts entered into on or after June 21, 1988, but not

applicable to any contract resulting from the acceptance of a bid

made before June 21, 1988, if the bid could not have been revoked

or altered at any time on or after June 21, 1988, and not

applicable in the case of a qualified ship contract (as defined in

section 10203(b)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 100-203, set out as a note under

section 460 of this title), see section 5041(e) of Pub. L. 100-647,

set out as a note under section 460 of this title.

Section 6079(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take

effect as if included in the amendments made by section 701 of the

Reform Act [Pub. L. 99-514]."

Section 6303(b) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1987 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 10202(d) of Pub. L. 100-203 applicable to

dispositions in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with

coordination with Tax Reform Act of 1986, see section 10202(e)(4),

(5) of Pub. L. 100-203, set out as a note under section 453 of this

title.

Section 10243(b) of Pub. L. 100-203 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987."

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section

701(f) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 55 of

this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by sections 11801 and

11812 of Pub. L. 101-508 be construed to affect treatment of

certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of

income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov.

5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods

ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508,

set out as a note under section 29 of this title.

APPLICATION OF SUBSECTION (G)(1) AND (3) TO TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING

IN 1991 AND 1992

Section 1702(e)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: "For

purposes of applying sections 56(g)(1) and 56(g)(3) of the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to taxable years beginning in

1991 and 1992, the reference in such sections to the alternative

tax net operating loss deduction shall be treated as including a

reference to the deduction under section 56(h) of such Code as in

effect before the amendments made by section 1915 of the Energy

Policy Act of 1992 [Pub. L. 102-486]."

INSTALLMENT SALES; TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING IN 1987

Section 7821(a)(5) of Pub. L. 101-239 provided that: "In the case

of taxable years beginning in 1987, the reference to section 453

contained in section 56(a)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

shall be treated as including a reference to section 453A."

APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN AMENDMENTS BY PUB. L. 99-514 IN RELATION

TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS OF UNITED STATES

For applicability of amendment by section 701(a) of Pub. L.

99-514 [enacting this section] notwithstanding any treaty

obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with

provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub.

L. 100-647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision

of Pub. L. 99-514 to which such amendment relates, see section

1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under

section 861 of this title.

STUDY OF BOOK AND EARNINGS AND PROFITS ADJUSTMENTS

Section 702 of Pub. L. 99-514 required Secretary of the Treasury

or his delegate to conduct a study of operation and effect of

provisions of sections 56(f) and 56(g) of the Internal Revenue Code

of 1986, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Sec.

11832(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-559.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 59A,

168, 382, 772, 847, 848, 1400I of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be "46 App."

(!2) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 57 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

PART VI - ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX

-HEAD-

Sec. 57. Items of tax preference

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

For purposes of this part, the items of tax preference determined

under this section are -

(1) Depletion

With respect to each property (as defined in section 614), the

excess of the deduction for depletion allowable under section 611

for the taxable year over the adjusted basis of the property at

the end of the taxable year (determined without regard to the

depletion deduction for the taxable year). Effective with respect

to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992, this

paragraph shall not apply to any deduction for depletion computed

in accordance with section 613A(c).

(2) Intangible drilling costs

(A) In general

With respect to all oil, gas, and geothermal properties of

the taxpayer, the amount (if any) by which the amount of the

excess intangible drilling costs arising in the taxable year is

greater than 65 percent of the net income of the taxpayer from

oil, gas, and geothermal properties for the taxable year.

(B) Excess intangible drilling costs

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the amount of the excess

intangible drilling costs arising in the taxable year is the

excess of -

(i) the intangible drilling and development costs paid or

incurred in connection with oil, gas, and geothermal wells

(other than costs incurred in drilling a nonproductive well)

allowable under section 263(c) or 291(b) for the taxable

year, over

(ii) the amount which would have been allowable for the

taxable year if such costs had been capitalized and straight

line recovery of intangibles (as defined in subsection (b))

had been used with respect to such costs.

(C) Net income from oil, gas, and geothermal properties

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the amount of the net

income of the taxpayer from oil, gas, and geothermal properties

for the taxable year is the excess of -

(i) the aggregate amount of gross income (within the

meaning of section 613(a)) from all oil, gas, and geothermal

properties of the taxpayer received or accrued by the

taxpayer during the taxable year, over

(ii) the amount of any deductions allocable to such

properties reduced by the excess described in subparagraph

(B) for such taxable year.

(D) Paragraph applied separately with respect to geothermal

properties and oil and gas properties

This paragraph shall be applied separately with respect to -

(i) all oil and gas properties which are not described in

clause (ii), and

(ii) all properties which are geothermal deposits (as

defined in section 613(e)(2)).

(E) Exception for independent producers

In the case of any oil or gas well -

(i) In general

In the case of any taxable year beginning after December

31, 1992, this paragraph shall not apply to any taxpayer

which is not an integrated oil company (as defined in section

291(b)(4)).

(ii) Limitation on benefit

The reduction in alternative minimum taxable income by

reason of clause (i) for any taxable year shall not exceed 40

percent (30 percent in case of taxable years beginning in

1993) of the alternative minimum taxable income for such year

determined without regard to clause (i) and the alternative

tax net operating loss deduction under section 56(a)(4).

[(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1007(b)(14)(B),

Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3430]

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Sec. 1616(b)(3), Aug.

20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1856]

(5) Tax-exempt interest

(A) In general

Interest on specified private activity bonds reduced by any

deduction (not allowable in computing the regular tax) which

would have been allowable if such interest were includible in

gross income.

(B) Treatment of exempt-interest dividends

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any

exempt-interest dividend (as defined in section 852(b)(5)(A))

shall be treated as interest on a specified private activity

bond to the extent of its proportionate share of the interest

on such bonds received by the company paying such dividend.

(C) Specified private activity bonds

(i) In general

For purposes of this part, the term "specified private

activity bond" means any private activity bond (as defined in

section 141) which is issued after August 7, 1986, and the

interest on which is not includible in gross income under

section 103.

(ii) Exception for qualified 501(c)(3) bonds

For purposes of clause (i), the term "private activity

bond" shall not include any qualified 501(c)(3) bond (as

defined in section 145).

(iii) Exception for refundings

For purposes of clause (i), the term "private activity

bond" shall not include any refunding bond (whether a current

or advance refunding) if the refunded bond (or in the case of

a series of refundings, the original bond) was issued before

August 8, 1986.

(iv) Certain bonds issued before September 1, 1986

For purposes of this subparagraph, a bond issued before

September 1, 1986, shall be treated as issued before August

8, 1986, unless such bond would be a private activity bond if

-

(I) paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 141(b) were applied

by substituting "25 percent" for "10 percent" each place it

appears,

(II) paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) of section 141(b) did

not apply, and

(III) subparagraph (B) of section 141(c)(1) did not

apply.

(6) Accelerated depreciation or amortization on certain property

placed in service before January 1, 1987

The amounts which would be treated as items of tax preference

with respect to the taxpayer under paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and

(12) of this subsection (as in effect on the day before the date

of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986). The preceding

sentence shall not apply to any property to which section

56(a)(1) or (5) applies.

(7) Exclusion for gains on sale of certain small business stock

An amount equal to 42 percent of the amount excluded from gross

income for the taxable year under section 1202. In the case of

stock the holding period of which begins after December 31, 2000

(determined with the application of the last sentence of section

1(h)(2)(B)), the preceding sentence shall be applied by

substituting "28 percent" for "42 percent".

(b) Straight line recovery of intangibles defined

For purposes of paragraph (2) of subsection (a) -

(1) In general

The term "straight line recovery of intangibles", when used

with respect to intangible drilling and development costs for any

well, means (except in the case of an election under paragraph

(2)) ratable amortization of such costs over the 120-month period

beginning with the month in which production from such well

begins.

(2) Election

If the taxpayer elects with respect to the intangible drilling

and development costs for any well, the term "straight line

recovery of intangibles" means any method which would be

permitted for purposes of determining cost depletion with respect

to such well and which is selected by the taxpayer for purposes

of subsection (a)(2).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 99-514, title VII, Sec. 701(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2333; amended Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1007(b)(14)(B),

(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3430, 3432; Pub. L. 101-508, title

XI, Secs. 11344, 11801(c)(12)(A), 11815(b)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104

Stat. 1388-472, 1388-527, 1388-558; Pub. L. 102-227, title I, Sec.

112, Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1689; Pub. L. 102-486, title XIX,

Sec. 1915(a)(1), (b)(1), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3023, 3024; Pub.

L. 103-66, title XIII, Secs. 13113(b)(1), 13171(a), Aug. 10, 1993,

107 Stat. 429, 454; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Sec. 1616(b)(3), Aug.

20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1856; Pub. L. 105-34, title III, Sec.

311(b)(2)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 835; Pub. L. 105-206, title

VI, Sec. 6005(d)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 805.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred

to in subsec. (a)(6), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99-514,

which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

-MISC1-

PRIOR PROVISIONS

A prior section 57, added Pub. L. 91-172, title III, Sec. 301(a),

Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 581; amended Pub. L. 92-178, title III,

Secs. 303(b), 304(a)(1), (b)(1), (d), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat.

522-524; Pub. L. 94-455, title III, Sec. 301(c)(1)-(4)(A), (C),

title XIX, Secs. 1901(b)(33)(A), (B), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976,

90 Stat. 1550-1552, 1800, 1834; Pub. L. 95-30, title I, Sec.

101(d)(5), title III, Sec. 308(a), title IV, Sec. 402(a)(5), May

23, 1977, 91 Stat. 133, 153, 155; Pub. L. 95-600, title III, Sec.

301(b)(2), title IV, Secs. 402(b)(1), 421(b), title VII, Sec.

701(b)(1), (3), (4), (f)(3)(D), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2820, 2868,

2874, 2898, 2899, 2901; Pub. L. 95-618, title IV, Sec. 402(b), Nov.

9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3202; Pub. L. 96-222, title I, Secs.

104(a)(4)(E), (F), 107(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 217, 222;

Pub. L. 96-596, Sec. 3(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3475; Pub. L.

97-34, title I, Sec. 121(c)(1), title II, Secs. 205, 212(d)(2)(B),

Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 197, 223, 239; Pub. L. 97-248, title II,

Secs. 201(b), 204(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 416, 426; Pub. L.

97-354, Sec. 5(a)(14), (15), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1693; Pub. L.

97-448, title I, Sec. 102(b)(1)(A), (3), (4), Jan. 12, 1983, 96

Stat. 2369, 2370; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Secs. 16(b),

68(c), 111(e)(5)-(7), title V, Sec. 555(a)(2), title VII, Secs.

711(a)(3)(A), 722(a)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 505, 588, 633,

897, 942, 972; Pub. L. 99-121, title I, Sec. 103(b)(1)(B), (7),

Oct. 11, 1985, 99 Stat. 509, 510; Pub. L. 99-272, title XIII, Sec.

13208(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 99-514, title XVIII,

Secs. 1804(k)(3)(B)-(D), 1809(a)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2809,

2819, related to items of tax preference, prior to the general

revision of this part by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 701(a).

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 105-206 inserted at end "In the

case of stock the holding period of which begins after December 31,

2000 (determined with the application of the last sentence of

section 1(h)(2)(B)), the preceding sentence shall be applied by

substituting '28 percent' for '42 percent'."

1997 - Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 105-34 substituted "42 percent"

for "one-half".

1996 - Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 104-188 struck out par. (4) which

read as follows: "Reserves for losses on bad debts of financial

institutions. - In the case of a financial institution to which

section 593 applies, the amount by which the deduction allowable

for the taxable year for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad

debts exceeds the amount that would have been allowable had the

institution maintained its bad debt reserve for all taxable years

on the basis of actual experience."

1993 - Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13171(a),

redesignated pars. (7) and (8) as (6) and (7), respectively, and

struck out heading and text of former par. (6). Text read as

follows:

"(A) In general. - The amount by which the deduction allowable

under section 170 or 642(c) would be reduced if all capital gain

property were taken into account at its adjusted basis.

"(B) Capital gain property. - For purposes of subparagraph (A),

the term 'capital gain property' has the meaning given to such term

by section 170(b)(1)(C)(iv). Such term shall not include any

property to which an election under section 170(b)(1)(C)(iii)

applies. In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1991, such

term shall not include any tangible personal property. In the case

of a contribution made before July 1, 1992, in a taxable year

beginning in 1992, such term shall not include any tangible

personal property."

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13171(a), redesignated par.

(8) as (7).

Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13113(b)(1), added par. (8).

1992 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102-486, Sec. 1915(a)(1), inserted

at end "Effective with respect to taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1992, this paragraph shall not apply to any deduction

for depletion computed in accordance with section 613A(c)."

Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 102-486, Sec. 1915(b)(1), added

subpar. (E).

1991 - Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Pub. L. 102-227 inserted at end "In the

case of a contribution made before July 1, 1992, in a taxable year

beginning in 1992, such term shall not include any tangible

personal property."

1990 - Subsec. (a)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11815(b)(3),

substituted "section 613(e)(2)" for "section 613(e)(3)".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11801(c)(12)(A), struck out

"585 or" after "section".

Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11344, inserted at end

"In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1991, such term shall

not include any tangible personal property."

1988 - Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(b)(14)(B),

struck out par. (3) which related to incentive stock options.

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(i). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(c)(2), amended

cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows:

"For purposes of this part, the term 'specified private activity

bonds' means any private activity bond (as defined in section 141)

issued after August 7, 1986."

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(c)(1),

inserted "(whether a current or advance refunding)" after "any

refunding bond".

Subsec. (a)(6)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(c)(3), inserted "or

642(c)" after "section 170".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-206 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief

Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105-34, to which such amendment relates, see

section 6024 of Pub. L. 105-206, set out as a note under section 1

of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-34 applicable to taxable years ending

after May 6, 1997, see section 311(d) of Pub. L. 105-34, set out as

a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 104-188 applicable to taxable years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1995, see section 1616(c) of Pub. L.

104-188, set out as a note under section 593 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 13113(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103-66 applicable to

stock issued after Aug. 10, 1993, see section 13113(e) of Pub. L.

103-66, set out as a note under section 53 of this title.

Amendment by section 13171(a) of Pub. L. 103-66 applicable to

contributions made after June 30, 1992, except that in case of any

contribution of capital gain property which is not tangible

personal property, such amendment applicable only if the

contribution is made after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13171(d) of

Pub. L. 103-66, set out as a note under section 53 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 102-486 applicable to taxable years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 1915(d) of Pub. L.

102-486, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1007(b)(14)(B) of Pub. L. 100-647 applicable

with respect to options exercised after Dec. 31, 1987, see section

1007(b)(14)(C) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section

56 of this title.

Amendment by section 1007(c) of Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except

as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax

Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment

relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note

under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, but subsec.

(a)(6) not to apply to any deduction attributable to contributions

made before Aug. 16, 1986, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99-514,

set out as a note under section 55 of this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by sections 11801 and

11815 of Pub. L. 101-508 be construed to affect treatment of

certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of

income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov.

5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods

ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508,

set out as a note under section 29 of this title.

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Section 1007(f)(4) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that:

"(A) If any property to which this paragraph applies is placed in

service in a taxable year which begins before January 1, 1987, and

ends on or after August 1, 1986, the item of tax preference

determined under section 57(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954

(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the

Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986]) with respect to such

property shall be the excess of -

"(i) the amount allowable as a deduction for depreciation or

amortization for such taxable year, over

"(ii) the amount which would be determined for such taxable

year under the rules of paragraph (1) or (5) (whichever is

appropriate) of section 56(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of

1954 (as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99-514]).

"(B) This paragraph shall apply to any property -

"(i) which is described in paragraph (4) or (12) of section

57(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as so in effect), and

"(ii) to which paragraph (1) or (5) of section 56(a) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 would apply if the taxable year

referred to in subparagraph (A) began after December 31, 1986."

APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN AMENDMENTS BY PUB. L. 99-514 IN RELATION

TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS OF UNITED STATES

For applicability of amendment by section 701(a) of Pub. L.

99-514 [enacting this section] notwithstanding any treaty

obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with

provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub.

L. 100-647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision

of Pub. L. 99-514 to which such amendment relates, see section

1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under

section 861 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59,

148, 149, 772, 1400L of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 58 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

PART VI - ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX

-HEAD-

Sec. 58. Denial of certain losses

-STATUTE-

(a) Denial of farm loss

(1) In general

For purposes of computing the amount of the alternative minimum

taxable income for any taxable year of a taxpayer other than a

corporation -

(A) Disallowance of farm loss

No loss of the taxpayer for such taxable year from any tax

shelter farm activity shall be allowed.

(B) Deduction in succeeding taxable year

Any loss from a tax shelter farm activity disallowed under

subparagraph (A) shall be treated as a deduction allocable to

such activity in the 1st succeeding taxable year.

(2) Tax shelter farm activity

For purposes of this subsection, the term "tax shelter farm

activity" means -

(A) any farming syndicate as defined in section 464(c), and

(B) any other activity consisting of farming which is a

passive activity (within the meaning of section 469(c)).

(3) Application to personal service corporations

For purposes of paragraph (1), a personal service corporation

(within the meaning of section 469(j)(2)) shall be treated as a

taxpayer other than a corporation.

(4) Determination of loss

In determining the amount of the loss from any tax shelter farm

activity, the adjustments of sections 56 and 57 shall apply.

(b) Disallowance of passive activity loss

In computing the alternative minimum taxable income of the

taxpayer for any taxable year, section 469 shall apply, except that

in applying section 469 -

(1) the adjustments of sections 56 and 57 shall apply,

(2) the provisions of section 469(m) (relating to phase-in of

disallowance) shall not apply, and

(3) in lieu of applying section 469(j)(7), the passive activity

loss of a taxpayer shall be computed without regard to qualified

housing interest (as defined in section 56(e)).

(c) Special rules

For purposes of this section -

(1) Special rule for insolvent taxpayers

(A) In general

The amount of losses to which subsection (a) or (b) applies

shall be reduced by the amount (if any) by which the taxpayer

is insolvent as of the close of the taxable year.

(B) Insolvent

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "insolvent" means

the excess of liabilities over the fair market value of assets.

(2) Loss allowed for year of disposition of farm shelter activity

If the taxpayer disposes of his entire interest in any tax

shelter farm activity during any taxable year, the amount of the

loss attributable to such activity (determined after carryovers

under subsection (a)(1)(B)) shall (to the extent otherwise

allowable) be allowed for such taxable year in computing

alternative minimum taxable income and not treated as a loss from

a tax shelter farm activity.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 99-514, title VII, Sec. 701(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2335; amended Pub. L. 100-203, title X, Sec. 10212(b), Dec.

22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-406; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec.

1007(d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3432.)

-MISC1-

PRIOR PROVISIONS

A prior section 58, added Pub. L. 91-172, title III, Sec. 301(a),

Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 583; amended Pub. L. 92-178, title III,

Sec. 308(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 94-455, title

III, Sec. 301(d), title XIX, Secs. 1901(b)(40), 1906(b)(13)(A),

Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1553, 1803, 1834; Pub. L. 95-600, title IV,

Secs. 421(c), 423(a), title VII, Sec. 701(b)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92

Stat. 2875, 2877, 2898; Pub. L. 96-222, title I, Sec. 107(a)(1)(C),

Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 222; Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Sec.

201(c)(1), Sec. 201(d)(3), formerly Sec. 201(c)(3), Sept. 3, 1982,

96 Stat. 417, 419, renumbered Sec. 201(d)(3), Pub. L. 97-448, title

III, Sec. 306(a)(1)(A)(i), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2400; Pub. L.

97-354, Secs. 3(c), 5(a)(16), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1688, 1693;

Pub. L. 97-448, title I, Sec. 102(b)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat.

2369; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title VII, Sec. 711(a)(2), (3)(B),

July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 942; Pub. L. 99-514, title XVIII, Sec.

1875(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2894, related to rules for

application of minimum tax for tax preferences, prior to the

general revision of this part by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 701(a).

AMENDMENTS

1988 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(d)(1), struck

out "(as modified by section 461(i)(4)(A))" after "section 464(c)"

in subpar. (A) and substituted "section 469(c)" for "section

469(d), without regard to paragraph (1)(B) thereof" in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(d)(2), substituted

"469(j)(2)" for "469(g)(1)(C)".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(d)(3), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(d)(4), added pars. (1) to

(3) and struck out former pars. (1) to (3) which read as follows:

"(1) the adjustments of section 56 shall apply,

"(2) any deduction to the extent such deduction is an item of tax

preference under section 57(a) shall not be taken into account, and

"(3) the provisions of section 469(m) (relating to phase-in of

disallowance) shall not apply."

1987 - Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100-203 substituted "section

469(m)" for "section 469(l)".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of

1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment relates, see section

1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section 1 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1987 AMENDMENT

Section 10212(c) of Pub. L. 100-203 provided that: "The

amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections

163 and 469 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the

amendments made by section 501 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986

[section 501 of Pub. L. 99-514, see section 501(c) of Pub. L.

99-514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 469 of this

title]."

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section

701(f) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 55 of

this title.

APPLICABILITY OF 1986 REPEAL

Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, Sec. 7811(d)(1)(B), Dec. 19, 1989,

103 Stat. 2408, provided that: "The repeal of section 58(h) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1954 by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub.

L. 99-514] shall be effective only with respect to items of tax

preference arising in taxable years beginning after December 31,

1986."

APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN AMENDMENTS BY PUB. L. 99-514 IN RELATION

TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS OF UNITED STATES

For applicability of amendment by section 701(a) of Pub. L.

99-514 [enacting this section] notwithstanding any treaty

obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with

provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub.

L. 100-647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision

of Pub. L. 99-514 to which such amendment relates, see section

1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under

section 861 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 55, 56, 59, 772 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 59 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

PART VI - ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX

-HEAD-

Sec. 59. Other definitions and special rules

-STATUTE-

(a) Alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit

For purposes of this part -

(1) In general

The alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit for any taxable

year shall be the credit which would be determined under section

27(a) for such taxable year if -

(A) the pre-credit tentative minimum tax were the tax against

which such credit was taken for purposes of section 904 for the

taxable year and all prior taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1986,

(B) section 904 were applied on the basis of alternative

minimum taxable income instead of taxable income, and

(C) the determination of whether any income is high-taxed

income for purposes of section 904(d)(2) were made on the basis

of the applicable rate specified in subparagraph (A)(i) or

(B)(i) of section 55(b)(1) (whichever applies) in lieu of the

highest rate of tax specified in section 1 or 11 (whichever

applies).

(2) Limitation to 90 percent of tax

(A) In general

The alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit for any

taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of -

(i) the pre-credit tentative minimum tax for the taxable

year, over

(ii) 10 percent of the amount which would be the pre-credit

tentative minimum tax without regard to the alternative tax

net operating loss deduction and section 57(a)(2)(E).

(B) Carryback and carryforward

If the alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit exceeds the

amount determined under subparagraph (A), such excess shall,

for purposes of this part, be treated as an amount to which

section 904(c) applies.

(3) Pre-credit tentative minimum tax

For purposes of this subsection, the term "pre-credit tentative

minimum tax" means -

(A) in the case of a taxpayer other than a corporation, the

amount determined under the first sentence of section

55(b)(1)(A)(i), or

(B) in the case of a corporation, the amount determined under

section 55(b)(1)(B)(i).

(4) Election to use simplified section 904 limitation

(A) In general

In determining the alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit

for any taxable year to which an election under this paragraph

applies -

(i) subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply, and

(ii) the limitation of section 904 shall be based on the

proportion which -

(I) the taxpayer's taxable income (as determined for

purposes of the regular tax) from sources without the

United States (but not in excess of the taxpayer's entire

alternative minimum taxable income), bears to

(II) the taxpayer's entire alternative minimum taxable

income for the taxable year.

(B) Election

(i) In general

An election under this paragraph may be made only for the

taxpayer's first taxable year which begins after December 31,

1997, and for which the taxpayer claims an alternative

minimum tax foreign tax credit.

(ii) Election revocable only with consent

An election under this paragraph, once made, shall apply to

the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable

years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(b) Minimum tax not to apply to income eligible for credits under

section 30A or 936

In the case of any corporation for which a credit is allowable

for the taxable year under section 30A or 936, alternative minimum

taxable income shall not include any income with respect to which a

credit is determined under section 30A or 936.

(c) Treatment of estates and trusts

In the case of any estate or trust, the alternative minimum

taxable income of such estate or trust and any beneficiary thereof

shall be determined by applying part I of subchapter J with the

adjustments provided in this part.

(d) Apportionment of differently treated items in case of certain

entities

(1) In general

The differently treated items for the taxable year shall be

apportioned (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the

Secretary) -

(A) Regulated investment companies and real estate investment

trusts

In the case of a regulated investment company to which part I

of subchapter M applies or a real estate investment company to

which part II of subchapter M applies, between such company or

trust and shareholders and holders of beneficial interest in

such company or trust.

(B) Common trust funds

In the case of a common trust fund (as defined in section

584(a)), pro rata among the participants of such fund.

(2) Differently treated items

For purposes of this section, the term "differently treated

item" means any item of tax preference or any other item which is

treated differently for purposes of this part than for purposes

of computing the regular tax.

(e) Optional 10-year writeoff of certain tax preferences

(1) In general

For purposes of this title, any qualified expenditure to which

an election under this paragraph applies shall be allowed as a

deduction ratably over the 10-year period (3-year period in the

case of circulation expenditures described in section 173)

beginning with the taxable year in which such expenditure was

made (or, in the case of a qualified expenditure described in

paragraph (2)(C), over the 60-month period beginning with the

month in which such expenditure was paid or incurred).

(2) Qualified expenditure

For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified

expenditure" means any amount which, but for an election under

this subsection, would have been allowable as a deduction

(determined without regard to section 291) for the taxable year

in which paid or incurred under -

(A) section 173 (relating to circulation expenditures),

(B) section 174(a) (relating to research and experimental

expenditures),

(C) section 263(c) (relating to intangible drilling and

development expenditures),

(D) section 616(a) (relating to development expenditures), or

(E) section 617(a) (relating to mining exploration

expenditures).

(3) Other sections not applicable

Except as provided in this subsection, no deduction shall be

allowed under any other section for any qualified expenditure to

which an election under this subsection applies.

(4) Election

(A) In general

An election may be made under paragraph (1) with respect to

any portion of any qualified expenditure.

(B) Revocable only with consent

Any election under this subsection may be revoked only with

the consent of the Secretary.

(C) Partners and shareholders of S corporations

In the case of a partnership, any election under paragraph

(1) shall be made separately by each partner with respect to

the partner's allocable share of any qualified expenditure. A

similar rule shall apply in the case of an S corporation and

its shareholders.

(5) Dispositions

(A) Application of section 1254

In the case of any disposition of property to which section

1254 applies (determined without regard to this section), any

deduction under paragraph (1) with respect to amounts which are

allocable to such property shall, for purposes of section 1254,

be treated as a deduction allowable under section 263(c),

616(a), or 617(a), whichever is appropriate.

(B) Application of section 617(d)

In the case of any disposition of mining property to which

section 617(d) applies (determined without regard to this

subsection), any deduction under paragraph (1) with respect to

amounts which are allocable to such property shall, for

purposes of section 617(d), be treated as a deduction allowable

under section 617(a).

(6) Amounts to which election apply not treated as tax preference

Any portion of any qualified expenditure to which an election

under paragraph (1) applies shall not be treated as an item of

tax preference under section 57(a) and section 56 shall not apply

to such expenditure.

(f) Coordination with section 291

Except as otherwise provided in this part, section 291 (relating

to cutback of corporate preferences) shall apply before the

application of this part.

(g) Tax benefit rule

The Secretary may prescribe regulations under which differently

treated items shall be properly adjusted where the tax treatment

giving rise to such items will not result in the reduction of the

taxpayer's regular tax for the taxable year for which the item is

taken into account or for any other taxable year.

(h) Coordination with certain limitations

The limitations of sections 704(d), 465, and 1366(d) (and such

other provisions as may be specified in regulations) shall be

applied for purposes of computing the alternative minimum taxable

income of the taxpayer for the taxable year with the adjustments of

sections 56, 57, and 58.

(i) Special rule for amounts treated as tax preference

For purposes of this subtitle (other than this part), any amount

shall not fail to be treated as wholly exempt from tax imposed by

this subtitle solely by reason of being included in alternative

minimum taxable income.

(j) Treatment of unearned income of minor children

(1) In general

In the case of a child to whom section 1(g) applies, the

exemption amount for purposes of section 55 shall not exceed the

sum of -

(A) such child's earned income (as defined in section

911(d)(2)) for the taxable year, plus

(B) $5,000.

(2) Inflation adjustment

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year

after 1998, the dollar amount in paragraph (1)(B) shall be

increased by an amount equal to the product of -

(A) such dollar amount, and

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section

1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins,

determined by substituting "1997" for "1992" in subparagraph

(B) thereof.

If any increase determined under the preceding sentence is not a

multiple of $50, such increase shall be rounded to the nearest

multiple of $50.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 99-514, title VII, Sec. 701(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2336; amended Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Secs. 1007(e),

1014(e)(5)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3432, 3561; Pub. L.

101-239, title VII, Secs. 7611(f)(5)(B), (6), 7612(e)(1),

7811(d)(1)(A), (j)(7), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2373, 2374, 2408,

2412; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Secs. 11101(d)(3), 11531(b)(2),

11702(d), 11801(c)(2)(D), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-405,

1388-490, 1388-514, 1388-523; Pub. L. 102-486, title XIX, Sec.

1915(c)(3), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3024; Pub. L. 104-188, title

I, Secs. 1601(b)(2)(D), 1702(a)(1), 1703(e), 1704(m)(3), Aug. 20,

1996, 110 Stat. 1833, 1868, 1875, 1883; Pub. L. 105-34, title X,

Sec. 1057(a), title XI, Sec. 1103(a), title XII, Sec. 1201(b)(1),

Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 945, 966, 994; Pub. L. 105-206, title VI,

Secs. 6011(a), 6023(2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 817, 824.)

-STATAMEND-

ADJUSTMENT OF ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX EXEMPTION AMOUNT FOR TAXABLE

YEARS BEGINNING IN 2003

For adjustment of alternative minimum tax exemption amount under

subsection (j) of this section in the case of a child to whom the

"kiddie tax" applies for taxable years beginning in 2003, see

section 3.08 of Revenue Procedure 2002-70, set out as a note under

section 1 of this title.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6011(a),

redesignated par. (3), relating to election to use simplified

section 904 limitation, as (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6023(2), substituted "credits

under section 30A or 936" for "section 936 credit" in heading.

1997 - Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1057(a), struck

out subpar. (C) which read as follows:

"(C) Exception. - Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any

domestic corporation if -

"(i) more than 50 percent of the stock of such domestic

corporation (by vote and value) is owned by United States persons

who are not members of an affiliated group (as defined in section

1504 of such Code) which includes such corporation,

"(ii) all of the activities of such corporation are conducted

in 1 foreign country with which the United States has an income

tax treaty in effect and such treaty provides for the exchange of

information between such foreign country and the United States,

"(iii) all of the current earnings and profits of such

corporation are distributed at least annually (other than current

earnings and profits retained for normal maintenance or capital

replacements or improvements of an existing business), and

"(iv) all of such distributions by such corporation to United

States persons are used by such persons in a trade or business

conducted in the United States."

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1103(a), added par. (3)

relating to election to use simplified section 904 limitation.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1201(b)(1), amended subsec. (j)

generally, restating limitation on exemption amount, adding

provisions for inflation adjustment of such amount, and deleting

provisions relating to limitation based on parental minimum tax and

unused parental minimum tax exemption.

1996 - Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1703(e)(1),

substituted "the pre-credit tentative minimum tax" for "the amount

determined under section 55(b)(1)(A)".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1703(e)(2), substituted

"specified in subparagraph (A)(i) or (B)(i) of section 55(b)(1)

(whichever applies)" for "specified in section 55(b)(1)(A)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1703(e)(1),

substituted "the pre-credit tentative minimum tax" for "the amount

determined under section 55(b)(1)(A)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1703(e)(3),

substituted "which would be the pre-credit tentative minimum tax"

for "which would be determined under section 55(b)(1)(A)".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1703(e)(4), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1601(b)(2)(D), substituted

"section 30A or 936, alternative minimum taxable income shall not

include any income with respect to which a credit is determined

under section 30A or 936." for "section 936, alternative minimum

taxable income shall not include any amount with respect to which

the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 936(a)(1)

are met."

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1704(m)(3), substituted

"twice the amount in effect for the taxable year under section

63(c)(5)(A)" for "$1,000".

Subsec. (j)(3)(B). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1702(a)(1), substituted

"section 1(g)(3)(B)" for "section 1(i)(3)(B)".

1992 - Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 102-486 substituted "and

section 57(a)(2)(E)" for "and the alternative tax energy preference

deduction under section 56(h)".

1990 - Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec.

11801(c)(2)(D), inserted "and" at end of subpar. (B), redesignated

subpar. (D) as (C), and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as

follows: "for purposes of section 904, any increase in alternative

minimum taxable income by reason of section 56(c)(1)(A) (relating

to adjustment for book income) shall have the same proportionate

source (and character) as alternative minimum taxable income

determined without regard to such increase, and".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11531(b)(2),

inserted before period at end "and the alternative tax energy

preference deduction under section 56(h)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11101(d)(3)(A), substituted

"section 1(g)" for "section 1(i)" in pars. (1), (2)(A), (B)(i)(I),

(II), (D), and (3).

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11702(d)(1), inserted

"(or, if greater, the child's share of the unused parental minimum

tax exemption)" before period at end.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11101(d)(3)(B),

substituted "section 1(g)(3)(B)" for "section 1(i)(3)(B)".

Subsec. (j)(2)(D). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11702(d)(3), substituted

"paragraphs (3)(D), (5), and (6)" for "paragraphs (5) and (6)".

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11702(d)(2), added par.

(3).

1989 - Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7612(e)(1), added

subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7611(f)(5)(B), inserted

before period at end "(or, in the case of a qualified expenditure

described in paragraph (2)(C), over the 60-month period beginning

with the month in which such expenditure was paid or incurred)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7811(d)(1)(A), substituted

"for the taxable year for which the item is taken into account or

for any other taxable year" for "for any taxable year".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7611(f)(6), substituted

"amounts" for "interest" in heading and "any amount shall" for

"interest shall" in text.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7811(j)(7), substituted

"Other rules" for "Others rules" in heading.

1988 - Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(e)(3), added

subpar. (D).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(e)(1), inserted

"(determined without regard to section 291)" after "as a

deduction".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(e)(2), substituted

"taxable year with the adjustments of sections 56, 57, and 58" for

"taxable year -

"(1) with the adjustments of section 56, and

"(2) by not taking into account any deduction to the extent

such deduction is an item of tax preference under section 57(a)".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1007(e)(4), inserted "(other

than this part)" after "of this subtitle" and substituted

"subtitle" for "title" before "solely".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1014(e)(5)(A), added subsec.

(j).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 6023(2) of Pub. L. 105-206 effective July

22, 1998, see section 6023(32) of Pub. L. 105-206, set out as a

note under section 34 of this title.

Amendment by section 6011(a) of Pub. L. 105-206 effective, except

as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the

Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105-34, to which such

amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105-206, set out as

a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Section 1057(b) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendment

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable

years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug.

5, 1997]."

Section 1103(b) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendment

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable

years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Section 1201(c) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and sections 63 and

6103 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1997."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1601(b)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 104-188 applicable

to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1995, except as otherwise

provided, see section 1601(c) of Pub. L. 104-188, set out as an

Effective Date note under section 30A of this title.

Amendment by section 1702(a)(1) of Pub. L. 104-188 effective,

except as otherwise expressly provided, as if included in the

provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, Pub. L.

101-508, title XI, to which such amendment relates, see section

1702(i) of Pub. L. 104-188, set out as a note under section 38 of

this title.

Amendment by section 1703(e) of Pub. L. 104-188 effective as if

included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of

1993, Pub. L. 103-66, Secs. 13001-13444, to which such amendment

relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104-188, set out as a note

under section 39 of this title.

Amendment by section 1704(m)(3) of Pub. L. 104-188 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1995, see section 1704(m)(4)

of Pub. L. 104-188, set out as a note under section 1 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 102-486 applicable to taxable years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 1915(d) of Pub. L.

102-486, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 11101(d)(3) of Pub. L. 101-508 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e)

of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note under section 1 of this

title.

Amendment by section 11531(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101-508 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11531(c)

of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note under section 56 of this

title.

Section 11702(j) of Pub. L. 101-508 provided that: "Any amendment

made by this section [amending this section and sections 135, 216,

355, 367, 447, 453B, 468B, 2056, 2056A, 2523, 4980B, and 6114 of

this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of

the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 [Pub. L.

100-647] to which such amendment relates."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1989 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 7611(f)(6) of Pub. L. 101-239 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 7611(g)(1)

of Pub. L. 101-239, set out as a note under section 56 of this

title.

Amendment by section 7611(f)(5)(B) of Pub. L. 101-239 applicable

to costs paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1989, see section 7611(g)(2) of Pub. L. 101-239, set out as a note

under section 56 of this title.

Section 7612(e)(2) of Pub. L. 101-239 provided that:

"(A) In general. - The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending

this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after March

31, 1990.

"(B) Special rule for year which includes march 31, 1990. - In

the case of any taxable year (of a corporation described in

subparagraph (C) of section 59(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code

of 1986 (as added by paragraph (1))) which begins after December

31, 1989, and includes March 31, 1990, the amount determined under

clause (ii) of section 59(a)(2)(A) of such Code shall be an amount

which bears the same ratio to the amount which would have been

determined under such clause without regard to this subparagraph as

the number of days in such taxable year on or before March 31,

1990, bears to the total number of days in such taxable year."

Amendment by section 7811(d)(1)(A), (j)(7) of Pub. L. 101-239

effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the

provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988,

Pub. L. 100-647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817

of Pub. L. 101-239, set out as a note under section 1 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1007(e) of Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except

as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax

Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment

relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note

under section 1 of this title.

Section 1014(e)(5)(B) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The

amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall

apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988."

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section

701(f) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 55 of

this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11801 of Pub.

L. 101-508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions

occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction,

or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of

determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,

1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note

under section 29 of this title.

CONSIDERATION OF CERTAIN TAXES TREATED AS PAID OR ACCRUED UNDER

SECTION 904(C) IN DETERMINATION OF ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX FOREIGN

TAX CREDIT

Section 1007(f)(5) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "In

determining the amount of the alternative minimum tax foreign tax

credit under section 59 of the 1986 Code, there shall not be taken

into account any taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning

after December 31, 1986, which are treated under section 904(c) of

the 1986 Code as paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning on or

before December 31, 1986."

APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN AMENDMENTS BY PUB. L. 99-514 IN RELATION

TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS OF UNITED STATES

For applicability of amendment by section 701(a) of Pub. L.

99-514 [enacting this section] notwithstanding any treaty

obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with

provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub.

L. 100-647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision

of Pub. L. 99-514 to which such amendment relates, see section

1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under

section 861 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 53, 173, 174, 263, 263A,

616, 617, 904, 1016 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC PART VII - ENVIRONMENTAL TAX 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

PART VII - ENVIRONMENTAL TAX

-HEAD-

PART VII - ENVIRONMENTAL TAX

-MISC1-

Sec.

59A. Environmental tax.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 59A 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

PART VII - ENVIRONMENTAL TAX

-HEAD-

Sec. 59A. Environmental tax

-STATUTE-

(a) Imposition of tax

In the case of a corporation, there is hereby imposed (in

addition to any other tax imposed by this subtitle) a tax equal to

0.12 percent of the excess of -

(1) the modified alternative minimum taxable income of such

corporation for the taxable year, over

(2) $2,000,000.

(b) Modified alternative minimum taxable income

For purposes of this section, the term "modified alternative

minimum taxable income" means alternative minimum taxable income

(as defined in section 55(b)(2)) but determined without regard to -

(1) the alternative tax net operating loss deduction (as

defined in section 56(d)), and

(2) the deduction allowed under section 164(a)(5).

(c) Exception for RIC's and REIT's

The tax imposed by subsection (a) shall not apply to -

(1) a regulated investment company to which part I of

subchapter M applies, and

(2) a real estate investment trust to which part II of

subchapter M applies.

(d) Special rules

(1) Short taxable years

The application of this section to taxable years of less than

12 months shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by

the Secretary.

(2) Section 15 not to apply

Section 15 shall not apply to the tax imposed by this section.

(e) Application of tax

(1) In general

The tax imposed by this section shall apply to taxable years

beginning after December 31, 1986, and before January 1, 1996.

(2) Earlier termination

The tax imposed by this section shall not apply to taxable

years -

(A) beginning during a calendar year during which no tax is

imposed under section 4611(a) by reason of paragraph (2) of

section 4611(e), and

(B) beginning after the calendar year which includes the

termination date under paragraph (3) of section 4611(e).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 99-499, title V, Sec. 516(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100

Stat. 1770; amended Pub. L. 100-647, title II, Sec. 2001(c)(1),

(3)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3594; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI,

Secs. 11231(a)(1)(A), 11531(b)(3), 11801(c)(2)(E), Nov. 5, 1990,

104 Stat. 1388-444, 1388-490, 1388-523; Pub. L. 102-486, title XIX,

Sec. 1915(c)(4), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3024.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1992 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102-486 struck out "or the

alternative tax energy preference deduction under section 56(h)"

after "section 56(d))".

1990 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11531(b)(3),

inserted before comma "or the alternative tax energy preference

deduction under section 56(h)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11801(c)(2)(E), struck out

"(and the last sentence of section 56(f)(2)(B))" after "section

164(a)(5)".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11231(a)(1)(A), substituted

"January 1, 1996" for "January 1, 1992".

1988 - Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 2001(c)(3)(B),

inserted "(and the last sentence of section 56(f)(2)(B))" before

period at end.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 2001(c)(1), added

subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and

(e), respectively.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 102-486 applicable to taxable years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 1915(d) of Pub. L.

102-486, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 11531(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101-508 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11531(c)

of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note under section 56 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provision of the Superfund Revenue

Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-499, title V, to which it relates, see

section 2001(e) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section

56 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1986, see section 516(c) of Pub. L. 99-499, set out as an Effective

Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 26 of this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11801 of Pub.

L. 101-508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions

occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction,

or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of

determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,

1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note

under section 29 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 26, 30A, 164, 275, 882,

936, 1561, 4611, 6425, 6655, 9507 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC [PART VIII - REPEALED] 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

[PART VIII - REPEALED]

-HEAD-

[PART VIII - REPEALED]

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC [Sec. 59B 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter A - Determination of Tax Liability

[PART VIII - REPEALED]

-HEAD-

[Sec. 59B. Repealed. Pub. L. 101-234, title I, Sec. 102(a), Dec.

13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1980]

-MISC1-

Section, added Pub. L. 100-360, title I, Sec. 111(a), July 1,

1988, 102 Stat. 690, provided for imposition of a supplemental

medicare premium.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL

Section 102(d) of Pub. L. 101-234 provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as provided in this subsection, the

provisions of this section [repealing section 1395i-1a of Title 42,

The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes

under section 6050F of this title and section 1395t of Title 42,

and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1395i-1a

of Title 42] shall take effect January 1, 1990.

"(2) Repeal of supplemental medicare premium. - The repeal of

section 111 of MCCA [Pub. L. 100-360, which enacted this section,

amended section 6050F of this title, and enacted provisions set out

as notes below] shall apply to taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1988."

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 111(e) of Pub. L. 100-360, which provided that the

enactment of this section and the amendment of section 6050F of

this title applied to taxable years beginning after December 31,

1988, and that in case of a taxable year beginning in 1989, the

premium imposed by this section should not be treated as a tax for

purposes of applying section 6654 of this title, was repealed by

Pub. L. 101-234, title I, Sec. 102(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat.

1980.

ANNOUNCEMENT OF SUPPLEMENTAL PREMIUM RATE

Section 111(d) of Pub. L. 100-360, which provided that in the

case of calendar year 1993 or any calendar year thereafter (1) not

later than July 1 of such calendar year, the Secretary of the

Treasury or his delegate was required to make an announcement of

the estimated supplemental premium rate under this section for

taxable years beginning in the following calendar year, and (2) not

later than October 1 of such calendar year, the Secretary of the

Treasury or his delegate was required to make an announcement of

the actual supplemental premium rate under this section for such

taxable years, was repealed by Pub. L. 101-234, title I, Sec.

102(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1980.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

-HEAD-

SUBCHAPTER B - COMPUTATION OF TAXABLE INCOME

-MISC1-

Part

I. Definition of gross income, adjusted gross income,

taxable income, etc.

II. Items specifically included in gross income.

III. Items specifically excluded from gross income.

IV. Determination of marital status.(!1)

V. Deductions for personal exemptions.

VI. Itemized deductions for individuals and corporations.

VII. Additional itemized deductions for individuals.

VIII. Special deductions for corporations.

IX. Items not deductible.

X. Terminal railroad corporations and their shareholders.

XI. Special rules relating to corporate preference items.

AMENDMENTS

1982 - Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Sec. 204(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982,

96 Stat. 427, added item for part XI.

1977 - Pub. L. 95-30, title I, Sec. 101(e)(3), May 23, 1977, 91

Stat. 135, substituted "Determination of marital status" for

"Standard deduction for individuals" in item for part IV.

1976 - Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1901(b)(4)(C), Oct. 4,

1976, 90 Stat. 1793, substituted "taxable income, etc." for "and

taxable income." in item for part I.

1962 - Pub. L. 87-870, Sec. 1(b), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1160,

added item for part X.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) Part heading amended by Pub. L. 99-514 without corresponding

amendment of analysis.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED

GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE INCOME, ETC. 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-MISC1-

Sec.

61. Gross income defined.

62. Adjusted gross income defined.

63. Taxable income defined.

64. Ordinary income defined.

65. Ordinary loss defined.

66. Treatment of community income.

67. 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions.

68. Overall limitation on itemized deductions.

AMENDMENTS

1990 - Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Sec. 11103(d), Nov. 5, 1990,

104 Stat. 1388-407, added item 68.

1986 - Pub. L. 99-514, title I, Sec. 132(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2116, added item 67.

1984 - Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, Sec. 424(b)(2)(C), July

18, 1984, 98 Stat. 803, struck out "where spouses live apart" in

item 66.

1980 - Pub. L. 96-605, title I, Sec. 101(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94

Stat. 3522, added item 66.

1976 - Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1901(b)(4)(A), (B), Oct.

4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, substituted "TAXABLE INCOME, ETC." for "AND

TAXABLE INCOME" in part heading, and added items 64 and 65.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 61 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 61. Gross income defined

-STATUTE-

(a) General definition

Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, gross income means

all income from whatever source derived, including (but not limited

to) the following items:

(1) Compensation for services, including fees, commissions,

fringe benefits, and similar items;

(2) Gross income derived from business;

(3) Gains derived from dealings in property;

(4) Interest;

(5) Rents;

(6) Royalties;

(7) Dividends;

(8) Alimony and separate maintenance payments;

(9) Annuities;

(10) Income from life insurance and endowment contracts;

(11) Pensions;

(12) Income from discharge of indebtedness;

(13) Distributive share of partnership gross income;

(14) Income in respect of a decedent; and

(15) Income from an interest in an estate or trust.

(b) Cross references

For items specifically included in gross income, see part II

(sec. 71 and following). For items specifically excluded from

gross income, see part III (sec. 101 and following).

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A,

title V, Sec. 531(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 884.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1984 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98-369 inserted reference to

fringe benefits.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section

531(h) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an Effective Date note under

section 132 of this title.

TERMINATION DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 95-615, Sec. 210(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3109,

provided that: "Title I of this Act [probably means sections 1 to 8

of Pub. L. 95-615, see Short Title of 1978 Amendment note under

section 1 of this title] (other than sections 4 and 5 thereof)

[amending section 167 of this title, enacting provisions set out as

notes under this section and sections 61 and 62 of this title, and

amending provisions set out as notes under sections 117, 167, and

382 of this title] shall cease to have effect on the day after the

date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978]."

REGULATIONS

Pub. L. 95-427, Sec. 1, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 996, as amended by

Pub. L. 96-167, Sec. 1, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1275; Pub. L.

97-34, title VIII, Sec. 801, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349; Pub. L.

99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) In General. - No fringe benefit regulation shall be issued -

"(1) in final form on or after May 1, 1978, and on or before

December 31, 1983, or

"(2) in proposed or final form on or after May 1, 1978, if such

regulation has an effective date on or before December 31, 1983.

"(b) Definition of Fringe Benefit Regulation. - For purposes of

subsection (a), the term 'fringe benefit regulation' means a

regulation providing for the inclusion of any fringe benefit in

gross income by reason of section 61 of the Internal Revenue Code

of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]."

Pub. L. 95-615, Sec. 3, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, as amended

by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided

that no regulations be issued in final form on or after Oct. 1,

1977, and before July 1, 1978, providing for inclusion of any

fringe benefit in gross income by reason of section 61 of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], ceased to

have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978, pursuant to section

210(a) of that Act.

NO GAIN RECOGNIZED FROM NET GIFTS MADE BEFORE MARCH 4, 1981

Section 1026 of Pub. L. 98-369, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) In General. - In the case of any transfer of property

subject to gift tax made before March 4, 1981, for purposes of

subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C.

1954, 26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.], gross income of the donor shall not

include any amount attributable to the donee's payment of (or

agreement to pay) any gift tax imposed with respect to such gift.

"(b) Gift Tax Defined. - For purposes of subsection (a), the term

'gift tax' means -

"(1) the tax imposed by chapter 12 of such Code [26 U.S.C. 2501

et seq.], and

"(2) any tax imposed by a State (or the District of Columbia)

on transfers by gifts.

"(c) Statute of Limitations. - If refund or credit of any

overpayment of tax resulting from subsection (a) is prevented on

the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] (or at any

time within 1 year after such date) by the operation of any law or

rule of law (including res judicata), refund or credit of such

overpayment (to the extent attributable to subsection (a)) may

nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed within 1

year after the date of the enactment of this Act."

PAYMENT-IN-KIND TAX TREATMENT ACT OF 1983

Pub. L. 98-4, Mar. 11, 1983, 97 Stat. 7, as amended by Pub. L.

98-369, div. A, title X, Sec. 1061(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat.

1046; Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub.

L. 100-647, title VI, Sec. 6252(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat.

3752, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act

of 1983'.

"SEC. 2. INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES RECEIVED

UNDER A 1983 PAYMENT-IN-KIND PROGRAM.

"(a) Income Tax Deferral, Etc. - Except as otherwise provided in

this Act, for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

[formerly I.R.C. 1954] -

"(1) a qualified taxpayer shall not be treated as having

realized income when he receives a commodity under a 1983

payment-in-kind program,

"(2) such commodity shall be treated as if it were produced by

such taxpayer, and

"(3) the unadjusted basis of such commodity in the hands of

such taxpayer shall be zero.

"(b) Effective Date. - This section shall apply to taxable years

ending after December 31, 1982, but only with respect to

commodities received for the 1983 crop year.

"SEC. 3. LAND DIVERTED UNDER 1983 PAYMENT-IN-KIND PROGRAM TREATED

AS USED IN FARMING BUSINESS, ETC.

"(a) General Rule. - For purposes of the provisions specified in

subsection (b), in the case of any land diverted from the

production of an agricultural commodity under a 1983

payment-in-kind program -

"(1) such land shall be treated as used during the 1983 crop

year by the qualified taxpayer in the active conduct of the trade

or business of farming, and

"(2) any qualified taxpayer who materially participates in the

diversion and devotion to conservation uses required under a 1983

payment-in-kind program shall be treated as materially

participating in the operation of such land during such crop

year.

"(b) Provisions to Which Subsection (a) Applies. - The provisions

specified in this subsection are -

"(1) section 2032A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

(relating to valuation of certain farm, etc., real property),

"(2) section 6166 of such Code (relating to extension of time

for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of

interest in closely held business),

"(3) chapter 2 of such Code (relating to tax on self-employment

income), and

"(4) title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et

seq.] (relating to Federal old-age, survivors, and disability

insurance benefits).

"SEC. 4. ANTIABUSE RULES.

"(a) General Rule. - In the case of any person, sections 2 and 3

of this Act shall not apply with respect to any land acquired by

such person after February 23, 1983, unless such land was acquired

in a qualified acquisition.

"(b) Qualified Acquisition. - For purposes of this section, the

term 'qualified acquisition' means any acquisition -

"(1) by reason of the death of a qualified transferor,

"(2) by reason of a gift from a qualified transferor, or

"(3) from a qualified transferor who is a member of the family

of the person acquiring the land.

"(c) Definitions and Special Rules. - For purposes of this

section -

"(1) Qualified transferor. - The term 'qualified transferor'

means any person -

"(A) who held the land on February 23, 1983, or

"(B) who acquired the land after February 23, 1983, in a

qualified acquisition.

"(2) Member of family. - The term 'member of the family' has

the meaning given such term by section 2032A(e)(2) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

"(3) Mere change in form of business. - Subsection (a) shall

not apply to any change in ownership by reason of a mere change

in the form of conducting the trade or business so long as the

land is retained in such trade or business and the person holding

the land before such change retains a direct or indirect

80-percent interest in such land.

"(4) Treatment of certain acquisitions of right to the crop. -

The acquisition of a direct or indirect interest in 80 percent or

more of the crop from any land shall be treated as an acquisition

of such land.

"SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS AND SPECIAL RULES.

"(a) General Rule. - For purposes of this Act -

"(1) 1983 payment-in-kind program. - The term '1983

payment-in-kind program' means any program for the 1983 crop year

-

"(A) under which the Secretary of Agriculture (or his

delegate) makes payments in kind of any agricultural commodity

to any person in return for -

"(i) the diversion of farm acreage from the production of

an agricultural commodity, and

"(ii) the devotion of such acreage to conservation uses,

and

"(B) which the Secretary of Agriculture certifies to the

Secretary of the Treasury as being described in subparagraph

(A).

"(2) Crop year. - The term '1983 crop year' means the crop year

for any crop the planting or harvesting period for which occurs

during 1983. The term '1984 crop year' means the crop year for

wheat the planting and harvesting period for which occurs during

1984.

"(3) Qualified taxpayer. - The term 'qualified taxpayer' means

any producer of agricultural commodities (within the meaning of

the 1983 payment-in-kind programs) who receives any agricultural

commodity in return for meeting the requirements of clauses (i)

and (ii) of paragraph (1)(A).

"(4) Receipt includes right to receive, etc. - A right to

receive (or other constructive receipt of) a commodity shall be

treated the same as actual receipt of such commodity.

"(5) Amounts received by the taxpayer as reimbursement for

storage. - A qualified taxpayer reporting on the cash receipts

and disbursements method of accounting shall not be treated as

being entitled to receive any amount as reimbursement for storage

of commodities received under a 1983 payment-in-kind program

until such amount is actually received by the taxpayer.

"(6) Commodity credit loans treated separately. - Subsection

(a) of section 2 shall apply to the receipt of any commodity

under a 1983 payment-in-kind program separately from, and without

taking into account, any related transaction or series of

transactions involving the satisfaction of loans from the

Commodity Credit Corporation.

"(b) Extension to Wheat Planted and Harvested in 1984. - In the

case of wheat -

"(1) any reference in this Act to the 1983 crop year shall

include a reference to the 1984 crop year, and

"(2) any reference to the 1983 payment-in-kind program shall

include a reference to any program for the 1984 year for wheat

which meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of

subsection (a)(1).

"(c) Regulations. - The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate

(after consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture) shall

prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the

purposes of this Act, including (but not limited to) such

regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this

Act where the commodity is received by a cooperative on behalf of

the qualified taxpayer."

[Section 1061(b) of Pub. L. 98-369 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending Pub. L. 98-4 set out above] shall

apply with respect to commodities received for the 1984 crop year

(as defined in section 5(a)(2) of the Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment

Act of 1983 [Pub. L. 98-4, set out above] as amended by subsection

(a))."]

CANCELLATION OF CERTAIN STUDENT LOANS

Pub. L. 94-455, title XXI, Sec. 2117, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat.

1911, as amended by Pub. L. 95-600, title I, Sec. 162, Nov. 6,

1978, 92 Stat. 2810; Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2095, provided that no amount be included in gross income of

an individual for purposes of 26 U.S.C. 61 by reason of the

discharge made before Jan. 1, 1983 of the indebtedness of the

individual under a student loan if the discharge was pursuant to a

provision of the loan under which the indebtedness of the

individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a

certain period of time in certain geographical areas or for certain

classes of employers.

REGULATIONS RELATING TO TAX TREATMENT OF CERTAIN PREPUBLICATION

EXPENDITURES OF PUBLISHERS

Pub. L. 94-455, title XXI, Sec. 2119, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat.

1912, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(a) General Rule. - With respect to taxable years beginning on

or before the date on which regulations dealing with prepublication

expenditures are issued after the date of the enactment of this Act

[Oct. 4, 1976], the application of sections 61 (as it relates to

cost of goods sold), 162, 174, 263, and 471 of the Internal Revenue

Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] to any prepublication

expenditure shall be administered -

"(1) without regard to Revenue Ruling 73-395, and

"(2) in the manner in which such sections were applied

consistently by the taxpayer to such expenditures before the date

of the issuance of such revenue ruling.

"(b) Regulations To Be Prospective Only. - Any regulations issued

after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976] which

deal with the application of sections 61 (as it relates to cost of

goods sold), 162, 174, 263, and 471 of the Internal Revenue Code of

1986 to prepublication expenditures shall apply only with respect

to taxable years beginning after the date on which such regulations

are issued.

"(c) Prepublication Expenditures Defined. - For purposes of this

section, the term 'prepublication expenditures' means expenditures

paid or incurred by the taxpayer (in connection with his trade or

business of publishing) for the writing, editing, compiling,

illustrating, designing, or other development or improvement of a

book, teaching aid, or similar product."

REIMBURSEMENT OF MOVING EXPENSES OF EMPLOYEES OF CERTAIN

CORPORATIONS EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME; CLAIM FOR REFUND OR

CREDIT; LIMITATIONS; INTEREST

Pub. L. 86-780, Sec. 5, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1013, provided

for the exclusion from gross income of any amount received after

Dec. 31, 1949, and before Oct. 1, 1955, by employees of certain

corporations as reimbursement for moving expenses, and the refund

or credit of any overpayments.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 208A, 305, 351, 354, 355,

356, 408, 671, 707, 6103 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 62 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 62. Adjusted gross income defined

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

For purposes of this subtitle, the term "adjusted gross income"

means, in the case of an individual, gross income minus the

following deductions:

(1) Trade and business deductions

The deductions allowed by this chapter (other than by part VII

of this subchapter) which are attributable to a trade or business

carried on by the taxpayer, if such trade or business does not

consist of the performance of services by the taxpayer as an

employee.

(2) Certain trade and business deductions of employees

(A) Reimbursed expenses of employees

The deductions allowed by part VI (section 161 and following)

which consist of expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer, in

connection with the performance by him of services as an

employee, under a reimbursement or other expense allowance

arrangement with his employer. The fact that the reimbursement

may be provided by a third party shall not be determinative of

whether or not the preceding sentence applies.

(B) Certain expenses of performing artists

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of

expenses paid or incurred by a qualified performing artist in

connection with the performances by him of services in the

performing arts as an employee.

(C) Certain expenses of officials

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of

expenses paid or incurred with respect to services performed by

an official as an employee of a State or a political

subdivision thereof in a position compensated in whole or in

part on a fee basis.

(D) Certain expenses of elementary and secondary school

teachers

In the case of taxable years beginning during 2002 or 2003,

the deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of

expenses, not in excess of $250, paid or incurred by an

eligible educator in connection with books, supplies (other

than nonathletic supplies for courses of instruction in health

or physical education), computer equipment (including related

software and services) and other equipment, and supplementary

materials used by the eligible educator in the classroom.

(3) Losses from sale or exchange of property

The deductions allowed by part VI (sec. 161 and following) as

losses from the sale or exchange of property.

(4) Deductions attributable to rents and royalties

The deductions allowed by part VI (sec. 161 and following), by

section 212 (relating to expenses for production of income), and

by section 611 (relating to depletion) which are attributable to

property held for the production of rents or royalties.

(5) Certain deductions of life tenants and income beneficiaries

of property

In the case of a life tenant of property, or an income

beneficiary of property held in trust, or an heir, legatee, or

devisee of an estate, the deduction for depreciation allowed by

section 167 and the deduction allowed by section 611.

(6) Pension, profit-sharing, and annuity plans of self-employed

individuals

In the case of an individual who is an employee within the

meaning of section 401(c)(1), the deduction allowed by section

404.

(7) Retirement savings

The deduction allowed by section 219 (relating to deduction of

certain retirement savings).

[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Sec. 1401(b)(4), Aug.

20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1788]

(9) Penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds

from time savings accounts or deposits

The deductions allowed by section 165 for losses incurred in

any transaction entered into for profit, though not connected

with a trade or business, to the extent that such losses include

amounts forfeited to a bank, mutual savings bank, savings and

loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank

or homestead association as a penalty for premature withdrawal of

funds from a time savings account, certificate of deposit, or

similar class of deposit.

(10) Alimony

The deduction allowed by section 215.

(11) Reforestation expenses

The deduction allowed by section 194.

(12) Certain required repayments of supplemental unemployment

compensation benefits

The deduction allowed by section 165 for the repayment to a

trust described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c) of

supplemental unemployment compensation benefits received from

such trust if such repayment is required because of the receipt

of trade readjustment allowances under section 231 or 232 of the

Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2291 and 2292).

(13) Jury duty pay remitted to employer

Any deduction allowable under this chapter by reason of an

individual remitting any portion of any jury pay to such

individual's employer in exchange for payment by the employer of

compensation for the period such individual was performing jury

duty. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "jury pay"

means any payment received by the individual for the discharge of

jury duty.

(14) Deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling

property

The deduction allowed by section 179A.

(15) Moving expenses

The deduction allowed by section 217.

(16) Archer MSAs

The deduction allowed by section 220.

(17) Interest on education loans

The deduction allowed by section 221.

(18) Higher education expenses

The deduction allowed by section 222.

Nothing in this section shall permit the same item to be deducted

more than once.

(b) Qualified performing artist

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(B), the term "qualified

performing artist" means, with respect to any taxable year, any

individual if -

(A) such individual performed services in the performing arts

as an employee during the taxable year for at least 2

employers,

(B) the aggregate amount allowable as a deduction under

section 162 in connection with the performance of such services

exceeds 10 percent of such individual's gross income

attributable to the performance of such services, and

(C) the adjusted gross income of such individual for the

taxable year (determined without regard to subsection

(a)(2)(B)) does not exceed $16,000.

(2) Nominal employer not taken into account

An individual shall not be treated as performing services in

the performing arts as an employee for any employer during any

taxable year unless the amount received by such individual from

such employer for the performance of such services during the

taxable year equals or exceeds $200.

(3) Special rules for married couples

(A) In general

Except in the case of a husband and wife who lived apart at

all times during the taxable year, if the taxpayer is married

at the close of the taxable year, subsection (a)(2)(B) shall

apply only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return

for the taxable year.

(B) Application of paragraph (1)

In the case of a joint return -

(i) paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (C) thereof)

shall be applied separately with respect to each spouse, but

(ii) paragraph (1)(C) shall be applied with respect to

their combined adjusted gross income.

(C) Determination of marital status

For purposes of this subsection, marital status shall be

determined under section 7703(a).

(D) Joint return

For purposes of this subsection, the term "joint return"

means the joint return of a husband and wife made under section

6013.

(c) Certain arrangements not treated as reimbursement arrangements

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(A), an arrangement shall in no

event be treated as a reimbursement or other expense allowance

arrangement if -

(1) such arrangement does not require the employee to

substantiate the expenses covered by the arrangement to the

person providing the reimbursement, or

(2) such arrangement provides the employee the right to retain

any amount in excess of the substantiated expenses covered under

the arrangement.

The substantiation requirements of the preceding sentence shall not

apply to any expense to the extent that substantiation is not

required under section 274(d) for such expense by reason of the

regulations prescribed under the 2nd sentence thereof.

(d) Definition; special rules

(1) Eligible educator

(A) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(D), the term "eligible

educator" means, with respect to any taxable year, an

individual who is a kindergarten through grade 12 teacher,

instructor, counselor, principal, or aide in a school for at

least 900 hours during a school year.

(B) School

The term "school" means any school which provides elementary

education or secondary education (kindergarten through grade

12), as determined under State law.

(2) Coordination with exclusions

A deduction shall be allowed under subsection (a)(2)(D) for

expenses only to the extent the amount of such expenses exceeds

the amount excludable under section 135, 529(c)(1), or 530(d)(2)

for the taxable year.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 17; Pub. L. 87-792, Sec. 7(b),

Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 88-272, title II, Sec. 213(b),

Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 52; Pub. L. 91-172, title V, Sec. 531(b),

Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 93-406, title II, Secs.

2002(a)(2), 2005(c)(9), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 959, 992; Pub. L.

93-483, Sec. 6(a), Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1458; Pub. L. 94-455,

title V, Sec. 502(a), title XV, Sec. 1501(b)(1), title XIX, Sec.

1901(a)(8), (9), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, 1735, 1765; Pub. L.

95-615, Sec. 203(b), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3106; Pub. L. 96-451,

title III, Sec. 301(b), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1990; Pub. L.

96-608, Sec. 3(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3551; Pub. L. 97-34,

title I, Secs. 103(b), 112(b)(2), title III, Sec. 311(h)(1), Aug.

13, 1981, 95 Stat. 187, 195, 282; Pub. L. 97-354, Sec. 5(a)(17),

Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1693; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV,

Sec. 491(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 99-514, title

I, Secs. 131(b)(1), 132(b), (c), title III, Sec. 301(b)(1), title

XVIII, Sec. 1875(c)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113, 2115, 2116,

2217, 2894; Pub. L. 100-485, title VII, Sec. 702(a), Oct. 13, 1988,

102 Stat. 2426; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1001(b)(3)(A), title

VI, Sec. 6007(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349, 3687; Pub. L.

101-508, title XI, Sec. 11802(e)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat.

1388-530; Pub. L. 102-318, title V, Sec. 521(b)(2), July 3, 1992,

106 Stat. 310; Pub. L. 102-486, title XIX, Sec. 1913(a)(2), Oct.

24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3019; Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Sec.

13213(c)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 104-188, title

I, Sec. 1401(b)(4), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 104-191,

title III, Sec. 301(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2048; Pub. L.

105-34, title II, Sec. 202(b), title IX, Sec. 975(a), Aug. 5, 1997,

111 Stat. 808, 898; Pub. L. 106-554, Sec. 1(a)(7) [title II, Sec.

202(b)(1)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-629; Pub. L.

107-16, title IV, Sec. 431(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 68; Pub. L.

107-147, title IV, Sec. 406(a), (b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 43.)

-STATAMEND-

AMENDMENT OF SECTION

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107-16,

see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107-147, Sec. 406(a), added

subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107-147, Sec. 406(b), added subsec. (d).

2001 - Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 107-16, Secs. 431(b), 901,

temporarily added par. (18). See Effective and Termination Dates of

2001 Amendment note below.

2000 - Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 106-554 amended heading and text

of par. (16) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"The deduction allowed by section 220."

1997 - Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 975(a), added

subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 202(b), added par. (17).

1996 - Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 104-188 struck out par. (8) which

read as follows: "Certain portion of lump-sum distributions from

pension plans taxed under section 402(d). - The deduction allowed

by section 402(d)(3)."

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 104-191 added par. (16).

1993 - Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 103-66 added par. (15).

1992 - Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 102-318 substituted "402(d)" for

"402(e)" in heading and in text.

Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 102-486 added par. (14).

1990 - Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11802(e)(1),

amended par. (13) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (13) read as

follows: "The deduction allowed by section 220."

1988 - Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(b)(3)(A),

inserted at end "The fact that the reimbursement may be provided by

a third party shall not be determinative of whether or not the

preceding sentence applies."

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 6007(b), added par. (13).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100-485 added subsec. (c).

1986 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 132(b)(2)(A), designated

existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added heading.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 132(b)(1), amended par. (2)

generally, substituting "Certain trade" for "Trade" in heading and

inserting "of employees" in subpar. (A) heading, substituting

provision relating to deduction of certain expenses of performing

artists for provision relating to deduction of expenses for travel

away from home in subpar. (B), and striking out subpar. (C)

relating to deduction of travel expenses and subpar. (D) relating

to deduction of expenses of outside salesmen.

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 301(b)(1),

redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as (3) to (5), respectively, and

struck out former par. (3) which related to long-term capital gains

and read as follows: "The deduction allowed by section 1202."

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 301(b)(1), redesignated par.

(7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1875(c)(3), struck out "to the extent

attributable to contributions made on behalf of such individual"

after "section 404".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 301(b)(1), redesignated par.

(10) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 301(b)(1), redesignated par.

(11) as (8). Former par. (8) struck out.

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 132(c), struck out par. (8) which related to

moving expense deduction and read as follows: "The deduction

allowed by section 217."

Subsec. (a)(9) to (15). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 301(b)(1),

redesignated pars. (12) to (15) as (9) to (12), respectively.

Former pars. (10) and (11) redesignated (7) and (8), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 131(b)(1), struck out par.

(16) which related to deduction for two-earner married couples and

read as follows: "The deduction allowed by section 221."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 132(b)(2)(B), added subsec.

(b).

1984 - Par. (7). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 491(d)(2), substituted "and

annuity" for "annuity, and bond purchase" in heading, and

substituted "the deduction allowed by section 404" for "the

deductions allowed by section 404 and section 405(c)" in text.

1983 - Par. (9). Pub. L. 97-354 repealed par. (9) relating to the

deduction allowed by section 1379(b)(3).

1981 - Par. (10). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 311(h)(1), struck out "and

the deduction allowed by section 220 (relating to retirement

savings for certain married individuals)" after "retirement

savings".

Par. (14). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 112(b)(2), redesignated par. (15)

as (14). Former par. (14), relating to deduction for certain

expenses of living abroad, was struck out.

Par. (15). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 112(b)(2), redesignated par. (16)

as (15). Former par. (15) redesignated (14).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 97-34, Secs. 103(b), 112(b)(2), added par.

(16). Former par. (16) redesignated (15).

1980 - Par. (15). Pub. L. 96-451 added par. (15).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 96-608 added par. (16).

1978 - Par. (14). Pub. L. 95-615 added par. (14).

1976 - Par. (10). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1501(b)(1), inserted

reference to the deduction allowed by section 220 (relating to

retirement savings for certain married individuals).

Pars. (11), (12). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(8), (9),

redesignated par. (11) relating to penalties forfeited because of

premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or

deposits, as par. (12), and substituted "trade or business, to the

extent" for "trade or business to the extent".

Par. (13). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 502(a), added par. (13).

1974 - Par. (10). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2002(a)(2), added par.

(10).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 93-483 added par. (11) relating to penalties

forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time

savings accounts or deposits. Another par. (11) relating to certain

portions of lump-sum distributions from pension plans taxed under

section 402(e) of this title, was added by Pub. L. 93-406, Sec.

2005(c)(9).

1969 - Par. (9). Pub. L. 91-172 added par. (9).

1964 - Par. (8). Pub. L. 88-272 added par. (8).

1962 - Par. (7). Pub. L. 87-792 added par. (7).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 107-147, title IV, Sec. 406(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat.

44, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending

this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December

31, 2001."

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 107-16, title IV, Sec. 431(d), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat.

69, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting

section 222 of this title, amending this section and sections 86,

135, 137, 219, 221, and 469 of this title, and renumbering former

section 222 of this title as 223] shall apply to payments made in

taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or

limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, and the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years

as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of

Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Section 202(e) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting section 221 of this title, amending

this section and section 6050S of this title, and renumbering

former section 221 of this title as section 222 of this title]

shall apply to any qualified education loan (as defined in section

221(e)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this

section) incurred on, before, or after the date of the enactment of

this Act [Aug. 5, 1997], but only with respect to -

"(1) any loan interest payment due and paid after December 31,

1997, and

"(2) the portion of the 60-month period referred to in section

221(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this

section) after December 31, 1997."

Section 975(b) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendment

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to

expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December

31, 1986."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENTS

Section 301(j) of Pub. L. 104-191 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting sections 220 and 4980E of this

title, amending this section and sections 106, 125, 848, 3231,

3306, 3401, 4973, 4975, 6051, and 6693 of this title, and

renumbering section 220 of this title as section 221] shall apply

to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Amendment by Pub. L. 104-188 applicable to taxable years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1999, with retention of certain transition

rules, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 104-188, set out as a note

under section 402 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103-66 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and sections 67, 82,

132, 217, 1001, 1016, and 4977 of this title] shall apply to

expenses incurred after December 31, 1993; except that the

amendments made by subsection (d) [amending sections 82, 132, and

4977 of this title] shall apply to reimbursements or other payments

in respect of expenses incurred after such date."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by Pub. L. 102-486 applicable to property placed in

service after June 30, 1993, see section 1913(c) of Pub. L.

102-486, set out as an Effective Date note under section 30 of this

title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 102-318 applicable to distributions after

Dec. 31, 1992, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 102-318, set out as a

note under section 402 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by section 1001(b)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 100-647 effective,

except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of

the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment

relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note

under section 1 of this title.

Section 6007(d) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting section 220 of this title, amending

this section, and renumbering former section 220 of this title as

section 221 of this title] shall apply as if included in the

amendments made by section 132 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub.

L. 99-514]."

Section 702(b) of Pub. L. 100-485 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by sections 131(b)(1) and 132(b), (c) of Pub. L. 99-514

applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see

section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1

of this title.

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and sections 170, 172,

219, 220, 223, 642, 643, 691, 871, 1211, 1212, and 1402 of this

title and repealing section 1202 of this title] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Section 1875(c)(12) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The

amendments made by paragraphs (3), (4), and (6) [amending this

section and sections 219 and 408 of this title] shall take effect

as if included in the amendments made by section 238 of the Tax

Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [section 238 of Pub.

L. 97-248, see section 241 of Pub. L. 97-248, set out as an

Effective Date note under section 416 of this title]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

"Section 491(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369 provided that: "The

amendments and repeals made by subsections (a), (b), and (d)

[amending this section, sections 55, 72, 172, 219, 402, 403, 406,

407, 408, 412, 414, 415, 457, 2039, 2517, 3121, 3306, 3401, 4972,

4973, 4975, 6047, 6058, 6104, 6652, 7207, 7476, and 7701 of this

title, section 3107 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 409

of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealing sections

405 and 409 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after

December 31, 1983."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENT

Par. (9) as in effect before date of repeal by Pub. L. 97-354 to

remain in effect for years beginning before Jan. 1, 1984, see

section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97-354, set out as an Effective Date

note under section 3761 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT

Section 103(d) of Pub. L. 97-34 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting section 219 of this title and

amending this section and sections 85 and 105 of this title] shall

apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981."

Amendment by sections 112(b)(2) and 311(h)(1) of Pub. L. 97-34

applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see

sections 115 and 311(i)(1) of Pub. L. 97-34, set out as notes under

sections 911 and 219, respectively, of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1980 AMENDMENTS

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 96-608 provided that: "The amendment made

by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to repayments

made in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of

this Act [Dec. 28, 1980]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 96-451 applicable with respect to additions

to capital account made after Dec. 31, 1979, see section 301(d) of

Pub. L. 96-451, set out as an Effective Date note under section 194

of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT; ELECTION OF PRIOR LAW

Amendment by Pub. L. 95-615 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see

section 209 of Pub. L. 95-615, set out as a note under section 911

of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94-455 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and section 3402 of

this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December

31, 1976."

Section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 94-455 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting section 220 of this title, amending

this section and sections 219, 408, 409, 3401, 4973, and 6047 of

this title, and renumbering former section 220 as 221 of this

title], other than the amendment made by subsection (b)(3), shall

apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976. The

amendment made by subsection (b)(3) [amending section 415 of this

title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1976."

Amendment by section 1901(a)(8), (9) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable

with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see

section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section

2 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1974 AMENDMENTS

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 93-483 provided that: "The amendment made

by this section [amending this section] applies to taxable years

beginning after December 31, 1972."

Amendment by section 2002(a)(2) of Pub. L. 93-406 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 2002(i)(1)

of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as an Effective Date note under section

219 of this title.

Amendment by section 2005(c)(9) of Pub. L. 93-406 applicable only

with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973,

in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d)

of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as a note under section 402 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1969 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 91-172 applicable with respect to taxable

years of electing small business corporations beginning after Dec.

31, 1970, see section 531(d) of Pub. L. 91-172, set out as an

Effective Date note under section 1379 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1964 AMENDMENT

Section 213(d) of Pub. L. 88-272 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsections (a) [enacting section 217 and redesignating

former section 217 as 218] and (b) [amending this section] shall

apply to expenses incurred after December 31, 1963, in taxable

years ending after such date. The amendment made by subsection (c)

[amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to

remuneration paid after the seventh day following the date of the

enactment of this Act [Feb. 26, 1964]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 87-792 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87-792, set out as a

note under section 22 of this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101-508 be

construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring,

property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit

taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of

determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,

1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note

under section 29 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

D [Secs. 1401-1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104-188 require an

amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not

be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year

beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L.

104-188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1994

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

B [Secs. 521-523] of title V of Pub. L. 102-318 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1994, see section 523 of Pub. L. 102-318, set out as a note under

section 401 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

COMMUTING EXPENSES

Pub. L. 95-427, Sec. 2, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 996, as amended by

Pub. L. 96-167, Sec. 2, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1275, provided that

with respect to transportation costs paid or incurred after

December 31, 1976, and on or before May 31, 1981, the application

of sections 62, 162, and 262 and of chapters 21, 23, and 24 of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to transportation expenses

in traveling between a taxpayer's residence and place of work be

determined without regard to Revenue Ruling 76-453 or any other

regulation, ruling, or decision reaching the same or similar

result, and with full regard to the rules in effect before that

Revenue Ruling.

Pub. L. 95-615, Sec. 2, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, provided

that with respect to transportation costs paid or incurred after

Dec. 31, 1976, and before Apr. 30, 1978, the application of

sections 62, 162, and 262 and chapters 21, 23, and 24 of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to transportation expenses

in traveling between a taxpayer's residence and place of work be

determined without regard to Revenue Ruling 76-453 or any other

regulation, ruling or decision reaching the same or similar result,

and with full regard to the rules in effect before that Revenue

Ruling, and ceased to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978

pursuant to section 210(a) of that Act.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 162, 3402 of this title;

title 19 section 2401e; title 20 section 1087e; title 21 section

849; title 42 section 1396o.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 63 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 63. Taxable income defined

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b), for purposes of this

subtitle, the term "taxable income" means gross income minus the

deductions allowed by this chapter (other than the standard

deduction).

(b) Individuals who do not itemize their deductions

In the case of an individual who does not elect to itemize his

deductions for the taxable year, for purposes of this subtitle, the

term "taxable income" means adjusted gross income, minus -

(1) the standard deduction, and

(2) the deduction for personal exemptions provided in section

151.

(c) Standard deduction

For purposes of this subtitle -

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the term

"standard deduction" means the sum of -

(A) the basic standard deduction, and

(B) the additional standard deduction.

(2) Basic standard deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the basic standard deduction is

-

(A) $5,000 in the case of -

(i) a joint return, or

(ii) a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)),

(B) $4,400 in the case of a head of household (as defined in

section 2(b)),

(C) $3,000 in the case of an individual who is not married

and who is not a surviving spouse or head of household, or

(D) $2,500 in the case of a married individual filing a

separate return.

(3) Additional standard deduction for aged and blind

For purposes of paragraph (1), the additional standard

deduction is the sum of each additional amount to which the

taxpayer is entitled under subsection (f).

(4) Adjustments for inflation

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year

after 1988, each dollar amount contained in paragraph (2) or (5)

or subsection (f) shall be increased by an amount equal to -

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section

1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins,

by substituting for "calendar year 1992" in subparagraph (B)

thereof -

(i) "calendar year 1987" in the case of the dollar amounts

contained in paragraph (2) or (5)(A) or subsection (f), and

(ii) "calendar year 1997" in the case of the dollar amount

contained in paragraph (5)(B).

(5) Limitation on basic standard deduction in the case of certain

dependents

In the case of an individual with respect to whom a deduction

under section 151 is allowable to another taxpayer for a taxable

year beginning in the calendar year in which the individual's

taxable year begins, the basic standard deduction applicable to

such individual for such individual's taxable year shall not

exceed the greater of -

(A) $500, or

(B) the sum of $250 and such individual's earned income.

(6) Certain individuals, etc., not eligible for standard

deduction

In the case of -

(A) a married individual filing a separate return where

either spouse itemizes deductions,

(B) a nonresident alien individual,

(C) an individual making a return under section 443(a)(1) for

a period of less than 12 months on account of a change in his

annual accounting period, or

(D) an estate or trust, common trust fund, or partnership,

the standard deduction shall be zero.

(d) Itemized deductions

For purposes of this subtitle, the term "itemized deductions"

means the deductions allowable under this chapter other than -

(1) the deductions allowable in arriving at adjusted gross

income, and

(2) the deduction for personal exemptions provided by section

151.

(e) Election to itemize

(1) In general

Unless an individual makes an election under this subsection

for the taxable year, no itemized deduction shall be allowed for

the taxable year. For purposes of this subtitle, the

determination of whether a deduction is allowable under this

chapter shall be made without regard to the preceding sentence.

(2) Time and manner of election

Any election under this subsection shall be made on the

taxpayer's return, and the Secretary shall prescribe the manner

of signifying such election on the return.

(3) Change of election

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a change of

election with respect to itemized deductions for any taxable year

may be made after the filing of the return for such year. If the

spouse of the taxpayer filed a separate return for any taxable

year corresponding to the taxable year of the taxpayer, the

change shall not be allowed unless, in accordance with such

regulations -

(A) the spouse makes a change of election with respect to

itemized deductions, for the taxable year covered in such

separate return, consistent with the change of treatment sought

by the taxpayer, and

(B) the taxpayer and his spouse consent in writing to the

assessment (within such period as may be agreed on with the

Secretary) of any deficiency, to the extent attributable to

such change of election, even though at the time of the filing

of such consent the assessment of such deficiency would

otherwise be prevented by the operation of any law or rule of

law.

This paragraph shall not apply if the tax liability of the

taxpayer's spouse for the taxable year corresponding to the

taxable year of the taxpayer has been compromised under section

7122.

(f) Aged or blind additional amounts

(1) Additional amounts for the aged

The taxpayer shall be entitled to an additional amount of $600

-

(A) for himself if he has attained age 65 before the close of

his taxable year, and

(B) for the spouse of the taxpayer if the spouse has attained

age 65 before the close of the taxable year and an additional

exemption is allowable to the taxpayer for such spouse under

section 151(b).

(2) Additional amount for blind

The taxpayer shall be entitled to an additional amount of $600

-

(A) for himself if he is blind at the close of the taxable

year, and

(B) for the spouse of the taxpayer if the spouse is blind as

of the close of the taxable year and an additional exemption is

allowable to the taxpayer for such spouse under section 151(b).

For purposes of subparagraph (B), if the spouse dies during the

taxable year the determination of whether such spouse is blind

shall be made as of the time of such death.

(3) Higher amount for certain unmarried individuals

In the case of an individual who is not married and is not a

surviving spouse, paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be applied by

substituting "$750" for "$600".

(4) Blindness defined

For purposes of this subsection, an individual is blind only if

his central visual acuity does not exceed 20/200 in the better

eye with correcting lenses, or if his visual acuity is greater

than 20/200 but is accompanied by a limitation in the fields of

vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends

an angle no greater than 20 degrees.

(g) Marital status

For purposes of this section, marital status shall be determined

under section 7703.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 18; Pub. L. 95-30, title I, Sec.

102(a), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 135; Pub. L. 95-600, title I, Sec.

101(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2769; Pub. L. 97-34, title I, Secs.

104(b), 111(b)(4), 121(b), (c)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 189,

194, 196, 197; Pub. L. 99-514, title I, Sec. 102(a), title XII,

Sec. 1272(d)(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2099, 2594; Pub. L.

100-647, title I, Sec. 1001(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349;

Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Secs. 11101(d)(1)(D), 11801(a)(4), Nov.

5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-405, 1388-520; Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII,

Sec. 13201(b)(3)(D), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 105-34,

title XII, Sec. 1201(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 993; Pub. L.

107-16, title III, Sec. 301(a), (b), (c)(2), June 7, 2001, 115

Stat. 53, 54; Pub. L. 107-147, title IV, Sec. 411(e), Mar. 9, 2002,

116 Stat. 46.)

-STATAMEND-

STANDARD DEDUCTION ADJUSTMENTS FOR TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING IN 2003

For adjustment of standard deduction, limitation on standard

deduction, and additional amounts under subsections (c)(2), (5) and

(f) of this section for taxable years beginning in 2003, see

section 3.09 of Revenue Procedure 2002-70, set out as a note under

section 1 of this title.

AMENDMENT OF SUBSECTION (C)

Pub. L. 107-147, title IV, Sec. 411(e), (x), Mar. 9, 2002, 116

Stat. 46, 53, provided that, effective as if included in the

provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act

of 2001, Pub. L. 107-16, to which such amendment relates,

subsection (c) of this section is temporarily amended as follows:

(1) in paragraph (2) -

(A) in subparagraph (A), by striking "subparagraph (C)" and

inserting "subparagraph (D)";

(B) by striking "or" at the end of subparagraph (B);

(C) by redesignating subparagraph (C) as subparagraph (D);

(D) by inserting after subparagraph (B) the following new

subparagraph:

"(C) one-half of the amount in effect under subparagraph (A)

in the case of a married individual filing a separate return,

or"; and

(E) by inserting the following flush sentence at the end:

"If any amount determined under subparagraph (A) is not a

multiple of $50, such amount shall be rounded to the next

lowest multiple of $50.";

(2) in paragraph (4) -

(A) by striking "paragraph (2) or (5)" and inserting "paragraph

(2)(B), (2)(D), or (5)";

(B) by striking "paragraph (2)" and inserting "paragraph (2)(B),

(2)(D)," in subparagraph (B)(i);

(C) by striking the flush sentence at the end (as added by

section 301(c)(2) of Public Law 107-17 [107-16]) which read as

follows: "The preceding sentence shall not apply to the amount

referred to in paragraph (2)(A)."

Pub. L. 107-16, title III, Sec. 301(a), (b), (c)(2), (d), title

IX, Sec. 901, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 53, 54, 150, provided that,

applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004,

subsection (c) of this section is temporarily amended as follows:

(1) in paragraph (2), by substituting "the applicable percentage

of the dollar amount in effect under subparagraph (C) for the

taxable year" for "$5,000" in subparagraph (A), by inserting "or"

at the end of subparagraph (B), by substituting "in any other

case." for "in the case of" and all that follows in subparagraph

(C), and by striking out subparagraph (D);

(2) in paragraph (4), by inserting at end the following flush

sentence: "The preceding sentence shall not apply to the amount

referred to in paragraph (2)(A)."; and

(3) by adding paragraph (7) to read as follows:

(7) Applicable percentage

For purposes of paragraph (2), the applicable percentage shall

be determined in accordance with the following table:

For taxable years beginning The applicable

in calendar year - percentage is -

2005 174

2006 184

2007 187

2008 190

2009 and thereafter 200.

See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1997 - Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1201(a)(2), in

introductory provisions, substituted "(5)" for "(5)(A)" and, in

subpar. (B), substituted "by substituting for 'calendar year 1992'

in subparagraph (B) thereof - " for "by substituting 'calendar year

1987' for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B) thereof" and

added cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1201(a)(1), substituted

"the sum of $250 and such individual's earned income" for "such

individual's earned income".

1993 - Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103-66 substituted "1992" for

"1989".

1990 - Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11101(d)(1)(D),

inserted before period at end ", by substituting 'calendar year

1987' for 'calendar year 1989' in subparagraph (B) thereof".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11801(a)(4), struck out

subsec. (h) "Transitional rule for taxable years beginning in 1987"

which read as follows: "In the case of any taxable year beginning

in 1987, paragraph (2) of subsection (c) shall be applied -

"(1) by substituting '$3,760' for '$5,000',

"(2) by substituting '$2,540' for '$4,400',

"(3) by substituting '$2,540' for '$3,000', and

"(4) by substituting '$1,880' for '$2,500'.

The preceding sentence shall not apply if the taxpayer is entitled

to an additional amount determined under subsection (f) (relating

to additional amount for aged and blind) for the taxable year."

1988 - Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100-647 substituted "basic

standard deduction" for "standard deduction" in heading and text.

1986 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "In

general" for "Corporations" in heading and amended text generally.

Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of this

subtitle, in the case of a corporation, the term 'taxable income'

means gross income minus the deductions allowed by this chapter."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted

"Individuals who do not itemize their deductions" for "Individuals"

in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text

read as follows: "For purposes of this subtitle, in the case of an

individual, the term 'taxable income' means adjusted gross income -

"(1) reduced by the sum of -

"(A) the excess itemized deductions,

"(B) the deductions for personal exemptions provided by

section 151, and

"(C) the direct charitable deduction, and

"(2) increased (in the case of an individual for whom an unused

zero bracket amount computation is provided by subsection (e)) by

the unused zero bracket amount (if any)."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "Standard

deduction" for "Excess itemized deductions" in heading and amended

text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For

purposes of this subtitle, the term 'excess itemized deductions'

means the excess (if any) of -

"(1) the itemized deductions, over

"(2) the zero bracket amount."

Subsec. (c)(6)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1272(d)(6),

redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively, and

struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "a citizen of

the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931 (relating

to income from sources within possessions of the United States),".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "Itemized

deductions" for "Zero bracket amount" in heading and amended text

generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "For

purposes of this subtitle, the term 'zero bracket amount' means -

"(1) in the case of an individual to whom subsection (a), (b),

(c), or (d) of section 1 applies, the maximum amount of taxable

income on which no tax is imposed by the applicable subsection of

section 1, or

"(2) zero in any other case."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "Election

to itemize" for "Unused zero bracket amount" in heading.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "In

general" for "Individuals for whom computation must be made" in

heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read

as follows: "A computation for the taxable year shall be made under

this subsection for the following individuals:

"(A) a married individual filing a separate return where either

spouse itemized deductions,

"(B) a nonresident alien individual,

"(C) a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of

section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions

of the United States), and

"(D) an individual with respect to whom a deduction under

section 151(e) is allowable to another taxpayer for a taxable

year beginning in the calendar year in which the individual's

taxable year begins."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "Time

and manner of election" for "Computation" in heading and amended

text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For

purposes of this subtitle, an individual's unused zero bracket

amount for the taxable year is an amount equal to the excess (if

any) of -

"(A) the zero bracket amount, over

"(B) the itemized deductions.

In the case of an individual referred to in paragraph (1)(D), if

such individual's earned income (as defined in section 911(d)(2))

exceeds the itemized deductions, such earned income shall be

substituted for the itemized deductions in subparagraph (B)."

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), in amending subsec.

(e) generally, added par. (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted "Aged or

blind additional amounts" for "Itemized deductions" in heading and

amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"For purposes of this subtitle, the term 'itemized deductions'

means the deductions allowable by this chapter other than -

"(1) the deductions allowable in arriving at adjusted gross

income,

"(2) the deductions for personal exemptions provided by section

151, and

"(3) the direct charitable deduction."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), amended subsec. (g)

generally, substituting provision that marital status be determined

under section 7703 for provisions relating to election to itemize.

See subsec. (e).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), substituted

"Transitional rule for taxable years beginning in 1987" for

"Marital status" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to

amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of this section,

marital status shall be determined under section 143."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 102(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (i), "Direct charitable deduction",

which read as follows: "For purposes of this section, the term

'direct charitable deduction' means that portion of the amount

allowable under section 170(a) which is taken as a direct

charitable deduction for the taxable year under section 170(i)."

1981 - Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 121(b)(1), added

subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 104(b), substituted a blanket

reference to individuals to whom subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d)

of section 1 applies and the maximum amount of taxable income on

which no tax is imposed by the applicable subsection of section 1

for provisions specifically referring to amounts of $3,400 in the

case of (A) a joint return under section 6013, or (B) a surviving

spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), $2,300 in the case of an

individual who is not married and who is not a surviving spouse (as

so defined), and $1,700 in the case of a married individual filing

a separate return.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 111(b)(4), substituted

"section 911(d)(2)" for "section 911(b)" in provisions following

subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 121(c)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 121(b)(2), added subsec. (i).

1978 - Pub. L. 95-600 substituted "$3,400" for "$3,200" in par.

(1), "$2,300" for "$2,200" in par. (2), and "$1,700" for "$1,600"

in par. (3).

1977 - Pub. L. 95-30 completely revised definition of taxable

income from one using the concept of a standard deduction and

consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b) entitled, respectively, "General

rule" and "Individuals electing standard deduction" to definition

using the concepts of zero bracket amounts and excess itemized

deductions and consisting of subsecs. (a) to (h) entitled,

respectively, "Corporations", "Individuals", "Excess itemized

deductions", "Zero bracket amount", "Unused zero bracket amount",

"Itemized deductions", "Election to itemize", and "Marital status".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-147 effective as if included in the

provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act

of 2001, Pub. L. 107-16, to which such amendment relates, see

section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107-147, set out as a note under section

25B of this title.

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 107-16, set out

as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or

limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, and the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years

as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of

Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-34 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1201(c) of Pub. L. 105-34, set out

as a note under section 59 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 103-66 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103-66, set

out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 11101(d)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 101-508 applicable

to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section

11101(e) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note under section 1 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of

1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment relates, see section

1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section 1 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 102(a) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of

Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1272(d)(6) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain

exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99-514,

set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 104(b) of Pub. L. 97-34 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 104(e) of

Pub. L. 97-34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 111(b)(4) of Pub. L. 97-34 applicable with

respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section

115 of Pub. L. 97-34, set out as a note under section 911 of this

title.

Amendment by section 121(b), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 97-34 applicable

to contributions made after Dec. 31, 1981, in taxable years

beginning after such date, see section 121(d) of Pub. L. 97-34, set

out as a note under section 170 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 95-600 effective with respect to taxable

years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 101(f)(1) of Pub.

L. 95-600, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1977 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 95-30 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95-30, set out

as a note under section 1 of this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11801 of Pub.

L. 101-508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions

occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction,

or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of

determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,

1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note

under section 29 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1, 2, 3, 56, 161, 211,

1034, 1375, 3402, 6012, 6013, 6014, 6212, 6504 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 64 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 64. Ordinary income defined

-STATUTE-

For purposes of this subtitle, the term "ordinary income"

includes any gain from the sale or exchange of property which is

neither a capital asset nor property described in section 1231(b).

Any gain from the sale or exchange of property which is treated or

considered, under other provisions of this subtitle, as "ordinary

income" shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of

property which is neither a capital asset nor property described in

section 1231(b).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1901(a)(10), Oct. 4, 1976,

90 Stat. 1765.)

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 65 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 65. Ordinary loss defined

-STATUTE-

For purposes of this subtitle, the term "ordinary loss" includes

any loss from the sale or exchange of property which is not a

capital asset. Any loss from the sale or exchange of property which

is treated or considered, under other provisions of this subtitle,

as "ordinary loss" shall be treated as loss from the sale or

exchange of property which is not a capital asset.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1901(a)(11), Oct. 4, 1976,

90 Stat. 1765.)

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 66 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 66. Treatment of community income

-STATUTE-

(a) Treatment of community income where spouses live apart

If -

(1) 2 individuals are married to each other at any time during

a calendar year;

(2) such individuals -

(A) live apart at all times during the calendar year, and

(B) do not file a joint return under section 6013 with each

other for a taxable year beginning or ending in the calendar

year;

(3) one or both of such individuals have earned income for the

calendar year which is community income; and

(4) no portion of such earned income is transferred (directly

or indirectly) between such individuals before the close of the

calendar year,

then, for purposes of this title, any community income of such

individuals for the calendar year shall be treated in accordance

with the rules provided by section 879(a).

(b) Secretary may disregard community property laws where spouse

not notified of community income

The Secretary may disallow the benefits of any community property

law to any taxpayer with respect to any income if such taxpayer

acted as if solely entitled to such income and failed to notify the

taxpayer's spouse before the due date (including extensions) for

filing the return for the taxable year in which the income was

derived of the nature and amount of such income.

(c) Spouse relieved of liability in certain other cases

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if -

(1) an individual does not file a joint return for any taxable

year,

(2) such individual does not include in gross income for such

taxable year an item of community income properly includible

therein which, in accordance with the rules contained in section

879(a), would be treated as the income of the other spouse,

(3) the individual establishes that he or she did not know of,

and had no reason to know of, such item of community income, and

(4) taking into account all facts and circumstances, it is

inequitable to include such item of community income in such

individual's gross income,

then, for purposes of this title, such item of community income

shall be included in the gross income of the other spouse (and not

in the gross income of the individual). Under procedures prescribed

by the Secretary, if, taking into account all the facts and

circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the individual liable for

any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either)

attributable to any item for which relief is not available under

the preceding sentence, the Secretary may relieve such individual

of such liability.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section -

(1) Earned income

The term "earned income" has the meaning given to such term by

section 911(d)(2).

(2) Community income

The term "community income" means income which, under

applicable community property laws, is treated as community

income.

(3) Community property laws

The term "community property laws" means the community property

laws of a State, a foreign country, or a possession of the United

States.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 96-605, title I, Sec. 101(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94

Stat. 3521; amended Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, Sec.

424(b)(1)-(2)(B), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 802, 803; Pub. L.

101-239, title VII, Sec. 7841(d)(8), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2428;

Pub. L. 105-206, title III, Sec. 3201(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat.

739.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-206 inserted at end "Under

procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if, taking into account all

the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the

individual liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any

portion of either) attributable to any item for which relief is not

available under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may relieve

such individual of such liability."

1989 - Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101-239 substituted "section

911(d)(2)" for "section 911(b)".

1984 - Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 424(b)(2)(A), struck out "where

spouses live apart" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 424(b)(2)(B), substituted

"Treatment of community income where spouses live apart" for

"General rule" in heading.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 424(b)(1), added

subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-206 applicable to any liability for tax

arising after July 22, 1998, and any liability for tax arising on

or before such date but remaining unpaid as of such date, see

section 3201(g)(1) of Pub. L. 105-206, set out as a note under

section 6015 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to all taxable years to

which the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]

applies with corresponding provisions deemed to be included in the

Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and applicable to all taxable years

to which such Code applies, except subsection (b) of this section

is applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984,

see section 424(c) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under

section 6013 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 96-605 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to

calendar years beginning after December 31, 1980."

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 67 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 67. 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual, the miscellaneous itemized

deductions for any taxable year shall be allowed only to the extent

that the aggregate of such deductions exceeds 2 percent of adjusted

gross income.

(b) Miscellaneous itemized deductions

For purposes of this section, the term "miscellaneous itemized

deductions" means the itemized deductions other than -

(1) the deduction under section 163 (relating to interest),

(2) the deduction under section 164 (relating to taxes),

(3) the deduction under section 165(a) for casualty or theft

losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for

losses described in section 165(d),

(4) the deductions under section 170 (relating to charitable,

etc., contributions and gifts) and section 642(c) (relating to

deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a

charitable purpose),

(5) the deduction under section 213 (relating to medical,

dental, etc., expenses),

(6) any deduction allowable for impairment-related work

expenses,

(7) the deduction under section 691(c) (relating to deduction

for estate tax in case of income in respect of the decedent),

(8) any deduction allowable in connection with personal

property used in a short sale,

(9) the deduction under section 1341 (relating to computation

of tax where taxpayer restores substantial amount held under

claim of right),

(10) the deduction under section 72(b)(3) (relating to

deduction where annuity payments cease before investment

recovered),

(11) the deduction under section 171 (relating to deduction for

amortizable bond premium), and

(12) the deduction under section 216 (relating to deductions in

connection with cooperative housing corporations).

(c) Disallowance of indirect deduction through pass-thru entity

(1) In general

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which prohibit the

indirect deduction through pass-thru entities of amounts which

are not allowable as a deduction if paid or incurred directly by

an individual and which contain such reporting requirements as

may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(2) Treatment of publicly offered regulated investment companies

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any publicly

offered regulated investment company.

(B) Publicly offered regulated investment companies

For purposes of this subsection -

(i) In general

The term "publicly offered regulated investment company"

means a regulated investment company the shares of which are

-

(I) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering

(within the meaning of section 4 of the Securities Act of

1933, as amended (15 U.S.C. 77a to 77aa)),

(II) regularly traded on an established securities

market, or

(III) held by or for no fewer than 500 persons at all

times during the taxable year.

(ii) Secretary may reduce 500 person requirement

The Secretary may by regulation decrease the minimum

shareholder requirement of clause (i)(III) in the case of

regulated investment companies which experience a loss of

shareholders through net redemptions of their shares.

(3) Treatment of certain other entities

Paragraph (1) shall not apply -

(A) with respect to cooperatives and real estate investment

trusts, and

(B) except as provided in regulations, with respect to

estates and trusts.

(d) Impairment-related work expenses

For purposes of this section, the term "impairment-related work

expenses" means expenses -

(1) of a handicapped individual (as defined in section

190(b)(3)) for attendant care services at the individual's place

of employment and other expenses in connection with such place of

employment which are necessary for such individual to be able to

work, and

(2) with respect to which a deduction is allowable under

section 162 (determined without regard to this section).

(e) Determination of adjusted gross income in case of estates and

trusts

For purposes of this section, the adjusted gross income of an

estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as in the case

of an individual, except that -

(1) the deductions for costs which are paid or incurred in

connection with the administration of the estate or trust and

which would not have been incurred if the property were not held

in such trust or estate, and

(2) the deductions allowable under sections 642(b), 651, and

661,

shall be treated as allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income.

Under regulations, appropriate adjustments shall be made in the

application of part I of subchapter J of this chapter to take into

account the provisions of this section.

(f) Coordination with other limitation

This section shall be applied before the application of the

dollar limitation of the second sentence of section 162(a)

(relating to trade or business expenses).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 99-514, title I, Sec. 132(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100

Stat. 2113; amended Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1001(f), title

IV, Sec. 4011(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3351, 3655; Pub. L.

101-239, title VII, Sec. 7814(f), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2414;

Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Sec. 13213(c)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107

Stat. 474; Pub. L. 105-277, div. J, title IV, Sec. 4004(b)(1), Oct.

21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-910; Pub. L. 106-554, Sec. 1(a)(7) [title

III, Sec. 319(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-646.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec.

(c)(2)(B)(i)(I), is classified to section 77d of Title 15, Commerce

and Trade.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2000 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106-554 substituted "the second

sentence" for "the last sentence".

1998 - Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105-277 substituted "for casualty

or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c)

or for losses described in section 165(d)" for "for losses

described in subsection (c)(3) or (d) of section 165".

1993 - Subsec. (b)(6) to (13). Pub. L. 103-66 redesignated pars.

(7) to (13) as (6) to (12), respectively, and struck out former

par. (6) which read as follows: "the deduction under section 217

(relating to moving expenses),".

1989 - Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101-239 struck out par. (4) which

read as follows: "Termination. - This subsection shall not apply to

any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989."

1988 - Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(f)(2),

substituted "deductions" for "deduction" and inserted before comma

at end "and section 642(c) (relating to deduction for amounts paid

or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 4011(a), amended subsec. (c)

generally. Prior to amendment subsec. (c) read as follows: "The

Secretary shall prescribe regulations which prohibit the indirect

deduction through pass-thru entities of amounts which are not

allowable as a deduction if paid or incurred directly by an

individual and which contain such reporting requirements as may be

necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection. The

preceding sentence shall not apply -

"(1) with respect to cooperatives and real estate investment

trusts, and

"(2) except as provided in regulations, with respect to estates

and trusts."

Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(f)(4), amended last sentence

generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "The

preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to estates, trusts,

cooperatives, and real estate investment trusts."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(f)(3), amended subsec.

(e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows:

"For purposes of this section, the adjusted gross income of an

estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as in the case

of an individual, except that the deductions for costs which are

paid or incurred in connection with the administration of the

estate or trust and would not have been incurred if the property

were not held in such trust or estate shall be treated as allowable

in arriving at adjusted gross income."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(f)(1), added subsec. (f).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105-277, div. J, title IV, Sec. 4004(c)(2), Oct. 21,

1998, 112 Stat. 2681-911, provided that: "The amendment made by

subsection (b)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable

years beginning after December 31, 1986."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 103-66 applicable to expenses incurred after

Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103-66 set out as a

note under section 62 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1989 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 101-239 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and

Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100-647, to which such

amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101-239, set out as

a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1001(f) of Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except

as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax

Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment

relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note

under section 1 of this title.

Section 4011(b) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987."

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as an Effective

Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

1-YEAR DELAY IN TREATMENT OF PUBLICLY OFFERED REGULATED INVESTMENT

COMPANIES UNDER 2-PERCENT FLOOR

Pub. L. 100-203, title X, Sec. 10104(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat.

1330-386, provided that:

"(1) General rule. - Section 67(c) of the Internal Revenue Code

of 1986 to the extent it relates to indirect deductions through a

publicly offered regulated investment company shall apply only to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.

"(2) Publicly offered regulated investment company defined. - For

purposes of this subsection -

"(A) In general. - The term 'publicly offered regulated

investment company' means a regulated investment company the

shares of which are -

"(i) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering

(within the meaning of section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933,

as amended (15 U.S.C. 77a to 77aa) [15 U.S.C. 77d]),

"(ii) regularly traded on an established securities market,

or

"(iii) held by or for no fewer than 500 persons at all times

during the taxable year.

"(B) Secretary may reduce 500 person requirement. - The

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulation

decrease the minimum shareholder requirement of subparagraph

(A)(iii) in the case of regulated investment companies which

experience a loss of shareholders through net redemptions of

their shares."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 56, 642, 772, 773, 6654

of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 68 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE

INCOME, ETC.

-HEAD-

Sec. 68. Overall limitation on itemized deductions

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual whose adjusted gross income exceeds

the applicable amount, the amount of the itemized deductions

otherwise allowable for the taxable year shall be reduced by the

lesser of -

(1) 3 percent of the excess of adjusted gross income over the

applicable amount, or

(2) 80 percent of the amount of the itemized deductions

otherwise allowable for such taxable year.

(b) Applicable amount

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term "applicable amount"

means $100,000 ($50,000 in the case of a separate return by a

married individual within the meaning of section 7703).

(2) Inflation adjustments

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year

after 1991, each dollar amount contained in paragraph (1) shall

be increased by an amount equal to -

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section

1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins,

by substituting "calendar year 1990" for "calendar year 1992"

in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(c) Exception for certain itemized deductions

For purposes of this section, the term "itemized deductions" does

not include -

(1) the deduction under section 213 (relating to medical, etc.

expenses),

(2) any deduction for investment interest (as defined in

section 163(d)), and

(3) the deduction under section 165(a) for casualty or theft

losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for

losses described in section 165(d).

(d) Coordination with other limitations

This section shall be applied after the application of any other

limitation on the allowance of any itemized deduction.

(e) Exception for estates and trusts

This section shall not apply to any estate or trust.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Sec. 11103(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104

Stat. 1388-406; amended Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Secs.

13201(b)(3)(E), 13204, Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459, 462; Pub. L.

105-277, div. J, title IV, Sec. 4004(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112

Stat. 2681-911; Pub. L. 107-16, title I, Sec. 103(a), June 7, 2001,

115 Stat. 44.)

-STATAMEND-

ADJUSTMENT OF APPLICABLE AMOUNT UNDER THIS SECTION FOR TAXABLE

YEARS BEGINNING IN 2003

For adjustment of "applicable amount" for determining limitation

on itemized deductions under this section for taxable years

beginning in 2003, see section 3.10 of Revenue Procedure 2002-70,

set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

ENACTMENT OF SUBSECTIONS (F) AND (G)

Pub. L. 107-16, title I, Secs. 103, 901, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat.

44, 150, provided that, applicable to taxable years beginning after

Dec. 31, 2005, this section is temporarily amended by adding

subsections (f) and (g) to read as follows:

(f) Phaseout of limitation

(1) In general

In the case of taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005,

and before January 1, 2010, the reduction under subsection (a)

shall be equal to the applicable fraction of the amount which

would (but for this subsection) be the amount of such reduction.

(2) Applicable fraction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable fraction shall be

determined in accordance with the following table:

For taxable years beginning 3The applicable

in calendar year - fraction is -

--------------------------------------------------------------------

2006 and 2007 (!2/3)

2008 and 2009 1/3 .

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(g) Termination

This section shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after

December 31, 2009.

See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105-277 substituted "for casualty

or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c)

or for losses described in section 165(d)" for "for losses

described in subsection (c)(3) or (d) of section 165".

1993 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13201(b)(3)(E),

substituted "1992" for "1989".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13204, struck out heading and

text of subsec. (f). Text read as follows: "This section shall not

apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995."

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 107-16, title I, Sec. 103(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 45,

provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this

section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31,

2005."

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or

limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, and the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years

as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of

Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105-277, div. J, title IV, Sec. 4004(c)(3), Oct. 21,

1998, 112 Stat. 2681-911, provided that: "The amendment made by

subsection (b)(2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable

years beginning after December 31, 1990."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 13201(b)(3)(E) of Pub. L. 103-66 applicable

to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section

13201(c) of Pub. L. 103-66, set out as a note under section 1 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1990, see section 11103(e) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as an

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1 of this

title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1, 56, 773 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS

INCOME 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-MISC1-

Sec.

71. Alimony and separate maintenance payments.

72. Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life

insurance contracts.

73. Services of child.

74. Prizes and awards.

75. Dealers in tax-exempt securities.

[76. Repealed.]

77. Commodity credit loans.

78. Dividends received from certain foreign corporations

by domestic corporations choosing foreign tax credit.

79. Group-term life insurance purchased for employees.

80. Restoration of value of certain securities.

[81. Repealed.]

82. Reimbursement of moving expenses.(!1)

83. Property transferred in connection with performance of

services.

84. Transfer of appreciated property to political

organizations.(!1)

85. Unemployment compensation.

86. Social security and tier 1 railroad retirement

benefits.

87. Alcohol fuel credit.

88. Certain amounts with respect to nuclear

decommissioning costs.

[89. Repealed.]

90. Illegal Federal irrigation subsidies.

AMENDMENTS

1989 - Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, Sec. 7822(c), Dec. 19, 1989,

103 Stat. 2425, substituted "Illegal Federal irrigation" for

"Federal irrigation" in item 90.

Pub. L. 101-140, title II, Sec. 202(b), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat.

830, struck out item 89 "Benefits provided under certain employee

benefit plans".

1987 - Pub. L. 100-203, title X, Secs. 10201(b)(6), 10611(b),

Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-387, 1330-452, struck out item 81

"Increase in vacation pay suspense account" and added item 90.

1986 - Pub. L. 99-514, title VIII, Sec. 805(c)(1)(B), title XI,

Sec. 1151(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2362, 2508, substituted

"Increase in vacation pay suspense account" for "Certain increases

in suspense accounts" in item 81, and added item 89.

1984 - Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Sec. 91(f)(2), July 18,

1984, 98 Stat. 608, added item 88.

1983 - Pub. L. 98-21, title I, Sec. 121(f)(3), Apr. 20, 1983, 97

Stat. 84, added item 86 and redesignated former item 86 as 87.

1980 - Pub. L. 96-223, title II, Sec. 232(c)(3), Apr. 2, 1980, 94

Stat. 277, added item 86.

1978 - Pub. L. 95-600, title I, Sec. 112(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92

Stat. 2778, added item 85.

1976 - Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1901(b)(5), Oct. 4, 1976,

90 Stat. 1793, struck out item 76 "Mortgages made or obligations

issued by joint-stock land banks".

1975 - Pub. L. 93-625, Secs. 4(c)(2), 13(a)(2), Jan. 3, 1975, 88

Stat. 2111, 2121, substituted "Certain increases in suspense

accounts" for "Increases in suspense account under section 166(g)"

in item 81, and added item 84.

1969 - Pub. L. 91-172, title II, Sec. 231(c)(1), title III, Sec.

321(c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 579, 591, added items 82, 83.

1966 - Pub. L. 89-722, Sec. 1(b)(2), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1152,

added item 81.

Pub. L. 89-384, Sec. 1(b)(2), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 102, added

item 80.

1964 - Pub. L. 88-272, title II, Sec. 204(a)(2), Feb. 26, 1964,

78 Stat. 36, added item 79.

1962 - Pub. L. 87-834, Sec. 9(d)(1), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat.

1001, added item 78.

-SECREF-

PART REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This part is referred to in section 61 of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 71 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 71. Alimony and separate maintenance payments

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

Gross income includes amounts received as alimony or separate

maintenance payments.

(b) Alimony or separate maintenance payments defined

For purposes of this section -

(1) In general

The term "alimony or separate maintenance payment" means any

payment in cash if -

(A) such payment is received by (or on behalf of) a spouse

under a divorce or separation instrument,

(B) the divorce or separation instrument does not designate

such payment as a payment which is not includible in gross

income under this section and not allowable as a deduction

under section 215,

(C) in the case of an individual legally separated from his

spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance,

the payee spouse and the payor spouse are not members of the

same household at the time such payment is made, and

(D) there is no liability to make any such payment for any

period after the death of the payee spouse and there is no

liability to make any payment (in cash or property) as a

substitute for such payments after the death of the payee

spouse.

(2) Divorce or separation instrument

The term "divorce or separation instrument" means -

(A) a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or a written

instrument incident to such a decree,

(B) a written separation agreement, or

(C) a decree (not described in subparagraph (A)) requiring a

spouse to make payments for the support or maintenance of the

other spouse.

(c) Payments to support children

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not apply to that part of any payment

which the terms of the divorce or separation instrument fix (in

terms of an amount of money or a part of the payment) as a sum

which is payable for the support of children of the payor spouse.

(2) Treatment of certain reductions related to contingencies

involving child

For purposes of paragraph (1), if any amount specified in the

instrument will be reduced -

(A) on the happening of a contingency specified in the

instrument relating to a child (such as attaining a specified

age, marrying, dying, leaving school, or a similar

contingency), or

(B) at a time which can clearly be associated with a

contingency of a kind specified in subparagraph (A),

an amount equal to the amount of such reduction will be treated

as an amount fixed as payable for the support of children of the

payor spouse.

(3) Special rule where payment is less than amount specified in

instrument

For purposes of this subsection, if any payment is less than

the amount specified in the instrument, then so much of such

payment as does not exceed the sum payable for support shall be

considered a payment for such support.

(d) Spouse

For purposes of this section, the term "spouse" includes a former

spouse.

(e) Exception for joint returns

This section and section 215 shall not apply if the spouses make

a joint return with each other.

(f) Recomputation where excess front-loading of alimony payments

(1) In general

If there are excess alimony payments -

(A) the payor spouse shall include the amount of such excess

payments in gross income for the payor spouse's taxable year

beginning in the 3rd post-separation year, and

(B) the payee spouse shall be allowed a deduction in

computing adjusted gross income for the amount of such excess

payments for the payee's taxable year beginning in the 3rd

post-separation year.

(2) Excess alimony payments

For purposes of this subsection, the term "excess alimony

payments" mean the sum of -

(A) the excess payments for the 1st post-separation year, and

(B) the excess payments for the 2nd post-separation year.

(3) Excess payments for 1st post-separation year

For purposes of this subsection, the amount of the excess

payments for the 1st post-separation year is the excess (if any)

of -

(A) the amount of the alimony or separate maintenance

payments paid by the payor spouse during the 1st

post-separation year, over

(B) the sum of -

(i) the average of -

(I) the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by

the payor spouse during the 2nd post-separation year,

reduced by the excess payments for the 2nd post-separation

year, and

(II) the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by

the payor spouse during the 3rd post-separation year, plus

(ii) $15,000.

(4) Excess payments for 2nd post-separation year

For purposes of this subsection, the amount of the excess

payments for the 2nd post-separation year is the excess (if any)

of -

(A) the amount of the alimony or separate maintenance

payments paid by the payor spouse during the 2nd

post-separation year, over

(B) the sum of -

(i) the amount of the alimony or separate maintenance

payments paid by the payor spouse during the 3rd

post-separation year, plus

(ii) $15,000.

(5) Exceptions

(A) Where payment ceases by reason of death or remarriage

Paragraph (1) shall not apply if -

(i) either spouse dies before the close of the 3rd

post-separation year, or the payee spouse remarries before

the close of the 3rd post-separation year, and

(ii) the alimony or separate maintenance payments cease by

reason of such death or remarriage.

(B) Support payments

For purposes of this subsection, the term "alimony or

separate maintenance payment" shall not include any payment

received under a decree described in subsection (b)(2)(C).

(C) Fluctuating payments not within control of payor spouse

For purposes of this subsection, the term "alimony or

separate maintenance payment" shall not include any payment to

the extent it is made pursuant to a continuing liability (over

a period of not less than 3 years) to pay a fixed portion or

portions of the income from a business or property or from

compensation for employment or self-employment.

(6) Post-separation years

For purposes of this subsection, the term "1st post-separation

years" means the 1st calendar year in which the payor spouse paid

to the payee spouse alimony or separate maintenance payments to

which this section applies. The 2nd and 3rd post-separation years

shall be the 1st and 2nd succeeding calendar years, respectively.

(g) Cross references

(1) For deduction of alimony or separate maintenance

payments, see section 215.

(2) For taxable status of income of an estate or trust in the

case of divorce, etc., see section 682.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 19; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A,

title IV, Sec. 422(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 99-514,

title XVIII, Sec. 1843(a)-(c)(1), (d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat.

2853, 2855.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1843(b), struck

out "(and the divorce or separation instrument states that there is

no such liability)" after "for such payments after the death of the

payee spouse".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1843(d), substituted

"specified in subparagraph (A)" for "specified in paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1843(c)(1), amended subsec. (f)

generally, substituting provisions for the recomputation of

liability where there has been excess front-loading of alimony

payments for provisions setting forth special rules to prevent

excess front-loading of alimony payments.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1843(a), added subsec. (g).

1984 - Pub. L. 98-369 amended section generally, substituting

present provisions for provisions which had declared in: subsec.

(a), a general rule as to decree of divorce or separate maintenance

in par. (1), written separation agreement in par. (2), and decree

for support in par. (3); subsec. (b), payments to support minor

children; subsec. (c), principal sum paid in installments, par. (1)

stating a general rule and par. (2) the rule where period for

payment is more than 10 years; subsec. (d), the rule for husband in

case of transferred property; and subsec. (e), cross references to

sections 7701(a)(17), 215, and 682.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT; TRANSITIONAL RULE

Section 1843(c)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that:

"(2) Effective dates. -

"(A) In general. - The amendment made by paragraph (1)

[amending this section] shall apply with respect to divorce or

separation instruments (as defined in section 71(b)(2)) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 executed after December 31, 1986.

"(B) Modifications of instruments executed before january 1,

1987. - The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this

section] shall also apply to any divorce or separation instrument

(as so defined) executed before January 1, 1987, but modified on

or after such date if the modification expressly provides that

the amendments made by paragraph (1) shall apply to such

modification.

"(3) Transitional rule. - In the case of any instrument to which

the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] does

not apply, paragraph (2) of section 71(f) of the Internal Revenue

Code of 1954 [now 1986] (as in effect on the day before the date of

the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) shall apply only with

respect to the first 3 post-separation years."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Section 422(e) of Pub. L. 98-369, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as otherwise provided in this

subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this

section and sections 215, 219, 682, 6676, and 7701 of this title]

shall apply with respect to divorce or separation instruments (as

defined in section 71(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

[formerly I.R.C. 1954], as amended by this section) executed after

December 31, 1984.

"(2) Modifications of instruments executed before january 1,

1985. - The amendments made by this section shall also apply to any

divorce or separation instrument (as so defined) executed before

January 1, 1985, but modified on or after such date if the

modification expressly provides that the amendments made by this

section shall apply to such modification.

"(3) Requirement of identification number. - Section 215(c) of

the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (b))

and the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending section 6676 of

this title] shall apply to payments made after December 31, 1984."

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 121, 152, 215, 219, 220,

382, 408 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 72 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 72. Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life

insurance contracts

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule for annuities

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, gross income

includes any amount received as an annuity (whether for a period

certain or during one or more lives) under an annuity, endowment,

or life insurance contract.

(b) Exclusion ratio

(1) In general

Gross income does not include that part of any amount received

as an annuity under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance

contract which bears the same ratio to such amount as the

investment in the contract (as of the annuity starting date)

bears to the expected return under the contract (as of such

date).

(2) Exclusion limited to investment

The portion of any amount received as an annuity which is

excluded from gross income under paragraph (1) shall not exceed

the unrecovered investment in the contract immediately before the

receipt of such amount.

(3) Deduction where annuity payments cease before entire

investment recovered

(A) In general

If -

(i) after the annuity starting date, payments as an annuity

under the contract cease by reason of the death of an

annuitant, and

(ii) as of the date of such cessation, there is unrecovered

investment in the contract,

the amount of such unrecovered investment (in excess of any

amount specified in subsection (e)(5) which was not included in

gross income) shall be allowed as a deduction to the annuitant

for his last taxable year.

(B) Payments to other persons

In the case of any contract which provides for payments

meeting the requirements of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of

subsection (c)(2), the deduction under subparagraph (A) shall

be allowed to the person entitled to such payments for the

taxable year in which such payments are received.

(C) Net operating loss deductions provided

For purposes of section 172, a deduction allowed under this

paragraph shall be treated as if it were attributable to a

trade or business of the taxpayer.

(4) Unrecovered investment

For purposes of this subsection, the unrecovered investment in

the contract as of any date is -

(A) the investment in the contract (determined without regard

to subsection (c)(2)) as of the annuity starting date, reduced

by

(B) the aggregate amount received under the contract on or

after such annuity starting date and before the date as of

which the determination is being made, to the extent such

amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle.

(c) Definitions

(1) Investment in the contract

For purposes of subsection (b), the investment in the contract

as of the annuity starting date is -

(A) the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration

paid for the contract, minus

(B) the aggregate amount received under the contract before

such date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from

gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws.

(2) Adjustment in investment where there is refund feature

If -

(A) the expected return under the contract depends in whole

or in part on the life expectancy of one or more individuals;

(B) the contract provides for payments to be made to a

beneficiary (or to the estate of an annuitant) on or after the

death of the annuitant or annuitants; and

(C) such payments are in the nature of a refund of the

consideration paid,

then the value (computed without discount for interest) of such

payments on the annuity starting date shall be subtracted from

the amount determined under paragraph (1). Such value shall be

computed in accordance with actuarial tables prescribed by the

Secretary. For purposes of this paragraph and of subsection

(e)(2)(A), the term "refund of the consideration paid" includes

amounts payable after the death of an annuitant by reason of a

provision in the contract for a life annuity with minimum period

of payments certain, but (if part of the consideration was

contributed by an employer) does not include that part of any

payment to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the annuitant)

which is not attributable to the consideration paid by the

employee for the contract as determined under paragraph (1)(A).

(3) Expected return

For purposes of subsection (b), the expected return under the

contract shall be determined as follows:

(A) Life expectancy

If the expected return under the contract, for the period on

and after the annuity starting date, depends in whole or in

part on the life expectancy of one or more individuals, the

expected return shall be computed with reference to actuarial

tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(B) Installment payments

If subparagraph (A) does not apply, the expected return is

the aggregate of the amounts receivable under the contract as

an annuity.

(4) Annuity starting date

For purposes of this section, the annuity starting date in the

case of any contract is the first day of the first period for

which an amount is received as an annuity under the contract;

except that if such date was before January 1, 1954, then the

annuity starting date is January 1, 1954.

(d) Special rules for qualified employer retirement plans

(1) Simplified method of taxing annuity payments

(A) In general

In the case of any amount received as an annuity under a

qualified employer retirement plan -

(i) subsection (b) shall not apply, and

(ii) the investment in the contract shall be recovered as

provided in this paragraph.

(B) Method of recovering investment in contract

(i) In general

Gross income shall not include so much of any monthly

annuity payment under a qualified employer retirement plan as

does not exceed the amount obtained by dividing -

(I) the investment in the contract (as of the annuity

starting date), by

(II) the number of anticipated payments determined under

the table contained in clause (iii) (or, in the case of a

contract to which subsection (c)(3)(B) applies, the number

of monthly annuity payments under such contract).

(ii) Certain rules made applicable

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2) and (3) of

subsection (b) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(iii) Number of anticipated payments

If the annuity is payable over the life of a single

individual, the number of anticipated payments shall be

determined as follows:

If the age of the

annuitant on The number

the annuity starting of anticipated

date is: payments is:

Not more than 55 360

More than 55 but not more than 60 310

More than 60 but not more than 65 260

More than 65 but not more than 70 210

More than 70 160.

(iv) Number of anticipated payments where more than one life

If the annuity is payable over the lives of more than 1

individual, the number of anticipated payments shall be

determined as follows:

If the combined ages of

annuitants are: The number is:

Not more than 110 410

More than 110 but not more than 120 360

More than 120 but not more than 130 310

More than 130 but not more than 140 260

More than 140 210.

(C) Adjustment for refund feature not applicable

For purposes of this paragraph, investment in the contract

shall be determined under subsection (c)(1) without regard to

subsection (c)(2).

(D) Special rule where lump sum paid in connection with

commencement of annuity payments

If, in connection with the commencement of annuity payments

under any qualified employer retirement plan, the taxpayer

receives a lump-sum payment -

(i) such payment shall be taxable under subsection (e) as

if received before the annuity starting date, and

(ii) the investment in the contract for purposes of this

paragraph shall be determined as if such payment had been so

received.

(E) Exception

This paragraph shall not apply in any case where the primary

annuitant has attained age 75 on the annuity starting date

unless there are fewer than 5 years of guaranteed payments

under the annuity.

(F) Adjustment where annuity payments not on monthly basis

In any case where the annuity payments are not made on a

monthly basis, appropriate adjustments in the application of

this paragraph shall be made to take into account the period on

the basis of which such payments are made.

(G) Qualified employer retirement plan

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified employer

retirement plan" means any plan or contract described in

paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 4974(c).

(2) Treatment of employee contributions under defined

contribution plans

For purposes of this section, employee contributions (and any

income allocable thereto) under a defined contribution plan may

be treated as a separate contract.

(e) Amounts not received as annuities

(1) Application of subsection

(A) In general

This subsection shall apply to any amount which -

(i) is received under an annuity, endowment, or life

insurance contract, and

(ii) is not received as an annuity,

if no provision of this subtitle (other than this subsection)

applies with respect to such amount.

(B) Dividends

For purposes of this section, any amount received which is in

the nature of a dividend or similar distribution shall be

treated as an amount not received as an annuity.

(2) General rule

Any amount to which this subsection applies -

(A) if received on or after the annuity starting date, shall

be included in gross income, or

(B) if received before the annuity starting date -

(i) shall be included in gross income to the extent

allocable to income on the contract, and

(ii) shall not be included in gross income to the extent

allocable to the investment in the contract.

(3) Allocation of amounts to income and investment

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B) -

(A) Allocation to income

Any amount to which this subsection applies shall be treated

as allocable to income on the contract to the extent that such

amount does not exceed the excess (if any) of -

(i) the cash value of the contract (determined without

regard to any surrender charge) immediately before the amount

is received, over

(ii) the investment in the contract at such time.

(B) Allocation to investment

Any amount to which this subsection applies shall be treated

as allocable to investment in the contract to the extent that

such amount is not allocated to income under subparagraph (A).

(4) Special rules for application of paragraph (2)(B)

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B) -

(A) Loans treated as distributions

If, during any taxable year, an individual -

(i) receives (directly or indirectly) any amount as a loan

under any contract to which this subsection applies, or

(ii) assigns or pledges (or agrees to assign or pledge) any

portion of the value of any such contract,

such amount or portion shall be treated as received under the

contract as an amount not received as an annuity. The preceding

sentence shall not apply for purposes of determining investment

in the contract, except that the investment in the contract

shall be increased by any amount included in gross income by

reason of the amount treated as received under the preceding

sentence.

(B) Treatment of policyholder dividends

Any amount described in paragraph (1)(B) shall not be

included in gross income under paragraph (2)(B)(i) to the

extent such amount is retained by the insurer as a premium or

other consideration paid for the contract.

(C) Treatment of transfers without adequate consideration

(i) In general

If an individual who holds an annuity contract transfers it

without full and adequate consideration, such individual

shall be treated as receiving an amount equal to the excess

of -

(I) the cash surrender value of such contract at the time

of transfer, over

(II) the investment in such contract at such time,

under the contract as an amount not received as an annuity.

(ii) Exception for certain transfers between spouses or

former spouses

Clause (i) shall not apply to any transfer to which section

1041(a) (relating to transfers of property between spouses or

incident to divorce) applies.

(iii) Adjustment to investment in contract of transferee

If under clause (i) an amount is included in the gross

income of the transferor of an annuity contract, the

investment in the contract of the transferee in such contract

shall be increased by the amount so included.

(5) Retention of existing rules in certain cases

(A) In general

In any case to which this paragraph applies -

(i) paragraphs (2)(B) and (4)(A) shall not apply, and

(ii) if paragraph (2)(A) does not apply,

the amount shall be included in gross income, but only to the

extent it exceeds the investment in the contract.

(B) Existing contracts

This paragraph shall apply to contracts entered into before

August 14, 1982. Any amount allocable to investment in the

contract after August 13, 1982, shall be treated as from a

contract entered into after such date.

(C) Certain life insurance and endowment contracts

Except as provided in paragraph (10) and except to the extent

prescribed by the Secretary by regulations, this paragraph

shall apply to any amount not received as an annuity which is

received under a life insurance or endowment contract.

(D) Contracts under qualified plans

Except as provided in paragraph (8), this paragraph shall

apply to any amount received -

(i) from a trust described in section 401(a) which is

exempt from tax under section 501(a),

(ii) from a contract -

(I) purchased by a trust described in clause (i),

(II) purchased as part of a plan described in section

403(a),

(III) described in section 403(b), or

(IV) provided for employees of a life insurance company

under a plan described in section 818(a)(3), or

(iii) from an individual retirement account or an

individual retirement annuity.

Any dividend described in section 404(k) which is received by a

participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of this

subparagraph, be treated as paid under a separate contract to

which clause (ii)(I) applies.

(E) Full refunds, surrenders, redemptions, and maturities

This paragraph shall apply to -

(i) any amount received, whether in a single sum or

otherwise, under a contract in full discharge of the

obligation under the contract which is in the nature of a

refund of the consideration paid for the contract, and

(ii) any amount received under a contract on its complete

surrender, redemption, or maturity.

In the case of any amount to which the preceding sentence

applies, the rule of paragraph (2)(A) shall not apply.

(6) Investment in the contract

For purposes of this subsection, the investment in the contract

as of any date is -

(A) the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration

paid for the contract before such date, minus

(B) the aggregate amount received under the contract before

such date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from

gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws.

[(7) Repealed. Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1011A(b)(9)(A),

Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3474]

(8) Extension of paragraph (2)(b) (!1) to qualified plans

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, in

the case of any amount received before the annuity starting

date from a trust or contract described in paragraph (5)(D),

paragraph (2)(B) shall apply to such amounts.

(B) Allocation of amount received

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B), the amount allocated to the

investment in the contract shall be the portion of the amount

described in subparagraph (A) which bears the same ratio to

such amount as the investment in the contract bears to the

account balance. The determination under the preceding sentence

shall be made as of the time of the distribution or at such

other time as the Secretary may prescribe.

(C) Treatment of forfeitable rights

If an employee does not have a nonforfeitable right to any

amount under any trust or contract to which subparagraph (A)

applies, such amount shall not be treated as part of the

account balance.

(D) Investment in the contract before 1987

In the case of a plan which on May 5, 1986, permitted

withdrawal of any employee contributions before separation from

service, subparagraph (A) shall apply only to the extent that

amounts received before the annuity starting date (when

increased by amounts previously received under the contract

after December 31, 1986) exceed the investment in the contract

as of December 31, 1986.

(9) Extension of paragraph (2)(B) to qualified tuition programs

and Coverdell education savings accounts

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection,

paragraph (2)(B) shall apply to amounts received under a

qualified tuition program (as defined in section 529(b)) or under

a Coverdell education savings account (as defined in section

530(b)). The rule of paragraph (8)(B) shall apply for purposes of

this paragraph.

(10) Treatment of modified endowment contracts

(A) In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (5)(C), in the case of any modified

endowment contract (as defined in section 7702A) -

(i) paragraphs (2)(B) and (4)(A) shall apply, and

(ii) in applying paragraph (4)(A), "any person" shall be

substituted for "an individual".

(B) Treatment of certain burial contracts

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), paragraph (4)(A) shall not

apply to any assignment (or pledge) of a modified endowment

contract if such assignment (or pledge) is solely to cover the

payment of expenses referred to in section 7702(e)(2)(C)(iii)

and if the maximum death benefit under such contract does not

exceed $25,000.

(11) Anti-abuse rules

(A) In general

For purposes of determining the amount includible in gross

income under this subsection -

(i) all modified endowment contracts issued by the same

company to the same policyholder during any calendar year

shall be treated as 1 modified endowment contract, and

(ii) all annuity contracts issued by the same company to

the same policyholder during any calendar year shall be

treated as 1 annuity contract.

The preceding sentence shall not apply to any contract

described in paragraph (5)(D).

(B) Regulatory authority

The Secretary may by regulations prescribe such additional

rules as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent avoidance

of the purposes of this subsection through serial purchases of

contracts or otherwise.

(f) Special rules for computing employees' contributions

In computing, for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A), the aggregate

amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract,

and for purposes of subsection (e)(6), the aggregate premiums or

other consideration paid, amounts contributed by the employer shall

be included, but only to the extent that -

(1) such amounts were includible in the gross income of the

employee under this subtitle or prior income tax laws; or

(2) if such amounts had been paid directly to the employee at

the time they were contributed, they would not have been

includible in the gross income of the employee under the law

applicable at the time of such contribution.

Paragraph (2) shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by

the employer after December 31, 1962, and which would not have been

includible in the gross income of the employee by reason of the

application of section 911 if such amounts had been paid directly

to the employee at the time of contribution. The preceding sentence

shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the employer,

as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to

provide pension or annuity credits, to the extent such credits are

attributable to services performed before January 1, 1963, and are

provided pursuant to pension or annuity plan provisions in

existence on March 12, 1962, and on that date applicable to such

services, or to the extent such credits are attributable to

services performed as a foreign missionary (within the meaning of

section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii), as in effect before the enactment of the

Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001.(!2)

(g) Rules for transferee where transfer was for value

Where any contract (or any interest therein) is transferred (by

assignment or otherwise) for a valuable consideration, to the

extent that the contract (or interest therein) does not, in the

hands of the transferee, have a basis which is determined by

reference to the basis in the hands of the transferor, then -

(1) for purposes of this section, only the actual value of such

consideration, plus the amount of the premiums and other

consideration paid by the transferee after the transfer, shall be

taken into account in computing the aggregate amount of the

premiums or other consideration paid for the contract;

(2) for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(B), there shall be taken

into account only the aggregate amount received under the

contract by the transferee before the annuity starting date, to

the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income

under this subtitle or prior income tax laws; and

(3) the annuity starting date is January 1, 1954, or the first

day of the first period for which the transferee received an

amount under the contract as an annuity, whichever is the later.

For purposes of this subsection, the term "transferee" includes a

beneficiary of, or the estate of, the transferee.

(h) Option to receive annuity in lieu of lump sum

If -

(1) a contract provides for payment of a lump sum in full

discharge of an obligation under the contract, subject to an

option to receive an annuity in lieu of such lump sum;

(2) the option is exercised within 60 days after the day on

which such lump sum first became payable; and

(3) part or all of such lump sum would (but for this

subsection) be includible in gross income by reason of subsection

(e)(1),

then, for purposes of this subtitle, no part of such lump sum shall

be considered as includible in gross income at the time such lump

sum first became payable.

[(i) Repealed. Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1951(b)(1)(A), Oct.

4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1836]

(j) Interest

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if any

amount is held under an agreement to pay interest thereon, the

interest payments shall be included in gross income.

[(k) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, Sec. 421(b)(1),

July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794]

(g742l) Face-amount certificates

For purposes of this section, the term "endowment contract"

includes a face-amount certificate, as defined in section 2(a)(15)

of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C., sec. 80a-2),

issued after December 31, 1954.

(m) Special rules applicable to employee annuities and

distributions under employee plans

[(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 93-406, title II, Sec. 2001(h)(2), Sept.

2, 1974, 88 Stat. 957]

(2) Computation of consideration paid by the employee

In computing -

(A) the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration

paid for the contract for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A)

(relating to the investment in the contract), and

(B) the aggregate premiums or other consideration paid for

purposes of subsection (e)(6) (relating to certain amounts not

received as an annuity),

any amount allowed as a deduction with respect to the contract

under section 404 which was paid while the employee was an

employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) shall be treated

as consideration contributed by the employer, and there shall not

be taken into account any portion of the premiums or other

consideration for the contract paid while the employee was an

owner-employee which is properly allocable (as determined under

regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to the cost of life,

accident, health, or other insurance.

(3) Life insurance contracts

(A) This paragraph shall apply to any life insurance contract

-

(i) purchased as a part of a plan described in section

403(a), or

(ii) purchased by a trust described in section 401(a) which

is exempt from tax under section 501(a) if the proceeds of

such contract are payable directly or indirectly to a

participant in such trust or to a beneficiary of such

participant.

(B) Any contribution to a plan described in subparagraph

(A)(i) or a trust described in subparagraph (A)(ii) which is

allowed as a deduction under section 404, and any income of a

trust described in subparagraph (A)(ii), which is determined in

accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary to have

been applied to purchase the life insurance protection under a

contract described in subparagraph (A), is includible in the

gross income of the participant for the taxable year when so

applied.

(C) In the case of the death of an individual insured under a

contract described in subparagraph (A), an amount equal to the

cash surrender value of the contract immediately before the

death of the insured shall be treated as a payment under such

plan or a distribution by such trust, and the excess of the

amount payable by reason of the death of the insured over such

cash surrender value shall not be includible in gross income

under this section and shall be treated as provided in section

101.

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Sec. 236(b)(1), Sept. 3,

1982, 96 Stat. 510]

(5) Penalties applicable to certain amounts received by 5-percent

owners

(A) This paragraph applies to amounts which are received from

a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan

described in section 403(a) at any time by an individual who

is, or has been, a 5-percent owner, or by a successor of such

an individual, but only to the extent such amounts are

determined, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to

exceed the benefits provided for such individual under the plan

formula.

(B) If a person receives an amount to which this paragraph

applies, his tax under this chapter for the taxable year in

which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount

equal to 10 percent of the portion of the amount so received

which is includible in his gross income for such taxable year.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "5-percent

owner" means any individual who, at any time during the 5 plan

years preceding the plan year ending in the taxable year in

which the amount is received, is a 5-percent owner (as defined

in section 416(i)(1)(B)).

(6) Owner-employee defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term "owner-employee" has

the meaning assigned to it by section 401(c)(3) and includes an

individual for whose benefit an individual retirement account or

annuity described in section 408(a) or (b) is maintained. For

purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "owner-employee"

shall include an employee within the meaning of section

401(c)(1).

(7) Meaning of disabled

For purposes of this section, an individual shall be considered

to be disabled if he is unable to engage in any substantial

gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical

or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or

to be of long-continued and indefinite duration. An individual

shall not be considered to be disabled unless he furnishes proof

of the existence thereof in such form and manner as the Secretary

may require.

[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Sec. 236(b)(1), Sept. 3,

1982, 96 Stat. 510]

[(9) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title VII, Sec. 713(d)(1),

July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 957]

(10) Determination of investment in the contract in the case of

qualified domestic relations orders

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in the case of a

distribution or payment made to an alternate payee who is the

spouse or former spouse of the participant pursuant to a

qualified domestic relations order (as defined in section

414(p)), the investment in the contract as of the date prescribed

in such regulations shall be allocated on a pro rata basis

between the present value of such distribution or payment and the

present value of all other benefits payable with respect to the

participant to which such order relates.

(n) Annuities under retired serviceman's family protection plan or

survivor benefit plan

Subsection (b) shall not apply in the case of amounts received

after December 31, 1965, as an annuity under chapter 73 of title 10

of the United States Code, but all such amounts shall be excluded

from gross income until there has been so excluded (under section

122(b)(1) or this section, including amounts excluded before

January 1, 1966) an amount equal to the consideration for the

contract (as defined by section 122(b)(2)), plus any amount treated

pursuant to section 101(b)(2)(D) (as in effect on the day before

the date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act

of 1996) as additional consideration paid by the employee.

Thereafter all amounts so received shall be included in gross

income.

(g742o) Special rules for distributions from qualified plans to

which employee made deductible contributions

(1) Treatment of contributions

For purposes of this section and sections 402 and 403,

notwithstanding section 414(h), any deductible employee

contribution made to a qualified employer plan or government plan

shall be treated as an amount contributed by the employer which

is not includible in the gross income of the employee.

[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1011A(c)(8), Nov.

10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3476]

(3) Amounts constructively received

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, rules similar to the rules

provided by subsection (p) (other than the exception contained

in paragraph (2) thereof) shall apply.

(B) Purchase of life insurance

To the extent any amount of accumulated deductible employee

contributions of an employee are applied to the purchase of

life insurance contracts, such amount shall be treated as

distributed to the employee in the year so applied.

(4) Special rule for treatment of rollover amounts

For purposes of sections 402(c), 403(a)(4), and 403(b)(8),

408(d)(3), and 457(e)(16), the Secretary shall prescribe

regulations providing for such allocations of amounts

attributable to accumulated deductible employee contributions,

and for such other rules, as may be necessary to insure that such

accumulated deductible employee contributions do not become

eligible for additional tax benefits (or freed from limitations)

through the use of rollovers.

(5) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection -

(A) Deductible employee contributions

The term "deductible employee contributions" means any

qualified voluntary employee contribution (as defined in

section 219(e)(2)) made after December 31, 1981, in a taxable

year beginning after such date and made for a taxable year

beginning before January 1, 1987, and allowable as a deduction

under section 219(a) for such taxable year.

(B) Accumulated deductible employee contributions

The term "accumulated deductible employee contributions"

means the deductible employee contributions -

(i) increased by the amount of income and gain allocable to

such contributions, and

(ii) reduced by the sum of the amount of loss and expense

allocable to such contributions and the amounts distributed

with respect to the employee which are attributable to such

contributions (or income or gain allocable to such

contributions).

(C) Qualified employer plan

The term "qualified employer plan" has the meaning given to

such term by subsection (p)(3)(A)(i).

(D) Government plan

The term "government plan" has the meaning given such term by

subsection (p)(3)(B).

(6) Ordering rules

Unless the plan specifies otherwise, any distribution from such

plan shall not be treated as being made from the accumulated

deductible employee contributions, until all other amounts to the

credit of the employee have been distributed.

(p) Loans treated as distributions

For purposes of this section -

(1) Treatment as distributions

(A) Loans

If during any taxable year a participant or beneficiary

receives (directly or indirectly) any amount as a loan from a

qualified employer plan, such amount shall be treated as having

been received by such individual as a distribution under such

plan.

(B) Assignments or pledges

If during any taxable year a participant or beneficiary

assigns (or agrees to assign) or pledges (or agrees to pledge)

any portion of his interest in a qualified employer plan, such

portion shall be treated as having been received by such

individual as a loan from such plan.

(2) Exception for certain loans

(A) General rule

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any loan to the extent that

such loan (when added to the outstanding balance of all other

loans from such plan whether made on, before, or after August

13, 1982), does not exceed the lesser of -

(i) $50,000, reduced by the excess (if any) of -

(I) the highest outstanding balance of loans from the

plan during the 1-year period ending on the day before the

date on which such loan was made, over

(II) the outstanding balance of loans from the plan on

the date on which such loan was made, or

(ii) the greater of (I) one-half of the present value of

the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the

plan, or (II) $10,000.

For purposes of clause (ii), the present value of the

nonforfeitable accrued benefit shall be determined without

regard to any accumulated deductible employee contributions (as

defined in subsection (o)(5)(B)).

(B) Requirement that loan be repayable within 5 years

(i) In general

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any loan unless such

loan, by its terms, is required to be repaid within 5 years.

(ii) Exception for home loans

Clause (i) shall not apply to any loan used to acquire any

dwelling unit which within a reasonable time is to be used

(determined at the time the loan is made) as the principal

residence of the participant.

(C) Requirement of level amortization

Except as provided in regulations, this paragraph shall not

apply to any loan unless substantially level amortization of

such loan (with payments not less frequently than quarterly) is

required over the term of the loan.

(D) Related employers and related plans

For purposes of this paragraph -

(i) the rules of subsections (b), (c), and (m) of section

414 shall apply, and

(ii) all plans of an employer (determined after the

application of such subsections) shall be treated as 1 plan.

(3) Denial of interest deductions in certain cases

(A) In general

No deduction otherwise allowable under this chapter shall be

allowed under this chapter for any interest paid or accrued on

any loan to which paragraph (1) does not apply by reason of

paragraph (2) during the period described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Period to which subparagraph (A) applies

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the period described in

this subparagraph is the period -

(i) on or after the 1st day on which the individual to whom

the loan is made is a key employee (as defined in section

416(i)), or

(ii) such loan is secured by amounts attributable to

elective deferrals described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of

section 402(g)(3).

(4) Qualified employer plan, etc.

For purposes of this subsection -

(A) Qualified employer plan

(i) In general

The term "qualified employer plan" means -

(I) a plan described in section 401(a) which includes a

trust exempt from tax under section 501(a),

(II) an annuity plan described in section 403(a), and

(III) a plan under which amounts are contributed by an

individual's employer for an annuity contract described in

section 403(b).

(ii) Special rule

The term "qualified employer plan" shall include any plan

which was (or was determined to be) a qualified employer plan

or a government plan.

(B) Government plan

The term "government plan" means any plan, whether or not

qualified, established and maintained for its employees by the

United States, by a State or political subdivision thereof, or

by an agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing.

(5) Special rules for loans, etc., from certain contracts

For purposes of this subsection, any amount received as a loan

under a contract purchased under a qualified employer plan (and

any assignment or pledge with respect to such a contract) shall

be treated as a loan under such employer plan.

(q) 10-percent penalty for premature distributions from annuity

contracts

(1) Imposition of penalty

If any taxpayer receives any amount under an annuity contract,

the taxpayer's tax under this chapter for the taxable year in

which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount

equal to 10 percent of the portion of such amount which is

includible in gross income.

(2) Subsection not to apply to certain distributions

Paragraph 1 shall not apply to any distribution -

(A) made on or after the date on which the taxpayer attains

age 59 1/2 ,

(B) made on or after the death of the holder (or, where the

holder is not an individual, the death of the primary annuitant

(as defined in subsection (s)(6)(B))),

(C) attributable to the taxpayer's becoming disabled within

the meaning of subsection (m)(7),

(D) which is a part of a series of substantially equal

periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for

the life (or life expectancy) of the taxpayer or the joint

lives (or joint life expectancies) of such taxpayer and his

designated beneficiary,

(E) from a plan, contract, account, trust, or annuity

described in subsection (e)(5)(D),

(F) allocable to investment in the contract before August 14,

1982, or (!3)

(G) under a qualified funding asset (within the meaning of

section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a

qualified assignment),

(H) to which subsection (t) applies (without regard to

paragraph (2) thereof),

(I) under an immediate annuity contract (within the meaning

of section 72(u)(4)), or

(J) which is purchased by an employer upon the termination of

a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a) and which is held

by the employer until such time as the employee separates from

service.

(3) Change in substantially equal payments

If -

(A) paragraph (1) does not apply to a distribution by reason

of paragraph (2)(D), and

(B) the series of payments under such paragraph are

subsequently modified (other than by reason of death or

disability) -

(i) before the close of the 5-year period beginning on the

date of the first payment and after the taxpayer attains age

59 1/2 , or

(ii) before the taxpayer attains age 59 1/2 ,

the taxpayer's tax for the 1st taxable year in which such

modification occurs shall be increased by an amount, determined

under regulations, equal to the tax which (but for paragraph

(2)(D)) would have been imposed, plus interest for the deferral

period (within the meaning of subsection (t)(4)(B)).

(r) Certain railroad retirement benefits treated as received under

employer plans

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any benefit

provided under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (other than a

tier 1 railroad retirement benefit) shall be treated for purposes

of this title as a benefit provided under an employer plan which

meets the requirements of section 401(a).

(2) Tier 2 taxes treated as contributions

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1) -

(i) the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3201

(relating to tax on employees) shall be treated as an

employee contribution,

(ii) the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3211

(relating to tax on employee representatives) shall be

treated as an employee contribution, and

(iii) the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3221

(relating to tax on employers) shall be treated as an

employer contribution.

(B) Tier 2 portion

For purposes of subparagraph (A) -

(i) After 1984

With respect to compensation paid after 1984, the tier 2

portion shall be the taxes imposed by sections 3201(b),

3211(b), and 3221(b).

(ii) After September 30, 1981, and before 1985

With respect to compensation paid before 1985 for services

rendered after September 30, 1981, the tier 2 portion shall

be -

(I) so much of the tax imposed by section 3201 as is

determined at the 2 percent rate, and

(II) so much of the taxes imposed by sections 3211 and

3221 as is determined at the 11.75 percent rate.

With respect to compensation paid for services rendered after

December 31, 1983, and before 1985, subclause (I) shall be

applied by substituting "2.75 percent" for "2 percent", and

subclause (II) shall be applied by substituting "12.75

percent" for "11.75 percent".

(iii) Before October 1, 1981

With respect to compensation paid for services rendered

during any period before October 1, 1981, the tier 2 portion

shall be the excess (if any) of -

(I) the tax imposed for such period by section 3201,

3211, or 3221, as the case may be (other than any tax

imposed with respect to man-hours), over

(II) the tax which would have been imposed by such

section for such period had the rates of the comparable

taxes imposed by chapter 21 for such period applied under

such section.

(C) Contributions not allocable to supplemental annuity or

windfall benefits

For purposes of paragraph (1), no amount treated as an

employee contribution under this paragraph shall be allocated

to -

(i) any supplemental annuity paid under section 2(b) of the

Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or

(ii) any benefit paid under section 3(h), 4(e), or 4(h) of

such Act.

(3) Tier 1 railroad retirement benefit

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "tier 1 railroad

retirement benefit" has the meaning given such term by section

86(d)(4).

(s) Required distributions where holder dies before entire interest

is distributed

(1) In general

A contract shall not be treated as an annuity contract for

purposes of this title unless it provides that -

(A) if any holder of such contract dies on or after the

annuity starting date and before the entire interest in such

contract has been distributed, the remaining portion of such

interest will be distributed at least as rapidly as under the

method of distributions being used as of the date of his death,

and

(B) if any holder of such contract dies before the annuity

starting date, the entire interest in such contract will be

distributed within 5 years after the death of such holder.

(2) Exception for certain amounts payable over life of

beneficiary

If -

(A) any portion of the holder's interest is payable to (or

for the benefit of) a designated beneficiary,

(B) such portion will be distributed (in accordance with

regulations) over the life of such designated beneficiary (or

over a period not extending beyond the life expectancy of such

beneficiary), and

(C) such distributions begin not later than 1 year after the

date of the holder's death or such later date as the Secretary

may by regulations prescribe,

then for purposes of paragraph (1), the portion referred to in

subparagraph (A) shall be treated as distributed on the day on

which such distributions begin.

(3) Special rule where surviving spouse beneficiary

If the designated beneficiary referred to in paragraph (2)(A)

is the surviving spouse of the holder of the contract, paragraphs

(1) and (2) shall be applied by treating such spouse as the

holder of such contract.

(4) Designated beneficiary

For purposes of this subsection, the term "designated

beneficiary" means any individual designated a beneficiary by the

holder of the contract.

(5) Exception for certain annuity contracts

This subsection shall not apply to any annuity contract -

(A) which is provided -

(i) under a plan described in section 401(a) which includes

a trust exempt from tax under section 501, or

(ii) under a plan described in section 403(a),

(B) which is described in section 403(b),

(C) which is an individual retirement annuity or provided

under an individual retirement account or annuity, or

(D) which is a qualified funding asset (as defined in section

130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified

assignment).

(6) Special rule where holder is corporation or other

non-individual

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, if the holder of the

contract is not an individual, the primary annuitant shall be

treated as the holder of the contract.

(B) Primary annuitant

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "primary

annuitant" means the individual, the events in the life of whom

are of primary importance in affecting the timing or amount of

the payout under the contract.

(7) Treatment of changes in primary annuitant where holder of

contract is not an individual

For purposes of this subsection, in the case of a holder of an

annuity contract which is not an individual, if there is a change

in a primary annuitant (as defined in paragraph (6)(B)), such

change shall be treated as the death of the holder.

(t) 10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified

retirement plans

(1) Imposition of additional tax

If any taxpayer receives any amount from a qualified retirement

plan (as defined in section 4974(c)), the taxpayer's tax under

this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is

received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of

the portion of such amount which is includible in gross income.

(2) Subsection not to apply to certain distributions

Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), paragraph (1)

shall not apply to any of the following distributions:

(A) In general

Distributions which are -

(i) made on or after the date on which the employee attains

age 59 1/2 ,

(ii) made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the

employee) on or after the death of the employee,

(iii) attributable to the employee's being disabled within

the meaning of subsection (m)(7),

(iv) part of a series of substantially equal periodic

payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the

life (or life expectancy) of the employee or the joint lives

(or joint life expectancies) of such employee and his

designated beneficiary,

(v) made to an employee after separation from service after

attainment of age 55,

(vi) dividends paid with respect to stock of a corporation

which are described in section 404(k), or

(vii) made on account of a levy under section 6331 on the

qualified retirement plan.

(B) Medical expenses

Distributions made to the employee (other than distributions

described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D)) to the extent such

distributions do not exceed the amount allowable as a deduction

under section 213 to the employee for amounts paid during the

taxable year for medical care (determined without regard to

whether the employee itemizes deductions for such taxable

year).

(C) Payments to alternate payees pursuant to qualified domestic

relations orders

Any distribution to an alternate payee pursuant to a

qualified domestic relations order (within the meaning of

section 414(p)(1)).

(D) Distributions to unemployed individuals for health

insurance premiums

(i) In general

Distributions from an individual retirement plan to an

individual after separation from employment -

(I) if such individual has received unemployment

compensation for 12 consecutive weeks under any Federal or

State unemployment compensation law by reason of such

separation,

(II) if such distributions are made during any taxable

year during which such unemployment compensation is paid or

the succeeding taxable year, and

(III) to the extent such distributions do not exceed the

amount paid during the taxable year for insurance described

in section 213(d)(1)(D) with respect to the individual and

the individual's spouse and dependents (as defined in

section 152).

(ii) Distributions after reemployment

Clause (i) shall not apply to any distribution made after

the individual has been employed for at least 60 days after

the separation from employment to which clause (i) applies.

(iii) Self-employed individuals

To the extent provided in regulations, a self-employed

individual shall be treated as meeting the requirements of

clause (i)(I) if, under Federal or State law, the individual

would have received unemployment compensation but for the

fact the individual was self-employed.

(E) Distributions from individual retirement plans for higher

education expenses

Distributions to an individual from an individual retirement

plan to the extent such distributions do not exceed the

qualified higher education expenses (as defined in paragraph

(7)) of the taxpayer for the taxable year. Distributions shall

not be taken into account under the preceding sentence if such

distributions are described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D) or

to the extent paragraph (1) does not apply to such

distributions by reason of subparagraph (B).

(F) Distributions from certain plans for first home purchases

Distributions to an individual from an individual retirement

plan which are qualified first-time homebuyer distributions (as

defined in paragraph (8)). Distributions shall not be taken

into account under the preceding sentence if such distributions

are described in subparagraph (A), (C), (D), or (E) or to the

extent paragraph (1) does not apply to such distributions by

reason of subparagraph (B).

(3) Limitations

(A) Certain exceptions not to apply to individual retirement

plans

Subparagraphs (A)(v) and (C) of paragraph (2) shall not apply

to distributions from an individual retirement plan.

(B) Periodic payments under qualified plans must begin after

separation

Paragraph (2)(A)(iv) shall not apply to any amount paid from

a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax

under section 501(a) or from a contract described in section

72(e)(5)(D)(ii) unless the series of payments begins after the

employee separates from service.

(4) Change in substantially equal payments

(A) In general

If -

(i) paragraph (1) does not apply to a distribution by

reason of paragraph (2)(A)(iv), and

(ii) the series of payments under such paragraph are

subsequently modified (other than by reason of death or

disability) -

(I) before the close of the 5-year period beginning with

the date of the first payment and after the employee

attains age 59 1/2 , or

(II) before the employee attains age 59 1/2 ,

the taxpayer's tax for the 1st taxable year in which such

modification occurs shall be increased by an amount, determined

under regulations, equal to the tax which (but for paragraph

(2)(A)(iv)) would have been imposed, plus interest for the

deferral period.

(B) Deferral period

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "deferral period"

means the period beginning with the taxable year in which

(without regard to paragraph (2)(A)(iv)) the distribution would

have been includible in gross income and ending with the

taxable year in which the modification described in

subparagraph (A) occurs.

(5) Employee

For purposes of this subsection, the term "employee" includes

any participant, and in the case of an individual retirement

plan, the individual for whose benefit such plan was established.

(6) Special rules for simple retirement accounts

In the case of any amount received from a simple retirement

account (within the meaning of section 408(p)) during the 2-year

period beginning on the date such individual first participated

in any qualified salary reduction arrangement maintained by the

individual's employer under section 408(p)(2), paragraph (1)

shall be applied by substituting "25 percent" for "10 percent".

(7) Qualified higher education expenses

For purposes of paragraph (2)(E) -

(A) In general

The term "qualified higher education expenses" means

qualified higher education expenses (as defined in section

529(e)(3)) for education furnished to -

(i) the taxpayer,

(ii) the taxpayer's spouse, or

(iii) any child (as defined in section 151(c)(3)) or

grandchild of the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse,

at an eligible educational institution (as defined in section

529(e)(5)).

(B) Coordination with other benefits

The amount of qualified higher education expenses for any

taxable year shall be reduced as provided in section 25A(g)(2).

(8) Qualified first-time homebuyer distributions

For purposes of paragraph (2)(F) -

(A) In general

The term "qualified first-time homebuyer distribution" means

any payment or distribution received by an individual to the

extent such payment or distribution is used by the individual

before the close of the 120th day after the day on which such

payment or distribution is received to pay qualified

acquisition costs with respect to a principal residence of a

first-time homebuyer who is such individual, the spouse of such

individual, or any child, grandchild, or ancestor of such

individual or the individual's spouse.

(B) Lifetime dollar limitation

The aggregate amount of payments or distributions received by

an individual which may be treated as qualified first-time

homebuyer distributions for any taxable year shall not exceed

the excess (if any) of -

(i) $10,000, over

(ii) the aggregate amounts treated as qualified first-time

homebuyer distributions with respect to such individual for

all prior taxable years.

(C) Qualified acquisition costs

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified

acquisition costs" means the costs of acquiring, constructing,

or reconstructing a residence. Such term includes any usual or

reasonable settlement, financing, or other closing costs.

(D) First-time homebuyer; other definitions

For purposes of this paragraph -

(i) First-time homebuyer

The term "first-time homebuyer" means any individual if -

(I) such individual (and if married, such individual's

spouse) had no present ownership interest in a principal

residence during the 2-year period ending on the date of

acquisition of the principal residence to which this

paragraph applies, and

(II) subsection (h) or (k) of section 1034 (!4) (as in

effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this

paragraph) did not suspend the running of any period of

time specified in section 1034 (!4) (as so in effect) with

respect to such individual on the day before the date the

distribution is applied pursuant to subparagraph (A).

(ii) Principal residence

The term "principal residence" has the same meaning as when

used in section 121.

(iii) Date of acquisition

The term "date of acquisition" means the date -

(I) on which a binding contract to acquire the principal

residence to which subparagraph (A) applies is entered

into, or

(II) on which construction or reconstruction of such a

principal residence is commenced.

(E) Special rule where delay in acquisition

If any distribution from any individual retirement plan fails

to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) solely by reason

of a delay or cancellation of the purchase or construction of

the residence, the amount of the distribution may be

contributed to an individual retirement plan as provided in

section 408(d)(3)(A)(i) (determined by substituting "120th day"

for "60th day" in such section), except that -

(i) section 408(d)(3)(B) shall not be applied to such

contribution, and

(ii) such amount shall not be taken into account in

determining whether section 408(d)(3)(B) applies to any other

amount.

(9) Special rule for rollovers to section 457 plans

For purposes of this subsection, a distribution from an

eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section

457(b)) of an eligible employer described in section 457(e)(1)(A)

shall be treated as a distribution from a qualified retirement

plan described in 4974(c)(1) to the extent that such distribution

is attributable to an amount transferred to an eligible deferred

compensation plan from a qualified retirement plan (as defined in

section 4974(c)).

(u) Treatment of annuity contracts not held by natural persons

(1) In general

If any annuity contract is held by a person who is not a

natural person -

(A) such contract shall not be treated as an annuity contract

for purposes of this subtitle (other than subchapter L), and

(B) the income on the contract for any taxable year of the

policyholder shall be treated as ordinary income received or

accrued by the owner during such taxable year.

For purposes of this paragraph, holding by a trust or other

entity as an agent for a natural person shall not be taken into

account.

(2) Income on the contract

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "income on the

contract" means, with respect to any taxable year of the

policyholder, the excess of -

(i) the sum of the net surrender value of the contract as

of the close of the taxable year plus all distributions under

the contract received during the taxable year or any prior

taxable year, reduced by

(ii) the sum of the amount of net premiums under the

contract for the taxable year and prior taxable years and

amounts includible in gross income for prior taxable years

with respect to such contract under this subsection.

Where necessary to prevent the avoidance of this subsection,

the Secretary may substitute "fair market value of the

contract" for "net surrender value of the contract" each place

it appears in the preceding sentence.

(B) Net premiums

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "net premiums" means

the amount of premiums paid under the contract reduced by any

policyholder dividends.

(3) Exceptions

This subsection shall not apply to any annuity contract which -

(A) is acquired by the estate of a decedent by reason of the

death of the decedent,

(B) is held under a plan described in section 401(a) or

403(a), under a program described in section 403(b), or under

an individual retirement plan,

(C) is a qualified funding asset (as defined in section

130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified

assignment),

(D) is purchased by an employer upon the termination of a

plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a) and is held by the

employer until all amounts under such contract are distributed

to the employee for whom such contract was purchased or the

employee's beneficiary, or

(E) is an immediate annuity.

(4) Immediate annuity

For purposes of this subsection, the term "immediate annuity"

means an annuity -

(A) which is purchased with a single premium or annuity

consideration,

(B) the annuity starting date (as defined in subsection

(c)(4)) of which commences no later than 1 year from the date

of the purchase of the annuity, and

(C) which provides for a series of substantially equal

periodic payments (to be made not less frequently than

annually) during the annuity period.

(v) 10-percent additional tax for taxable distributions from

modified endowment contracts

(1) Imposition of additional tax

If any taxpayer receives any amount under a modified endowment

contract (as defined in section 7702A), the taxpayer's tax under

this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is

received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of

the portion of such amount which is includible in gross income.

(2) Subsection not to apply to certain distributions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution -

(A) made on or after the date on which the taxpayer attains

age 59 1/2 ,

(B) which is attributable to the taxpayer's becoming disabled

(within the meaning of subsection (m)(7)), or

(C) which is part of a series of substantially equal periodic

payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life

(or life expectancy) of the taxpayer or the joint lives (or

joint life expectancies) of such taxpayer and his beneficiary.

(w) Cross reference

For limitation on adjustments to basis of annuity contracts

sold, see section 1021.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 20; Pub. L. 87-792, Sec. 4(a),

(b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 87-834, Sec. 11(b), Oct.

16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1005; Pub. L. 88-272, title II, Sec. 232(b),

Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 110; Pub. L. 89-44, title VIII, Sec.

809(d)(2), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167; Pub. L. 89-97, title I,

Sec. 106(d)(2), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 337; Pub. L. 89-365, Sec.

1(b), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 91-172, title V, Sec.

515(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 93-406, title II,

Secs. 2001(e)(5), (g)(1), (2)(A), (h)(2), (3), 2002(g)(10),

2005(c)(3), 2007(b)(2), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 955, 957, 970, 991,

994; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Secs. 1901(a)(12), (13),

1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834,

1836; Pub. L. 97-34, title III, Secs. 311(b)(1), 312(d), (e)(1),

Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 278, 284; Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Secs.

236(a), (b), 237(d), 265(a), (b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat.

509-511, 544-546; Pub. L. 97-448, title I, Sec. 103(c)(3)(B)(i),

(6), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2376; Pub. L. 98-76, title II, Sec.

224(a), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title

II, Secs. 211(b)(1), 222(a), (b), title IV, Secs. 421(b)(1),

491(d)(3), (4), title V, Secs. 521(d), 523(a), (b), title VII, Sec.

713(b)(1)-(c)(1)(B), (d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 754, 774, 794,

849, 868, 871, 872, 956, 957; Pub. L. 98-397, title II, Sec.

204(c)(2), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1448; Pub. L. 99-514, title XI,

Secs. 1101(b)(2)(B), (C), 1122(c), 1123(a), (b), (d)(1),

1134(a)-(d), 1135(a), title XVIII, Secs. 1826(a), (b)(1)-(3), (c),

(d), 1852(a)(2), (c)(1)-(4), 1854(b)(1), 1898(c)(1)(B), Oct. 22,

1986, 100 Stat. 2413, 2414, 2467, 2472, 2474, 2475, 2483, 2484,

2848-2850, 2864, 2867, 2878, 2951; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Secs.

1011A(b)(1)(A), (B), (2), (9), (c)(1)-(8), (h), (i), 1018(k),

(t)(1)(A), (B), (u)(8), title V, Sec. 5012(a), (b)(1), (d), Nov.

10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3472, 3474-3476, 3482, 3583, 3587, 3590, 3661,

3662, 3664; Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, Secs. 7811(m)(4),

7815(a)(3), (5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412, 2414; Pub. L.

101-508, title XI, Sec. 11802(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-529;

Pub. L. 102-318, title V, Sec. 521(b)(3), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat.

310; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Secs. 1403(a), 1421(b)(4)(A),

1463(a), 1704(l)(1), (t)(2), (77), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1790,

1796, 1824, 1882, 1887, 1891; Pub. L. 104-191, title III, Sec.

361(a)-(c), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2071, 2072; Pub. L. 105-34,

title II, Sec. 203(a), (b), title III, Sec. 303(a), (b), title X,

Sec. 1075(a), (b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 809, 829, 949; Pub. L.

105-206, title III, Sec. 3436(a), title VI, Secs. 6004(d)(3)(B),

6005(c)(1), 6023(3), (4), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 761, 794, 800,

824; Pub. L. 107-16, title IV, Sec. 402(a)(4)(A), (B), title VI,

Secs. 632(a)(3)(A), 641(a)(2)(C), (e)(1), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat.

60, 61, 113, 120; Pub. L. 107-22, Sec. 1(b)(1)(A), (3)(A), July 26,

2001, 115 Stat. 196, 197; Pub. L. 107-90, title II, Sec. 204(e)(2),

Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 893.)

-STATAMEND-

AMENDMENT OF SECTION

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107-16,

see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief

Reconciliation Act of 2001, referred to in subsec. (f), means the

enactment of Pub. L. 107-16, which was approved June 7, 2001.

The date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection

Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (n), is the date of enactment

of Pub. L. 104-188, which was approved Aug. 20, 1996.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec.

(r)(1), (2)(C)(i), (ii), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended

generally by Pub. L. 93-445, title I, Sec. 101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88

Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (Sec.

231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Sections 2(b),

3(h), and 4(e) and (h) of the Act are classified to sections

231a(b), 231b(h), and 231c(e) and (h), respectively, of Title 45.

For further details and complete classification of this Act to the

Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title

45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Section 1034 (as in effect on the day before the date of the

enactment of this paragraph), referred to in subsec.

(t)(8)(D)(i)(II), means section 1034 of this title as in effect on

the day before Aug. 5, 1997. Section 1034 was repealed by Pub. L.

105-34, title III, Sec. 312(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 839.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 107-22, Sec. 1(b)(3)(A), which

directed amendment of par. (9) by substituting "Coverdell education

savings" for "education individual retirement" in heading, was

executed by making the substitution for "educational individual

retirement", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 107-22, Sec. 1(b)(1)(A), substituted "a Coverdell

education savings" for "an education individual retirement".

Pub. L. 107-16, Secs. 402(a)(4)(A), (B), 901, temporarily

substituted "qualified tuition" for "qualified State tuition" in

heading and text. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001

Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107-16, Secs. 632(a)(3)(A), 901, temporarily

substituted "section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii), as in effect before the

enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act

of 2001" for "section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii))" in concluding provisions.

See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 107-16, Secs. 641(e)(1), 901, temporarily

substituted "403(b)(8), 408(d)(3), and 457(e)(16)" for "and

408(d)(3)". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

note below.

Subsec. (r)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107-90 substituted "3211(b)" for

"3211(a)(2)".

Subsec. (t)(9). Pub. L. 107-16, Secs. 641(a)(2)(C), 901,

temporarily added par. (9). See Effective and Termination Dates of

2001 Amendments note below.

1998 - Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6004(d)(3)(B), added

par. (9).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6023(3), inserted "(as in

effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Small

Business Job Protection Act of 1996)" after "section 101(b)(2)(D)".

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 3436(a), which

directed amendment of cl. (iv) by striking out "or" at end, could

not be executed because the word "or" did not appear at end.

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 3436(a), added cl.

(vii).

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6023(4), substituted

"(A)(v)" for "(A)(v),".

Subsec. (t)(8)(E). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6005(c)(1), in

introductory provisions, substituted "120th day" for "120 days" and

"60th day" for "60 days".

1997 - Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1075(b),

inserted "If the annuity is payable over the life of a single

individual, the number of anticipated payments shall be determined

as follows:" before table and struck out "primary" after "If the

age of the" in table.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1075(a), added cl.

(iv).

Subsec. (t)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 203(a), added subpar.

(E).

Subsec. (t)(2)(F). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 303(a), added subpar.

(F).

Subsec. (t)(7). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 203(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (t)(8). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 303(b), added par. (8).

1996 - Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1704(l)(1),

inserted "(determined without regard to subsection (c)(2))" after

"contract".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1403(a), amended subsec. (d)

generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows:

"Treatment of Employee Contributions Under Defined Contribution

Plans as Separate Contracts. - For purposes of this section,

employee contributions (and any income allocable thereto) under a

defined contribution plan may be treated as a separate contract."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1463(a), in closing

provisions, inserted before period at end ", or to the extent such

credits are attributable to services performed as a foreign

missionary (within the meaning of section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii))".

Subsec. (m)(2)(A) to (C). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1704(t)(2),

inserted "and" at end of subpar. (A), redesignated subpar. (C) as

(B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "the

consideration for the contract contributed by the employee for

purposes of subsection (d)(1) (relating to employee's contributions

recoverable in 3 years) and subsection (e)(7) (relating to plans

where substantially all contributions are employee contributions),

and".

Subsec. (p)(4)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1704(t)(77), amended

cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows:

"Special rules. - The term 'qualified employer plan' -

"(I) shall include any plan which was (or was determined to be)

a qualified employer plan or a government plan, but

"(II) shall not include a plan described in subsection (e)(7)."

Subsec. (t)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104-191, Sec. 361(c), substituted ",

(C), or (D)" for "or (C)".

Subsec. (t)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104-191, Sec. 361(b), added subpar.

(D).

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104-191, Sec. 361(a), struck out

"(B)," after "Subparagraphs (A)(v),".

Subsec. (t)(6). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1421(b)(4)(A), added par.

(6).

1992 - Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 102-318 substituted "402(c)" for

"402(a)(5), 402(a)(7)".

1990 - Subsec. (t)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11802(a)(1),

(2), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C) and struck out former subpar.

(C) "Exceptions for distributions from employee stock ownership

plans" which read as follows: "Any distribution made before January

1, 1990, to an employee from an employee stock ownership plan (as

defined in section 4975(e)(7)) or a tax credit employee stock

ownership plan (as defined in section 409) if -

"(i) such distribution is attributable to assets which have

been invested in employer securities (within the meaning of

section 409(l)) at all times during the 5-plan-year period

preceding the plan year in which the distribution is made, and

"(ii) at all times during such period the requirements of

sections 401(a)(28) and 409 (as in effect at such times) are met

with respect to such employer securities."

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11802(a)(3), substituted

"and (C)" for "(C), and (D)".

1989 - Subsec. (e)(11)(A). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7815(a)(3), (5),

substituted "calendar year" for "12-month period" in cls. (i) and

(ii), and inserted at end "The preceding sentence shall not apply

to any contract described in paragraph (5)(D)."

Subsec. (q)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101-239, Sec. 7811(m)(4), inserted an

additional closing parenthesis after "subsection (s)(6)(B))".

1988 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(2)(A), added

subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e)(4)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 5012(d)(1), inserted at

end "The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of

determining investment in the contract, except that the investment

in the contract shall be increased by any amount included in gross

income by reason of the amount treated as received under the

preceding sentence."

Subsec. (e)(5)(C). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 5012(a)(2), substituted

"Except as provided in paragraph (10) and except to the extent" for

"Except to the extent".

Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(9)(B),

substituted "paragraph (8)" for "paragraphs (7) and (8)".

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(9)(A), struck out

par. (7) which related to special rules for plans where

substantially all contributions are employee contributions.

Subsec. (e)(8)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(9)(C), struck

out "(other than paragraph (7))" after "this subsection".

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(2)(B), struck out

par. (9) which related to treatment of employee contributions as

separate contract.

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 5012(a)(1), added par.

(10).

Subsec. (e)(11). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 5012(d)(2), added par.

(11).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(1)(A), struck out

"for purposes of subsections (d)(1) and (e)(7), the consideration

for the contract contributed by the employee," after "contract," in

introductory provisions.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(1)(B), substituted

"Subsection (b)" for "Subsections (b) and (d)".

Subsec. (o)(2). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(8), struck out

par. (2) which related to additional tax if amount received before

age 59 1/2 .

Subsec. (p)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(h)(1), inserted

"to which paragraph (1) does not apply by reason of paragraph (2)

during the period" after "loan".

Subsec. (p)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(h)(2), substituted

"Period" for "Loans" in heading and amended text generally. Prior

to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of subparagraph

(A), a loan is described in this subparagraph -

"(i) if paragraph (1) does not apply to such loan by reason of

paragraph (2), and

"(ii) if -

"(I) such loan is made to a key employee (as defined in

section 416(i)), or

"(II) such loan is secured by amounts attributable to

elective 401(k) or 403(b) deferrals (as defined in section

402(g)(3))."

Subsec. (q)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1018(t)(1)(B),

substituted "subsection (s)(6)(B))" for "subsection (s)(6)(B)))".

Subsec. (q)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(7), inserted

"designated" before "beneficiary".

Pub. L. 100-647, Secs. 1011A(c)(4), 1018(u)(8), amended subpar.

(D) identically, substituting a comma for period at end.

Subsec. (q)(2)(E). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(b)(9)(D), struck

out "(determined without regard to subsection (e)(7))" after

"subsection (e)(5)(D)".

Subsec. (q)(2)(G). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(4), substituted

a comma for period at end.

Subsec. (q)(2)(H). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(6), added

subpar. (H).

Subsec. (q)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(5), substituted

"taxpayer" for "employee" in cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (s)(5). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1018(k)(2), substituted

"certain annuity contracts" for "annuity contracts which are part

of qualified plans" in heading.

Subsec. (s)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1018(k)(1), added

subpar. (D).

Subsec. (s)(7). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1018(t)(1)(A), substituted

"primary annuitant" for "primary annuity".

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(7),

inserted "designated" before "beneficiary".

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(v). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(1), struck

out "on account of early retirement under the plan" after

"separation from service".

Subsec. (t)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(2), substituted

"Exceptions for distributions from employee stock ownership plans"

for "Certain plans" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to

amendment, text read as follows:

"(i) In general. - Except as provided in clause (ii), any

distribution made before January 1, 1990, to an employee from an

employee stock ownership plan defined in section 4975(e)(7) to the

extent that, on average, a majority of assets in the plan have been

invested in employer securities (as defined in section 409(l)) for

the 5-plan-year period preceding the plan year in which the

distribution is made.

"(ii) Benefits distributed must be invested in employer

securities for 5 years. - Clause (i) shall not apply to any

distribution which is attributable to assets which have not been

invested in employer securities at all times during the period

referred to in clause (i)."

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(c)(3), substituted

"(C), and (D)" for "and (C)".

Subsec. (u)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(i)(1), inserted

"(other than subchapter L)" after "subtitle".

Subsec. (u)(3)(D). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(i)(3), substituted

"is purchased" for "which is purchased" and "is held" for "which is

held".

Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(i)(2), substituted "until all amounts

under such contract are distributed to the employee for whom such

contract was purchased or the employee's beneficiary" for "until

such time as the employee separates from service".

Subsec. (u)(3)(E). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(i)(3), substituted

"is" for "which is".

Subsec. (u)(4)(C). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1011A(i)(4), added

subpar. (C).

Subsecs. (v), (w). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 5012(b)(1), added

subsec. (v) and redesignated former subsec. (v) as (w).

1986 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1122(c)(2), amended

subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as

follows: "Gross income does not include that part of any amount

received as an annuity under an annuity, endowment, or life

insurance contract which bears the same ratio to such amount as the

investment in the contract (as of the annuity starting date) bears

to the expected return under the contract (as of such date). This

subsection shall not apply to any amount to which subsection (d)(1)

(relating to certain employee annuities) applies."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1122(c)(1), struck out subsec.

(d) which related to employee's annuities where the employee's

contributions were recoverable in 3 years.

Subsec. (e)(4)(C). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1826(b)(3), added subpar.

(C).

Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1122(c)(3)(B),

substituted "paragraphs (7) and (8)" for "paragraph (7)" in

introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1854(b)(1), inserted closing provisions

which read as follows: "Any dividend described in section 404(k)

which is received by a participant or beneficiary shall, for

purposes of this subparagraph, be treated as paid under a separate

contract to which clause (ii)(I) applies."

Subsec. (e)(7)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(c)(1), in

introductory provisions substituted "any plan or contract" for "any

trust or contract", in cl. (ii) substituted "85 percent or more of"

for "85 percent of", and inserted closing provision: "For purposes

of clause (ii), deductible employee contributions (as defined in

subsection (o)(5)(A)) shall not be taken into account."

Subsec. (e)(8), (9). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1122(c)(3)(A), added

pars. (8) and (9).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(c)(3), in introductory

provisions, substituted "subsections (d)(1) and (e)(7)" for

"subsection (d)(1)" and "subsection (e)(6)" for "subsection

(e)(1)(B)".

Subsec. (m)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(c)(4)(A), inserted

"and subsection (e)(7) (relating to plans where substantially all

contributions are employee contributions)".

Subsec. (m)(2)(C). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(c)(4)(B),

substituted "subsection (e)(6)" for "subsection (e)(1)(B)".

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(a)(2)(C), which

directed that par. (5) be amended by substituting "5-percent

owners" for "owner-employees" in heading, was executed by

substituting "5-percent owners" for "key employees", to reflect the

probable intent of Congress and intervening amendment by section

713(c)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 98-369.

Subsec. (m)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(d)(1), amended

subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as

follows: "This subparagraph shall apply -

"(i) to amounts which -

"(I) are received from a qualified trust described in section

401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a), and

"(II) are received by a 5-percent owner before such owner

attains the age of 59 1/2 years, for any reason other than

such owner becoming disabled (within the meaning of paragraph

(7) of this section), and

"(ii) to amounts which are received from a qualified trust

described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section

403(a) at any time by a 5-percent owner, or by the successor of

such owner, but only to the extent that such amounts are

determined (under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to

exceed the benefits provided for such individual under the plan

formula.

Clause (i) shall not apply to any amount received by an individual

in his capacity as a policyholder of an annuity, endowment, or life

insurance contract which is in the nature of a dividend or similar

distribution and clause (i) shall not apply to amounts attributable

to benefits accrued before January 1, 1985."

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(a)(2)(A), amended subpar. (A)

generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "This

paragraph shall apply -

"(i) to amounts (other than any amount received by an

individual in his capacity as a policyholder of an annuity,

endowment, or life insurance contract which is in the nature of a

dividend or similar distribution) which are received from a

qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan

described in section 403(a) and which are received by an

individual, who is, or has been, a 5-percent owner, before such

individual attains the age of 59 1/2 years, for any reason other

than the individual's becoming disabled (within the meaning of

paragraph (7) of this subsection), but only to the extent that

such amounts are attributable to contributions paid on behalf of

such individual (other than contributions made by him as a

5-percent owner) while he was a 5-percent owner, and

"(ii) to amounts which are received from a qualified trust

described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section

403(a) at any time by an individual who is, or has been, a

5-percent owner or by the successor of such individual, but only

to the extent that such amounts are determined, under regulations

prescribed by the Secretary, to exceed the benefits provided for

such individual under the plan formula."

Subsec. (m)(5)(C). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(a)(2)(B), amended

subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as

follows: "For purposes of this paragraph, the term '5 percent

owner' have the same meanings as when used in section 416."

Subsec. (m)(10). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1898(c)(1)(B), inserted

"who is the spouse or former spouse of the participant".

Subsec. (o)(5). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1101(b)(2)(C), inserted "and

made for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987," in

subpar. (A), substituted "subsection (p)(3)(A)(i)" for "section

219(e)(3)" in subpar. (C), and substituted "subsection (p)(3)(B)"

for "section 219(e)(4)" in subpar. (D).

Subsec. (p)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1134(a), amended cl.

(i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows:

"$50,000, or".

Subsec. (p)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1134(d), amended cl.

(ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows:

"Clause (i) shall not apply to any loan used to acquire, construct,

reconstruct, or substantially rehabilitate any dwelling unit which

within a reasonable time is to be used (determined at the time the

loan is made) as a principal residence of the participant or a

member of the family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of

the participant."

Subsec. (p)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1134(b), added

subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1134(c), added par. (3) and

redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1101(b)(2)(B), amended par. (3) generally.

Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "For purposes of this

subsection, the term 'qualified employer plan' means any plan which

was (or was determined to be) a qualified employer plan (as defined

in section 219(e)(3) other than a plan described in subsection

(e)(7)). For purposes of this subsection, such term includes any

government plan (as defined in section 219(e)(4))."

Subsec. (p)(4), (5). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1134(c), redesignated

former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and 5, respectively.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(b)(1)(B), substituted

"10-percent" for "5-percent" in heading.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(b)(1)(A), substituted

"10 percent" for "5 percent".

Subsec. (q)(2). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(b)(3), substituted

"Paragraph (1)" for "This subsection" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (q)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1826(c), amended subpar.

(B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows:

"made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of an annuitant) on or

after the death of an annuitant,".

Subsec. (q)(2)(D). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(b)(2), amended

subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as

follows: "which is one of a series of substantially equal periodic

payments made for the life of a taxpayer or over a period extending

for at least 60 months after the annuity starting date,".

Subsec. (q)(2)(E). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1852(c)(2), inserted

"(determined without regard to subsection (e)(7))".

Subsec. (q)(2)(G). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1826(d), added subpar.

(G).

Subsec. (q)(2)(I), (J). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(b)(4), which

added subpars. (I) and (J) directed the amendment of subpar. (G) by

striking out "or" at the end thereof, and of subpar. (H) by

striking out the period at the end thereof, could not be executed

to subpars. (G) and (H) because subpar. (G) does not contain "or",

and no subpar. (H) was enacted.

Subsec. (q)(3). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(b)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (s)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1826(b)(2), substituted "any

holder of such contract" for "the holder of such contract" in

subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (s)(5). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1826(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (s)(6), (7). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1826(b)(1), added pars.

(6) and (7).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1123(a), added subsec. (t) and

redesignated former subsec. (t) as (u).

Subsecs. (u), (v). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1135(a), added subsec.

(u) and redesignated former subsec. (u) as (v).

1984 - Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 523(b)(1),

substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (7), this" for "This".

Subsec. (e)(5)(D)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 211(b)(1), which

directed substitution of "section 818(a)(3)" for "805(d)(3)" in

subpar. (D)(i)(IV), was executed to subpar. (D)(ii)(IV) to reflect

the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 523(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 421(b)(1), repealed subsec. (k)

relating to payments in discharge of alimony.

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(c)(1)(B), substituted

"key employees" for "owner-employees" in heading.

Subsec. (m)(5)(A). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 521(d)(1), (2),

substituted "5-percent owner" for "key employee" wherever appearing

and struck out "in a top-heavy plan" at end of cl. (i).

Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(c)(1)(A), substituted "as a key

employee" for "as an owner-employee" in cl. (i).

Subsec. (m)(5)(C). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 521(d)(3), substituted

"the term '5 percent owner' " for "the terms 'key employee' and

'top-heavy plan' ".

Subsec. (m)(9). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(d)(1), repealed par. (9)

relating to return of excess contributions before due date of

return.

Subsec. (m)(10). Pub. L. 98-397 added par. (10).

Subsec. (o)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 491(d)(3), substituted "402

and 403" for "402, 403, and 405".

Subsec. (o)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(b)(1)(A), inserted

"(other than the exception contained in paragraph (2) thereof)".

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 491(d)(4), substituted "and

408(d)(3)" for "408(d)(3), and 409(b)(3)(C)".

Subsec. (p)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(b)(1)(B), inserted at

end "For purposes of clause (ii), the present value of the

nonforfeitable accrued benefit shall be determined without regard

to any accumulated deductible employee contributions (as defined in

subsection (o)(5)(B))."

Subsec. (p)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(b)(4),

substituted as cl. (ii) "the greater of (I) one-half of the present

value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under

the plan, or (II) $10,000" for " 1/2 of the present value of the

nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan (but

not less than $10,000)".

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 523(b)(2), inserted "other

than a plan described in subsection (e)(7)".

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 222(a), amended par. (1)

generally, striking out designation "(A) In general. - " preceding

text, substituting "which is includible in gross income" for

"includible in gross income which is properly allocable to any

investment in the annuity contract made during the 10-year period

ending on the date such amount was received by the taxpayer", and

striking out former subpar. (B), which had provided that for

purposes of subpar. (A), the amount includible in gross income

would be allocated to the earliest investment in the contract with

respect to which amounts had not been previously fully allocated

under this par.

Subsecs. (s), (t). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 222(b), added subsec. (s)

and redesignated former subsec. (s) as (t).

1983 - Subsec. (o)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97-448, Sec. 103(c)(6), struck

out "to which the employee made one or more deductible employee

contributions" after "from a qualified employer plan or government

plan".

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 97-448, Sec. 103(c)(3)(B)(i), struck out

"without regard to subparagraph (D) thereof" after "as defined in

section 219(e)(3)".

Subsecs. (r), (s). Pub. L. 98-76 added subsec. (r) and

redesignated former subsec. (r) as (s).

1982 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 265(a), in par. (1)

substituted provisions relating to the application of this

subsection to amounts received under annuity, endowment, or life

insurance contracts which are not received as annuities and to

amounts received as dividends for provisions which stated a general

rule relating to the includability as gross income of amounts that

were received under annuity, endowment, or life insurance contracts

which were not received as annuities and also stated that for the

purposes of this section amounts which were received as dividends

would be treated as amounts not received as an annuity, in par. (2)

substituted provisions stating a general rule as to the

includability as gross income of amounts received before or after

the annuity starting date for provisions which set out those

amounts which would be treated as amounts not received as an

annuity, and added pars. (3) to (6).

Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 236(b)(1), struck out par.

(4) which related to amounts constructively received with respect

to assignments or pledges, and loans on contracts.

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 237(d)(1), (2), in subpar.

(A) substituted applicability to key employees for applicability to

owner-employees and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 237(d)(3), struck out

"except in applying paragraph (5)," after "shall".

Subsec. (m)(8). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 236(b)(1), struck out par.

(8) which related to loans to owner-employees.

Subsec. (o)(3)(A). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 236(b)(2), substituted

reference to subsec. (p) of this section for references to subsec.

(m)(4) and (8) of this section.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 236(a), added subsec. (p).

Former subsec. (p) redesignated (q).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 265(b)(1), added subsec. (q).

Former subsec. (q) redesignated (r).

Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 236(a), redesignated former subsec. (p) as

(q).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 97-248, Secs. 236(a), 265(b)(1),

redesignated former subsec. (p) as (r).

1981 - Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 312(d)(1), expanded

definition of "owner-employee" to include an employee within the

meaning of section 401(c)(1) except in applying paragraph (5).

Subsec. (m)(8). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 312(d)(2), added par. (8).

Subsec. (m)(9). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 312(e)(1), added par. (9).

Subsecs. (o), (p). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 311(b)(1), added subsec.

(o) and redesignated former subsec. (o) as (p).

1976 - Subsec. (c)(2), (3)(A). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec.

1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(12), struck out in

subpar. (B) "(whether or not before January 1, 1954)" after

"beginning on the date", and in provisions following subpar. (B)

struck out "(under this paragraph and prior income tax laws)" after

"until there has been so excluded".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or

his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1951(b)(1)(A), struck out

subsec. (i) which related to joint annuities where first annuitant

died in 1951, 1952, or 1953.

Subsec. (m)(2), (3). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), struck

out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (m)(4)(A). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(13), substituted

"an individual retirement account" for "an individual retirement

amount".

Subsec. (m)(5)(A)(ii), (7). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A),

struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1974 - Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2001(h)(2), struck

out par. (1) which related to certain amounts received before

annuity starting date.

Subsec. (m)(4)(A). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2002(g)(10)(A), inserted

references to an individual retirement amount described in section

408(a) and an individual retirement annuity described in section

408(b).

Subsec. (m)(5)(A). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2001(e)(5), (h)(3),

substituted "(other than contributions made by him as an

owner-employee)" for "(whether or not paid by him)" in cl. (i), and

struck out cl. (iii) which had made reference to amounts which were

received, by an individual who was or had been, an owner-employee,

by reason of the distribution under the provisions of section

401(e)(2)(E) of his entire interest in all qualified trusts

described in section 401(a) and in all plans described in section

403(a).

Subsec. (m)(5)(B). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2001(g)(1), substituted

provisions that if a person receives an amount to which subsec.

(m)(5) applies, his tax under this chapter for the taxable year in

which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal

to 10 percent of the portion of the amount so received which is

includible in his gross income for such taxable year for provisions

that if the aggregate amounts to which subsec. (m)(5) applied

received by any person in his taxable year equalled or exceeded

$2,500, the increase in his tax for the taxable year in which such

amounts were received and attributable to such amounts could not be

less than 110 percent of the aggregate increase in taxes, for the

taxable year and the 4 immediately preceding taxable years, which

would have resulted if such amounts had been included in such

person's gross income ratably over such taxable years, with

provision for alternate computation if deductions had been allowed

under section 404 for contributions paid for a number of prior

taxable years less than 4.

Subsec. (m)(5)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2001(g)(2)(A),

struck out subpars. (C) to (E) which contained special rules for

the application of subsec. (m)(5).

Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2002(g)(10)(B), inserted

reference to an individual for whose benefit an individual

retirement account or annuity described in section 408(a) or (b) is

maintained.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 93-406, Secs. 2005(c)(3), 2007(b)(2),

redesignated former subsec. (o) as (n) and in heading of subsec.

(n) as so redesignated inserted reference to survivor benefit plan.

Former subsec. (n), which set out provisions covering the treatment

to be accorded total distributions, was struck out.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2005(c)(3), redesignated former

subsec. (p) as (o). Former subsec. (o) redesignated (n) and

amended.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2005(c)(3), redesignated

subsec. (p) as (o).

1969 - Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 91-172, Sec. 515(b)(1), altered

section to accommodate the insertion into sections 402 and 403 of

provisions under which employer contributions to qualified pension,

profit sharing, stock bonus, and annuity plans for plan years

beginning after 1969 are to be treated as ordinary income when

received in a lump sum distribution, but with such amounts to be

eligible for a special averaging procedure.

Subsec. (n)(4). Pub. L. 91-172, Sec. 515(b)(2), added par. (4).

1966 - Subsecs. (o), (p). Pub. L. 89-365 added subsec. (o) and

redesignated former subsec. (o) as (p).

1965 - Subsec. (m)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 89-97, Sec. 106(d)(2)(A),

substituted "paragraph (7) of this subsection" for "section

213(g)(3)".

Subsec. (m)(7). Pub. L. 89-97, Sec. 106(d)(2)(B), added par. (7).

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 89-97, Sec. 106(d)(2)(C), substituted in

subpars. (A)(iii) and (B)(iii) "subsection (m)(7)" for "section

213(g)(3)".

Subsec. (n)(3). Pub. L. 89-44 substituted "sections 31 and 39"

for "section 31" in sentence following subpar. (B).

1964 - Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 88-272 struck out par. (3) which

provided for a limit on the tax attributable to the receipt of a

lump sum.

1962 - Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 87-792, Sec. 4(a), designated

existing provisions as cl. (A) and added cl. (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 87-834 inserted sentence providing that par.

(2) shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the

employer after Dec. 31, 1962, and which would not have been

includible in the gross income of the employee by reason of the

application of Section 911 if such amounts had been paid directly

to the employee at the time of contribution, and making such

sentence inapplicable to amounts which were contributed by the

employer, as determined under regulations, to provide pension or

annuity credits, to the extent such credits are attributable to

services performed before Jan. 1, 1963, and are provided pursuant

to pension or annuity plan provisions in existence on Mar. 12,

1962, and on that date applicable to such services.

Subsecs. (m) to (o). Pub. L. 87-792, Sec. 4(b), added subsecs.

(m) and (n) and redesignated former subsec. (m) as (o).

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 2001 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-90 applicable to calendar years

beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 204(f) of Pub. L.

107-90, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-22 effective July 26, 2001, see section

1(c) of Pub. L. 107-22, set out as a note under section 26 of this

title.

Pub. L. 107-16, title IV, Sec. 402(h), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat.

63, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending

this section and sections 135, 221, 529, 530, 4973, and 6693 of

this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December

31, 2001."

Pub. L. 107-16, title VI, Sec. 632(a)(4), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat.

115, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection

[amending this section and sections 402, 403, 404, 415, and 664 of

this title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31,

2001."

Amendment by section 641(a)(2)(C), (e)(1) of Pub. L. 107-16

applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 2001, see section

641(f)(1) of Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 402 of

this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or

limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, and the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years

as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of

Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105-206, title III, Sec. 3436(b), July 22, 1998, 112

Stat. 761, provided that: "The amendments made by this section

[amending this section] shall apply to distributions after December

31, 1999."

Amendment by section 6023(3), (4) of Pub. L. 105-206 effective

July 22, 1998, see section 6023(32) of Pub. L. 105-206, set out as

a note under section 34 of this title.

Amendment by sections 6004(d)(3)(B) and 6005(c)(1) of Pub. L.

105-206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in

the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105-34,

to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L.

105-206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Section 203(c) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to

distributions after December 31, 1997, with respect to expenses

paid after such date (in taxable years ending after such date), for

education furnished in academic periods beginning after such date."

Section 303(c) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to

payments and distributions in taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1997."

Section 1075(c) of Pub. L. 105-34 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with

respect to annuity starting dates beginning after December 31,

1997."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENTS

Section 361(d) of Pub. L. 104-191 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to

distributions after December 31, 1996."

Section 1403(b) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: "The amendment

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply in cases

where the annuity starting date is after the 90th day after the

date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996]."

Section 1421(e) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section, sections 219, 280G,

402, 404, 408, 414, 416, 457, 3121, 3306, 3401, 4972, and 6693 of

this title, sections 1021 and 1104 of Title 29, Labor, and section

409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Section 1463(b) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: "The amendment

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable

years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Section 1704(l)(2) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take

effect as if included in the amendments made by section 1122(c) of

the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99-514]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 102-318 applicable to distributions after

Dec. 31, 1992, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 102-318, set out as a

note under section 402 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1989 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 101-239 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and

Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100-647, to which such

amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101-239, set out as

a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by sections 1011A(b)(1)(A), (B), (2), (9), (c)(1)-(8),

(h), (i), and 1018(k), (t)(1)(A), (B), and (u)(8) of Pub. L.

100-647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in

the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to

which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L.

100-647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 5012(a), (b)(1), (d) of Pub. L. 100-647

applicable to contracts entered into on or after June 21, 1988,

with special rule where death benefit increases by more than

$150,000, certain other material changes taken into account,

certain exchanges permitted, and special rule in the case of

annuity contracts, see section 5012(e) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out

as an Effective Date note under section 7702A of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Section 1101(c) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and section 219 of this

title] shall apply to contributions for taxable years beginning

after December 31, 1986."

Amendment by section 1122(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

individuals whose annuity starting date is after July 1, 1986,

amendment by section 1122(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

individuals whose annuity starting date is after Dec. 31, 1986, and

amendment by section 1122(c)(3) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

amounts received after July 1, 1986, in the case of any plan not

described in section 72(e)(8)(D) of this title, see section

1122(h)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 402

of this title.

Section 1123(e) of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended by Pub. L. 100-647,

title I, Sec. 1011A(c)(11), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3476,

provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as otherwise provided in this

subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this

section and sections 403 and 408 of this title] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Subsection (c). - The amendments made by subsection (c)

[amending section 403 of this title] shall apply to years beginning

after December 31, 1988, but only with respect to distributions

from contracts described in section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue

Code of 1986 which are attributable to assets other than assets

held as of the close of the last year beginning before January 1,

1989.

"(3) Exception where distribution commences. - The amendments

made by this section shall not apply to distributions to any

employee from a plan maintained by any employer if -

"(A) as of March 1, 1986, the employee separated from service

with the employer,

"(B) as of March 1, 1986, the accrued benefit of the employee

was in pay status pursuant to a written election providing a

specific schedule for the distribution of the entire accrued

benefit of the employee, and

"(C) such distribution is made pursuant to such written

election.

"(4) Transition rule. - The amendments made by this section shall

not apply with respect to any benefits with respect to which a

designation is in effect under section 242(b)(2) of the Tax Equity

and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [section 242(b)(2) of Pub. L.

97-248, formerly set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

note under section 401 of this title].

"(5) Special rule for distributions under an annuity contract. -

The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection

(b) [amending this section] shall not apply to any distribution

under an annuity contract if -

"(A) as of March 1, 1986, payments were being made under such

contract pursuant to a written election providing a specific

schedule for the distribution of the taxpayer's interest in such

contract, and

"(B) such distribution is made pursuant to such written

election."

Section 1134(e) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to loans

made, renewed, renegotiated, modified, or extended after December

31, 1986."

Section 1135(b) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

contributions to annuity contracts after February 28, 1986."

Amendment by sections 1826(a), (d), 1852(a)(2), (c)(1)-(4), and

1854(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99-514 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of

1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see

section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 48

of this title.

Section 1826(b)(4) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The

amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall

apply to contracts issued after the date which is 6 months after

the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable

years ending after such date."

Section 1826(c) of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended by Pub. L. 100-647,

title I, Sec. 1018(t)(1)(D), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3587,

provided that the amendment made by section 1826(c) of Pub. L.

99-514 is effective with respect to distributions commencing after

the date 6 months after Oct. 22, 1986.

Section 1854(b)(6) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The

amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section

and section 404 of this title] shall not apply to dividends paid

before January 1, 1986, if the taxpayer treated such dividends in a

manner inconsistent with such amendments on a return filed with the

Secretary before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22,

1986]."

Section 1898(c)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The

amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and

section 402 of this title] shall apply to payments made after the

date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-397 effective Jan. 1, 1985, except as

otherwise provided, see section 303(d) of Pub. L. 98-397, set out

as a note under section 1001 of Title 29, Labor.

Amendment by section 211(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 215 of

Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801

of this title.

Section 222(c) of Pub. L. 98-369, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided:

"(1) In general. - The amendments made by this section [amending

this section] shall apply to contracts issued after the day which

is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18,

1984] in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Transitional rules for contracts issued before effective

date. - In the case of any contract (other than a single premium

contract) which is issued on or before the day which is 6 months

after the date of the enactment of this Act, for purposes of

section 72(q)(1)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly

I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect on the day before the date of the

enactment of this Act), any investment in such contract which is

made during any calendar year shall be treated as having been made

on January 1 of such calendar year."

Amendment by section 421(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to

transfers after July 18, 1984, in taxable years ending after such

date, subject to election to have repeal apply to transfers after

1983 or to transfers pursuant to existing decrees, see section

421(d) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an Effective Date note under

section 1041 of this title.

Amendment by section 491(d)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable

to obligations issued after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 491(f)(1) of

Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by section 521(d) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 521(e) of Pub. L.

98-369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section 523(c) of Pub. L. 98-369 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any

amount received or loan made after the 90th day after the date of

enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

Amendment by section 713(b)(1), (4), (c)(1)(A), (B) of Pub. L.

98-369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity

and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97-248, to which

such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98-369, set out

as a note under section 31 of this title.

Section 713(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369, as amended by Pub. L.

99-514, title XVIII, Sec. 1875(c)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat.

2895, provided that the amendment made by section 713(d)(1) of Pub.

L. 98-369 is effective with respect to contributions made in

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENTS

Section 227(b) of Pub. L. 98-76, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as provided in paragraph (2), the

amendments made by section 224 [enacting section 6050G of this

title, amending this section and section 86 of this title, and

enacting provisions set out as a note under section 231n of Title

45, Railroads] shall apply to benefits received after December 31,

1983, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Treatment of certain lump-sum payments received after

december 31, 1983. - The amendments made by section 224 shall not

apply to any portion of a lump-sum payment received after December

31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion

was before January 1, 1984.

"(3) No fresh start. - For purposes of determining whether any

benefit received after December 31, 1983, is includible in gross

income by reason of section 72(r) of the Internal Revenue Code of

1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as added by this Act, the amendments

made by section 224 be treated as having been in effect during all

periods before 1984."

Section 103(c)(3)(B)(ii) of Pub. L. 97-448 provided that: "The

amendment made by clause (i) [amending this section] shall take

effect as if the matter struck out had never been included in such

paragraph."

Amendment by title I of Pub. L. 97-448 effective, except as

otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of

the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97-34, to which such

amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97-448, set out as a

note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT

Section 236(c) of Pub. L. 97-248, as amended by Pub. L. 97-448,

title III, Sec. 306(a)(11), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2404; Pub. L.

98-369, div. A, title V, Sec. 554, title VII, Sec. 713(b)(2), July

18, 1984, 98 Stat. 897, 957; Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986,

100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general. - The amendments made by this section [amending

this section] shall apply to loans, assignments, and pledges made

after August 13, 1982. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the

outstanding balance of any loan which is renegotiated, extended,

renewed, or revised after such date shall be treated as an amount

received as a loan on the date of such renegotiation, extension,

renewal, or revision.

"(2) Exception for certain loans used to repay outstanding

obligations. -

"(A) In general. - Any qualified refunding loan shall not be

treated as a distribution by reason of the amendments made by

this section to the extent such loan is repaid before August 14,

1983.

"(B) Qualified refunding loan. - For purposes of subparagraph

(A), the term 'qualified refunding loan' means any loan made

after August 13, 1982, and before August 14, 1983, to the extent

such loan is used to make a required principal payment.

"(C) Required principal payment. - For purposes of subparagraph

(B), the term 'required principal payment' means any principal

repayment on a loan made under the plan which was outstanding on

August 13, 1982, if such repayment is required to be made after

August 13, 1982, and before August 14, 1983 or if such loan was

payable on demand.

"(D) Special rule for non-key employees. - In the case of a

non-key employee (within the meaning of section 416(i)(2) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]), this

paragraph shall be applied by substituting 'January 1, 1985' for

'August 14, 1983' each place it appears.

"(3) Treatment of certain renegotiations. - If -

"(A) the taxpayer after August 13, 1982, and before September

4, 1982, borrows money from a government plan (as defined in

section 219(e)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986),

"(B) under the applicable State law, such loan requires the

renegotiation of all outstanding prior loans made to the taxpayer

under such plan, and

"(C) the renegotiation described in subparagraph (B) does not

change the interest rate on, or extend the duration of, any such

outstanding prior loan,

then the renegotiation described in subparagraph (B) shall not be

treated as a renegotiation, extension, renewal, or revision for

purposes of paragraph (1). If the renegotiation described in

subparagraph (B) does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (C)

solely because it extends the duration of any such outstanding

prior loan, the requirements of subparagraph (C) shall be treated

as met with respect to such renegotiation if, before April 1, 1983,

such extension is eliminated."

Section 265(c) of Pub. L. 97-248 provided that:

"(1) Subsection (a). - The amendments made by subsection (a)

[amending this section] shall take effect on August 13, 1982.

"(2) Subsection (b). - The amendments made by subsection (b)

[amending this section and sections 46, 50A, 53, 901, 1302, and

1304 of this title] shall apply to distributions after December 31,

1982."

Amendment by section 237(d) of Pub. L. 97-248 applicable to years

beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 241 of Pub. L. 97-248,

set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT

Section 312(f) of Pub. L. 97-34, as amended by Pub. L. 97-448,

title I, Sec. 103(d)(3), 96 Stat. 2378, provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as provided in paragraph (2), the

amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections

219, 401, 404, 408, 1379, and 4972 of this title] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.

"(2) Transitional rule. - The amendments made by subsection (d)

[amending this section] shall not apply to any loan from a plan to

a self-employed individual who is an employee within the meaning of

section 401(c)(1) which is outstanding on December 31, 1981. For

purposes of the preceding sentence, any loan which is renegotiated,

extended, renewed, or revised after such date shall be treated as a

new loan."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1901(a)(12), (13) of Pub. L. 94-455

applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31,

1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note

under section 2 of this title.

Section 1951(d) of Pub. L. 94-455 provided that: "Except as

otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this section

[see Tables for classification of section 1951 of Pub. L. 94-455]

shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December

31, 1976."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1974 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 2001(e)(5) of Pub. L. 93-406 applicable to

contributions made in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975,

see section 2001(i)(4) of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as a note under

section 401 of this title.

Section 2001(i)(5), (6) of Pub. L. 93-406 provided that:

"(5) The amendments made by subsection (g) [amending this

section and sections 46, 50A, 56, 404, and 901 of this title]

apply to distributions made in taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1975.

"(6) The amendments made by subsection (h) [amending this

section and section 401 of this title] apply to taxable years

ending after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1974]."

Amendment by section 2002(g)(10) of Pub. L. 93-406 effective on

Jan. 1, 1975, see section 2002(i)(2) of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as

an Effective Date note under section 4973 of this title.

Amendment by section 2005(c)(3) of Pub. L. 93-406, applicable

only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31,

1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section

2005(d) of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as a note under section 402 of

this title.

Amendment by section 2007(b)(2) of Pub. L. 93-406 applicable to

taxable years ending on or after Sept. 21, 1972, see section

2007(c) of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as a note under section 122 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1969 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 91-172 applicable to taxable years ending

after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 515(d) of Pub. L. 91-172, set out

as a note under section 402 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-365 applicable with respect to taxable

years ending after Dec. 31, 1965, see section 1(d) of Pub. L.

89-365, set out as an Effective Date note under section 122 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1965 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-97 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 106(e) of Pub. L. 89-97, set out

as a note under section 213 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-44 applicable to taxable years beginning

on or after July 1, 1965, see section 809(f) of Pub. L. 89-44, set

out as a note under section 6420 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1964 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 88-272 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 232(g) of Pub. L. 88-272, set out

as a note under section 5 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENTS

Section 11(c)(2) of Pub. L. 87-834 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years ending after December 31, 1962."

Amendment by Pub. L. 87-792 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87-792, set out as a

note under section 22 of this title.

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101-508 be

construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring,

property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit

taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of

determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,

1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note

under section 29 of this title.

Section 1951(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 94-455 provided that:

"Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) [repealing subsec. (i) of this

section], if the provisions of section 72(i) applied to amounts

received in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1977, under

an annuity contract, then amounts received under such contract on

or after such date shall be treated as if such provisions were not

repealed."

APPLICABILITY OF SUBSECTION (T)

Section 1011A(c)(13) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "Section

72(t) of the 1986 Code shall apply to any distribution without

regard to whether such distribution is made without the consent of

the participant pursuant to section 411(a)(11) or section 417(e) of

the 1986 Code."

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

D [Secs. 1401-1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104-188 require an

amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not

be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year

beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L.

104-188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1994

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

B [Secs. 521-523] of title V of Pub. L. 102-318 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1994, see section 523 of Pub. L. 102-318, set out as a note under

section 401 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 22, 25B, 26, 67, 79, 101,

122, 135, 138, 220, 221, 264, 401, 402, 402A, 403, 406, 407, 408,

408A, 414, 457, 529, 530, 691, 805, 817, 817A, 953, 1014, 1275,

4973, 4978, 5891, 6050G, 7702, 7702A, 7702B of this title; title 5

section 8433; title 12 sections 24a, 1813; title 15 section 6712;

title 29 sections 1002, 1345; title 45 section 726.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(2)(B)".

(!2) So in original. The period probably should be preceded by a

closing parenthesis.

(!3) So in original. The word "or" probably should not appear.

(!4) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 73 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 73. Services of child

-STATUTE-

(a) Treatment of amounts received

Amounts received in respect of the services of a child shall be

included in his gross income and not in the gross income of the

parent, even though such amounts are not received by the child.

(b) Treatment of expenditures

All expenditures by the parent or the child attributable to

amounts which are includible in the gross income of the child (and

not of the parent) solely by reason of subsection (a) shall be

treated as paid or incurred by the child.

(c) Parent defined

For purposes of this section, the term "parent" includes an

individual who is entitled to the services of a child by reason of

having parental rights and duties in respect of the child.

(d) Cross reference

For assessment of tax against parent in certain cases, see

section 6201(c).

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 24.)

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 6201 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 74 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 74. Prizes and awards

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this section or in section 117

(relating to qualified scholarships), gross income includes amounts

received as prizes and awards.

(b) Exception for certain prizes and awards transferred to

charities

Gross income does not include amounts received as prizes and

awards made primarily in recognition of religious, charitable,

scientific, educational, artistic, literary, or civic achievement,

but only if -

(1) the recipient was selected without any action on his part

to enter the contest or proceeding;

(2) the recipient is not required to render substantial future

services as a condition to receiving the prize or award; and

(3) the prize or award is transferred by the payor to a

governmental unit or organization described in paragraph (1) or

(2) of section 170(c) pursuant to a designation made by the

recipient.

(c) Exception for certain employee achievement awards

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include the value of an employee

achievement award (as defined in section 274(j)) received by the

taxpayer if the cost to the employer of the employee achievement

award does not exceed the amount allowable as a deduction to the

employer for the cost of the employee achievement award.

(2) Excess deduction award

If the cost to the employer of the employee achievement award

received by the taxpayer exceeds the amount allowable as a

deduction to the employer, then gross income includes the greater

of -

(A) an amount equal to the portion of the cost to the

employer of the award that is not allowable as a deduction to

the employer (but not in excess of the value of the award), or

(B) the amount by which the value of the award exceeds the

amount allowable as a deduction to the employer.

The remaining portion of the value of such award shall not be

included in the gross income of the recipient.

(3) Treatment of tax-exempt employers

In the case of an employer exempt from taxation under this

subtitle, any reference in this subsection to the amount

allowable as a deduction to the employer shall be treated as a

reference to the amount which would be allowable as a deduction

to the employer if the employer were not exempt from taxation

under this subtitle.

(4) Cross reference

For provisions excluding certain de minimis fringes from

gross income, see section 132(e).

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 24; Pub. L. 99-514, title I,

Secs. 122(a)(1), 123(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109, 2113.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 123(b)(1), which

directed that subsec. (a) be amended by substituting "(relating to

qualified scholarships)" for "(relating to scholarship and

fellowship grants)", was executed by making the substitution for

"(relating to scholarships and fellowship grants)" to reflect the

probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 122(a)(1)(A), substituted "Except as

otherwise provided in this section or" for "Except as provided in

subsection (b) and".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 122(a)(1)(B), (C), inserted

"for certain prizes and awards transferred to charities" in heading

and added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 122(a)(1)(D), added subsec.

(c).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 122(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

prizes and awards granted after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(c)

of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in the case

of scholarships and fellowships granted after Aug. 16, 1986, see

section 151(d) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1

of this title.

APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN AMENDMENTS BY PUBLIC LAW 99-514 IN

RELATION TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS OF UNITED STATES

For nonapplication of amendment by section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L.

99-514 to the extent application of such amendment would be

contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on

Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1012(aa)(3) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out

as a note under section 861 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 102, 274, 3121, 3231,

3306, 3401, 4941, 4945 of this title; title 42 section 409.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 75 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 75. Dealers in tax-exempt securities

-STATUTE-

(a) Adjustment for bond premium

In computing the gross income of a taxpayer who holds during the

taxable year a short-term municipal bond (as defined in subsection

(b)(1) primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of

his trade or business -

(1) if the gross income of the taxpayer from such trade or

business is computed by the use of inventories and his

inventories are valued on any basis other than cost, the cost of

securities sold (as defined in subsection (b)(2) during such year

shall be reduced by an amount equal to the amortizable bond

premium which would be disallowed as a deduction for such year by

section 171(a)(2) (relating to deduction for amortizable bond

premium) if the definition in section 171(d) of the term "bond"

did not exclude such municipal bond; or

(2) if the gross income of the taxpayer from such trade or

business is computed without the use of inventories, or by use of

inventories valued at cost, and the municipal bond is sold or

otherwise disposed of during such year, the adjusted basis

(computed without regard to this paragraph) of the municipal bond

shall be reduced by the amount of the adjustment which would be

required under section 1016(a)(5) (relating to adjustment to

basis for amortizable bond premium) if the definition in section

171(d) of the term "bond" did not exclude such municipal bond.

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), no reduction to

the cost of securities sold during the taxable year shall be made

in respect of any obligation described in subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii)

which is held by the taxpayer at the close of the taxable year; but

in the taxable year in which any such obligation is sold or

otherwise disposed of, if such obligation is a municipal bond (as

defined in subsection (b)(1)), the cost of securities sold during

such year shall be reduced by an amount equal to the adjustment

described in paragraph (2), without regard to the fact that the

taxpayer values his inventories on any basis other than cost.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of subsection (a) -

(1) The term "municipal bond" means any obligation issued by a

government or political subdivision thereof if the interest on

such obligation is excludable from gross income; but such term

does not include such an obligation if -

(A)(i) it is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer

within 30 days after the date of its acquisition by him, or

(ii) its earliest maturity or call date is a date more than 5

years from the date on which it was acquired by the taxpayer;

and

(B) when it is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer

-

(i) in the case of a sale, the amount realized, or

(ii) in the case of any other disposition, its fair market

value at the time of such disposition,

is higher than its adjusted basis (computed without regard to

this section and section 1016(a)(6)).

Determinations under subparagraph (B) shall be exclusive of

interest.

(2) The term "cost of securities sold" means the amount

ascertained by subtracting the inventory value of the closing

inventory of a taxable year from the sum of -

(A) the inventory value of the opening inventory for such

year, and

(B) the cost of securities and other property purchased

during such year which would properly be included in the

inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the

taxable year.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 25; Pub. L. 85-866, title I,

Sec. 2(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1606.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1958 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85-866, Sec. 2(a)(2), (3), struck out

"short-term" each place it appeared, and inserted sentence to

provide that no reduction to cost of securities sold during taxable

year shall be made in respect of subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii) obligations

held at close of year, and to permit reduction in cost of

securities sold in taxable year sold if obligation is municipal

bond.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 85-866, Sec. 2(a)(1), substituted

"municipal bond" for "short-term municipal bond", designated former

subpars. (A) and (B) as (A)(i) and (ii), respectively, and added

subpar. (B).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1958 AMENDMENT

Section 2(c) of Pub. L. 85-866 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section

1016 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years

ending after December 31, 1957, but only with respect to

obligations acquired after such date."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1016 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC [Sec. 76 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

[Sec. 76. Repealed. Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1901(a)(14),

Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765]

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 25, related to

inclusion in gross of all income derived from mortgages made, or

obligations issued, by a joint-stock land bank.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 77 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 77. Commodity credit loans

-STATUTE-

(a) Election to include loans in income

Amounts received as loans from the Commodity Credit Corporation

shall, at the election of the taxpayer, be considered as income and

shall be included in gross income for the taxable year in which

received.

(b) Effect of election on adjustments for subsequent years

If a taxpayer exercises the election provided for in subsection

(a) for any taxable year, then the method of computing income so

adopted shall be adhered to with respect to all subsequent taxable

years unless with the approval of the Secretary a change to a

different method is authorized.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 25; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX,

Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1976 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-455 struck out "or his delegate"

after "Secretary".

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1016, 3402 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 78 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 78. Dividends received from certain foreign corporations by

domestic corporations choosing foreign tax credit

-STATUTE-

If a domestic corporation chooses to have the benefits of subpart

A of part III of subchapter N (relating to foreign tax credit) for

any taxable year, an amount equal to the taxes deemed to be paid by

such corporation under section 902(a) (relating to credit for

corporate stockholder in foreign corporation) or under section

960(a)(1) (relating to taxes paid by foreign corporation) for such

taxable year shall be treated for purposes of this title (other

than section 245) as a dividend received by such domestic

corporation from the foreign corporation.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 87-834, Sec. 9(b), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1001;

amended Pub. L. 94-455, title X, Sec. 1033(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90

Stat. 1628.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1976 - Pub. L. 94-455 substituted "section 902(a)" for "section

902(a)(1)" and "section 960(a)(1)" for "section 960(a)(1)(C)".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 94-455 applicable on different dates

depending on the date the distributions were received, see section

1033(c) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section 902 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable in respect of any distribution received by a

domestic corporation after Dec. 31, 1964, and in respect of any

distribution received by a domestic corporation before Jan. 1,

1965, in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after Dec.

31, 1962, but only to the extent that such distribution is made out

of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable

year (of such foreign corporation) beginning after Dec. 31, 1962,

see section 9(e) of Pub. L. 87-834, set out as an Effective Date of

1962 Amendment note under section 902 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 814, 901, 902, 904, 906,

908, 1291 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 79 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 79. Group-term life insurance purchased for employees

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

There shall be included in the gross income of an employee for

the taxable year an amount equal to the cost of group-term life

insurance on his life provided for part or all of such year under a

policy (or policies) carried directly or indirectly by his employer

(or employers); but only to the extent that such cost exceeds the

sum of -

(1) the cost of $50,000 of such insurance, and

(2) the amount (if any) paid by the employee toward the

purchase of such insurance.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply to -

(1) the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of an

individual which is provided under a policy carried directly or

indirectly by an employer after such individual has terminated

his employment with such employer and is disabled (within the

meaning of section 72(m)(7)),

(2) the cost of any portion of the group-term life insurance on

the life of an employee provided during part or all of the

taxable year of the employee under which -

(A) the employer is directly or indirectly the beneficiary,

or

(B) a person described in section 170(c) is the sole

beneficiary,

for the entire period during such taxable year for which the

employee receives such insurance, and

(3) the cost of any group-term life insurance which is provided

under a contract to which section 72(m)(3) applies.

(c) Determination of cost of insurance

For purposes of this section and section 6052, the cost of

group-term insurance on the life of an employee provided during any

period shall be determined on the basis of uniform premiums

(computed on the basis of 5-year age brackets) prescribed by

regulations by the Secretary.

(d) Nondiscrimination requirements

(1) In general

In the case of a discriminatory group-term life insurance plan

-

(A) subsection (a)(1) shall not apply with respect to any key

employee, and

(B) the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of any

key employee shall be the greater of -

(i) such cost determined without regard to subsection (c),

or

(ii) such cost determined with regard to subsection (c).

(2) Discriminatory group-term life insurance plan

For purposes of this subsection, the term "discriminatory

group-term life insurance plan" means any plan of an employer for

providing group-term life insurance unless -

(A) the plan does not discriminate in favor of key employees

as to eligibility to participate, and

(B) the type and amount of benefits available under the plan

do not discriminate in favor of participants who are key

employees.

(3) Nondiscriminatory eligibility classification

(A) In general

A plan does not meet requirements of subparagraph (A) of

paragraph (2) unless -

(i) such plan benefits 70 percent or more of all employees

of the employer,

(ii) at least 85 percent of all employees who are

participants under the plan are not key employees,

(iii) such plan benefits such employees as qualify under a

classification set up by the employer and found by the

Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of key employees,

or

(iv) in the case of a plan which is part of a cafeteria

plan, the requirements of section 125 are met.

(B) Exclusion of certain employees

For purposes of subparagraph (A), there may be excluded from

consideration -

(i) employees who have not completed 3 years of service;

(ii) part-time or seasonal employees;

(iii) employees not included in the plan who are included

in a unit of employees covered by an agreement between

employee representatives and one or more employers which the

Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement, if

the benefits provided under the plan were the subject of good

faith bargaining between such employee representatives and

such employer or employers; and

(iv) employees who are nonresident aliens and who receive

no earned income (within the meaning of section 911(d)(2))

from the employer which constitutes income from sources

within the United States (within the meaning of section

861(a)(3)).

(4) Nondiscriminatory benefits

A plan does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2)(B)

unless all benefits available to participants who are key

employees are available to all other participants.

(5) Special rule

A plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of paragraph

(2)(B) merely because the amount of life insurance on behalf of

the employees under the plan bears a uniform relationship to the

total compensation or the basic or regular rate of compensation

of such employees.

(6) Key employee defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term "key employee" has

the meaning given to such term by paragraph (1) of section

416(i). Such term also includes any former employee if such

employee when he retired or separated from service was a key

employee.

(7) Exemption for church plans

(A) In general

This subsection shall not apply to a church plan maintained

for church employees.

(B) Definitions

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the terms "church plan" and

"church employee" have the meaning given such terms by

paragraphs (1) and (3)(B) of section 414(e), respectively,

except that -

(i) section 414(e) shall be applied by substituting

"section 501(c)(3)" for "section 501" each place it appears,

and

(ii) the term "church employee" shall not include an

employee of -

(I) an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)

above the secondary school level (other than a school for

religious training),

(II) an organization described in section

170(b)(1)(A)(iii), and

(III) an organization described in section 501(c)(3), the

basis of the exemption for which is substantially similar

to the basis for exemption of an organization described in

subclause (II).

(8) Treatment of former employees

To the extent provided in regulations, this subsection shall be

applied separately with respect to former employees.

(e) Employee includes former employee

For purposes of this section, the term "employee" includes a

former employee.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 88-272, title II, Sec. 204(a)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78

Stat. 36; amended Pub. L. 89-97, title I, Sec. 106(d)(3), July 30,

1965, 79 Stat. 337; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A),

Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Sec. 244(a),

Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title II, Sec.

223(a), (b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 99-514, title XI,

Sec. 1151(c)(1), title XVIII, Sec. 1827(a)(1), (c), (d), Oct. 22,

1986, 100 Stat. 2503, 2850, 2851; Pub. L. 100-647, title V, Sec.

5013(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3666; Pub. L. 101-140, title II,

Sec. 203(a)(1), (b)(1)(A), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830, 831; Pub.

L. 101-508, title XI, Sec. 11703(e)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat.

1388-517.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1990 - Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 101-508 substituted "any former

employee" for "any retired employee".

1989 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101-140, Sec. 203(a)(1), amended

subsec. (d) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec.

1151(c)(1), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 101-140, Sec. 203(b)(1)(A), amended par.

(7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "All

employees who are treated as employed by a single employer under

subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414 shall be treated as

employed by a single employer for purposes of this section."

1988 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100-647 struck out at end "In the

case of an employee who has attained age 64, the cost prescribed

shall not exceed the cost with respect to such individual if he

were age 63."

1986 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1151(c)(1), amended

subsec. (d) generally, substituting "In the case of a group-term

life insurance plan which is a discriminatory employee benefit

plan, subsection (a)(1) shall apply only to the extent provided in

section 89." for provisions formerly designated as pars. (1)(A) and

(B) that in the case of a discriminatory group-term life insurance

plan subsec. (a)(1) shall not apply with respect to any key

employee and the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of

any key employee shall be determined without regard to subsec. (c),

and striking out pars. (2) to (7) relating to classifications and

eligibility classifications of nondiscriminatory plans.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1827(a)(1), amended

subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as

follows: "the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of any

key employee shall be determined without regard to subsection (c)."

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1827(c), struck out ",

except that subparagraph (A)(iv) of such paragraph shall be applied

by not taking into account employees described in paragraph (3)(B)

who are not participants in the plan" from first sentence and

inserted provision that such term also includes any retired

employee if such employee when he retired or separated from service

was a key employee.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1827(d), added par. (8).

1984 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 223(a)(2), struck out

"either has reached the retirement age with respect to such

employer or" before "is disabled".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 223(b), designated existing

provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 223(a)(1), added subsec. (e).

1982 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97-248 added subsec. (d).

1976 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94-455 struck out "or his delegate"

after "Secretary".

1965 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89-97 substituted "section

72(m)(7)" for "paragraph (3) of section 213(g), determined without

regard to paragraph (4) thereof".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT

Section 11703(e)(2) of Pub. L. 101-508 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply

to employees separating from service after the date of the

enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1989 AMENDMENT

Section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101-140 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and sections 105, 117,

120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 162, 401, 414, 505, 3121, 3231, 3306,

3401, 4976, and 6652 of this title, section 409 of title 42, The

Public Health and Welfare, and provisions set out as notes under

sections 89 and 3121 of this title] shall take effect as if

included in section 1151 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L.

99-514, see section 1151(k) set out below]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Section 5013(b) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended by Pub. L. 100-647,

title I, Sec. 1011B(a)(25), (26), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3486,

provided that:

"(1) In general. - The amendments made by this section [enacting

section 89 of this title and amending this section and sections

105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 6039D, and 6652

of this title] shall apply to years beginning after the later of -

"(A) December 31, 1987, or

"(B) the earlier of -

"(i) the date which is 3 months after the date on which the

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate issues such

regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of

section 89 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by

this section), or

"(ii) December 31, 1988.

Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the amendments made by

subsections (e)(1) and (i)(3)(C) [amending section 414 of this

title] shall, to the extent they relate to sections 106, 162(i)(2),

and 162(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, apply to years

beginning after 1986.

"(2) Special rule for collective bargaining plan. - In the case

of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining

agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers

ratified before March 1, 1986, the amendments made by this section

[enacting section 89 of this title and amending this section and

sections 105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 6039D,

and 6652 of this title] shall not apply to employees covered by

such an agreement in years beginning before the earlier of -

"(A) the date on which the last of such collective bargaining

agreements terminates (determined without regard to any extension

thereof after February 28, 1986), or

"(B) January 1, 1991.

A plan shall not be required to take into account employees to

which the preceding sentence applies for purposes of applying

section 89 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this

section) to employees to which the preceding sentence does not

apply for any year preceding the year described in the preceding

sentence.

"(3) Exception for certain group-term insurance plans. - In the

case of a plan described in section 223(d)(2) of the Tax Reform Act

of 1984 [section 232(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note below], such plan shall be

treated as meeting the requirements of section 89 of the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) with respect to

individuals described in section 223(d)(2) of such Act. An employer

may elect to disregard such individuals in applying section 89 of

such Code (as so added) to other employees of the employer.

"(4) Special rule for church plans. - In the case of a church

plan (within the meaning of section 414(e)(3) of the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986) maintaining an insured accident and health

plan, the amendments made by this section [enacting section 89 of

this title and amending this section and sections 105, 106, 117,

120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 6039D, and 6652 of this title]

shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1988.

"(5) Cafeteria plans. - The amendments made by subsection (d)(2)

[amending sections 3121 and 3306 of this title and section 409 of

Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to taxable

years beginning after December 31, 1983.

"(6) Certain plans maintained by educational institutions. - If

an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)

of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 makes an election under this

paragraph with respect to a plan described in section 125(c)(2)(C)

of such Code, the amendments made by this section shall apply with

respect to such plan for plan years beginning after the date of the

enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Section 1827(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply

to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act

[Oct. 22, 1986]."

Amendment by section 1827(c), (d) of Pub. L. 99-514 effective,

except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of

the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such

amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a

note under section 48 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Section 223(d) of Pub. L. 98-369, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, title XVIII, Sec. 1827(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095,

2850, provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as provided in paragraph (2), the

amendments made by this section [amending this section and section

83 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1983.

"(2) Inclusion of former employees in the case of existing

group-term insurance plans. -

"(A) In general. - The amendments made by subsection (a)

[amending this section] shall not apply -

"(i) to any group-term life insurance plan of the employer in

existence on January 1, 1984, or

"(ii) to any group-term life insurance plan of the employer

(or a successor employer) which is a comparable successor to a

plan described in clause (i),

but only with respect to an individual who attained age 55 on or

before January 1, 1984, and was employed by such employer (or a

predecessor employer) at any time during 1983. Such amendments

also shall not apply to any employee who retired from employment

on or before January 1, 1984, and who, when he retired, was

covered by the plan (or a predecessor plan).

"(B) Special rule in the case of discriminatory group-term life

insurance plan. - In the case of any plan which, after December

31, 1986, is a discriminatory group-term life insurance plan (as

defined in section 79(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

[formerly I.R.C. 1954]), subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the

case of any individual retiring under such plan after December

31, 1986.

"(C) Benefits to certain retired individuals not taken into

account for purposes of determining whether plan is

discriminatory. - For purposes of determining whether a plan

described in subparagraph (A) meets the requirements of section

79(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to

group-term life insurance for former employees, coverage provided

to employees who retired on or before December 31, 1986, may, at

the employer's election, be disregarded.

"(D) Comparable successor plans. - For purposes of subparagraph

(A), a plan shall not fail to be treated as a comparable

successor to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(i) with respect

to any employee whose benefits do not increase under the

successor plan."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT

Section 244(b) of Pub. L. 97-248 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1965 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-97 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 106(e) of Pub. L. 89-97, set out

as a note under section 213 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 204(d) of Pub. L. 88-272, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The

amendments made by subsections (a) [amending this section and

section 7701 of this title] and (c) [amending sections 6052 and

6678 of this title] and paragraph (3) of section 6652(a) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by

section 221(b)(2) of this Act), shall apply with respect to

group-term life insurance provided after December 31, 1963, in

taxable years ending after such date. The amendments made by

subsection (b) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply

with respect to remuneration paid after December 31, 1963, in the

form of group-term life insurance provided after such date. In

applying section 79(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as

added by subsection (a)(1) of this section) to a taxable year

beginning before May 1, 1964, if paragraph (2)(B) of such section

applies with respect to an employee for the period beginning May 1,

1964, and ending with the close of his first taxable year ending

after April 30, 1964, such paragraph (2)(B) shall be treated as

applying with respect to such employee for the period beginning

January 1, 1964, and ending April 30, 1964."

NONENFORCEMENT OF AMENDMENT MADE BY SECTION 1151 OF PUB. L. 99-514

FOR FISCAL YEAR 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101-136 to be used to implement

or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99-514 or the amendments made by

such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101-136, set out as a note

under section 89 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 83, 125, 414, 505, 6039D,

6052, 7701 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 80 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 80. Restoration of value of certain securities

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

In the case of a domestic corporation subject to the tax imposed

by section 11 or 801, if the value of any security (as defined in

section 165(g)(2)) -

(1) which became worthless by reason of the expropriation,

intervention, seizure, or similar taking by the government of any

foreign country, any political subdivision thereof, or any agency

or instrumentality of the foregoing of property to which such

security was related, and

(2) which was taken into account as a loss from the sale or

exchange of a capital asset or with respect to which a deduction

for a loss was allowed under section 165,

is restored in whole or in part during any taxable year by reason

of any recovery of money or other property in respect of the

property to which such security was related, the value so restored

(to the extent that, when added to the value so restored during

prior taxable years, it does not exceed the amount of the loss

described in paragraph (2)) shall, except as provided in subsection

(b), be included in gross income for the taxable year in which such

restoration occurs.

(b) Reduction for failure to receive tax benefit

The amount otherwise includible in gross income under subsection

(a) in respect of any security shall be reduced by an amount equal

to the amount (if any) of the loss described in subsection (a)(2)

which did not result in a reduction of the taxpayer's tax under

this subtitle for any taxable year, determined under regulations

prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Character of income

For purposes of this subtitle -

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount included in

gross income under this section shall be treated as ordinary

income.

(2) If the loss described in subsection (a)(2) was taken into

account as a loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset,

the amount included in gross income under this section shall be

treated as long-term capital gain.

(d) Treatment under foreign expropriation loss recovery provisions

This section shall not apply to any recovery of a foreign

expropriation loss to which section 1351 applies.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 89-384, Sec. 1(b)(1), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 101;

amended Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Secs. 1901(b)(3)(K),

1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, 1834; Pub. L. 98-369,

div. A, title II, Sec. 211(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 754.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1984 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-369 substituted "801" for "802".

1976 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), struck

out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(b)(3)(K), substituted

"ordinary income" for "gain from the sale or exchange of property

which is neither a capital asset nor property described in section

1231".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 215 of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as

an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1901(b)(3)(K) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable

with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see

section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section

2 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 1(b)(3) of Pub. L. 89-384, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The

amendments made by this subsection [enacting this section] shall

apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1965, but only

with respect to losses described in section 80(a)(2) of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by

paragraph (1) of this subsection) which were sustained after

December 31, 1958."

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC [Sec. 81 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

[Sec. 81. Repealed. Pub. L. 100-203, title X, Sec. 10201(b)(1),

Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-387]

-MISC1-

Section, added Pub. L. 89-722, Sec. 1(b)(1), Nov. 2, 1966, 80

Stat. 1152; amended Pub. L. 93-625, Sec. 4(c)(1), Jan. 3, 1975, 88

Stat. 2111; Pub. L. 94-455, title VI, Sec. 605(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90

Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 99-514, title VIII, Sec. 805(c)(1)(A), Oct. 22,

1986, 100 Stat. 2362, included increase in vacation pay suspense

account in gross income.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987,

see section 10201(c)(1) of Pub. L. 100-203, set out as an Effective

Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 404 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 82 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 82. Reimbursement for expenses of moving

-STATUTE-

Except as provided in section 132(a)(6), there shall be included

in gross income (as compensation for services) any amount received

or accrued, directly or indirectly, by an individual as a payment

for or reimbursement of expenses of moving from one residence to

another residence which is attributable to employment or

self-employment.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 91-172, title II, Sec. 231(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83

Stat. 579; amended Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Sec. 13213(d)(3)(A),

Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1993 - Pub. L. 103-66 substituted "Except as provided in section

132(a)(6), there shall" for "There shall".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 103-66 applicable to reimbursements or other

payments in respect of expenses incurred after Dec. 31, 1993, see

section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103-66, set out as a note under section

62 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31,

1969, except that it does not apply to moving expenses paid or

incurred before July 1, 1970, in connection with the commencement

of work by the taxpayer as an employee at a new principal place of

work of which the taxpayer had been notified by his employer on or

before December 19, 1969, see section 231(d) of Pub. L. 91-172, set

out as an Effective Date of 1969 Amendment note under section 217

of this title.

MOVING EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES

Withholding, reporting, inclusion within adjusted gross income,

and deduction for reimbursement for moving expenses of members of

the uniformed services, see section 2 of Pub. L. 93-490, Oct. 26,

1974, 88 Stat. 1466, set out as a note under section 217 of this

title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 274 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 83 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 83. Property transferred in connection with performance of

services

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

If, in connection with the performance of services, property is

transferred to any person other than the person for whom such

services are performed, the excess of -

(1) the fair market value of such property (determined without

regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its

terms will never lapse) at the first time the rights of the

person having the beneficial interest in such property are

transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of

forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier, over

(2) the amount (if any) paid for such property, shall be

included in the gross income of the person who performed such

services in the first taxable year in which the rights of the

person having the beneficial interest in such property are

transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of

forfeiture, whichever is applicable. The preceding sentence shall

not apply if such person sells or otherwise disposes of such

property in an arm's length transaction before his rights in such

property become transferable or not subject to a substantial risk

of forfeiture.

(b) Election to include in gross income in year of transfer

(1) In general

Any person who performs services in connection with which

property is transferred to any person may elect to include in his

gross income for the taxable year in which such property is

transferred, the excess of -

(A) the fair market value of such property at the time of

transfer (determined without regard to any restriction other

than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse), over

(B) the amount (if any) paid for such property.

If such election is made, subsection (a) shall not apply with

respect to the transfer of such property, and if such property is

subsequently forfeited, no deduction shall be allowed in respect

of such forfeiture.

(2) Election

An election under paragraph (1) with respect to any transfer of

property shall be made in such manner as the Secretary prescribes

and shall be made not later than 30 days after the date of such

transfer. Such election may not be revoked except with the

consent of the Secretary.

(c) Special rules

For purposes of this section -

(1) Substantial risk of forfeiture

The rights of a person in property are subject to a substantial

risk of forfeiture if such person's rights to full enjoyment of

such property are conditioned upon the future performance of

substantial services by any individual.

(2) Transferability of property

The rights of a person in property are transferable only if the

rights in such property of any transferee are not subject to a

substantial risk of forfeiture.

(3) Sales which may give rise to suit under section 16(b) of the

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

So long as the sale of property at a profit could subject a

person to suit under section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act

of 1934, such person's rights in such property are -

(A) subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, and

(B) not transferable.

(d) Certain restrictions which will never lapse

(1) Valuation

In the case of property subject to a restriction which by its

terms will never lapse, and which allows the transferee to sell

such property only at a price determined under a formula, the

price so determined shall be deemed to be the fair market value

of the property unless established to the contrary by the

Secretary, and the burden of proof shall be on the Secretary with

respect to such value.

(2) Cancellation

If, in the case of property subject to a restriction which by

its terms will never lapse, the restriction is canceled, then,

unless the taxpayer establishes -

(A) that such cancellation was not compensatory, and

(B) that the person, if any, who would be allowed a deduction

if the cancellation were treated as compensatory, will treat

the transaction as not compensatory, as evidenced in such

manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations,

the excess of the fair market value of the property (computed

without regard to the restrictions) at the time of cancellation

over the sum of -

(C) the fair market value of such property (computed by

taking the restriction into account) immediately before the

cancellation, and

(D) the amount, if any, paid for the cancellation,

shall be treated as compensation for the taxable year in which

such cancellation occurs.

(e) Applicability of section

This section shall not apply to -

(1) a transaction to which section 421 applies,

(2) a transfer to or from a trust described in section 401(a)

or a transfer under an annuity plan which meets the requirements

of section 404(a)(2),

(3) the transfer of an option without a readily ascertainable

fair market value,

(4) the transfer of property pursuant to the exercise of an

option with a readily ascertainable fair market value at the date

of grant, or

(5) group-term life insurance to which section 79 applies.

(f) Holding period

In determining the period for which the taxpayer has held

property to which subsection (a) applies, there shall be included

only the period beginning at the first time his rights in such

property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk

of forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier.

(g) Certain exchanges

If property to which subsection (a) applies is exchanged for

property subject to restrictions and conditions substantially

similar to those to which the property given in such exchange was

subject, and if section 354, 355, 356, or 1036 (or so much of

section 1031 as relates to section 1036) applied to such exchange,

or if such exchange was pursuant to the exercise of a conversion

privilege -

(1) such exchange shall be disregarded for purposes of

subsection (a), and

(2) the property received shall be treated as property to which

subsection (a) applies.

(h) Deduction by employer

In the case of a transfer of property to which this section

applies or a cancellation of a restriction described in subsection

(d), there shall be allowed as a deduction under section 162, to

the person for whom were performed the services in connection with

which such property was transferred, an amount equal to the amount

included under subsection (a), (b), or (d)(2) in the gross income

of the person who performed such services. Such deduction shall be

allowed for the taxable year of such person in which or with which

ends the taxable year in which such amount is included in the gross

income of the person who performed such services.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 91-172, title III, Sec. 321(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83

Stat. 588; amended Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Secs. 1901(a)(15),

1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834; Pub. L. 97-34,

title II, Sec. 252(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 97-448,

title I, Sec. 102(k)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2374; Pub. L.

98-369, div. A, title II, Sec. 223(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 775;

Pub. L. 99-514, title XVIII, Sec. 1827(e), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat.

2851; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Sec. 11801(a)(5), Nov. 5, 1990,

104 Stat. 1388-520.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to

in subsec. (c)(3), is classified to section 78p(b) of Title 15,

Commerce and Trade.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1990 - Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101-508 struck out subsec. (i)

"Transition rules" which read as follows: "This section shall apply

to property transferred after June 30, 1969, except that this

section shall not apply to property transferred -

"(1) pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before

April 22, 1969,

"(2) upon the exercise of an option granted before April 22,

1969,

"(3) before May 1, 1970, pursuant to a written plan adopted and

approved before July 1, 1969,

"(4) before January 1, 1973, upon the exercise of an option

granted pursuant to a binding written contract entered into

before April 22, 1969, between a corporation and the transferor

requiring the transferor to grant options to employees of such

corporation (or a subsidiary of such corporation) to purchase a

determinable number of shares of stock of such corporation, but

only if the transferee was an employee of such corporation (or a

subsidiary of such corporation) on or before April 22, 1969, or

"(5) in exchange for (or pursuant to the exercise of a

conversion privilege contained in) property transferred before

July 1, 1969, or for property to which this section does not

apply (by reason of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), or (4)), if section

354, 355, 356, or 1036 (or so much of section 1031 as relates to

section 1036) applies, or if gain or loss is not otherwise

required to be recognized upon the exercise of such conversion

privilege, and if the property received in such exchange is

subject to restrictions and conditions substantially similar to

those to which the property given in such exchange was subject."

1986 - Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 99-514 struck out "the cost of"

before "group-life insurance".

1984 - Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 98-369 added par. (5).

1983 - Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97-448 substituted "Securities

Exchange Act of 1934" for "Securities and Exchange Act of 1934" in

heading and text.

1981 - Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97-34 added par. (3).

1976 - Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(15), struck

out "(or, if later, 30 days after the date of the enactment of the

Tax Reform Act of 1969)" after "after the date of such transfer",

and Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), "or his delegate" after "Secretary"

wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(1), (2)(B). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A),

struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 99-514 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of

1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see

section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 48

of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 223(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369, set

out as a note under section 79 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 97-448 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the

Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97-34, to which such

amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97-448, set out as a

note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT

Section 252(c) of Pub. L. 97-34, as amended by Pub. L. 97-448,

title I, Sec. 102(k)(2), 96 Stat. 2374, provided that: "The

amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the

provisions of subsection (b) [set out below] shall apply to

transfers after December 31, 1981."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1901(a)(15) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable

with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see

section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section

2 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 321(d) of Pub. L. 91-172 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsections (a) and (c) [amending sections 402, 403, and

404 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after June

30, 1969. The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this

section] shall apply with respect to contributions made and

premiums paid after August 1, 1969."

SAVINGS PROVISION

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101-508 be

construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring,

property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit

taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of

determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,

1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note

under section 29 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

APPLICATION OF AMENDMENTS MADE BY SECTION 252 OF PUB. L. 97-34

Section 1879(p) of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended by Pub. L. 100-647,

title I, Sec. 1018(q)(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3585, provided

that:

"(1) Notwithstanding subsection (c) of section 252 of the

Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 [section 252(c) of Pub. L. 97-34,

set out above], the amendment made by subsection (a) of such

section 252 [amending this section] (and the provisions of

subsection (b) of such section 252 [set out below]) shall apply to

any transfer of stock to any person if -

"(A) such transfer occurred in November or December of 1973 and

was pursuant to the exercise of an option granted in November or

December of 1971,

"(B) in December 1973 the corporation granting the option was

acquired by another corporation in a transaction qualifying as a

reorganization under section 368 of the Internal Revenue Code of

1954 [now 1986],

"(C) the fair market value (as of July 1, 1974) of the stock

received by such person in the reorganization in exchange for the

stock transferred to him pursuant to the exercise of such option

was less than 50 percent of the fair market value of the stock so

received (as of December 4, 1973),

"(D) in 1975 or 1976 such person sold substantially all of the

stock received in such reorganization, and

"(E) such person makes an election under this section at such

time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his

delegate shall prescribe.

"(2) Limitation on amount of benefit. - Paragraph (1) shall not

apply to transfers with respect to any employee to the extent that

the application of paragraph (1) with respect to such employee

would (but for this paragraph) result in a reduction in liability

for income tax with respect to such employee for all taxable years

in excess of $100,000 (determined without regard to any interest).

"(3) Statute of limitations. -

"(A) Overpayments. - If refund or credit of any overpayment of

tax resulting from the application of paragraph (1) is prevented

on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or at

any time within 6 months after such date of enactment) by the

operation of any law or rule of law, refund or credit of such

overpayment (to the extent attributable to the application of

paragraph (1)) may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim

therefor is filed before the close of such 6-month period.

"(B) Deficiencies. - If the assessment of any deficiency of tax

resulting from the application of paragraph (1) is prevented on

the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or at any

time within 6 months after such date of enactment) by the

operation of any law or rule of law, assessment of such

deficiency (to the extent attributable to the application of

paragraph (1)) may, nevertheless, be made within such 6-month

period."

TIME FOR MAKING CERTAIN SECTION 83(B) ELECTIONS

Section 556 of Pub. L. 98-369, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec.

2, title XVIII, Sec. 1855(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2882,

provided that: "In the case of any transfer of property in

connection with the performance of services on or before November

18, 1982, the election permitted by section 83(b) of the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] may be made,

notwithstanding paragraph (2) of such section 83(b), with the

income tax return for any taxable year ending after July 18, 1984,

and beginning before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform

Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986 if -

"(1) the amount paid for such property was not less than its

fair market value at the time of transfer (determined without

regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its

terms will never lapse), and

"(2) the election is consented to by the person transferring

such property.

The election shall contain that information required by the

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for elections permitted

by such section 83(b). The period for assessing any tax

attributable to a transfer of property which is the subject of an

election made pursuant to this section shall not expire before the

date which is 3 years after the date such election was made."

PROPERTY SUBJECT TO TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS TO COMPLY WITH

"POOLING-OF-INTERESTS ACCOUNTING" RULES

Section 252(b) of Pub. L. 97-34, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided, effective with

respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1981, that: "For

purposes of section 83 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986

[formerly I.R.C. 1954], property is subject to substantial risk of

forfeiture and is not transferable so long as such property is

subject to a restriction on transfer to comply with the

"Pooling-of-Interests Accounting" rules set forth in Accounting

Series Release Numbered 130 ((10/5/72) 37 FR 20937; 17 CFR 211.130)

and Accounting Series Release Numbered 135 ((1/18/73) 38 FR 1734;

17 CFR 211.135)."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 402, 403, 419, 422A, 457,

1042, 3121 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 84 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 84. Transfer of appreciated property to political organization

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

If -

(1) any person transfers property to a political organization,

and

(2) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted

basis,

then for purposes of this chapter the transferor shall be treated

as having sold such property to the political organization on the

date of the transfer, and the transferor shall be treated as having

realized an amount equal to the fair market value of such property

on such date.

(b) Basis of property

In the case of a transfer of property to a political organization

to which subsection (a) applies, the basis of such property in the

hands of the political organization shall be the same as it would

be in the hands of the transferor, increased by the amount of gain

recognized to the transferor by reason of such transfer.

(c) Political organization defined

For purposes of this section, the term "political organization"

has the meaning given to such term by section 527(e)(1).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 93-625, Sec. 13(a)(1), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2120.)

-MISC1-

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 13(b) of Pub. L. 93-625 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall apply to

transfers made after May 7, 1974, in taxable years ending after

such date."

NONRECOGNITION OF GAIN OR LOSS WHERE ORGANIZATION SOLD CONTRIBUTED

PROPERTY BEFORE AUGUST 2, 1973

Section 13(c) of Pub. L. 93-625 provided that in the case of the

sale or exchange of property before Aug. 2, 1973, which was

acquired by the exempt political organization by contribution, no

gain or loss shall be recognized by such organization.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 85 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 85. Unemployment compensation

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual, gross income includes unemployment

compensation.

(b) Unemployment compensation defined

For purposes of this section, the term "unemployment

compensation" means any amount received under a law of the United

States or of a State which is in the nature of unemployment

compensation.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 95-600, title I, Sec. 112(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat.

2777; amended Pub. L. 97-34, title I, Sec. 103(c)(1), Aug. 13,

1981, 95 Stat. 188; Pub. L. 97-248, title VI, Sec. 611(a), Sept. 3,

1982, 96 Stat. 706; Pub. L. 98-21, title I, Secs. 121(f)(1),

122(c)(2), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 84, 87; Pub. L. 99-514, title I,

Sec. 121, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-514 substituted "General rule" for

"In general" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to

amendment, text read as follows: "If the sum for the taxable year

of the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer (determined without

regard to this section, section 86 and section 221) and the

unemployment compensation exceeds the base amount, gross income for

the taxable year includes unemployment compensation in an amount

equal to the lesser of -

"(1) one-half of the amount of the excess of such sum over the

base amount, or

"(2) the amount of the unemployment compensation."

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 99-514, in amending section generally,

redesignated former subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former

subsec. (b), "Base amount defined", which read as follows: "For

purposes of this section, the term 'base amount' means -

"(1) except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), $12,000,

"(2) $18,000, in the case of a joint return under section 6013,

or

"(3) zero, in the case of a taxpayer who -

"(A) is married at the close of the taxable year (within the

meaning of section 143) but does not file a joint return for

such year, and

"(B) does not live apart from his spouse at all times during

the taxable year."

1983 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-21, Sec. 122(c)(2), struck out ",

section 105(d)," after "section 86".

Pub. L. 98-21, Sec. 121(f)(1), inserted "section 86," after "this

section,".

1982 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 611(a)(1),

substituted "$12,000" for "$20,000".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 611(a)(2), substituted

"$18,000" for "$25,000".

1981 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97-34 substituted "this section,

section 105(d), and section 221" for "this section and without

regard to section 105(d)" in parenthetical provision preceding par.

(1).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to amounts received after

Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, see section

151(b) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 121(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98-21 applicable to

benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending

after such date, except for any portion of a lump-sum payment of

social security benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the

generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan.

1, 1984, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98-21, set out as an

Effective Date note under section 86 of this title.

Amendment by section 122(c)(2) of Pub. L. 98-21 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an

individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section

105(d)(6) of this title as in effect on the day before Apr. 20,

1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's

first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section

122(d) of Pub. L. 98-21, set out as a note under section 22 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT

Section 611(b) of Pub. L. 97-248, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) Compensation paid after 1981. - The amendments made by this

section [amending this section] shall apply to payments of

unemployment compensation made after December 31, 1981, in taxable

years ending after such date.

"(2) No addition to tax for underpayment of estimated tax

attributable to application of amendments to compensation paid in

1982. - No addition to tax shall be made under section 6654 of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] with respect

to any underpayment to the extent such underpayment is attributable

to unemployment compensation which is received during 1982 and

which (but for the amendments made by subsection (a)) would not be

includable in gross income.

"(3) Special rule for fiscal year taxpayers. - In the case of a

taxable year (other than a calendar year) which includes January 1,

1982 -

"(A) the amendments made by this section shall be applied by

taking into account the entire amount of unemployment

compensation received during such taxable year, but

"(B) the increase in gross income for such taxable year as a

result of such amendments shall not exceed the amount of

unemployment compensation paid after December 31, 1981.

"(4) Unemployment compensation defined. - For purposes of this

subsection, the term 'unemployment compensation' has the meaning

given to such term by section 85(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of

1986."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 97-34 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 103(d) of Pub. L. 97-34, set out

as a note under section 62 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 112(d) of Pub. L. 95-600, as amended by Pub. L. 98-369,

div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1053,

provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this

section and section 6050B of this title] shall apply to payments of

unemployment compensation made after December 31, 1978, in taxable

years ending after such date, except that such amendments shall not

apply to payments made for weeks of unemployment ending before

December 1, 1978."

WAIVER OF STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b), July 18, 1984, 98

Stat. 1053, provided that: "If credit or refund of any overpayment

of tax resulting from the amendment made by subsection (a)

[amending section 112(d) of Pub. L. 95-600, set out as an Effective

Date note above] is barred on the date of the enactment of this Act

[July 18, 1984] or at any time during the 1-year period beginning

on the date of the enactment of this Act by the operation of any

law or rule of law (including res judicata), refund or credit of

such overpayment (to the extent attributable to the amendment made

by subsection (a)) may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim

therefor is filed before the close of such 1-year period."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 3402, 6050B of this

title; title 42 section 5177.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 86 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 86. Social security and tier 1 railroad retirement benefits

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), gross income for the

taxable year of any taxpayer described in subsection (b)

(notwithstanding section 207 of the Social Security Act) includes

social security benefits in an amount equal to the lesser of -

(A) one-half of the social security benefits received during

the taxable year, or

(B) one-half of the excess described in subsection (b)(1).

(2) Additional amount

In the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom the amount

determined under subsection (b)(1)(A) exceeds the adjusted base

amount, the amount included in gross income under this section

shall be equal to the lesser of -

(A) the sum of -

(i) 85 percent of such excess, plus

(ii) the lesser of the amount determined under paragraph

(1) or an amount equal to one-half of the difference between

the adjusted base amount and the base amount of the taxpayer,

or

(B) 85 percent of the social security benefits received

during the taxable year.

(b) Taxpayers to whom subsection (a) applies

(1) In general

A taxpayer is described in this subsection if -

(A) the sum of -

(i) the modified adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for

the taxable year, plus

(ii) one-half of the social security benefits received

during the taxable year, exceeds

(B) the base amount.

(2) Modified adjusted gross income

For purposes of this subsection, the term "modified adjusted

gross income" means adjusted gross income -

(A) determined without regard to this section and sections

135, 137, 221, 222, 911, 931, and 933, and

(B) increased by the amount of interest received or accrued

by the taxpayer during the taxable year which is exempt from

tax.

(c) Base amount and adjusted base amount

For purposes of this section -

(1) Base amount

The term "base amount" means -

(A) except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, $25,000,

(B) $32,000 in the case of a joint return, and

(C) zero in the case of a taxpayer who -

(i) is married as of the close of the taxable year (within

the meaning of section 7703) but does not file a joint return

for such year, and

(ii) does not live apart from his spouse at all times

during the taxable year.

(2) Adjusted base amount

The term "adjusted base amount" means -

(A) except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, $34,000,

(B) $44,000 in the case of a joint return, and

(C) zero in the case of a taxpayer described in paragraph

(1)(C).

(d) Social security benefit

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term "social security

benefit" means any amount received by the taxpayer by reason of

entitlement to -

(A) a monthly benefit under title II of the Social Security

Act, or

(B) a tier 1 railroad retirement benefit.

(2) Adjustment for repayments during year

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, the amount of social security

benefits received during any taxable year shall be reduced by

any repayment made by the taxpayer during the taxable year of a

social security benefit previously received by the taxpayer

(whether or not such benefit was received during the taxable

year).

(B) Denial of deduction

If (but for this subparagraph) any portion of the repayments

referred to in subparagraph (A) would have been allowable as a

deduction for the taxable year under section 165, such portion

shall be allowable as a deduction only to the extent it exceeds

the social security benefits received by the taxpayer during

the taxable year (and not repaid during such taxable year).

(3) Workmen's compensation benefits substituted for social

security benefits

For purposes of this section, if, by reason of section 224 of

the Social Security Act (or by reason of section 3(a)(1) of the

Railroad Retirement Act of 1974), any social security benefit is

reduced by reason of the receipt of a benefit under a workmen's

compensation act, the term "social security benefit" includes

that portion of such benefit received under the workmen's

compensation act which equals such reduction.

(4) Tier 1 railroad retirement benefit

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "tier 1 railroad

retirement benefit" means -

(A) the amount of the annuity under the Railroad Retirement

Act of 1974 equal to the amount of the benefit to which the

taxpayer would have been entitled under the Social Security Act

if all of the service after December 31, 1936, of the employee

(on whose employment record the annuity is being paid) had been

included in the term "employment" as defined in the Social

Security Act, and

(B) a monthly annuity amount under section 3(f)(3) of the

Railroad Retirement Act of 1974.

(5) Effect of early delivery of benefit checks

For purposes of subsection (a), in any case where section 708

of the Social Security Act causes social security benefit checks

to be delivered before the end of the calendar month for which

they are issued, the benefits involved shall be deemed to have

been received in the succeeding calendar month.

(e) Limitation on amount included where taxpayer receives lump-sum

payment

(1) Limitation

If -

(A) any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security

benefits received during the taxable year is attributable to

prior taxable years, and

(B) the taxpayer makes an election under this subsection for

the taxable year,

then the amount included in gross income under this section for the

taxable year by reason of the receipt of such portion shall not

exceed the sum of the increases in gross income under this chapter

for prior taxable years which would result solely from taking into

account such portion in the taxable years to which it is

attributable.

(2) Special rules

(A) Year to which benefit attributable

For purposes of this subsection, a social security benefit is

attributable to a taxable year if the generally applicable

payment date for such benefit occurred during such taxable

year.

(B) Election

An election under this subsection shall be made at such time

and in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations

prescribe. Such election, once made, may be revoked only with

the consent of the Secretary.

(f) Treatment as pension or annuity for certain purposes

For purposes of -

(1) section 22(c)(3)(A) (relating to reduction for amounts

received as pension or annuity),

(2) section 32(c)(2) (defining earned income),

(3) section 219(f)(1) (defining compensation), and

(4) section 911(b)(1) (defining foreign earned income),

any social security benefit shall be treated as an amount received

as a pension or annuity.

-SOURCE-

(Added and amended Pub. L. 98-21, title I, Sec. 121(a), title III,

Sec. 335(b)(2)(A), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 80, 130; Pub. L. 98-76,

title II, Sec. 224(d), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 424; Pub. L. 98-369,

div. A, title IV, Sec. 474(r)(2), div. B, title VI, Sec.

2661(o)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 839, 1158; Pub. L. 99-272,

title XII, Sec. 12111(b), title XIII, Sec. 13204(a), Apr. 7, 1986,

100 Stat. 287, 313; Pub. L. 99-514, title I, Sec. 131(b)(2), title

XIII, Sec. 1301(j)(8), title XVIII, Sec. 1847(b)(2), Oct. 22, 1986,

100 Stat. 2113, 2658, 2856; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1001(e),

title VI, Sec. 6009(c)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3351, 3690;

Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Sec. 13215(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107

Stat. 475, 476; Pub. L. 103-296, title III, Sec. 309(d), Aug. 15,

1994, 108 Stat. 1523; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Secs. 1704(t)(3),

1807(c)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1887, 1902; Pub. L. 105-277,

div. J, title IV, Sec. 4003(a)(2)(B), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat.

2681-908; Pub. L. 107-16, title IV, Sec. 431(c)(1), June 7, 2001,

115 Stat. 68.)

-STATAMEND-

AMENDMENT OF SECTION

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107-16,

see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and

(d)(1)(A), (3), (4)(A), (5), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49

Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7

(Sec. 301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (Sec.

401 et seq.) of Title 42. Sections 207, 224, and 708 of the Act are

classified to sections 407, 424a, and 909 of Title 42,

respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec.

(d)(3), (4), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by

Pub. L. 93-445, title I, Sec. 101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305,

which is classified generally to subchapter IV (Sec. 231 et seq.)

of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Section 3(a)(1), (f)(3) of the

Act is classified to section 231b(a)(1), (f)(3) of Title 45. For

further details and complete classification of this Act to the

Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title

45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

-MISC1-

PRIOR PROVISIONS

A prior section 86 was renumbered section 87 of this title.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107-16, Secs. 431(c)(1), 901,

temporarily inserted "222," after "221,". See Effective and

Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1998 - Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105-277 inserted "221," after

"137,".

1996 - Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1704(t)(3),

substituted "means adjusted" for "means adusted" in introductory

provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1807(c)(2), inserted

"137," before "911".

1994 - Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103-296 struck out at end "For

purposes of the preceding sentence, the amount received by any

taxpayer shall be determined as if the Social Security Act did not

contain section 203(i) thereof."

1993 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13215(a), designated

existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading,

substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), gross" for

"Gross", redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and

(B), respectively, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13215(b), amended heading and

text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as

follows: "For purposes of this section, the term 'base amount'

means -

"(1) except as otherwise provided in this subsection, $25,000,

"(2) $32,000, in the case of a joint return, and

"(3) zero, in the case of a taxpayer who -

"(A) is married at the close of the taxable year (within the

meaning of section 7703) but does not file a joint return for

such year, and

"(B) does not live apart from his spouse at all times during

the taxable year."

1988 - Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 6009(c)(1),

inserted "135," before "911".

Subsec. (f)(4), (5). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(e), redesignated

par. (5) as (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as

follows: "section 221(b)(2) (defining earned income), and".

1986 - Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 131(b)(2),

substituted "sections" for "sections 221,".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(j)(8), substituted

"section 7703" for "section 143".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99-272, Sec. 13204(a), in amending par.

(4) generally, designated existing provisions as introductory

clause of par. (4), struck out "a monthly benefit under section

3(a), 3(f)(3), 4(a), or 4(f) of the Railroad Retirement Act of

1974", and added cls. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 99-272, Sec. 12111(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1847(b)(2), substituted

"section 22(c)(3)(A)" for "section 37(c)(3)(A)".

1984 - Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 2661(o)(1), added

par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated par. (2).

Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 474(r)(2), substituted "section 32(c)(2)"

for "section 43(c)(2)".

Subsec. (f)(2)-(5). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 2661(o)(1), redesignated

pars. (1) to (4) as (2) to (5), respectively.

1983 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-21, Sec. 335(b)(2)(A), inserted

"(notwithstanding section 207 of the Social Security Act)".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 98-76 inserted "3(f)(3)," after "3(a),".

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 applicable to payments made in

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 431(d) of

Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107-16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or

limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, and the Internal

Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years

as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of

Pub. L. 107-16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105-277, div. J, title IV, Sec. 4003(l), Oct. 21, 1998,

112 Stat. 2681-910, provided that: "The amendments made by this

section [amending this section and sections 135, 137, 163, 172,

219, 221, 264, 351, 368, 469, 954, 2001, 6311, 6404, and 9510 of

this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section

7508A of this title] shall take effect as if included in the

provisions of the 1997 Act [Pub. L. 105-34] to which they relate."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1807(c)(2) of Pub. L. 104-188 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1807(e) of

Pub. L. 104-188, set out as an Effective Date note under section 23

of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT

Section 309(e)(2) of Pub. L. 103-296 provided that: "The

amendment made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall

apply with respect to benefits received after December 31, 1995, in

taxable years ending after such date."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Section 13215(d) of Pub. L. 103-66 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall apply

to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1001(e) of Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except

as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax

Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment

relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note

under section 1 of this title.

Section 6009(d) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [enacting section 135 of this title, amending

this section and sections 219 and 469 of this title, and

renumbering former section 135 as section 136 of this title] shall

apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1989."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by section 131(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of

Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1301(j)(8) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see

sections 1311-1318 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as an Effective Date;

Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by section 1847(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 effective,

except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of

the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such

amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a

note under section 48 of this title.

Amendment by section 12111(b) of Pub. L. 99-272 applicable with

respect to benefit checks issued for months ending after Apr. 7,

1986, see section 12111(c) of Pub. L. 99-272, set out as a note

under section 909 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 13204(b) of Pub. L. 99-272 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any

monthly benefit for which the generally applicable payment date is

after December 31, 1985."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 474(r)(2) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to

taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from

such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note

under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 2661 of Pub. L. 98-369 effective as though

included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of

1983, Pub. L. 98-21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out

as a note under section 401 of Title 42, The Public Health and

Welfare.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-76 applicable to benefits received after

Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for

portions of lump-sum payments received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the

generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan.

1, 1984, see section 227(b) of Pub. L. 98-76 set out as a note

under section 72 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98-21, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514,

Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general. - Except as provided in paragraph (2), the

amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section

6050F of this title, amending sections 85, 128, 861, 871, 1441, and

6103 of this title and section 3413 of Title 12, Banks and Banking,

and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 401 of

Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to benefits

received after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after

such date.

"(2) Treatment of certain lump-sum payments received after

december 31, 1983. - The amendments made by this section shall not

apply to any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security

benefits (as defined in section 86(d) of the Internal Revenue Code

of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) received after December 31, 1983,

if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was

before January 1, 1984."

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 22, 72, 135, 137, 219,

221, 222, 469, 861, 871, 3402, 6015, 6050F, 6050G, 6103 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 87 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 87. Alcohol fuel credit

-STATUTE-

Gross income includes the amount of the alcohol fuel credit

determined with respect to the taxpayer for the taxable year under

section 40(a).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 96-223, title II, Sec. 232(c)(1), Apr. 2, 1980, 94

Stat. 276, Sec. 86; renumbered Sec. 87, Pub. L. 98-21, title I,

Sec. 121(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 80; amended Pub. L. 98-369,

div. A, title IV, Sec. 474(r)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 839.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1984 - Pub. L. 98-369 amended section generally, substituting

"the amount of the alcohol fuel credit determined with respect to

the taxpayer for the taxable year under section 40(a)" for "an

amount equal to the amount of the credit allowable to the taxpayer

under section 44E for the taxable year (determined without regard

to subsection (e) thereof)".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section

475(a) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under section 21 of

this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section applicable to sales or uses after Sept. 30, 1980, in

taxable years ending after such date, see section 232(h)(1) of Pub.

L. 96-223, set out as a note under section 40 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 56 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 88 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 88. Certain amounts with respect to nuclear decommissioning

costs

-STATUTE-

In the case of any taxpayer who is required to include the amount

of any nuclear decommissioning costs in the taxpayer's cost of

service for ratemaking purposes, there shall be includible in the

gross income of such taxpayer the amount so included for any

taxable year.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Sec. 91(f)(1), July 18,

1984, 98 Stat. 607; amended Pub. L. 99-514, title XVIII, Sec.

1807(a)(4)(E)(vii), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2813.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Pub. L. 99-514 substituted "for ratemaking purposes" for

"of ratemaking purposes".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 99-514 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of

1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see

section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 48

of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section effective July 18, 1984, with respect to taxable years

ending after such date, see section 91(g)(5) of Pub. L. 98-369, as

amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under

section 461 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

A or subtitle C of title XI [Secs. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177] or

title XVIII [Secs. 1800-1899A] of Pub. L. 99-514 require an

amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to

be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1,

1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a

note under section 401 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC [Sec. 89 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

[Sec. 89. Repealed. Pub. L. 101-140, title II, Sec. 202(a), Nov. 8,

1989, 103 Stat. 830]

-MISC1-

Section, added Pub. L. 99-514, title XI, Sec. 1151(a), Oct. 22,

1986, 100 Stat. 2494; amended Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec.

1011B(a)(1)-(9), (21), (28), (29), (34), title III, Sec.

3021(a)(1)(A), (B), (2)(A), (3)-(9), (11)-(13)(A), (b)(2)(B), (3),

title VI, Sec. 6051(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3483-3485, 3487,

3488, 3625-3632, 3695, related to nondiscrimination rules regarding

benefits provided under employee benefit plans.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL

Section 202(c) of Pub. L. 101-140 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [repealing this section] shall take effect as

if included in section 1151 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L.

99-514, see section 1151(k) set out as a note under section 79 of

this title]."

NONENFORCEMENT OF SECTION FOR FISCAL YEAR 1990

Pub. L. 101-136, title V, Sec. 528, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 816,

provided that: "No monies appropriated by this Act [see Tables for

classification] may be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of

the Tax Reform Act of 1986 or the amendments made by such section

[section 1151 of Pub. L. 99-514, which enacted section 89 of this

title, amended sections 79, 105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132,

414, 505, 3121, 3306, 6039D, and 6652 of this title and section 409

of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacted provisions

set out as a note under section 89 of this title]."

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Section 3021(c) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided for the first issue

of valuation rules, the interim impact on former employees, the

meeting of the written requirement for covered plans in connection

with implementation of section 89 of the Code, and the issuance by

Nov. 15, 1988, of rules necessary to carry out section 89, prior to

repeal by Pub. L. 101-140, title II, Sec. 203(a)(7), Nov. 8, 1989,

103 Stat. 831.

PART-TIME EMPLOYEE DEFINED FOR PURPOSES OF SUBSECTION (F)

Section 6070 of Pub. L. 100-647 increased the number of employees

who would be excluded from consideration under this section during

plan years 1989 and 1990, in the case of a plan maintained by an

employer which employs fewer than 10 employees on a normal working

day during a plan year, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101-140, title

II, Sec. 203(a)(7), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 831.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 90 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART II - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 90. Illegal Federal irrigation subsidies

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

Gross income shall include an amount equal to any illegal Federal

irrigation subsidy received by the taxpayer during the taxable

year.

(b) Illegal Federal irrigation subsidy

For purposes of this section -

(1) In general

The term "illegal Federal irrigation subsidy" means the excess

(if any) of -

(A) the amount required to be paid for any Federal irrigation

water delivered to the taxpayer during the taxpayer year, over

(B) the amount paid for such water.

(2) Federal irrigation water

The term "Federal irrigation water" means any water made

available for agricultural purposes from the operation of any

reclamation or irrigation project referred to in paragraph (8) of

section 202 of the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982.

(c) Denial of deduction

No deduction shall be allowed under this subtitle by reason of

any inclusion in gross income under subsection (a).

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 100-203, title X, Sec. 10611(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101

Stat. 1330-451.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 202 of the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982, referred to in

subsec. (b)(2), is classified to section 390bb of Title 43, Public

Lands.

-MISC1-

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 10611(c) of Pub. L. 100-203 provided that: "The

amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply

to water delivered to the taxpayer in months beginning after the

date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987]."

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS

INCOME 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

-MISC1-

Sec.

101. Certain death payments.(!1)

102. Gifts and inheritances.

103. Interest on State and local bonds.

[103A. Repealed.]

104. Compensation for injuries or sickness.

105. Amounts received under accident and health plans.

106. Contributions by employer to accident and health

plans.

107. Rental value of parsonages.

108. Income from discharge of indebtedness.

109. Improvements by lessee on lessor's property.

110. Qualified lessee construction allowances for

short-term leases.

111. Recovery of tax benefit items.

112. Certain combat zone compensation of members of the

Armed Forces.

[113. Repealed.]

114. Extraterritorial income.

115. Income of States, municipalities, etc.(!1)

[116. Repealed.]

117. Qualified scholarships.

118. Contributions to the capital of a corporation.

119. Meals or lodging furnished for convenience of

employer.(!1)

120. Amounts received under qualified group legal services

plans.

121. Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence.

122. Certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

123. Amounts received under insurance contracts for certain

living expenses.

[124. Repealed.]

125. Cafeteria plans.

126. Certain cost-sharing payments.

127. Educational assistance programs.

[128. Repealed.]

129. Dependent care assistance programs.(!2)

130. Certain personal injury liability assignments.

131. Certain foster care payments.

132. Certain fringe benefits.

[133. Repealed.]

134. Certain military benefits.

135. Income from United States savings bonds used to pay

higher education tuition and fees.

136. Energy conservation subsidies provided by public

utilities.

137. Adoption assistance programs.

138. Medicare+Choice MSA.

139. Disaster relief payments.

140. Cross references to other Acts.

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Pub. L. 107-134, title I, Sec. 111(b), Jan. 23, 2002, 115

Stat. 2433, added item 139 and redesignated former item 139 as 140.

2000 - Pub. L. 106-519, Sec. 4(6), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2433,

added item 114.

1997 - Pub. L. 105-34, title III, Sec. 312(d)(14), title XII,

Sec. 1213(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 841, 1001, added item 110 and

substituted "Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence"

for "One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by

individual who has attained age 55" in item 121.

Pub. L. 105-33, title IV, Sec. 4006(b)(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111

Stat. 334, added items 138 and 139 and struck out former item 138

"Cross reference to other Acts".

1996 - Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Secs. 1602(b)(8), 1704(t)(4)(B),

1807(c)(7), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1834, 1887, 1902, substituted

"combat zone compensation" for "combat pay" in item 112, struck out

item 133 "Interest on certain loans used to acquire employer

securities", added items 137 and 138, and struck out former item

137 "Cross reference to other Acts".

1992 - Pub. L. 102-486, title XIX, Sec. 1912(b), Oct. 24, 1992,

106 Stat. 3016, added items 136 and 137 and struck out former item

136 "Cross references to other Acts".

1990 - Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Sec. 11801(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990,

104 Stat. 1388-522, struck out item 110 "Income taxes paid by

lessee corporation", item 113 "Mustering-out payments for members

of the Armed Forces", item 114 "Sports programs conducted for the

American National Red Cross", item 124 "Qualified transportation

provided by employer", and item 128 "Interest on certain savings

certificates".

1988 - Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1013(a)(37), title VI, Sec.

6009(c)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, 3690, substituted

"Interest on State and local bonds" for "Interest on certain

governmental obligations" in item 103, struck out item 103A

"Mortgage subsidy bonds", added item 135 and redesignated former

item 135 "Cross references to other Acts" as item 136.

1986 - Pub. L. 99-514, title I, Sec. 123(b)(4), title VI, Sec.

612(b)(8), title XI, Sec. 1168(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113,

2251, 2512, struck out item 116 "Partial exclusion of dividends

received by individuals", substituted in item 117 "Qualified

scholarships" for "Scholarships and fellowship grants", added item

134, and redesignated former item 134 as 135.

1984 - Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Sec. 171(b), title V,

Secs. 531(a)(2), 543(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 699, 881, 892,

substituted "Recovery of tax benefit items" for "Recovery of bad

debts, prior taxes, and delinquency amounts" in item 111, added

items 132 (relating to certain fringe benefits) and 133 (relating

to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities),

and redesignated former item 132 (relating to cross references to

other Acts) as item 134.

Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Sec. 16(a), July 18, 1984, 98

Stat. 505, repealed an amendment made by Pub. L. 97-34, Sec.

302(c). See 1981 Amendment note below.

1983 - Pub. L. 97-473, title I, Sec. 101(b)(2), Jan. 14, 1983, 96

Stat. 2606, purported to strike out the item relating to section

130, and added items 130 (relating to certain personal injury

liability assignments) and 131 (relating to cross references to

other Acts).

Pub. L. 97-473, title I, Sec. 102(b), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat.

2607, struck out item 131 (relating to cross references to other

Acts) and added items 131 (relating to certain foster care

payments) and 132 (relating to cross references to other Acts).

1981 - Pub. L. 97-34, title III, Secs. 301(b)(1), 302(c)(1),

(d)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 270, 272, 274, effective with

regard to taxable years beginning after Sept. 30, 1981,

redesignated item 128 "Cross References to other Acts" as 129 and

added item 128 "Interest on certain savings certificates" and,

section 302(c)(1), with regard to taxable years beginning after

Dec. 31, 1984, provided that "Partial exclusion of interest" is

substituted for "Interest on certain savings certificates" in item

128. Section 16(a) of Pub. L. 98-369, repealed section 302(c) of

Pub. L. 97-34, and provided that this title shall be applied and

administered as if section 302(c), and the amendments made by

section 302(c), had not been enacted.

1980 - Pub. L. 96-499, title XI, Sec. 1102(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94

Stat. 2669, added item 103A.

Pub. L. 96-223, title IV, Sec. 404(b)(1), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat.

306, inserted "and interest" after "dividends" in item 116.

1978 - Pub. L. 95-618, title II, Sec. 242(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92

Stat. 3194, redesignated former item 124 as 125 and added item 124.

Pub. L. 95-600, title I, Secs. 134(b), 164(c), title IV, Sec.

404(c)(3), title V, Sec. 543(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2785, 2814,

2870, 2890, in item 121 substituted "One-time exclusion of gain

from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age

55" for "Gain from sale of exchange of residence of individual who

has attained age 65", redesignated former item 124 as 128, and

added items 125 to 127.

1976 - Pub. L. 94-455, title XXI, Sec. 2134(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90

Stat. 1928, added item 120.

1969 - Pub. L. 91-172, title IX, Sec. 901(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83

Stat. 709, redesignated former item 123 as 124, and added item 123.

1966 - Pub. L. 89-365, Sec. 1(a)(2), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32,

redesignated former item 122 as 123, and added item 122.

1964 - Pub. L. 88-272, title II, Sec. 206(b)(2), Feb. 26, 1964,

78 Stat. 40, redesignated former item 121 as 122, and added item

121.

1958 - Pub. L. 85-866, title I, Sec. 3(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72

Stat. 1607, struck out item 120 "Statutory subsistence allowance

received by police".

NO FEDERAL INCOME TAX ON RESTITUTION RECEIVED BY VICTIMS OF THE

NAZI REGIME OR THEIR HEIRS OR ESTATES

Pub. L. 107-16, title VIII, Sec. 803, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat.

149, provided that:

"(a) In General. - For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of

1986, any excludable restitution payments received by an eligible

individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) and any excludable

interest -

"(1) shall not be included in gross income; and

"(2) shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying

any provision of such Code which takes into account excludable

income in computing adjusted gross income, including section 86

of such Code (relating to taxation of Social Security benefits).

For purposes of such Code, the basis of any property received by an

eligible individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) as part

of an excludable restitution payment shall be the fair market value

of such property as of the time of the receipt.

"(b) Eligible Individual. - For purposes of this section, the

term 'eligible individual' means a person who was persecuted on the

basis of race, religion, physical or mental disability, or sexual

orientation by Nazi Germany, any other Axis regime, or any other

Nazi-controlled or Nazi-allied country.

"(c) Excludable Restitution Payment. - For purposes of this

section, the term 'excludable restitution payment' means any

payment or distribution to an individual (or the individual's heirs

or estate) which -

"(1) is payable by reason of the individual's status as an

eligible individual, including any amount payable by any foreign

country, the United States of America, or any other foreign or

domestic entity, or a fund established by any such country or

entity, any amount payable as a result of a final resolution of a

legal action, and any amount payable under a law providing for

payments or restitution of property;

"(2) constitutes the direct or indirect return of, or

compensation or reparation for, assets stolen or hidden from, or

otherwise lost to, the individual before, during, or immediately

after World War II by reason of the individual's status as an

eligible individual, including any proceeds of insurance under

policies issued on eligible individuals by European insurance

companies immediately before and during World War II; or

"(3) consists of interest which is payable as part of any

payment or distribution described in paragraph (1) or (2).

"(d) Excludable Interest. - For purposes of this section, the

term 'excludable interest' means any interest earned by -

"(1) escrow accounts or settlement funds established pursuant

to the settlement of the action entitled 'In re: Holocaust Victim

Assets Litigation,' (E.D.N.Y.) C.A. No. 96-4849,

"(2) funds to benefit eligible individuals or their heirs

created by the International Commission on Holocaust Insurance

Claims as a result of the Agreement between the Government of the

United States of America and the Government of the Federal

Republic of Germany concerning the Foundation 'Remembrance,

Responsibility, and Future,' dated July 17, 2000, or

"(3) similar funds subject to the administration of the United

States courts created to provide excludable restitution payments

to eligible individuals (or eligible individuals' heirs or

estates).

"(e) Effective Date. -

"(1) In general. - This section shall apply to any amount

received on or after January 1, 2000.

"(2) No inference. - Nothing in this Act [see Tables for

classification] shall be construed to create any inference with

respect to the proper tax treatment of any amount received before

January 1, 2000."

-SECREF-

PART REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This part is referred to in section 61 of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

(!2) Editorially supplied. Section 129 added by Pub. L. 97-34

without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 101 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 101. Certain death benefits

-STATUTE-

(a) Proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death

(1) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2), subsection (d),

and subsection (f), gross income does not include amounts

received (whether in a single sum or otherwise) under a life

insurance contract, if such amounts are paid by reason of the

death of the insured.

(2) Transfer for valuable consideration

In the case of a transfer for a valuable consideration, by

assignment or otherwise, of a life insurance contract or any

interest therein, the amount excluded from gross income by

paragraph (1) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the

actual value of such consideration and the premiums and other

amounts subsequently paid by the transferee. The preceding

sentence shall not apply in the case of such a transfer -

(A) if such contract or interest therein has a basis for

determining gain or loss in the hands of a transferee

determined in whole or in part by reference to such basis of

such contract or interest therein in the hands of the

transferor, or

(B) if such transfer is to the insured, to a partner of the

insured, to a partnership in which the insured is a partner, or

to a corporation in which the insured is a shareholder or

officer.

The term "other amounts" in the first sentence of this paragraph

includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on

indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest

therein if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a

deduction by reason of section 264(a)(4).

[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Sec. 1402(a), Aug. 20,

1996, 110 Stat. 1789]

(c) Interest

If any amount excluded from gross income by subsection (a) is

held under an agreement to pay interest thereon, the interest

payments shall be included in gross income.

(d) Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death

(1) General rule

The amounts held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary

shall be prorated (in accordance with such regulations as may be

prescribed by the Secretary) over the period or periods with

respect to which such payments are to be made. There shall be

excluded from the gross income of such beneficiary in the taxable

year received any amount determined by such proration. Gross

income includes, to the extent not excluded by the preceding

sentence, amounts received under agreements to which this

subsection applies.

(2) Amount held by an insurer

An amount held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary

shall mean an amount to which subsection (a) applies which is -

(A) held by any insurer under an agreement provided for in

the life insurance contract, whether as an option or otherwise,

to pay such amount on a date or dates later than the death of

the insured, and

(B) equal to the value of such agreement to such beneficiary

(i) as of the date of death of the insured (as if any

option exercised under the life insurance contract were

exercised at such time), and

(ii) as discounted on the basis of the interest rate used

by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement

and mortality tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(3) Application of subsection

This subsection shall not apply to any amount to which

subsection (c) is applicable.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, Sec. 421(b)(2),

July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794]

(f) Proceeds of flexible premium contracts issued before January 1,

1985 payable by reason of death

(1) In general

Any amount paid by reason of the death of the insured under a

flexible premium life insurance contract issued before January 1,

1985 shall be excluded from gross income only if -

(A) under such contract -

(i) the sum of the premiums paid under such contract does

not at any time exceed the guideline premium limitation as of

such time, and

(ii) any amount payable by reason of the death of the

insured (determined without regard to any qualified

additional benefit) is not at any time less than the

applicable percentage of the cash value of such contract at

such time, or

(B) by the terms of such contract, the cash value of such

contract may not at any time exceed the net single premium with

respect to the amount payable by reason of the death of the

insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional

benefit) at such time.

(2) Guideline premium limitation

For purposes of this subsection -

(A) Guideline premium limitation

The term "guideline premium limitation" means, as of any

date, the greater of -

(i) the guideline single premium, or

(ii) the sum of the guideline level premiums to such date.

(B) Guideline single premium

The term "guideline single premium" means the premium at

issue with respect to future benefits under the contract

(without regard to any qualified additional benefit), and with

respect to any charges for qualified additional benefits, at

the time of a determination under subparagraph (A) or (E) and

which is based on -

(i) the mortality and other charges guaranteed under the

contract, and

(ii) interest at the greater of an annual effective rate of

6 percent or the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue

of the contract.

(C) Guideline level premium

The term "guideline level premium" means the level annual

amount, payable over the longest period permitted under the

contract (but ending not less than 20 years from date of issue

or not later than age 95, if earlier), computed on the same

basis as the guideline single premium, except that subparagraph

(B)(ii) shall be applied by substituting "4 percent" for "6

percent".

(D) Computational rules

In computing the guideline single premium or guideline level

premium under subparagraph (B) or (C) -

(i) the excess of the amount payable by reason of the death

of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified

additional benefit) over the cash value of the contract shall

be deemed to be not greater than such excess at the time the

contract was issued,

(ii) the maturity date shall be the latest maturity date

permitted under the contract, but not less than 20 years

after the date of issue or (if earlier) age 95, and

(iii) the amount of any endowment benefit (or sum of

endowment benefits) shall be deemed not to exceed the least

amount payable by reason of the death of the insured

(determined without regard to any qualified additional

benefit) at any time under the contract.

(E) Adjustments

The guideline single premium and guideline level premium

shall be adjusted in the event of a change in the future

benefits or any qualified additional benefit under the contract

which was not reflected in any guideline single premiums or

guideline level premium previously determined.

(3) Other definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection -

(A) Flexible premium life insurance contract

The terms "flexible premium life insurance contract" and

"contract" mean a life insurance contract (including any

qualified additional benefits) which provides for the payment

of one or more premiums which are not fixed by the insurer as

to both timing and amount. Such terms do not include that

portion of any contract which is treated under State law as

providing any annuity benefits other than as a settlement

option.

(B) Premiums paid

The term "premiums paid" means the premiums paid under the

contract less any amounts (other than amounts includible in

gross income) to which section 72(e) applies. If, in order to

comply with the requirements of paragraph (1)(A), any portion

of any premium paid during any contract year is returned by the

insurance company (with interest) within 60 days after the end

of a contract year -

(i) the amount so returned (excluding interest) shall be

deemed to reduce the sum of the premiums paid under the

contract during such year, and

(ii) notwithstanding the provisions of section 72(e), the

amount of any interest so returned shall be includible in the

gross income of the recipient.

(C) Applicable percentage

The term "applicable percentage" means -

(i) 140 percent in the case of an insured with an attained

age at the beginning of the contract year of 40 or less, and

(ii) in the case of an insured with an attained age of more

than 40 as of the beginning of the contract year, 140 percent

reduced (but not below 105 percent) by one percent for each

year in excess of 40.

(D) Cash value

The cash value of any contract shall be determined without

regard to any deduction for any surrender charge or policy

loan.

(E) Qualified additional benefits

The term "qualified additional benefits" means any -

(i) guaranteed insurability,

(ii) accidental death benefit,

(iii) family term coverage, or

(iv) waiver of premium.

(F) Premium payments not disqualifying contract

The payment of a premium which would result in the sum of the

premiums paid exceeding the guideline premium limitation shall

be disregarded for purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(i) if the

amount of such premium does not exceed the amount necessary to

prevent the termination of the contract without cash value on

or before the end of the contract year.

(G) Net single premium

In computing the net single premium under paragraph (1)(B) -

(i) the mortality basis shall be that guaranteed under the

contract (determined by reference to the most recent

mortality table allowed under all State laws on the date of

issuance),

(ii) interest shall be based on the greater of -

(I) an annual effective rate of 4 percent (3 percent for

contracts issued before July 1, 1983), or

(II) the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of

the contract, and

(iii) the computational rules of paragraph (2)(D) shall

apply, except that the maturity date referred to in clause

(ii) thereof shall not be earlier than age 95.

(H) Correction of errors

If the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the

Secretary that -

(i) the requirements described in paragraph (1) for any

contract year was not satisfied due to reasonable error, and

(ii) reasonable steps are being taken to remedy the error,

the Secretary may waive the failure to satisfy such

requirements.

(I) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be

necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this

subsection.

(g) Treatment of certain accelerated death benefits

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the following amounts shall be

treated as an amount paid by reason of the death of an insured:

(A) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on

the life of an insured who is a terminally ill individual.

(B) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on

the life of an insured who is a chronically ill individual.

(2) Treatment of viatical settlements

(A) In general

If any portion of the death benefit under a life insurance

contract on the life of an insured described in paragraph (1)

is sold or assigned to a viatical settlement provider, the

amount paid for the sale or assignment of such portion shall be

treated as an amount paid under the life insurance contract by

reason of the death of such insured.

(B) Viatical settlement provider

(i) In general

The term "viatical settlement provider" means any person

regularly engaged in the trade or business of purchasing, or

taking assignments of, life insurance contracts on the lives

of insureds described in paragraph (1) if -

(I) such person is licensed for such purposes (with

respect to insureds described in the same subparagraph of

paragraph (1) as the insured) in the State in which the

insured resides, or

(II) in the case of an insured who resides in a State not

requiring the licensing of such persons for such purposes

with respect to such insured, such person meets the

requirements of clause (ii) or (iii), whichever applies to

such insured.

(ii) Terminally ill insureds

A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect

to an insured who is a terminally ill individual if such

person -

(I) meets the requirements of sections 8 and 9 of the

Viatical Settlements Model Act of the National Association

of Insurance Commissioners, and

(II) meets the requirements of the Model Regulations of

the National Association of Insurance Commissioners

(relating to standards for evaluation of reasonable

payments) in determining amounts paid by such person in

connection with such purchases or assignments.

(iii) Chronically ill insureds

A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect

to an insured who is a chronically ill individual if such

person -

(I) meets requirements similar to the requirements

referred to in clause (ii)(I), and

(II) meets the standards (if any) of the National

Association of Insurance Commissioners for evaluating the

reasonableness of amounts paid by such person in connection

with such purchases or assignments with respect to

chronically ill individuals.

(3) Special rules for chronically ill insureds

In the case of an insured who is a chronically ill individual -

(A) In general

Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any payment

received for any period unless -

(i) such payment is for costs incurred by the payee (not

compensated for by insurance or otherwise) for qualified

long-term care services provided for the insured for such

period, and

(ii) the terms of the contract giving rise to such payment

satisfy -

(I) the requirements of section 7702B(b)(1)(B), and

(II) the requirements (if any) applicable under

subparagraph (B).

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the rule of section

7702B(b)(2)(B) shall apply.

(B) Other requirements

The requirements applicable under this subparagraph are -

(i) those requirements of section 7702B(g) and section

4980C which the Secretary specifies as applying to such a

purchase, assignment, or other arrangement,

(ii) standards adopted by the National Association of

Insurance Commissioners which specifically apply to

chronically ill individuals (and, if such standards are

adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause

(i) shall cease to apply), and

(iii) standards adopted by the State in which the

policyholder resides (and if such standards are adopted, the

analogous requirements specified under clause (i) and

(subject to section 4980C(f)) standards under clause (ii),

shall cease to apply).

(C) Per diem payments

A payment shall not fail to be described in subparagraph (A)

by reason of being made on a per diem or other periodic basis

without regard to the expenses incurred during the period to

which the payment relates.

(D) Limitation on exclusion for periodic payments

For limitation on amount of periodic payments which are

treated as described in paragraph (1), see section 7702B(d).

(4) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection -

(A) Terminally ill individual

The term "terminally ill individual" means an individual who

has been certified by a physician as having an illness or

physical condition which can reasonably be expected to result

in death in 24 months or less after the date of the

certification.

(B) Chronically ill individual

The term "chronically ill individual" has the meaning given

such term by section 7702B(c)(2); except that such term shall

not include a terminally ill individual.

(C) Qualified long-term care services

The term "qualified long-term care services" has the meaning

given such term by section 7702B(c).

(D) Physician

The term "physician" has the meaning given to such term by

section 1861(r)(1) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C.

1395x(r)(1)).

(5) Exception for business-related policies

This subsection shall not apply in the case of any amount paid

to any taxpayer other than the insured if such taxpayer has an

insurable interest with respect to the life of the insured by

reason of the insured being a director, officer, or employee of

the taxpayer or by reason of the insured being financially

interested in any trade or business carried on by the taxpayer.

(h) Survivor benefits attributable to service by a public safety

officer who is killed in the line of duty

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include any amount paid as a survivor

annuity on account of the death of a public safety officer (as

such term is defined in section 1204 of the Omnibus Crime Control

and Safe Streets Act of 1968) killed in the line of duty -

(A) if such annuity is provided, under a governmental plan

which meets the requirements of section 401(a), to the spouse

(or a former spouse) of the public safety officer or to a child

of such officer; and

(B) to the extent such annuity is attributable to such

officer's service as a public safety officer.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the death of any

public safety officer if, as determined in accordance with the

provisions of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of

1968 -

(A) the death was caused by the intentional misconduct of the

officer or by such officer's intention to bring about such

officer's death;

(B) the officer was voluntarily intoxicated (as defined in

section 1204 of such Act) at the time of death;

(C) the officer was performing such officer's duties in a

grossly negligent manner at the time of death; or

(D) the payment is to an individual whose actions were a

substantial contributing factor to the death of the officer.

(i) Certain employee death benefits payable by reason of death of

certain terrorist victims

(1) In general

Gross income does not include amounts (whether in a single sum

or otherwise) paid by an employer by reason of the death of an

employee who is a specified terrorist victim (as defined in

section 692(d)(4)).

(2) Limitation

(A) In general

Subject to such rules as the Secretary may prescribe,

paragraph (1) shall not apply to amounts which would have been

payable after death if the individual had died other than as a

specified terrorist victim (as so defined).

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to incidental death benefits

paid from a plan described in section 401(a) and exempt from

tax under section 501(a).

(3) Treatment of self-employed individuals

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "employee" includes a

self-employed individual (as defined in section 401(c)(1)).

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 26; Pub. L. 85-866, title I,

Sec. 23(d), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1622; Pub. L. 87-792, Sec.

7(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 89-365, Sec. 1(c), Mar.

8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 91-172, title I, Sec. 101(j)(l), Dec.

30, 1969, 83 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 93-406, title II, Secs.

2005(c)(15), 2007(b)(3), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 992, 994; Pub. L.

94-455, title XIX, Secs. 1901(a)(16), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976,

90 Stat. 1765, 1834; Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Secs. 239, 266(a),

(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 514, 547, 550; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A,

title II, Sec. 221(b)(2), title IV, Sec. 421(b)(2), title VII, Sec.

713(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 772, 794, 958; Pub. L. 99-514,

title X, Sec. 1001(a)-(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2387; Pub. L.

104-188, title I, Sec. 1402(a), (b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat.

1789; Pub. L. 104-191, title III, Sec. 331(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110

Stat. 2067; Pub. L. 105-34, title X, Sec. 1084(b)(2), title XV,

Sec. 1528(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 952, 1074; Pub. L. 107-134,

title I, Sec. 102(a), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2429.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred

to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 90-351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197,

as amended. Section 1204 of the Act is classified to section 3796b

of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 3711 of Title 42 and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Another section 1084(b) of Pub. L. 105-34 amended sections 805,

807, 812, and 832 of this title.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107-134 added subsec. (i).

1997 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1084(b)(2), inserted

at end "The term 'other amounts' in the first sentence of this

paragraph includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on

indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest therein

if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a deduction by

reason of section 264(a)(4)."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1528(a), added subsec. (h).

1996 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1402(a), struck out

subsec. (b) which related to employees' death benefits.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1402(b)(1), substituted

"subsection (a)" for "subsection (a) or (b)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104-191 added subsec. (g).

1986 - Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1001(a), amended

second sentence generally, which prior to amendment read as

follows: "There shall be excluded from the gross income of such

beneficiary in the taxable year received -

"(A) any amount determined by such proration, and

"(B) in the case of the surviving spouse of the insured, that

portion of the excess of the amounts received under one or more

agreements specified in paragraph (2)(A) (whether or not payment

of any part of such amounts is guaranteed by the insurer) over

the amount determined in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph which

is not greater than $1,000 with respect to any insured."

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1001(c)(2), substituted

"equal" for "is equal" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1001(b), amended cl.

(ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "as

discounted on the basis of the interest rate and mortality tables

used by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement."

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1001(c)(1),

redesignated par. (4) as (3), and struck out former par. (3),

"Surviving spouse", which read as follows: "For purposes of this

subsection, the term 'surviving spouse' means the spouse of the

insured as of the date of death, including a spouse legally

separated but not under a decree of absolute divorce."

1984 - Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 713(e), amended

subpar. (B) generally, substituting "certain distributions" for

"certain lump sum distributions" in heading, substituting "amount

paid or distributed" for "lump sum distribution described in the

second sentence of paragraph (2)(B)" in introductory text and

adding cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 421(b)(2), repealed subsec. (e)

relating to payments of alimony or of income of an estate or trust

in case of divorce, etc.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 221(b)(2)(B), inserted "issued

before January 1, 1985" in heading.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 221(b)(2)(A), inserted

"issued before January 1, 1985" in introductory text.

1982 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 266(b), substituted

", subsection (d), and subsection (f)" for "and in subsection (d)".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 239, amended par. (3)

generally, substituting "Treatment of self-employed individuals"

for "Self-employed individual not considered an employee" in

heading, designating existing provisions as subparagraph (A) and,

as so designated, adding heading and exception for subpar. (B), and

adding subparagraph (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 266(a), added subsec. (f).

1976 - Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A),

struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(16), struck out subsec.

(f) relating to effective date of section.

1974 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2005(c)(15),

substituted "a lump sum distribution (as defined in section

402(e)(4)" for "total distributions payable (as defined in section

402(a)(3)) which are paid to a distributee within one taxable year

of the distributee by reason of the employee's death".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 93-406, Sec. 2007(b)(3), substituted

"if the member or former member of the uniformed services by reason

of whose death such annuity is payable" for "if the individual who

made the election under such chapter".

1969 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 91-172 substituted

references to section 170(b)(1)(A) (ii) and (vi), and to religious

organizations, for references to section 503(b)(1), (2), or (3).

1966 - Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 89-365 provided that par. (1)

shall not apply in the case of an annuity under chapter 73 of title

10 if the individual who made the election under that chapter died

after attaining retirement age.

1962 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 87-792, Sec. 7(c)(1),

substituted "described in section 403(a)" for "which meets the

requirements of paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section

401(a)".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 87-792, Sec. 7(c)(2), added par. (3).

1958 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 85-866 substituted "This

subparagraph shall not apply to total distributions payable (as

defined in section 402(a)(3) which are paid to a distributee within

one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's

death - " for "(other than total distributions payable, as defined

in section 402(a)(3), which are paid to distributee, by a stock

bonus, pension, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a)

which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), or under an annuity

contract under a plan which meets the requirements of paragraphs

(3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 401(a), within one taxable year

of the distributee by reason of the employee's death)", and added

cls. (i), (ii), and (iii).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 107-134, title I, Sec. 102(b), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat.

2429, provided that:

"(1) Effective date. - The amendment made by this section

[amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending before,

on, or after September 11, 2001.

"(2) Waiver of limitations. - If refund or credit of any

overpayment of tax resulting from the amendments made by this

section is prevented at any time before the close of the 1-year

period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 23,

2002] by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res

judicata), such refund or credit may nevertheless be made or

allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such

period."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT

Section 1084(d) of Pub. L. 105-34, as amended by Pub. L. 105-206,

title VI, Sec. 6010(o)(3)(B), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 816,

provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this

section and sections 264, 265, 805, 807, 812, and 832 of this

title] shall apply to contracts issued after June 8, 1997, in

taxable years ending after such date. For purposes of the preceding

sentence, any material increase in the death benefit or other

material change in the contract shall be treated as a new contract

except that, in the case of a master contract (within the meaning

of section 264(f)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), the

addition of covered lives shall be treated as a new contract only

with respect to such additional covered lives. For purposes of this

subsection, an increase in the death benefit under a policy or

contract issued in connection with a lapse described in section

501(d)(2) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability

Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104-191, set out as a note under section 264

of this title] shall not be treated as a new contract."

Section 1528(b) of Pub. L. 105-34, as amended by Pub. L. 107-15,

Sec. 2, June 5, 2001, 115 Stat. 37, provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts

received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996, with

respect to individuals dying after such date, and to amounts

received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001, with

respect to individuals dying on or before December 31, 1996."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENTS

Section 331(b) of Pub. L. 104-191 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to

amounts received after December 31, 1996."

Section 1402(c) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section and sections 406, 407,

and 7701 of this title] shall apply with respect to decedents dying

after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996]."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Section 1001(d) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The amendments

made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts

received with respect to deaths occurring after the date of the

enactment of this section [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable years ending

after such date."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 221(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98-369 effective Jan.

1, 1984, see section 221(d)(4) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an

Effective Date note under section 7702 of this title.

Amendment by section 421(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to

transfers after July 18, 1984, in taxable years ending after such

date, subject to election to have repeal apply to transfers after

1983 or to transfers pursuant to existing decrees, see section

421(d) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an Effective Date note under

section 1041 of this title.

Amendment by section 713 of Pub. L. 98-369 effective as if

included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal

Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97-248, to which such amendment

relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under

section 31 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENTS

Section 266(c)(1) of Pub. L. 97-248, as amended by Pub. L.

98-369, div. A, title II, Sec. 221(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat.

772, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending

this section] shall apply to contracts entered into before January

1, 1985."

Amendment by section 239 of Pub. L. 97-248 applicable to

decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 241(b) of Pub. L.

97-248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this

title. Such amendment is applicable, in the case of amounts

received under the plan of an S corporation, with respect to

decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1982, notwithstanding section 241(b)

of Pub. L. 97-248, see section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 97-354, Oct. 19,

1982, 96 Stat. 1697, set out as a note under section 1361 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1901(a)(16) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable

with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see

section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section

2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94-455 effective

Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as

a note under section 6013 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1974 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 2005(c)(15) of Pub. L. 93-406 applicable

only with respect to distributions and payments made after Dec. 31,

1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section

2005(d) of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as a note under section 402 of

this title.

Amendment by section 2007(b)(3) of Pub. L. 93-406 applicable to

taxable years ending on or after Sept. 21, 1972, with respect to

individuals dying on or after Sept. 21, 1972, see section 2007(c)

of Pub. L. 93-406, set out as a note under section 122 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1969 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 91-172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section

101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91-172, set out as an Effective Date note

under section 4940 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 89-365 applicable with respect to

individuals making an election under chapter 73 of Title 10 who

died after Dec. 31, 1965, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 89-365, set

out as an Effective Date note under section 122 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 87-792 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87-792, set out as a

note under section 22 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1958 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 85-866 applicable to taxable years beginning

after Dec. 31, 1957, see section 23(g) of Pub. L. 85-866, set out

as a note under section 403 of this title.

PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle

D [Secs. 1401-1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104-188 require an

amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not

be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year

beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L.

104-188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

FLEXIBLE PREMIUM CONTRACTS ISSUED DURING 1984 WHICH MEET

REQUIREMENTS OF SECTION 7702 TREATED AS MEETING REQUIREMENTS OF

SECTION 101(F)

Flexible premium contracts issued during 1984 which meet

requirements of section 7702 of this title treated as meeting

requirements of subsec. (f) of this section, see section 221(b)(3)

of Pub. L. 98-369, as added by Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note

under section 7702 of this title.

SPECIAL RULES FOR CONTRACTS ENTERED INTO BEFORE JANUARY 1, 1983

Section 266(c)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 97-248, as amended by Pub. L.

97-448, title III, Sec. 306(a)(13), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2405;

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided

that:

"(2) Special rule for contracts entered into before january 1,

1983. - Any contract entered into before January 1, 1983, which

meets the requirements of section 101(f) of the Internal Revenue

Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] on the date which is 1 year

after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982] shall

be treated as meeting the requirements of such section for any

period before the date on which such contract meets such

requirements. Any death benefits paid under a flexible premium life

insurance contract (within the meaning of section 101(f)(3)(A) of

such Code) before the date which is 1 year after such date of

enactment [Sept. 3, 1982] shall be excluded from gross income.

"(3) Special rule for certain contracts. - Any contract entered

into before January 1, 1983, shall be treated as meeting the

requirements of subparagraph (A) of section 101(f)(1) of such Code

if such contract would meet such requirements if section

101(f)(2)(C) of such Code were applied by substituting '3 percent'

for '4 percent'."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 72, 818, 953, 6050Q,

7702, 7702B of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 102 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 102. Gifts and inheritances

-STATUTE-

(a) General rule

Gross income does not include the value of property acquired by

gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance.

(b) Income

Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income -

(1) the income from any property referred to in subsection (a);

or

(2) where the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance is of

income from property, the amount of such income.

Where, under the terms of the gift, bequest, devise, or

inheritance, the payment, crediting, or distribution thereof is to

be made at intervals, then, to the extent that it is paid or

credited or to be distributed out of income from property, it shall

be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest,

devise, or inheritance of income from property. Any amount included

in the gross income of a beneficiary under subchapter J shall be

treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise,

or inheritance of income from property.

(c) Employee gifts

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income any amount

transferred by or for an employer to, or for the benefit of, an

employee.

(2) Cross references

For provisions excluding certain employee achievement awards

from gross income, see section 74(c).

For provisions excluding certain de minimis fringes from

gross income, see section 132(e).

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 28; Pub. L. 99-514, title I,

Sec. 122(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2110.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1986 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-514 added subsec. (c).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to prizes and awards

granted after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(c) of Pub. L. 99-514,

set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 25A, 135, 274 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

26 USC Sec. 103 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Subtitle A - Income Taxes

CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income

PART III - ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

-HEAD-

Sec. 103. Interest on State and local bonds

-STATUTE-

(a) Exclusion

Except as provided in subsection (b), gross income does not

include interest on any State or local bond.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply to -

(1) Private activity bond which is not a qualified bond

Any private activity bond which is not a qualified bond (within

the meaning of section 141).

(2) Arbitrage bond

Any arbitrage bond (within the meaning of section 148).

(3) Bond not in registered form, etc.

Any bond unless such bond meets the applicable requirements of

section 149.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section and part IV -

(1) State or local bond

The term "State or local bond" means an obligation of a State

or political subdivision thereof.

(2) State

The term "State" includes the District of Columbia and any

possession of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 29; Pub. L. 90-364, title I,

Sec. 107(a), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 90-634, title IV,

Sec. 401(a), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1349; Pub. L. 91-172, title

VI, Sec. 601(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 92-178, title

III, Sec. 315(a), (b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 529; Pub. L. 94-164,

Sec. 7(a), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 94-182, title III,

Sec. 301(a), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1056; Pub. L. 94-455, title

XIX, Secs. 1901(a)(17), (b)(8)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, Secs.

2105(a)-(c), 2137(d), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1766, 1794,

1834, 1902, 1931; Pub. L. 95-339, title II, Sec. 201(a), Aug. 8,

1978, 92 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 95-600, title III, Secs. 331(a), (b),

332(a), 333(a), 334(a), (b), title VII, Sec. 703(j)(1), (q)(1),

Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2839-2841, 2941, 2944; Pub. L. 96-222, title

I, Sec. 107(a)(3)(C), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 96-223,

title II, Secs. 241(a), 242(a), 244(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 281,

283, 286; Pub. L. 96-499, title XI, Sec. 1103, Dec. 5, 1980, 94

Stat. 2669; Pub. L. 97-34, title VIII, Secs. 811(a), (b), 812(a),

Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349, 350; Pub. L. 97-248, title II, Secs.

214(a)-(e), 215(a), (b), 217(a)-(d), 219(a), 221(a), (b), (c)(1),

title III, Sec. 310(b)(1), (c)(1), (2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat.

466-469, 472-474, 477, 478, 596, 599; Pub. L. 97-424, title V, Sec.

547(a), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2199; Pub. L. 97-473, title II, Sec.

202(b)(2), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A,

title IV, Sec. 474(r)(4), title VI, Secs. 621-624(a), (b)(2), (3),

626(a), 627, 628(a), (c)-(e), (g), 630, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat.

839, 915-922, 924, 926, 928, 931-933; Pub. L. 99-272, title XIII,

Sec. 13209(e), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 323; Pub. L. 99-514, title

XIII, Sec. 1301(a), title XVIII, Secs. 1864(a)(1), (b)-(e),

1865(a), 1869(a), (b), 1870, 1871(a)(1), (b), 1899A(2)-(4), Oct.

22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2602, 2885, 2886, 2888, 2890, 2891, 2958; Pub.

L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1013(a)(34)(A), (c)(12)(A), Nov. 10,

1988, 102 Stat. 3544, 3547.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1988 - Subsec. (b)(6)(N). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1013(c)(12)(A),

amended subpar. (N), as in effect on the day before the date of the

enactment of Pub. L. 99-514 [Oct. 22, 1986], by redesignating cls.

(ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and by striking out

cl. (i) and inserting in lieu thereof the following new cls.:

"(i) In general. - Except as provided in clause (ii), this

paragraph shall not apply to any obligation issued after December

31, 1986.

"(ii) Certain refundings. - This paragraph shall apply to any

obligation (or series of obligations) issued to refund an

obligation issued on or before December 31, 1986, if -

"(I) the average maturity date of the issue of which the

refunding obligation is a part is not later than the average

maturity date of the obligations to be refunded by such issue,

"(II) the amount of the refunding obligation does not exceed

the outstanding amount of the refunded obligation, and

"(III) the proceeds of the refunding obligation are used to

redeem the refunded obligation not later than 90 days after the

date of the issuance of the refunding obligation.

For purposes of subclause (I), average maturity shall be determined

in accordance with subsection (b)(14)(B)(i)."

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1013(a)(34)(A), amended

par. (7), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment

of Pub. L. 99-514 [Oct. 22, 1986], by substituting "necessary" for

"necessary".

1986 - Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, substituted "Interest on State and local bonds" for

"Interest on certain governmental obligations" in section

catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), substituted

"Exclusion" for "General rule" in heading and amended text

generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Gross income

does not include interest on -

"(1) the obligations of a State, a Territory, or a possession

of the United States, or any political subdivision of any of the

foregoing, or of the District of Columbia; and

"(2) qualified scholarship funding bonds."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, substituted provision relating to exceptions for

provision relating to industrial development bonds.

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 99-272 struck out par. (11) relating to

pollution control facilities acquired by regional pollution control

authorities.

Subsec. (b)(13), (14)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1871(b),

substituted "and (6)" for "(6), and (7)".

Subsec. (b)(16)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1870, substituted

"clause (ii)" for "clause (i)".

Subsec. (b)(17)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1871(b), substituted

"and (6)" for "(6), and (7)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, substituted provision relating to definitions for

provision relating to arbitrage.

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending

section generally, struck out subsecs. (d) to (g) which related to

certain irrigation dams, qualified scholarship funding bonds,

certain federally guaranteed obligations, and qualified

steam-generating or alcohol-producing facilities, respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (h) which provided that obligations

must not be guaranteed.

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1899A(2), substituted

"guaranteed" for "guaranted".

Subsec. (h)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1865(a), struck out "the

United States," after "program of".

Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending

section generally, struck out subsecs. (i) to (k) which related to

obligations of certain volunteer fire departments, provided that

obligations must be in registered form to be tax-exempt, and

required public approval for industrial development bonds,

respectively.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (l) which related to information

reporting requirements for certain bonds.

Subsec. (l)(2)(F). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1864(d), added subpar.

(F) which read: "if such obligation is a private activity bond (as

defined in subsection (n)(7)), such information as the Secretary

may require for purposes of determining whether the requirements of

subsection (n) are met with respect to such obligation."

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (m) which related to obligations

exempt other than under this title.

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1871(a)(1), substituted

"(j), (k), (l), (n), and (o)" for "(k), (l), and (n)".

Subsec. (m)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1899A(3), substituted

"608(a)(6)(A)" for "608(6)(A)".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (n) which related to limitation on

aggregate amount of private activity bonds issued during any

calendar year.

Subsec. (n)(6)(A), (B)(i). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1864(b),

substituted "governmental units or other authorities" for

"governmental units".

Subsec. (n)(7)(C)(i). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1864(c), substituted

"all of the property to be financed by the obligation" for "the

property described in such paragraph".

Subsec. (n)(10)(B). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1864(e), substituted

"identify project" for "specify project" in heading and "identify

(with reasonable specificity) the project" for "specify the

project" in text of subpar. (B)(i).

Subsec. (n)(10)(D). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1864(e)(2), substituted

"any identification or specification" for "any specification".

Subsec. (n)(13). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1864(a)(1), added par.

(13).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (o) relating to consumer loan bonds.

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1869(a), (b)(1), substituted "Private loan

bonds" for "Consumer loan bonds" in subsection and par. (2)

headings, "private loan bond" for "consumer loan bond" in text of

pars. (1), (2)(A) and (B), and "subsection (c)(6)(H)(i)" for

"subsection (c)(6)(G)(i)" in par. (2)(C)(ii).

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1869(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (o),

relating to cross references, as (p).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1301(a), in amending section

generally, struck out subsec. (p) which related to cross

references.

Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1869(b)(2), redesignated former subsec. (o),

relating to cross references, as (p).

Subsec. (p)(4). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1899A(4), substituted

"October 27, 1949 (48 U.S.C. 1403)" for "October 27, 1919 (48

U.S.C. 1403)".

1984 - Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(e), inserted "For

purposes of subparagraph (A), any property shall not be treated as

failing to be residential rental property merely because part of

the building in which such property is located is used for purposes

other than residential rental purposes."

Subsec. (b)(6)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 474(r)(4),

substituted "section 30(b)(2)(A)" for "section 44F(b)(2)(A)".

Subsec. (b)(6)(N). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 630, designated existing

provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

Subsec. (b)(6)(P). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(c), added subpar.

(P).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(g), repealed par. (7)

which related to advance refunding of qualified public facilities.

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(d), inserted "For

purposes of this paragraph - (A) a partnership and each of its

partners (and their spouses and minor children) shall be treated as

related persons, and (B) an S corporation and each of its

shareholders (and their spouses and minor children) shall be

treated as related persons."

Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 623, added par. (15).

Subsec. (b)(16) to (18). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 627, added pars.

(16) to (18).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 624(b)(2), struck out "bonds"

after "Arbitrage" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 624(b)(3), inserted "to

arbitrage bonds" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 624(a), added par. (6)

and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 622, amended subsec. (h)

generally, in par. (1) substituting provisions that obligations are

not included in the section if they are federally guaranteed for

provisions which excluded obligations guaranteed, in whole or part,

by the U.S. under a program to conserve energy, or under other

Federal or State programs, in par. (2) substituting provisions

defining "federally guaranteed" for provisions setting forth

obligations to which this subsection applies, and adding pars. (3)

to (5).

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(a)(1), inserted "In the

case of an obligation issued after December 31, 1983, such

obligation shall not be treated as described in this paragraph

unless the appropriate requirements of subsections (b), (c), (h),

(k), (l), and (n) of this section and section 103A are met with

respect to such obligation. For purposes of applying such

requirements, a possession of the United States shall be treated as

a State; except that clause (ii) of subsection (n)(4)(A) shall not

apply."

Subsec. (m)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(a)(2), substituted

"is exempt from tax under this title without regard to any

provision of law which is not contained in this title and which is

not contained in a revenue Act" for "is exempt from taxation under

any provision of this title".

Subsec. (m)(3). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 628(a)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 621, added subsec. (n). Former

subsec. (n), relating to cross references, redesignated (o).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 626(a), added subsec. (o)

relating to consumer loan bonds.

Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 621, redesignated subsec. (n), relating to

cross references, as (o).

1983 - Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97-424, Sec. 547(a), added subsec.

(m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (n).

Pub. L. 97-473 amended subsec. (m) generally, adding pars. (1)

and (2), redesignating former pars. (1) to (3) as (3) to (5),

respectively, and striking out par. (24) which had provided

reference regarding exempt-interest dividends to section

852(b)(5)(B.) See section 722(b) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a

note below.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 97-424, Sec. 547(a), redesignated former

subsec. (m), relating to cross references, as (n).

1982 - Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 215(b)(2),

substituted "For purposes of this section" for "For purposes of

this subsection".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 97-248, Secs. 217(a)(1), (b), 221(a),

(c)(1), 310(c)(1), in subpar. (A) substituted "if at all times

during the qualified project period" for "if each obligation issued

pursuant to the issue is in registered form and if" after

"residential rental property", and struck out "(within the meaning

of section 167(k)(3)(B))" after "low or moderate income", added

subpar. (J), struck out provision that for purposes of subpar. (A),

"targeted area project" meant a project located in a qualified

census tract (within the meaning of section 103A(k)(2)) or an area

of chronic economic distress (within the meaning of section

103A(k)(3)) and, in last sentence, substituted "electric energy or

gas from" for "electric energy from".

Subsec. (b)(6)(C). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 217(a)(3), substituted

"paragraph (13)" for "paragraph (7)".

Subsec. (b)(6)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 214(d), added cl.

(iv).

Subsec. (b)(6)(K) to (O). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 214(a)-(c), (e),

added subpars. (K) to (O).

Subsec. (b)(9)(A). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 217(c), inserted "ferry,"

after "rail car" in provisions preceding cl. (i), and in cl. (ii),

inserted "(or, in the case of a ferry, mass transportation

services)" after "mass commuting services".

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 217(a)(2), added par. (10).

Former par. (10) redesignated (13).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 217(d), added par. (11).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 221(b), added par. (12).

[Provisions of par. (12)(A) were formerly contained, as

undesignated provisions, in par. (4).]

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 217(a)(2), redesignated

former par. (10) as (13).

Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 219(a), added par. (14).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 310(c)(2), substituted "must

not be guaranteed or subsidized" for "must be in registered form

and not guaranteed or subsidized" in heading, and in par. (1)

struck out subpar. (A) reading "such obligation is not issued in

registered form", and redesignated subpars. (B) and (C) as (A) and

(B), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 310(b)(1), added subsec. (j).

Former subsec. (j), relating to cross references, redesignated (m).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 215(a), added subsec. (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 97-248, Sec. 215(b)(1), added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97-248, Secs. 215(a), (b)(1), 310(b)(1),

redesignated former subsec. (j), relating to cross references, as

(m).

1981 - Subsec. (b)(4)(I). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 811(a), added

subpar. (I).

Subsec. (b)(9), (10). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 811(b), added par. (9)

and redesignated former par. (9) as (10).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 97-34, Sec. 812(a), added subsec. (i)

and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1980 - Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 96-499, Sec. 1103(b), inserted

before last sentence provisions defining "targeted area project"

for purposes of subpar. (A).

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 96-499, Sec. 1103(a), substituted

provisions relating to low or moderate income residential rental

property for provisions relating to residential real property for

family units.

Subsec. (b)(4)(H). Pub. L. 96-223, Sec. 242(a)(1), added subpar.

(H).

Subsec. (b)(6)(J). Pub. L. 96-499, Sec. 1103(c), added subpar.

(J).

Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 96-223, Sec. 242(a)(2), added par.

(8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 96-222, Sec. 107(a)(3)(C), amended the

directory language of Pub. L. 96-500, Sec. 703(q)(1). See 1978

Amendment note below for subsec. (c)(5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96-223, Sec. 241(a), added subsec. (g).

Former subsec. (g) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96-223, Sec. 244(a), added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96-223, Secs. 241(a), 244(a), redesignated

former subsec. (g) as (i).

1978 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 703(j)(1)(A),

substituted "subsection (a)(1) or (2)" for "subsection (a)(1)" in

heading.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95-600, Secs. 332(a), 333(a), in subpar.

(G)(i) inserted reference to electric utility, industrial,

agricultural, or commercial users and added subpar. (G)(ii) and

provision following subpar. (G)(ii) relating to the local

furnishing of electric energy.

Subsec. (b)(6)(D). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 331(a), substituted in

heading and cl. (i) "$10,000,000" for "$5,000,000".

Subsec. (b)(6)(I). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 331(b), added subpar.

(I).

Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 334(a), (b), added par.

(7), redesignated former par. (7) as (8) and, as so redesignated,

substituted "(6), and (7)" for "and (6)".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 703(j)(1)(B), substituted in

heading and text "(a)(1) or (2)" for "(a)(1) or (4)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 703(j)(1)(C), substituted

"subsection (a)(1) or (2)" for "subsection (a)(1) or (2) or (4)".

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 703(j)(1)(D), (q)(1), as

amended by Pub. L. 96-222, Sec. 107(a)(3)(C), substituted "section

438 of the Higher Education Act of 1965" for "section 2 of the

Emergency Insured Student Loan Act of 1969" and "paragraph (2)(A)"

for "subsection (d)(2)(A)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95-600, Sec. 703(j)(1)(E), substituted

"subsection (b)(4)(G)" for "subsection (c)(4)(G)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95-339 redesignated second subsec. (e),

relating to cross references, as (g).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95-339 added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95-339 redesignated second subsec. (e),

relating to cross references, as (g).

1976 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94-455, Secs. 1901(a)(17)(A),

2105(a), added par. (2) relating to qualified scholarship funding

bonds. Former pars. (2) and (3), relating to obligations of the

United States and to the obligations of corporations organized

under an Act of Congress, were struck out.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(17)(B), (C),

redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and in par. (1) of subsec. (b) as

so redesignated substituted "subsection (a)(1) or (2)" for

"subsection (a)(1)". Former subsec. (b), which created an exception

to the rule that gross income did not include interest on

obligations of the United States, by providing that the exception

did not apply to obligations of the United States (with specified

exceptions) unless under the authorizing Acts such interest is

wholly exempt from the taxes imposed by this subtitle, was struck

out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94-455, Secs. 1901(a)(17)(B), (D),

(b)(8)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), 2105(c), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c)

and, in subsec. (c) as so redesignated, substituted "(a)(1) or (4)"

for "(a)(1)" in par. (1) and "(a)(1) or (2) or (4)" for "(a)(1)" in

par. (2)(A), substituted "educational organization described in

section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)" for "educational institution (within the

meaning of section 151(e)(4))" in par. (3)(A), added par. (5),

redesignated former par. (5) as (6), and in par. (6) as so

redesignated substituted "Secretary" for "Secretary or his

delegate". Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b). See Codification

note above.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(17)(B), redesignated

subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94-455, Secs. 1901(a)(17)(B), (E), 2105(b),

2137(d), added subsec. (e) relating to qualified scholarship

funding bonds, redesignated former subsec. (f) relating to cross

references as a second subsec. (e), reduced the number of cross

references in subsec. (e) as so redesignated from twenty-three

(which made reference to various obligations of the United States

and of corporations organized under Acts of Congress) to three,

relating, respectively, to Puerto Rican bonds, Virgin Islands

insular and municipal bonds, and certain obligations issued under

title I of the Housing Act of 1949, and inserted a fourth cross

reference, designated as par. (24) relating to the treatment of

exempt-interest dividends. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1901(a)(17)(B), redesignated

subsec. (f), relating to cross references, as (e).

1975 - Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 94-182 and Pub. L. 94-164 made

identical amendments, adding subsec. (e) and redesignating former

subsec. (e) as (f).

1971 - Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 92-178, Sec. 315(a)(1),

substituted "energy or gas," for "energy, gas, or water or".

Subsec. (c)(4)(F). Pub. L. 92-178, Sec. 315(a)(2), substituted ",

or" for a period.

Subsec. (c)(4)(G). Pub. L. 92-178, Sec. 315(a)(3), added subpar.

(G).

Subsec. (c)(6)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 92-178, Sec. 315(b), substituted

"$1,000,000" for "$250,000".

1969 - Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 91-172 added subsec. (d) and

redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1968 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90-364 added subsec. (c). Former

subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (c)(6)(D) to (H). Pub. L. 90-634 added subpars. (D) to

(H).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90-364 redesignated former subsec. (c) as

(d).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Section 1013(a)(34)(B) of Pub. L. 100-647 provided that:

"Subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to

obligations sold after May 2, 1978, and to which Treasury

regulation section 1.103-13 (1979) was provided to apply."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 1301(a) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to

bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see

sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as an Effective

Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by sections 1864(b)-(e), 1865(a), 1869(a), (b), 1870,

and 1871(b) of Pub. L. 99-514 effective, except as otherwise

provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of

1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see

section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 48

of this title.

Section 1864(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that:

"(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendment made

by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations

issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]

in taxable years ending after such date.

"(B) At the election of the issuer (made at such time and in such

manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall

prescribe), the amendment made by paragraph (1) shall apply to any

obligation issued on or before the date of the enactment of this

Act."

Section 1871(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 provided that: "The

amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply

to obligations issued after March 28, 1985, in taxable years ending

after such date."