US (United States) Code. Title 22. Chapter 64: US (United States) response to terrorism affecting americans abroad

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos) Legislación Federal estadounidense # Foreign Relations and Intercourse

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-CITE-

22 USC CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM

AFFECTING AMERICANS ABROAD 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING

AMERICANS ABROAD

-MISC1-

Sec.

5501. International negotiations concerning aviation

security.

(a) United States policy.

(b) Negotiations for aviation security.

5502. Coordinator for Counterterrorism.

5503. Department of State notification of families of

victims.

(a) Department of State policy.

(b) Department of State guidelines.

5504. Designation of State Department-family liaison and

toll-free family communications system.

(a) Designation of State Department-family liaison.

(b) Toll-free communications system.

5505. Disaster training for State Department personnel.

(a) Additional training.

(b) Training improvements.

5506. Department of State responsibilities and procedures at

international disaster site.

(a) Dispatch of senior State Department official to

site.

(b) Criteria for Department of State staffing at

disaster site.

(c) State Department ombudsman.

(d) Crisis teams.

5507. Recovery and disposition of remains and personal

effects.

5508. Assessment of Lockerbie experience.

(a) Assessment.

(b) Guidelines.

5509. Official Department of State recognition.

5510. United States Government compensation for victims of

terrorism.

(a) Compensation.

(b) Board.

(c) Income tax benefit for victims of Lockerbie

terrorism.

5511. Overseas Security Electronic Bulletin Board.

5512. Antiterrorism measures.

(a) Guidelines for international aviation

travelers.

(b) Development of international standards.

(c) Publication of rewards for terrorism-related

information.

(d) Sense of Congress.

5513. Proposal for consideration by International Civil

Aviation Organization.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5501 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5501. International negotiations concerning aviation security

-STATUTE-

(a) United States policy

It is the policy of the United States -

(1) to seek bilateral agreements to achieve United States

aviation security objectives with foreign governments;

(2) to continue to press vigorously for security improvements

through the Foreign Airport Security Act (!1) and the foreign

airport assessment program; and

(3) to continue to work through the International Civil

Aviation Organization to improve aviation security

internationally.

(b) Negotiations for aviation security

(1) The Department of State, in consultation with the Department

of Transportation, shall be responsible for negotiating requisite

aviation security agreements with foreign governments concerning

the implementation of United States rules and regulations which

affect the foreign operations of United States air carriers,

foreign air carriers, and foreign international airports. The

Secretary of State is directed to enter, expeditiously, into

negotiations for bilateral and multilateral agreements -

(A) for enhanced aviation security objectives;

(B) to implement the Foreign Airport Security Act (!1) and the

foreign airport assessment program to the fullest extent

practicable; and

(C) to achieve improved availability of passenger manifest

information.

(2) A principal objective of bilateral and multilateral

negotiations with foreign governments and the International Civil

Aviation Organization shall be improved availability of passenger

manifest information.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 201, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3081.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

No act with the title Foreign Airport Security Act, referred to

in subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(1)(B), has been enacted. The Foreign

Airport Security Act probably means part B (Secs. 551-559) of title

V of Pub. L. 99-83, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 222. For complete

classification of part B to the Code, see Tables.

-MISC1-

CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS

Section 2 of Pub. L. 101-604 provided that: "Congress finds that

-

"(1) the safety and security of passengers of United States air

carriers against terrorist threats should be given the highest

priority by the United States Government;

"(2) the report of the President's Commission on Aviation

Security and Terrorism, dated May 15, 1990, found that current

aviation security systems are inadequate to provide such

protection;

"(3) the United States Government should immediately take steps

to ensure fuller compliance with existing laws and regulations

relating to aviation security;

"(4) the United States Government should work through the

International Civil Aviation Organization and directly with

foreign governments to enhance aviation security of foreign

carriers and at foreign airports;

"(5) the United States Government should ensure that enhanced

security measures are fully implemented by both United States and

foreign air carriers;

"(6) all nations belonging to the Summit Seven should promptly

amend the Bonn Declaration to extend sanctions for all terrorist

acts, including attacks against airports and air carrier ticket

offices;

"(7) the United States Government, in bilateral negotiations

with foreign governments, should emphasize upgrading

international aviation security objectives;

"(8) the United States Government should have in place a

mechanism by which the Government notifies the public, on a

case-by-case basis and through the application of a uniform

national standard, of certain credible threats to civil aviation

security;

"(9) the United States Government has a special obligation to

United States victims of acts of terrorism directed against this

Nation and should provide prompt assistance to the families of

such victims and assure that fair and prompt compensation is

provided to such victims and their families;

"(10) the United States should work with other nations to treat

as outlaws state sponsors of terrorism, isolating such sponsors

politically, economically, and militarily;

"(11) the United States must develop a clear understanding that

state-sponsored terrorism threatens United States values and

interests, and that active measures are needed to counter more

effectively the terrorist threat; and

"(12) the United States must have the national will to take

every feasible action to prevent, counter, and respond to

terrorist activities."

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5502 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5502. Coordinator for Counterterrorism

-STATUTE-

The Coordinator for Counterterrorism shall be responsible for the

coordination of international aviation security for the Department

of State.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 202, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3082.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5503 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5503. Department of State notification of families of victims

-STATUTE-

(a) Department of State policy

It is the policy of the Department of State pursuant to section

2715 of this title to directly and promptly notify the families of

victims of aviation disasters abroad concerning citizens of the

United States directly affected by such a disaster, including

timely written notice. The Secretary of State shall ensure that

such notification by the Department of State is carried out

notwithstanding notification by any other person.

(b) Department of State guidelines

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall issue such regulations, guidelines, and circulars as

are necessary to ensure that the policy under subsection (a) of

this section is fully implemented.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 204, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3083.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5504 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5504. Designation of State Department-family liaison and

toll-free family communications system

-STATUTE-

(a) Designation of State Department-family liaison

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall issue such rules and guidelines as are necessary to

provide that in the event of an aviation disaster directly

involving United States citizens abroad, if possible, the

Department of State will assign a specific individual, and an

alternate, as the Department of State liaison for the family of

each such citizen.

(b) Toll-free communications system

In the establishment of the Department of State toll-free

communications system to facilitate inquiries concerning the affect

of any disaster abroad on United States citizens residing or

traveling abroad, the Secretary of State shall ensure that a

toll-free telephone number is reserved for the exclusive use of the

families of citizens who have been determined to be directly

involved in any such disaster.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 205, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3083.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5505 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5505. Disaster training for State Department personnel

-STATUTE-

(a) Additional training

The Secretary of State shall institute a supplemental program of

training in disaster management for all consular officers.

(b) Training improvements

(1) In expanding the training program under subsection (a) of

this section, the Secretary of State shall consult with death and

bereavement counselors concerning the particular demands posed by

aviation tragedies and terrorist activities.

(2) In providing such additional training under subsection (a) of

this section the Secretary of State shall consider supplementing

the current training program through -

(A) providing specialized training to create a team of

"disaster specialists" to deploy immediately in a crisis; or

(B) securing outside experts to be brought in during the

initial phases to assist consular personnel.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 206, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3084.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5506 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5506. Department of State responsibilities and procedures at

international disaster site

-STATUTE-

(a) Dispatch of senior State Department official to site

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall issue such rules and guidelines as are necessary to

provide that in the event of an international disaster,

particularly an aviation tragedy, directly involving significant

numbers of United States citizens abroad not less than one senior

officer from the Bureau of Consular Affairs of the Department of

State shall be dispatched to the site of such disaster.

(b) Criteria for Department of State staffing at disaster site

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall promulgate criteria for Department of State staffing of

disaster sites abroad. Such criteria shall define responsibility

for staffing decisions and shall consider the deployment of crisis

teams under subsection (d) of this section. The Secretary of State

shall promptly issue such rules and guidelines as are necessary to

implement criteria developed pursuant to this subsection.

(c) State Department ombudsman

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall issue such rules and guidelines as are necessary to

provide that in the event of an international aviation disaster

involving significant numbers of United States citizens abroad not

less than one officer or employee of the Department of State shall

be dispatched to the disaster site to provide on-site assistance to

families who may visit the site and to act as an ombudsman in

matters involving the foreign local government authorities and

social service agencies.

(d) Crisis teams

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall promulgate procedures for the deployment of a "crisis

team", which may include public affairs, forensic, and bereavement

experts, to the site of any international disaster involving United

States citizens abroad to augment in-country Embassy and consulate

staff. The Secretary of State shall promptly issue such rules and

guidelines as are necessary to implement procedures developed

pursuant to this subsection.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 207, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3084.)

-TRANS-

AUTHORITY OF SECRETARY OF STATE

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and

exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of

Department of State and references to such officials or offices

deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as

appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of

Pub. L. 103-236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5507 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5507. Recovery and disposition of remains and personal effects

-STATUTE-

It is the policy of the Department of State (pursuant to section

2715 of this title) to provide liaison with foreign governments and

persons and with United States air carriers concerning arrangements

for the preparation and transport to the United States of the

remains of citizens who die abroad, as well as the disposition of

personal effects. The Secretary of State shall ensure that

regulations and guidelines of the Department of State reflect such

policy and that such assistance is rendered to the families of

United States citizens who are killed in terrorist incidents and

disasters abroad.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 208, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3085.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5508 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5508. Assessment of Lockerbie experience

-STATUTE-

(a) Assessment

The Secretary of State shall compile an assessment of the

Department of State response to the Pan American Airways Flight 103

aviation disaster over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21, 1988.

(b) Guidelines

The Secretary of State shall establish, based on the assessment

compiled under subsection (a) of this section and other relevant

factors, guidelines for future Department of State responses to

comparable disasters and shall distribute such guidelines to all

United States diplomatic and consular posts abroad.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 209, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3085.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5509 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5509. Official Department of State recognition

-STATUTE-

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall promulgate guidelines for appropriate ceremonies or

other official expressions of respect and support for the families

of United States citizens who are killed through acts of terrorism

abroad.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 210, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3085.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5510 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5510. United States Government compensation for victims of

terrorism

-STATUTE-

(a) Compensation

The President shall submit to the Congress, not later than one

year after November 16, 1990, recommendations on whether or not

legislation should be enacted to authorize the United States to

provide monetary and tax relief as compensation to United States

citizens who are victims of terrorism.

(b) Board

The President may establish a board to develop criteria for

compensation and to recommend changes to existing laws to establish

a single comprehensive approach to victim compensation for

terrorist acts.

(c) Income tax benefit for victims of Lockerbie terrorism

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), in the case of any individual whose

death was a direct result of the Pan American Airways Flight 103

terrorist disaster over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21,

1988, any tax imposed by subtitle A of title 26 shall not apply -

(A) with respect to the taxable year which includes December

21, 1988, and

(B) with respect to the prior taxable year.

(2) Limitation

In no case may the tax benefit pursuant to paragraph (1) for

any taxable year, for any individual, exceed an amount equal to

28 percent of the annual rate of basic pay at Level V of the

Executive Schedule of the United States as of December 21, 1988.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 211, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3085.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Level V of the Executive Schedule, referred to in subsec. (c)(2),

is set out in section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and

Employees.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5511 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5511. Overseas Security Electronic Bulletin Board

-STATUTE-

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State shall issue such rules and regulations as may be necessary to

establish, under the Bureau of Consular Affairs, an electronic

bulletin board accessible to the general public. Such bulletin

board shall contain all information, updated daily, which is

available on the Overseas Security Electronic Bulletin Board of the

Bureau of Diplomatic Security.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 212, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3086.)

-TRANS-

AUTHORITY OF SECRETARY OF STATE

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and

exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of

Department of State and references to such officials or offices

deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as

appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of

Pub. L. 103-236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5512 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5512. Antiterrorism measures

-STATUTE-

(a) Guidelines for international aviation travelers

For the purpose of notifying the public, the Secretary of State,

in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall develop

and publish guidelines for thwarting efforts by international

terrorists to enlist the unwitting assistance of international

aviation travelers in terrorist activities. Notices concerning such

guidelines shall be posted and prominently displayed domestically

and abroad in international airports.

(b) Development of international standards

The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Transportation in all

appropriate fora, particularly talks and meetings related to

international civil aviation, shall enter into negotiations with

other nations for the establishment of international standards

regarding guidelines for thwarting efforts by international

terrorists to enlist the unwitting assistance of international

aviation travelers in terrorist activities.

(c) Publication of rewards for terrorism-related information

For the purpose of notifying the public, the Secretary of State

shall publish the availability of United States Government rewards

for information on international terrorist-related activities,

including rewards available under section 2708(a) (!1) of this

title and chapter 204 of title 18. To the extent appropriate and

feasible, notices making such publication shall be posted and

prominently displayed domestically and abroad in international

airports.

(d) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Transportation

should take appropriate measures to utilize and train properly the

officers and employees of other United States Government agencies

who have functions at international airports in the United States

and abroad in the detection of explosives and firearms which could

be a threat to international civil aviation.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 214, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3087.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 2708 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was

amended generally by Pub. L. 105-323, title I, Sec. 101, Oct. 30,

1998, 112 Stat. 3029, and, as so amended, provisions authorizing

awards, formerly contained in section 2708(a), are now contained in

section 2708(b).

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 5513 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 64 - UNITED STATES RESPONSE TO TERRORISM AFFECTING AMERICANS

ABROAD

-HEAD-

Sec. 5513. Proposal for consideration by International Civil

Aviation Organization

-STATUTE-

Not later than 60 days after November 16, 1990, the Secretary of

State, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall

propose to the International Civil Aviation Organization the

establishment of a comprehensive aviation security program which

shall include (1) training for airport security personnel, (2)

grants for security equipment acquisition for certain nations, and

(3) expansion of the appropriate utilization of canine teams in the

detection of explosive devices in all airport areas, including use

in passenger screening areas and nonpublic baggage assembly and

processing areas.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-604, title II, Sec. 215, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3087.)

-End-