US (United States) Code. Title 22. Chapter 33: Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Program

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos) Legislación Federal estadounidense # Foreign Relations and Intercourse

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-CITE-

22 USC CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL

EXCHANGE PROGRAM 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-MISC1-

Sec.

2451. Congressional statement of purpose.

2451a. Repealed.

2452. Authorization of activities.

(a) Grants or contracts for educational or cultural

exchanges; participation in international

fairs and expositions abroad.

(b) Other exchanges.

2452a. Exchange program with countries in transition from

totalitarianism to democracy.

(a) Authorization of activities; grants or

contracts for exchanges with foreign

countries.

(b) Transfer of funds.

2452b. International expositions.

(a) Limitation.

(b) Exceptions.

(c) Notification.

(d) Reports.

2453. Agreements with foreign governments and international

organizations.

(a) Authorization.

(b) Creation or continuation of binational or

multinational educational and cultural

foundations and commissions.

(c) United States participation in programs.

2454. Administration.

(a) Delegation of powers; submission of proposal

for delegation to Congress.

(b) Employment of personnel.

(c) Repealed.

(d) Extension of benefits

(e) Grants; use of funds, counseling service;

publicity and promotion abroad.

(f) Repealed.

(g) Currency exchange for foreign students and

teachers coming temporarily to the United

States.

2455. Appropriations.

(a) Availability.

(b) Acquisition of foreign currencies.

(c) Transfer of funds.

(d) Reserve and use of certain funds.

(e) Reservation and use of sums due or paid by the

Republic of Finland.

(f) Contribution of funds, property, and services

by foreign governments, international

organizations, and private individuals, firms,

associations, and agencies.

(g) Currency exchanges.

2456. J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board.

(a) Appointment; members; considerations for

selection.

(b), (c) Omitted or Repealed.

(d) Creation of interagency and other advisory

committees; conferences of persons.

(e) Availability of appropriations for expenses;

transportation expenses and per diem;

compensation of members of Board and

Committees.

(f) Secretarial and staff assistance.

2457. Reports by Board.

2458. Authority of President.

(a) Performance of certain functions without regard

to other laws; appropriation credits upon

reimbursement for services in connection with

exchange activities.

(b) Periodic reports of activities and

expenditures.

(c) Expenditures in selection, purchase, rental,

construction, or other acquisition of exhibits

and materials and equipment therefor.

(d) Utilization of provisions of other laws.

2458a. Federal employee participation in cultural exchange

programs.

(a) Grants and other foreign government assistance;

family or household expense assistance

prohibited; "Federal employee" defined.

(b) Foreign grants and other assistance not gifts

for purposes of section 7342 of title 5.

(c) Regulations.

2459. Immunity from seizure under judicial process of

cultural objects imported for temporary exhibition or

display.

(a) Agreements; Presidential determination;

publication in Federal Register.

(b) Intervention of United States attorney in

pending judicial proceedings.

(c) Enforcement of agreements and obligations of

carriers under transportation contracts.

2460. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.

(a) Establishment; responsibilities.

(b) Revocation or diminution of grants.

(c) Program requirements.

(d) Administration of programs.

(e) Office of Citizen Exchanges.

(f) Coordination of exchange program; reports.

(g) Working Group on United States

Government-Sponsored International Exchanges

and Training.

2461. Exchanges between United States and independent states

of the former Soviet Union.

(a) Financing of exchanges with repayments on

Lend-Lease debts.

(b) Limitation on availability of funds.

2462. Establishment of grant program for foreign study by

American college students of limited financial means.

(a) Establishment.

(b) Eligibility.

(c) Application and selection.

2463. Allocation of funds transferred to the Bureau of

Educational and Cultural Affairs.

2464. Ethical issues in international health research.

(a) In general.

(b) Coordination with other programs.

(c) Ethical issues in human subject research.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in sections 1461-1a, 1475d, 1475e,

1475h, 2075, 2275, 2314, 2398, 2452a, 2462 of this title; title 26

section 1441; title 40 section 701.

-End-

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22 USC Sec. 2451 01/06/03

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TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2451. Congressional statement of purpose

-STATUTE-

The purpose of this chapter is to enable the Government of the

United States to increase mutual understanding between the people

of the United States and the people of other countries by means of

educational and cultural exchange; to strengthen the ties which

unite us with other nations by demonstrating the educational and

cultural interests, developments, and achievements of the people of

the United States and other nations, and the contributions being

made toward a peaceful and more fruitful life for people throughout

the world; to promote international cooperation for educational and

cultural advancement; and thus to assist in the development of

friendly, sympathetic, and peaceful relations between the United

States and the other countries of the world.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 101, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this

Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, as

amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act

of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

Short Title note set out below and Tables.

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 87-256 provided: "That this Act [enacting

this chapter, amending sections 1101, 1182 and 1258 of Title 8,

Aliens and Nationality, sections 117, 871, 872, 1441, 3121, 3306,

3401 and 3402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and section 410

of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections

1431(2), 1434, 1439, 1440, 1446, 1448, 1466 to 1468 and 1991 to

2001 of this title, sections 222 to 224 of Title 20, Education, and

section 1641(b)(2) of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense,

and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and

under sections 117, 1441, 3121 and 3401 of Title 26] may be cited

as the 'Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961'."

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

Functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of

State, United States Information Agency or Director thereof under

this chapter transferred to Director of International Communication

Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461,

91 Stat. 1637, set out under section 1461 of this title, effective

on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as specified by President,

except (A) for such functions as are vested by sections 2452(b)(6),

(10), 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455(a), (b), (c), 2456(a)

and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as are vested by

sections 2454(b), 2455(d)(2), (f), and 2456(d), (f) of this title,

to extent that such functions were assigned to Secretary of Health,

Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education] immediately

prior to effective date of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, and (C) for

such functions as are vested by section 2456(b), (c) of this title

to extent that any such function therein is vested in President or

Secretary of State. International Communication Agency, and

Director thereof, redesignated United States Information Agency,

and Director thereof, by section 303 of Pub. L. 97-241, title III,

Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461

of this title. United States Information Agency (other than

Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting

Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State,

see sections 6531 and 6532 of this title. References to United

States Information Agency or International Communication Agency

deemed to refer to Department of State, see section 6551 of this

title.

-MISC2-

ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

Pub. L. 107-228, div. A, title II, Sec. 224, Sept. 30, 2002, 116

Stat. 1368, provided that:

"(a) Establishment. - There is established an Advisory Committee

on Cultural Diplomacy (in this section referred to as the 'Advisory

Committee'), which shall be composed of nine members, as follows:

"(1) The Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy, who

shall serve as Chair.

"(2) The Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and

Cultural Affairs.

"(3) Seven members appointed pursuant to subsection (c).

"(b) Duties. - The Advisory Committee shall advise the Secretary

on programs and policies to advance the use of cultural diplomacy

in United States foreign policy. The Advisory Committee shall, in

particular, provide advice to the Secretary on -

"(1) increasing the presentation abroad of the finest of the

creative, visual, and performing arts of the United States; and

"(2) strategies for increasing public-private partnerships to

sponsor cultural exchange programs that promote the national

interests of the United States.

"(c) Appointments. - The members of the Advisory Committee shall

be appointed by the Secretary, not more than four of whom shall be

from the same political party, from among distinguished Americans

with a demonstrated record of achievement in the creative, visual,

and performing arts, or international affairs. No officer or

employee of the United States shall be appointed to the Advisory

Committee.

"(d) Vacancies. - A vacancy in the membership of the Advisory

Committee shall be filled in the same manner as provided under this

subsection to make the original appointment.

"(e) Meetings. - A majority of the members of the Advisory

Committee shall constitute a quorum. The Advisory Committee shall

meet at least twice each year or as frequently as may be necessary

to carry out its duties.

"(f) Administrative Support. - The Secretary is authorized to

provide the Advisory Committee with necessary administrative

support from among the staff of the Bureau of Educational and

Cultural Affairs of the Department.

"(g) Compensation. - Members of the Advisory Committee shall be

allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence,

at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of

chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their

homes or regular places of business in the performance of services

of the Advisory Committee.

"(h) Exemption From Federal Advisory Committee Act. - The Federal

Advisory Committee Act [5 App. U.S.C.] shall not apply to the

Advisory Committee to the extent that the provisions of this

section are inconsistent with that Act.

"(i) Authorization of Appropriations. - There are authorized to

be appropriated to the Department such sums as may be necessary to

carry out this section.

"(j) Termination. - The Advisory Committee shall terminate

September 30, 2005."

[For definitions of "Secretary" and "Department" as used in

section 224 of Pub. L. 107-228, set out above, see section 3 of

Pub. L. 107-228, set out as a note under section 2651 of this

title.]

CONTINUATION OF CERTAIN EXECUTIVE ORDERS, AGREEMENTS,

DETERMINATIONS, REGULATIONS, CONTRACTS, APPOINTMENTS, AND OTHER

ACTIONS

Section 111(b) of Pub. L. 87-256 provided that: "All Executive

orders, agreements, determinations, regulations, contracts,

appointments, and other actions issued, concluded, or taken under

authority of any provisions of law repealed by subsection (a) of

this section [repealing sections 1431(2), 1434, 1439, 1440, 1446,

1448, 1466 to 1468, and 1991 to 2001 of this title, sections 222 to

224 of Title 20, Education, and section 1641(b)(2) of Title 50,

Appendix, War and National Defense] shall continue in full force

and effect, and shall be applicable to the appropriate provisions

of this Act [this chapter] until modified or superseded by

appropriate authority."

REFERENCES IN OTHER LAWS TO REPEALED PROVISIONS

Section 111(c) of Pub. L. 87-256 provided that: "Any reference in

any other Act to the provisions of law listed in subsection (a)

[repealing sections 1431(2), 1434, 1439, 1440, 1446, 1448, 1466 to

1468, and 1991 to 2001 of this title, sections 222 to 224 of Title

20, Education, and section 1641(b)(2) of Title 50, Appendix, War

and National Defense] shall hereafter be considered to be

references to the appropriate provisions of this Act [this

chapter]."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2458a of this title.

-End-

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22 USC Sec. 2451a 01/06/03

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TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2451a. Repealed. Pub. L. 91-269, Sec. 7, May 27, 1970, 84

Stat. 272

-MISC1-

Section, Pub. L. 89-685, Sec. 8, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 974,

required registration of international fair, exposition,

celebration or other international exhibition with an international

organization for participation by the United States. See section

2801 et seq. of this title.

-End-

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22 USC Sec. 2452 01/06/03

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TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2452. Authorization of activities

-STATUTE-

(a) Grants or contracts for educational or cultural exchanges;

participation in international fairs and expositions abroad

The Director of the United States Information Agency is

authorized, when he considers that it would strengthen

international cooperative relations, to provide, by grant,

contract, or otherwise, for -

(1) educational exchanges, (i) by financing studies, research,

instruction, and other educational activities -

(A) of or for American citizens and nationals in foreign

countries, and

(B) of or for citizens and nationals of foreign countries in

American schools and institutions of learning located in or

outside the United States;

and (ii) by financing visits and interchanges between the United

States and other countries of students, trainees, teachers,

instructors, and professors;

(2) cultural exchanges, by financing -

(i) visits and interchanges between the United States and

other countries of leaders, experts in fields of specialized

knowledge or skill, and other influential or distinguished

persons;

(ii) tours in countries abroad by creative and performing

artists and athletes from the United States, individually and

in groups, representing any field of the arts, sports, or any

other form of cultural attainment;

(iii) United States representation in international artistic,

dramatic, musical, sports, and other cultural festivals,

competitions, meetings, and like exhibitions and assemblies;

(iv) participation by groups and individuals from other

countries in nonprofit activities in the United States similar

to those described in subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of this

paragraph, when the Director of the United States Information

Agency determines that such participation is in the national

interest.(!1)

(3) United States participation in international fairs and

expositions abroad, including trade and industrial fairs and

other public or private demonstrations of United States economic

accomplishments and cultural attainments.

(b) Other exchanges

In furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the President is

further authorized to provide for -

(1) interchanges between the United States and other countries

of handicrafts, scientific, technical, and scholarly books, books

of literature, periodicals, and Government publications, and the

reproduction and translation of such writings, and the

preparation, distribution, and interchange of other educational

and research materials, including laboratory and technical

equipment for education and research;

(2) establishing and operating in the United States and abroad

centers for cultural and technical interchanges to promote better

relations and understanding between the United States and other

nations through cooperative study, training, and research;

(3) assistance in the establishment, expansion, maintenance,

and operation of schools and institutions of learning abroad,

founded, operated, or sponsored by citizens or nonprofit

institutions of the United States, including such schools and

institutions serving as demonstration centers for methods and

practices employed in the United States;

(4) fostering and supporting American studies in foreign

countries through professorships, lectureships, institutes,

seminars, and courses in such subjects as American history,

government, economics, language and literature, and other

subjects related to American civilization and culture, including

financing the attendance at such studies by persons from other

countries;

(5) promoting and supporting medical, scientific, cultural, and

educational research and development;

(6) promoting modern foreign language training and area studies

in United States schools, colleges, and universities by

supporting visits and study in foreign countries by teachers and

prospective teachers in such schools, colleges, and universities

for the purpose of improving their skill in languages and their

knowledge of the culture of the people of those countries, and by

financing visits by teachers from those countries to the United

States for the purpose of participating in foreign language

training and area studies in United States schools, colleges, and

universities;

(7) United States representation at international

nongovernmental educational, scientific, and technical meetings;

(8) participation by groups and individuals from other

countries in educational, scientific, and technical meetings held

under American auspices in or outside the United States;

(9) encouraging independent research into the problems of

educational and cultural exchange;

(10) promoting studies, research, instruction, and other

educational activities of citizens and nationals of foreign

countries in American schools, colleges, and universities located

in the United States by making available to citizens and

nationals of less developed friendly foreign countries for

exchange for currencies of their respective countries (other than

excess foreign currencies), at United States embassies, United

States dollars in such amounts as may be necessary to enable such

foreign citizens or nationals who are coming temporarily to the

United States as students, trainees, teachers, instructors, or

professors to meet expenses of the kind described in section

2454(e)(1) of this title;

(11) interchanges and visits between the United States and

other countries of scientists, scholars, leaders, and other

experts in the fields of environmental science and environmental

management; and

(12) promoting respect for and guarantees of religious freedom

abroad by interchanges and visits between the United States and

other nations of religious leaders, scholars, and religious and

legal experts in the field of religious freedom.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 102, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527; Pub. L.

87-565, pt. IV, Sec. 403, Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 263; Pub. L.

89-698, title II, Sec. 203(a), Oct. 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 1071; 1977

Reorg. Plan No. 2, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637; Pub.

L. 97-241, title III, Sec. 303(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291;

Pub. L. 98-164, title VII, Sec. 703(a), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat.

1045; Pub. L. 105-292, title V, Sec. 503, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat.

2811.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original

"this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527,

as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange

Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and

Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 105-292 added par. (12).

1983 - Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 98-164 added par. (11).

1966 - Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 89-698 added par. (10).

1962 - Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 87-565 inserted "abroad" after

"expositions".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT

Section 403 of Pub. L. 87-565 provided in part that: "The

amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall not be

applicable with respect to any fair or exposition within the United

States for which an appropriation has been provided."

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board

of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and

functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and

6532 of this title. "Director of the United States Information

Agency" substituted for "Director of the International

Communication Agency" in subsec. (a), opening par. and par.

(2)(iv), pursuant to section 303(b) of Pub. L. 97-241, title III,

Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461

of this title. Previously, "Director of the International

Communication Agency" substituted for "President" in subsec. (a),

opening par. and par. (2)(iv), pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of

1977, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out under

section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1, 1978, at

such time as specified by President, which transferred functions

vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of State,

United States Information Agency, or Director thereof, under this

chapter, to Director of International Communication Agency, except

(A) for such functions as are vested by subsec. (b)(6), (10) of

this section, and sections 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455(a),

(b), (c), 2456(a) and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as

are vested by sections 2454(b), 2455(d)(2), (f), and 2456(d), (f)

of this title, to the extent that such functions were assigned to

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of

Education] immediately prior to effective date of Reorg. Plan No. 2

of 1977, and (C) for such functions as are vested by section

2456(b), (c) of this title to the extent that any such function

therein is vested in President or Secretary of State.

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary

of State, Director of United States Information Agency, Secretary

of Commerce, and Secretary of Education, see Ex. Ord. No. 11034,

June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, as amended, set out as a note under

section 2454 of this title.

-MISC2-

PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS

Authorization of performance of functions under subsec. (a)(2)

and (3) of this section by departments or other executive agencies,

see Ex. Ord. No. 11380, Sec. 2, Nov. 8, 1967, 32 F.R. 15627, set

out as a note under section 2454 of this title.

VIETNAM EDUCATION FOUNDATION

Pub. L. 106-554, Sec. 1(a)(4) [div. B, title II], Dec. 21, 2000,

114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-254, as amended by Pub. L. 107-228, div. A,

title II, Sec. 227, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1369, provided that:

"SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'Vietnam Education Foundation Act

of 2000'.

"SEC. 202. PURPOSES.

"The purposes of this title are the following:

"(1) To establish an international fellowship program under

which -

"(A) Vietnamese nationals can undertake graduate and

post-graduate level studies in the sciences (natural, physical,

and environmental), mathematics, medicine, and technology

(including information technology) in the United States; and

"(B) United States citizens can teach in the fields specified

in subparagraph (A) in academic institutions in Vietnam.

"(2) To further the process of reconciliation between the

United States and Vietnam and the building of a bilateral

relationship serving the interests of both countries.

"SEC. 203. DEFINITIONS.

"In this title:

"(1) Board. - The term 'Board' means the Board of Directors of

the Foundation.

"(2) Foundation. - The term 'Foundation' means the Vietnam

Education Foundation established in section 204.

"(3) Institution of higher education. - The term 'institution

of higher education' has the meaning given the term in section

101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).

"(4) United states-vietnam debt agreement. - The term 'United

States-Vietnam debt agreement' means the Agreement Between the

Government of the United States of America and the Government of

the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Regarding the Consolidation and

Rescheduling of Certain Debts Owed to, Guaranteed by, or Insured

by the United States Government and the Agency for International

Development, dated April 7, 1997.

"SEC. 204. ESTABLISHMENT.

"There is established the Vietnam Education Foundation as an

independent establishment of the executive branch under section 104

of title 5, United States Code.

"SEC. 205. BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

"(a) In General. - The Foundation shall be subject to the

supervision and direction of the Board of Directors, which shall

consist of 13 members, as follows:

"(1) Two members of the House of Representatives appointed by

the Speaker of the House of Representatives, one of whom shall be

appointed upon the recommendation of the Majority Leader and one

of whom shall be appointed upon the recommendation of the

Minority Leader, and who shall serve as ex officio, nonvoting

members.

"(2) Two members of the Senate, appointed by the President pro

tempore, one of whom shall be appointed upon the recommendation

of the Majority Leader and one of whom shall be appointed upon

the recommendation of the Minority Leader, and who shall serve as

ex officio, nonvoting members.

"(3) Secretary of State.

"(4) Secretary of Education.

"(5) Secretary of Treasury.

"(6) Six members to be appointed by the President from among

individuals in the nongovernmental sector who have academic

excellence or experience in the fields of concentration specified

in section 202(1)(A) or a general knowledge of Vietnam, not less

than three of whom shall be drawn from academic life.

"(b) Rotation of Membership. - (1) The term of office of each

member appointed under subsection (a)(6) shall be 3 years, except

that of the members initially appointed under that subsection, two

shall serve for terms of 1 year, two shall serve for terms of 2

years, and two shall serve for terms of 3 years.

"(2) A member of Congress appointed under subsection (a)(1) or

(2) shall not serve as a member of the Board for more than a total

of 6 years.

"(3)(A) Any member appointed to fill a vacancy prior to the

expiration of the term for which his or her predecessor was

appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of such term.

"(B) Upon the expiration of his or her term of office, any member

may continue to serve until a successor is appointed.

"(c) Chair. - The voting members of the Board shall elect one of

the members appointed under subsection (a)(6) to serve as Chair.

"(d) Meetings. - The Board shall meet upon the call of the Chair

but not less frequently than twice each year. A majority of the

voting members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

"(e) Duties. - The Board shall -

"(1) provide overall supervision and direction of the

Foundation;

"(2) establish criteria for the eligibility of applicants,

including criteria established by section 206(b), and for the

selection of fellowship recipients; and

"(3) select the fellowship recipients.

"(f) Compensation. -

"(1) In general. - Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and

(3), each member of the Board shall serve without compensation.

"(2) Travel expenses. - The members of the Board shall be

allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of

subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under

subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while

away from their homes or regular places of business in the

performance of service for the Board.

"(3) Compensation of presidential appointees. - The members of

the Board appointed under subsection (a)(6) shall be paid at the

daily equivalent of the rate of basic pay payable for positions

at level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title

5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time)

during which the member is engaged in the actual performance of

duties as a Board member.

"(g) Treatment of Presidential Appointees as Special Government

Employees. - The members of the Board appointed under subsection

(a)(6) shall be special Government employees, as defined in section

202(a) of title 18, United States Code.

"(h) Travel Regulations. - Members of the Board shall be subject

to the same travel regulations as apply to officers and employees

of the Department of State.

"SEC. 206. FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.

"(a) Award of Fellowships. -

"(1) In general. - To carry out the purposes of this title, the

Foundation shall award fellowships to -

"(A) Vietnamese nationals to study at institutions of higher

education in the United States at graduate and post-graduate

levels in the following fields: physical sciences, natural

sciences, mathematics, environmental sciences, medicine,

technology, and computer sciences; and

"(B) United States citizens to teach in Vietnam in

appropriate Vietnamese institutions in the fields of study

described in subparagraph (A).

"(2) Scientific and technical vocabulary in english. -

Fellowships awarded to Vietnamese nationals under paragraph (1)

may include funding to improve English proficiency in a

fellowship recipient's field of study.

"(b) Criteria for Selection. - Fellowships under this title shall

be awarded to persons who meet the minimum criteria established by

the Foundation, including the following:

"(1) Vietnamese nationals. - Fellowship candidates from Vietnam

shall have basic English proficiency and must have the ability to

meet the criteria for admission into graduate or post-graduate

programs in United States institutions of higher learning.

"(2) United states citizen teachers. - American candidates for

teaching fellowships shall be highly competent in their fields

and be experienced and proficient teachers.

"(c) Implementation. - The Foundation may provide, directly or by

contract, for the conduct of nationwide competition for the purpose

of selecting recipients of fellowships awarded under this section.

"(d) Authority To Award Fellowships on a Cost-Sharing Basis. -

The Foundation may require, as a condition of the availability of

funds for the award of a fellowship under this title, that an

institution of higher education make available funds for such

fellowship on a cost-sharing basis.

"(e) Fellowship Conditions. - A person awarded a fellowship under

this title may receive payments authorized under this title only

during such periods as the Foundation finds that the person is

maintaining satisfactory progress and devoting full time to study

or teaching, as appropriate, and is not engaging in gainful

employment other than employment approved by the Foundation

pursuant to regulations of the Board and applicable law.

"(f) Funding. -

"(1) Fiscal year 2001. -

"(A) Authorization of appropriations. - There are authorized

to be appropriated to the Foundation $5,000,000 for fiscal year

2001 to carry out the activities of the Foundation.

"(B) Availability of funds. - Amounts appropriated pursuant

to subparagraph (A) are authorized to remain available until

expended.

"(2) Fiscal year 2002 and subsequent fiscal years. - Effective

October 1, 2001, the Foundation shall utilize funds transferred

to the Foundation under section 207.

"SEC. 207. VIETNAM DEBT REPAYMENT FUND.

"(a) Establishment. - Notwithstanding any other provision of law,

there is established in the Treasury a separate account which shall

be known as the Vietnam Debt Repayment Fund (in this subsection

referred to as the 'Fund').

"(b) Deposits. - There shall be deposited as offsetting receipts

into the Fund all payments (including interest payments) made by

the Socialist Republic of Vietnam under the United States-Vietnam

debt agreement.

"(c) Availability of the Funds. -

"(1) Fiscal year limitation. - Beginning with fiscal year 2002,

and each subsequent fiscal year through fiscal year 2018,

$5,000,000 of the amounts deposited into the Fund (or accrued

interest) each fiscal year shall be available to the Foundation,

without fiscal year limitation, under paragraph (2).

"(2) Disbursement of funds. - The Secretary of the Treasury, at

least on a quarterly basis, shall transfer to the Foundation

amounts allotted to the Foundation under paragraph (1) for the

purpose of carrying out its activities.

"(3) Transfer of excess funds to miscellaneous receipts. -

Beginning with fiscal year 2002, and each subsequent fiscal year

through fiscal year 2018, the Secretary of the Treasury shall

withdraw from the Fund and deposit in the Treasury of the United

States as miscellaneous receipts all moneys in the Fund in excess

of amounts made available to the Foundation under paragraph (1).

"(d) Annual Report. - The Secretary of the Treasury shall prepare

and submit annually to Congress statements of financial condition

of the Fund, including the beginning balance, receipts, refunds to

appropriations, transfers to the general fund, and the ending

balance.

"SEC. 208. FOUNDATION PERSONNEL MATTERS.

"(a) Appointment by Board. - There shall be an Executive Director

of the Foundation who shall be appointed by the Board without

regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, or any

regulation thereunder, governing appointment in the competitive

service. The Executive Director shall be the Chief Executive

Officer of the Foundation and shall carry out the functions of the

Foundation subject to the supervision and direction of the Board.

The Executive Director shall carry out such other functions

consistent with the provisions of this title as the Board shall

prescribe. The decision to employ or terminate an Executive

Director shall be made by an affirmative vote of at least six of

the nine voting members of the Board.

"(b) Professional Staff. - The Executive Director shall hire

Foundation staff on the basis of professional and nonpartisan

qualifications.

"(c) Experts and Consultants. - The Executive Director may

procure temporary and intermittent services of experts and

consultants as are necessary to the extent authorized by section

3109 of title 5, United States Code[,] to carry out the purposes of

the Foundation.

"(d) Compensation. - The Board may fix the compensation of the

Executive Director and other personnel without regard to the

provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title

5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and

General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay for the

Executive Director and other personnel may not exceed the rate

payable for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315

of such title.

"SEC. 209. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

"(a) In General. - In order to carry out this title, the

Foundation may -

"(1) prescribe such regulations as it considers necessary

governing the manner in which its functions shall be carried out;

"(2) receive money and other property donated, bequeathed, or

devised, without condition or restriction other than it be used

for the purposes of the Foundation, and to use, sell, or

otherwise dispose of such property for the purpose of carrying

out its functions;

"(3) accept and use the services of voluntary and

noncompensated personnel;

"(4) enter into contracts or other arrangements, or make

grants, to carry out the provisions of this title, and enter into

such contracts or other arrangements, or make such grants, with

the concurrence of a majority of the members of the Board,

without performance or other bonds and without regard to section

3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5);

"(5) rent office space in the metropolitan Washington, D.C.,

area; and

"(6) make other necessary expenditures.

"(b) Annual Report. - The Board shall submit to the President and

to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the

Committee on International Relations of the House of

Representatives an annual report of the operations of the

Foundation under this title, including the financial condition of

the Foundation.

"SEC. 210. TERMINATION.

"(a) In General. - The Foundation may not award any new

fellowship, or extend any existing fellowship, after September 30,

2016.

"(b) Abolishment. - Effective 120 days after the expiration of

the last fellowship in effect under this title, the Foundation is

abolished."

CONDUCT OF CERTAIN EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS

Pub. L. 104-319, title I, Sec. 102, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat.

3865, as amended by Pub. L. 106-113, div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div.

A, title IV, Sec. 402], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-445,

provided that:

"(a) In General. - In carrying out programs of educational and

cultural exchange in countries whose people do not fully enjoy

freedom and democracy, the Secretary of State, with the assistance

of the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy, shall

provide, where appropriate, opportunities for significant

participation in such programs to nationals of such countries who

are -

"(1) human rights or democracy leaders of such countries; or

"(2) committed to advancing human rights and democratic values

in such countries.

"(b) Grantee Organizations. - To the extent practicable, grantee

organizations selected to operate programs described in subsection

(a) shall be selected through an open competitive process. Among

the factors that should be considered in the selection of such a

grantee are the willingness and ability of the organization to -

"(1) recruit a broad range of participants, including those

described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a); and

"(2) ensure that the governments of the countries described in

subsection (a) do not have inappropriate influence in the

selection process."

LIMITATION ON PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITIONS OR FAIRS

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 230, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

424, which provided that United States Information Agency could not

obligate or expend funds for a United States Government funded

pavilion or major exhibit at any international exposition or

world's fair in excess of amounts expressly authorized and

appropriated for such purpose, was repealed by Pub. L. 106-113,

div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, Sec. 204(e)], Nov. 29,

1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-421. See section 2452b of this title.

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE, SCHOLARSHIP, AND TRAINING PROGRAMS

Pub. L. 104-319, title I, Sec. 103, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat.

3865, as amended by Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXIV,

Sec. 2415, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-834; Pub. L. 106-113, div.

B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title IV, Sec. 401], Nov. 29, 1999, 113

Stat. 1536, 1501A-445; Pub. L. 107-228, div. A, title II, Sec. 222,

Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1367, authorized establishment of

educational and cultural exchange programs between United States

and people of Tibet and authorized scholarships for Tibetans and

Burmese.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 235, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

425, authorized establishment and maintenance of American studies

collections at appropriate foreign university libraries to further

the study of the United States.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 236, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

425, authorized establishment of educational and cultural exchange

programs between United States and Tibet.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 237, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

426, established a scholarship program for East Timorese students

qualified to study in United States.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 238, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

426, related to establishment and expansion of Cambodian

scholarship and exchange programs.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 239, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

426, related to expansion of exchange program allocations to

Africa.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 240, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

426, as amended by Pub. L. 105-244, title I, Sec. 102(a)(7)(A),

Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1619, established a program to promote

academic exchanges in disciplines relevant to environment and

sustainable development.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 241, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

427, authorized scholarships to qualified students from South

Pacific nations.

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 242, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat.

427, provided for international exchange programs involving

disability related matters.

Pub. L. 102-511, title VIII, Sec. 807, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat.

3353, authorized exchange and training programs between United

States and independent states of former Soviet Union.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 210, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

694, authorized grants to Claude and Mildred Pepper Scholarship

Program of the Washington Workshops Foundation to enable foreign

visiting students to observe workings and operations of democratic

form of government of United States.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 214, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

696, established Israeli Arab Scholarship Fund within United States

Information Agency to finance attendance of Israeli Arabs at United

States institutions of higher education.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 225, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

699, authorized establishment of an endowment fund to support an

exchange program among secondary school students from United States

and former Warsaw Pact countries, prior to repeal, eff. 6 months

after Oct. 24, 1992, by Pub. L. 102-511, title VIII, Sec. 807(c),

Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3354.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 226, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

699, authorized scholarships for foreign and United States students

and scholars awarded by Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

of United States Information Agency to facilitate study, research,

and teaching within United States.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 227, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

700, as amended by Pub. L. 102-511, title VIII, Sec. 801, Oct. 24,

1992, 106 Stat. 3352; Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. B, title

XXIV, Sec. 2413, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-832, established

Muskie Fellowship Program to award scholarships to graduate

students from independent states of the former Soviet Union,

Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia for study within United States.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 228, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

702, as amended by Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 233, Apr. 30,

1994, 108 Stat. 424; Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. B, title

XXII, Sec. 2219(a)(7), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-817,

authorized assistance to United States graduate and postdoctoral

students researching Near and Middle East.

Pub. L. 102-138, title II, Sec. 229, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat.

702, authorized scholarships for Vietnamese residents qualified to

study in United States.

STUDY AND REPORT ON WAYS TO REDUCE THE DRAIN FROM DEVELOPING

COUNTRIES OF PROFESSIONAL PERSONS AND SKILLED SPECIALISTS

Pub. L. 89-698, title III, Sec. 301, Oct. 29, 1966, 80 Stat.

1072, authorized Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to

conduct an investigation to determine number of individuals from

developing countries who enter United States annually to further

their education and fail to return to their homeland and to report

to President and to Congress findings and conclusions together with

recommendations for any legislation deemed necessary to encourage

these individuals to return and use their education and training in

service of their homeland.

-EXEC-

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 10716

Ex. Ord. No. 10716, June 18, 1957, 22 F.R. 4345, as amended by

Ex. Ord. No. 10912, Jan. 19, 1961, 26 F.R. 509, which related to

administration of programs under this chapter, was superseded by

Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, set out as a note

under section 2454 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 2452b, 2453, 2454, 2455,

2456, 2458, 2458a, 2460, 4712 of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2452a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2452a. Exchange program with countries in transition from

totalitarianism to democracy

-STATUTE-

(a) Authorization of activities; grants or contracts for exchanges

with foreign countries

Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of

1961 [22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.] and using the authorities contained

therein, the President is authorized, when the President considers

that it would strengthen international cooperative relations, to

provide, by grant, contract, or otherwise, for exchanges with

countries that are in transition from totalitarianism to democracy,

which include, but are not limited to Poland, Hungary,

Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania -

(1) by financing studies, research, instruction, and related

activities -

(A) of or for American citizens and nationals in foreign

countries; and

(B) of or for citizens and nationals of foreign countries in

American private businesses, trade associations, unions,

chambers of commerce, and local, State, and Federal Government

agencies, located in or outside the United States; and

(2) by financing visits and interchanges between the United

States and countries in transition from totalitarianism to

democracy.

The program under this section shall be coordinated by the

Department of State.

(b) Transfer of funds

The President is authorized to transfer to the appropriate

appropriations account of the Department of State such sums as the

President shall determine to be necessary out of the travel

accounts of the departments and agencies of the United States,

except for the Department of State, as the President shall

designate. Such transfers shall be subject to the approval of the

Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the

Committee on Appropriations of the Senate. In addition, the

President is authorized to accept such gifts or cost-sharing

arrangements as may be proffered to sustain the program under this

section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-610, title VI, Sec. 602, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3186; Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIII, Sec. 1335(c),

Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-787.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961,

referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75

Stat. 527, as amended, which is classified principally to this

chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and

Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was enacted as part of the National and Community Service

Act of 1990, and not as part of the Mutual Educational and Cultural

Exchange Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 1335(c)(1), substituted

"Department of State" for "United States Information Agency" before

period at end.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 1335(c)(2), in first sentence,

substituted "appropriate appropriations account of the Department

of State" for "appropriations account of the United States

Information Agency" and struck out "and the United States

Information Agency" before ", as the President".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-277 effective Oct. 1, 1999, see section

1301 of Pub. L. 105-277, set out as an Effective Date note under

section 6531 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2452b 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2452b. International expositions

-STATUTE-

(a) Limitation

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section and

notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department of State

may not obligate or expend any funds appropriated to the Department

of State for a United States pavilion or other major exhibit at any

international exposition or world's fair registered by the Bureau

of International Expositions in excess of amounts expressly

authorized and appropriated for such purpose.

(b) Exceptions

(1) In general

The Department of State is authorized to utilize its personnel

and resources to carry out the responsibilities of the Department

for the following:

(A) Administrative services, including legal and other advice

and contract administration, under section 2452(a)(3) of this

title related to United States participation in international

fairs and expositions abroad. Such administrative services may

not include capital expenses, operating expenses, or travel or

related expenses (other than such expenses as are associated

with the provision of administrative services by employees of

the Department of State).

(B) Activities under section 2455(f) of this title with

respect to encouraging foreign governments, international

organizations, and private individuals, firms, associations,

agencies and other groups to participate in international fairs

and expositions and to make contributions to be utilized for

United States participation in international fairs and

expositions.

(C) Encouraging private support of United States pavilions

and exhibits at international fairs and expositions.

(2) Statutory construction

Nothing in this subsection authorizes the use of funds

appropriated to the Department of State to make payments for -

(A) contracts, grants, or other agreements with any other

party to carry out the activities described in this subsection;

or

(B) the satisfaction of any legal claim or judgment or the

costs of litigation brought against the Department of State

arising from activities described in this subsection.

(c) Notification

No funds made available to the Department of State by any Federal

agency to be used for a United States pavilion or other major

exhibit at any international exposition or world's fair registered

by the Bureau of International Expositions may be obligated or

expended unless the appropriate congressional committees are

notified not less than 15 days prior to such obligation or

expenditure.

(d) Reports

The Commissioner General of a United States pavilion or other

major exhibit at any international exposition or world's fair

registered by the Bureau of International Expositions shall submit

to the Secretary of State and the appropriate congressional

committees a report concerning activities relating to such pavilion

or exhibit every 180 days while serving as Commissioner General and

shall submit a final report summarizing all such activities not

later than 1 year after the closure of the pavilion or exhibit.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 106-113, div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, Sec.

204], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-420.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section is comprised of section 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II,

Sec. 204] of div. B of Pub. L. 106-113. Subsec. (e) of section 204

of title II of section 1000(a)(7) of Pub. L. 106-113 repealed

section 230 of Pub. L. 103-236 which was classified as a note under

section 2452 of this title.

Section was enacted as part of the Admiral James W. Nance and Meg

Donovan Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2000 and

2001, and not as part of the Mutual Educational and Cultural

Exchange Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

-CROSS-

DEFINITIONS

In subsecs. (c) and (d), "appropriate congressional committees"

means the Committee on International Relations of the House of

Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the

Senate, see section 1000(a)(7) [Sec. 3(1)] of Pub. L. 106-113, set

out as a note under section 2651 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2453 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2453. Agreements with foreign governments and international

organizations

-STATUTE-

(a) Authorization

The Director of the United States Information Agency is

authorized to enter into agreements with foreign governments and

international organizations, in furtherance of the purposes of this

chapter. In such agreements the Director of the United States

Information Agency is authorized, when he deems it in the public

interest, to seek the agreement of the other governments concerned

to cooperate and assist, including making use of funds placed in

special accounts pursuant to agreements concluded in accordance

with section 1513(b)(6) (!1) of this title, or any similar

agreements, in providing for the activities authorized in section

2452 of this title, and particularly those authorized in subsection

(a)(1) of said section 2452, with respect to the expenses of

international transportation of their own citizens and nationals

and of activities in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter

carried on within the borders of such other nations.

(b) Creation or continuation of binational or multinational

educational and cultural foundations and commissions

Such agreements may also provide for the creation or continuation

of binational or multinational educational and cultural foundations

and commissions for the purpose of administering programs in

furtherance of the purposes of this chapter.

(c) United States participation in programs

In such agreements with international organizations, the Director

of the United States Information Agency may provide for equitable

United States participation in and support for, including a

reasonable share of the cost of, educational and cultural programs

to be administered by such organizations.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 103, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 529; 1977

Reorg. Plan No. 2, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637; Pub.

L. 97-241, title III, Sec. 303(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the

original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75

Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural

Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to

the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this

title and Tables.

Section 1513(b)(6) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was

repealed by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, Sec. 542(a), 68

Stat. 861.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board

of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and

functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and

6532 of this title. "Director of the United States Information

Agency" substituted for "Director of the International

Communication Agency" in subsecs. (a) and (c), pursuant to section

303(b) of Pub. L. 97-241, title III, Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291,

set out as a note under section 1461 of this title. Previously,

"Director of the International Communication Agency" substituted

for "President" in subsecs. (a) and (c), pursuant to Reorg. Plan

No. 2 of 1977, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out

under section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1,

1978, at such time as specified by President, which transferred

functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of

State, United States Information Agency or Director thereof, under

this chapter, to Director of International Communication Agency,

except (A) for such functions as are vested by sections 2452(b)(6),

(10), 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455(a), (b), (c), 2456(a)

and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as are vested by

sections 2454(b), 2455(d)(2), (f), and 2456(d), (f) of this title,

to the extent that such functions were assigned to Secretary of

Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education]

immediately prior to effective date of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977,

and (C) for such functions as are vested by section 2456(b), (c) of

this title to the extent that any such function therein is vested

in President or Secretary of State.

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary

of State, see Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, set

out as a note under section 2454 of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2454 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2454. Administration

-STATUTE-

(a) Delegation of powers; submission of proposal for delegation to

Congress

The President may delegate, to such officers of the Government as

he determines to be appropriate, any of the powers conferred upon

him by this chapter to the extent that he finds such delegation to

be in the interest of the purposes expressed in this chapter and

the efficient administration of the programs undertaken pursuant to

this chapter: Provided, That where the President has delegated any

of such powers to any officer, before the President implements any

proposal for the delegation of any of such powers to another

officer, that proposal shall be submitted to the Speaker of the

House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations

of the Senate, and thereafter a period of not less than sixty days

shall have elapsed while Congress is in session. In computing such

sixty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House

is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three

days.

(b) Employment of personnel

The President is authorized to employ such other personnel as he

deems necessary to carry out the provisions and purposes of this

chapter, and of such personnel not to exceed ten may be compensated

without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III

of chapter 53 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of

grade 18 of the General Schedule. Such positions shall be in

addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 96-465, title II, Sec. 2205(7), Oct. 17,

1980, 94 Stat. 2160

(d) Extension of benefits

For the purpose of performing functions under this chapter

outside the United States, the Director of the United States

Information Agency is authorized to provide that any person

employed or assigned by a United States Government agency shall be

entitled, except to the extent that the Director of the United

States Information Agency may specify otherwise in cases in which

the period of employment or assignment exceeds thirty months, to

the same benefits as are provided by section 3950 of this title for

individuals appointed to the Foreign Service.

(e) Grants; use of funds, counseling service; publicity and

promotion abroad

(1) In providing for the activities and interchanges authorized

by section 2452 of this title, grants may be made to or for

individuals, either directly or through foundations or educational

or other institutions, which foundations or institutions are public

or private nonprofit, and may include funds for tuition and other

necessary incidental expenses, for travel expenses from their

places of residence and return for themselves, and, whenever it

would further the purposes of this chapter, for the dependent

members of their immediate families, for health and accident

insurance premiums, emergency medical expenses, costs of preparing

and transporting to their former homes the remains of any of such

persons who may die while away from their homes as participants or

dependents of participants in any program under this chapter, and

for per diem in lieu of subsistence at rates prescribed by the

Director of the United States Information Agency, for all such

persons, and for such other expenses as are necessary for the

successful accomplishment of the purposes of this chapter.

(2) Funds available for programs under this chapter may be used

(i) to provide for orientation courses, language training, or other

appropriate services and materials for persons traveling out of the

countries of their residence for educational and cultural purposes

which further the purposes of this chapter, whether or not they are

receiving other financial support from the Government, and (ii) to

provide or continue services to increase the effectiveness of such

programs following the return of such persons to the countries of

their residence.

(3) For the purpose of assisting foreign students in making the

best use of their opportunities while attending colleges and

universities in the United States, and assisting such students in

directing their talents and initiative into channels which will

make them more effective leaders upon return to their native lands,

the Director of the United States Information Agency may make

suitable arrangements, by contract or otherwise, for the

establishment and maintenance at colleges and universities in the

United States attended by foreign students of an adequate

counseling service.

(4) The Director of the United States Information Agency is

authorized to provide for publicity and promotion (including

representation) abroad of activities of the type provided for in

this chapter, and of similar services and opportunities for

interchange not supported by the United States Government.

(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 96-60, title II, Sec. 203(a)(1), Aug. 15,

1979, 93 Stat. 398

(g) Currency exchange for foreign students and teachers coming

temporarily to the United States

(1) For the purpose of performing functions authorized by section

2452(b)(10) of this title, the President is authorized to establish

the exchange rates at which all foreign currencies may be acquired

through operations under such section, and shall issue regulations

binding upon all embassies with respect to the exchange rates to be

applicable in each of the respective countries where currency

exchanges are authorized under such section.

(2) In performing the functions authorized under section

2452(b)(10) of this title, the President shall make suitable

arrangements for protecting the interests of the United States

Government in connection with the ownership, use, and disposition

of all foreign currencies acquired pursuant to exchanges made under

such section.

(3) The total amount of United States dollars acquired by any

individual through currency exchanges under the authority of

section 2452(b)(10) of this title shall in no event exceed $3,000

during any academic year.

(4) An individual shall be eligible to exchange foreign currency

for United States dollars at United States embassies under section

2452(b)(10) of this title only if he gives satisfactory assurances

that (A) he will devote essentially full time to his proposed

educational activity in the United States and will maintain good

standing in relation to such program; (B) he will return to the

country of his citizenship or nationality prior to coming to the

United States and will render such public service as is determined

acceptable for a period of time determined reasonable and necessary

by the government of such country; and (C) he will not apply for an

immigrant visa or for permanent residence or for a nonimmigrant

visa under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et

seq.] after having received any benefits under such section for a

period of time equal to the period of study, research, instruction,

or other educational activity he performed pursuant to such

section.

(5) As used in section 2452(b)(10) of this title, the term

"excess foreign currencies" means foreign currencies, which if

acquired by the United States (A) would be in excess of the normal

requirements of departments, agencies, and embassies of the United

States for such currencies, as determined by the President, and (B)

would be available for the use of the United States Government

under applicable agreements with the foreign country concerned.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 104, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 529; Pub. L.

87-793, Sec. 1001(j), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 89-698,

title II, Sec. 203(b), Oct. 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 1071; 1977 Reorg.

Plan No. 2, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637; Pub. L.

95-426, title II, Sec. 204(a), Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 973; Pub. L.

96-60, title II, Sec. 203(a)(1), Aug. 15, 1979, 93 Stat. 398; Pub.

L. 96-465, title II, Secs. 2205(7), 2206(a)(9), Oct. 17, 1980, 94

Stat. 2160, 2162; Pub. L. 97-241, title III, Sec. 303(b), Aug. 24,

1982, 96 Stat. 291; Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 231, Apr. 30,

1994, 108 Stat. 424.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), (d), (e)(1), (2),

(4), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept.

21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational

and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

2451 of this title and Tables.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec.

(g)(4), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended,

which is classified principally to chapter 12 (Sec. 1101 et seq.)

of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

In subsec. (b), "chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of

title 5" and "section 5108 of title 5" substituted for "the

Classification Act of 1949, as amended" and "section 505 of the

Classification Act of 1949, as amended", respectively, on authority

of Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the

first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and

Employees. In the original, section 1105 of title 5 read section

505 of the Classification Act of 1949, as amended.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 103-236 inserted before period at

end ", and of similar services and opportunities for interchange

not supported by the United States Government".

1980 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96-465, Sec. 2205(7), struck out

subsec. (c) which related to employment or assignment of persons in

or to Foreign Service Reserve or Foreign Service Staff and alien

clerks and employees.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96-465, Sec. 2206(a)(9), among other

changes, substituted reference to section 3950 of this title for

reference to section 928 of this title and struck out provisions

relating to the applicability of section 807 of this title.

1979 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96-60 struck out subsec. (f) relating

to investigation-of-employees requirement.

1978 - Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 95-426 substituted "Director of

the International Communication Agency" for "President".

1966 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89-698 added subsec. (g).

1962 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87-793 substituted "but not in excess

of the highest rate of grade 18 of the General Schedule for "and of

these not to exceed five may be compensated at a rate in excess of

the highest rate provided for grades of the general schedule

established by the Classification Act of 1949, as amended, but not

in excess of $1,000 per annum more than such highest rate".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1980 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 96-465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as

otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96-465, set out as

an Effective Date note under section 3901 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1979 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 96-60 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section

209 of Pub. L. 96-60, set out as a note under section 1471 of this

title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 87-793 effective on first day of first pay

period which begins on or after Oct. 11, 1962, see section 1008 of

Pub. L. 87-793.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board

of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and

functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and

6532 of this title. "Director of the United States Information

Agency" substituted for "Director of the International

Communication Agency" in subsecs. (d) and (e)(1), (3), and (4),

pursuant to section 303(b) of Pub. L. 97-241, title III, Aug. 24,

1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461 of this

title. Previously, "Director of the International Communication

Agency" substituted for "Secretary of State" in subsec. (c) and for

"President" in subsecs. (d), (e)(3), (4), pursuant to Reorg. Plan

No. 2 of 1977, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out

under section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1,

1978, at such time as specified by President, which transferred

functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of

State, United States Information Agency or Director thereof, under

this chapter, to Director of International Communication Agency,

except (A) for such functions as are vested by subsecs. (a),

(e)(1), (2), (f), (g) of this section, sections 2452(b)(6), (10),

2455(a), (b), (c), 2456(a) and 2458 of this title, (B) for such

functions as are vested by subsec. (b) of this section and sections

2455(d)(2), (f), and 2456(d), (f) of this title, to the extent that

such functions were assigned to Secretary of Health, Education, and

Welfare [now Secretary of Education] immediately prior to effective

date of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, and (C) for such functions as

are vested by section 2456(b), (c) of this title to the extent that

any such function therein is vested in President or Secretary of

State.

For transfer of functions and offices (relating to education) of

Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to

Secretary and Department of Education, and termination of certain

offices and positions under Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, as

amended, set out under this section, see sections 3441 and 3503 of

Title 20, Education.

-MISC2-

REFERENCES IN OTHER LAWS TO GS-16, 17, OR 18 PAY RATES

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS-16, 17, or 18, or

to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be

considered references to rates payable under specified sections of

Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529

[title I, Sec. 101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101-509, set out in a note

under section 5376 of Title 5.

-EXEC-

EX. ORD. NO. 11034. ADMINISTRATION OF PROGRAMS

Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, as amended by

Ex. Ord. No. 11380, Nov. 8, 1967, 32 F.R. 15627; Ex. Ord. No.

12292, Feb. 23, 1981, 46 F.R. 13967; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9,

1987, 52 F.R. 34617, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Mutual Educational

and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-256; 75 Stat. 527;

hereinafter referred to as the Act) [this chapter] and as President

of the United States, I find that the delegations set forth in this

order are in the interest of the purposes expressed in the said Act

and the efficient administration of the programs undertaken

pursuant to that Act and determine that the delegates specified in

the order are appropriate and I hereby order as follows:

Section 1. Department of State. (a) The following functions

conferred upon the President by the Act are hereby delegated to the

Secretary of State:

(1) The functions so conferred by Sections 102(a)(1),

102(a)(2)(i), (ii), and (iv), 102(b)(3), (5) and (9), 103,

104(e)(3), and 105(d)(1) and (e) of the Act [sections 2452(a)(1),

(2)(i), (ii), (iv), (b)(3), (5), (9), 2453, subsec. (e)(3) of this

section, and 2455(d)(1), (e) of this title].

(2) The functions so conferred by Sections 102(a)(2)(iii) and

(b)(1), (2), (4), (7) and (8) of the Act (the provisions of Section

2(a) of this order notwithstanding) [section 2452(a)(2)(iii),

(b)(1), (2), (4), (7), (8) of this title].

(3) The functions so conferred by Section 102(a)(3) of the Act

[section 2452(a)(3) of this title] to the extent that they pertain

to liquidation of affairs respecting the Universal and

International Exhibition of Brussels, 1958.

(4) The functions so conferred by Sections 104(d) and (e)(4) and

108(c) and (d) of the Act [subsecs. (d), (e)(4) of this section and

section 2458(c), (d) of this title] to the extent that they pertain

to the functions delegated by the foregoing provisions of this

section.

(5) The function so conferred by Section 104(e)(1) of the Act

[subsec. (e)(1) of this section] of prescribing rates for per diem

in lieu of subsistence; but in carrying out the said function as it

relates to functions herein delegated to the Director of the United

States Information Agency or the Secretary of Education, the

Secretary of State shall consult with them.

(b) The Secretary of State, in collaboration with the Director of

the United States Information Agency, the Secretary of Commerce,

and the Secretary of Education with respect to the functions

delegated by Sections 2, 3, and 4, respectively, of this order,

shall prepare and transmit to the President the reports which the

President is required to submit to the Congress by Section 108(b)

of the Act [section 2458(b) of this title], excluding, however, the

reports for which the Director of the United States Information

Agency is responsible under section 2(b) of this order.

(c) With respect to the carrying out of functions under Section

102(a)(2)(ii) of the Act [section 2452(a)(2)(ii) of this title]

hereinabove delegated to the Secretary of State, the Director of

the United States Information Agency shall participate in the

planning of cultural and other attractions. Such participation

shall include consultation in connection with (1) the selection and

scheduling of such attractions, and (2) the designation of the

areas where the attractions will be presented.

Sec. 2. United States Information Agency. (a) Subject to the

provisions of Section 6 of this order, the following functions

conferred upon the President by the Act are hereby delegated to the

Director of the United States Information Agency:

(1) The functions so conferred by Sections 102(a)(2)(iii) and

(b)(1) [section 2452(a)(2)(iii), (b)(1) of this title]; Section

102(b)(2) [section 2452(b)(2) of this title] to the extent that it

authorizes the type of centers now supported by the United States

Information Agency abroad and designated as binational, community,

or student centers; section 102(b)(4) [section 2452(b)(4) of this

title] exclusive of professorships and lectureships; and Sections

102(b)(7) and (8) of the Act [section 2452(b)(7), (8) of this

title]; all of the foregoing notwithstanding the provisions of

Section 1(a)(2) of this order.

(2) The functions so conferred by Section 104(e)(4) of the Act

[subsec. (e)(4) of this section] (the provisions of Sections

1(a)(4) and 3(b) of this order notwithstanding).

(3) The functions so conferred by Section 102(a)(3) of the Act

[section 2452(a)(3) of this title] to the extent that they are in

respect of fairs, expositions, and demonstrations held outside of

the United States, but exclusive of the functions delegated by the

provisions of Section 1(a)(3) of this order.

(4) The functions so conferred by Sections 104(d) and 108(c) and

(d) of the Act [subsec. (d) of this section and section 2458(c),

(d) of this title] to the extent that they pertain to the functions

delegated by the foregoing provisions of this section.

(b) The Director of the United States Information Agency shall

prepare and transmit to the President the reports which the

President is required to submit to the Congress by section 108(b)

of the Act [section 2458(b) of this title] to the extent that they

are with respect to activities carried out by the United States

Information Agency pursuant to section 102(a)(2)(iii) and section

102(a)(3) of the Act [section 2452(a)(2)(iii) and (a)(3) of this

title].

(c) The functions so conferred by Section 102(a)(3) of the Act

[section 2452(a)(3) of this title] to the extent that they are in

respect of fairs, expositions, and demonstrations held outside of

the United States, but exclusive of the functions delegated by the

provisions of Section 1(a)(3) of this order.

(d) The functions so conferred by Sections 104(d) and 108(c) and

(d) of the Act [subsec. (d) of this section and section 2458(c),

(d) of this title] to the extent that they pertain to the functions

delegated by the foregoing provisions of this section.

Sec. 3. Department of Commerce. Subject to the provisions of

Section 6 of this order, the following functions conferred upon the

President by the Act are hereby delegated to the Secretary of

Commerce:

(a) The functions so conferred by Section 102(a)(3) of the Act

[section 2452(a)(3) of this title] to the extent that they are in

respect of fairs, expositions, and demonstrations held in the

United States.

(b) The functions so conferred by Sections 104(e)(4) and 108(c)

of the act [subsec. (e)(4) of this section and section 2458(c) of

this title] to the extent that they pertain to the functions

delegated by the foregoing provisions of this section.

Sec. 4 Department of Education. Subject to the provisions of

Section 6 of this order, the functions conferred upon the President

by Section 102(b)(6) of the Act [section 2452(b)(6) of this title]

are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Education.

Sec. 5. Certain incidental matters. (a) In respect of functions

hereinabove delegated to them, there is hereby delegated to the

Secretary of State, the Director of the United States Information

Agency, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Education,

respectively:

(1) The authority conferred upon the President by Sections

105(d)(2) and (f) and 106(d) and (f) of the Act [sections

2455(d)(2), (f) and 2456(d), (f) of this title].

(2) Subject to the provisions of Section 5(b) and (c) of this

order, the authority conferred upon the President by Section 104(b)

of the Act [subsec. (b) of this section] to employ personnel.

(b) The employment, by any department or other executive agency

under Section 5(a)(2) of this order, of any of the not to exceed

ten persons who may be compensated with regard to the

Classification Act of 1949 [chapter 51 and subchapter III of

chapter 53 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] under

Section 104(b) of the Act [subsec. (b) of this section] shall

require prior authorization by the Secretary of State concurred in

by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(c) Persons employed or assigned by a department or other

executive agency for the purpose of performing functions under the

Act outside the United States shall be entitled, except in cases in

which the period of employment or assignment exceeds thirty months,

to the same benefits as are provided by section 310 of the Foreign

Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3950). In cases in which the period

of employment or assignment exceeds thirty months, persons so

employed or assigned shall be entitled to such benefits if agreed

by the agency in which such benefits may be exercised.

(d) Pursuant to Section 104(f) of the Act [subsec. (f) of this

section], Executive Order No. 10450 of April 27, 1953 (18 F.R.

2489) [set out as a note under section 7311 of Title 5, Government

Organization and Employees] is hereby established as the standards

and procedures for the employment or assignment to duties of

persons under the Act.

(e) Any officer to whom functions vested in the President by the

Act are hereinabove delegated may (1) allocate to any other officer

of the executive branch of the Government any funds appropriated or

otherwise made available for the functions so delegated to him as

he may deem appropriate for the best carrying out of the functions

and (2) make available, for use in connection with any funds so

allocated by him, any authority he has under this order.

Sec. 6. Policy guidance. In order to assure appropriate

coordination of programs, and taking into account the statutory

functions of the departments and other executive agencies

concerned, the Secretary of State shall exercise primary

responsibility for Government-wide leadership and policy guidance

with regard to international educational and cultural affairs.

Sec. 7. Functions reserved to the President. (a) There are hereby

excluded from the functions delegated by the provisions of this

order the functions conferred upon the President with respect to

(1) the delegation of powers under Section 104(a) of the Act

[subsec. (a) of this section], (2) the establishment of standards

and procedures for the investigation of personnel under Section

104(f) of the Act [subsec. (f) of this section], (3) the transfer

of appropriations under Section 105(c) of the Act [section 2455(c)

of this title], (4) the appointment of members of the Board of

Foreign Scholarships under Section 106(a)(1) of the Act [section

2456(a)(1) of this title], (5) the appointment of members, the

designation of a chairman, and the receipt of recommendations of

the United States Advisory Commission on International Educational

and Cultural Affairs under Section 106(b) of the Act [section

2456(b) of this title], (6) the waiver of provisions of law or

limitations of authority under Section 108(a) of the Act [section

2458(a) of this title], and (7) the submission of annual reports to

the Congress under Section 108(b) of the Act [section 2458(b) of

this title].

(b) Notwithstanding the delegations made by this order, the

President may in his discretion exercise any function comprehended

by such delegations.

Sec. 8. Waivers. (a) It is hereby determined that the performance

by any department or other executive agency of functions authorized

by Sections 102(a)(2) and 102(a)(3) of the Act (22 U.S.C.

2452(a)(2) and (3)) without regard to prohibitions and limitations

of authority contained in the following-specified provisions of law

is in furtherance of the purposes of the Act:

(1) Section 15 of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946 (c.

744, August 2, 1946; 60 Stat. 810), as amended (5 U.S.C. 55a)

[section 3109(b) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees]

(experts and consultants; but the compensation paid individuals in

pursuance of this paragraph shall not exceed the rate of $100.00

per diem.

(2) Section 16(a) of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946 (c.

744, August 2, 1946; 60 Stat. 810; 5 U.S.C. 78) [section 1343,

1344, and 1349(b) of Title 31, Money and Finance] to the extent

that it pertains to hiring automobiles and aircraft.

(3) Section 3648 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (31 U.S.C.

529) [section 3324(a) and (b) of Title 31] (advance of funds).

(4) Section 322 of the Act of June 30, 1932, c. 314, 47 Stat. 412

([former] 40 U.S.C. 278a) (maximum charges).

(5) Section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C.

5) (competitive bids).

(6) Section 3710 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 8) (opening

of bids).

(7) Section 2 of the Act of March 3, 1933, c. 212, 47 Stat. 1520

(41 U.S.C. 10a) (Buy American Act).

(8) Section 3735 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 13)

(contracts limited to one year).

(9) Sections 302-305 of the Federal Property and Administrative

Services Act of 1949 (June 30, 1949, c. 288, 63 Stat. 393 et seq.),

as amended (41 U.S.C. 252-255) (competitive bids; negotiated

contracts; advances).

(10) Section 87 of the Act of January 12, 1895, c. 23, 28 Stat.

622, and the second proviso of Section 11 of the Act of March 1,

1919, c. 86, 40 Stat. 1270, as amended (44 U.S.C. 111) [section 501

of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents] to the extent that they

pertain to printing by the Government Printing Office.

(11) Section 1 of the Act of June 20, 1978, c. 359, 20 Stat. 216,

as amended (44 U.S.C. 322) [section 3703 of Title 44]

(advertising).

(12) Section 3828 of the Revised Statutes (44 U.S.C. 324)

[section 3702 of Title 44] (advertising).

(13) Section 901(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (June 29,

1936, c. 858, 49 Stat. 2015, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 1241(a))

(official travel overseas of United States officers and employees,

and transportation of their personal effects, on ships registered

under the laws of the United States).

(14) Any provision of law or limitation of authority to the

extent that such provision or limitation would limit or prohibit

construction of buildings by the United States on property not

owned by it.

(15) Any provision of law or limitation of authority to the

extent that such provision or limitation would limit or prohibit

(i) receipt of admission fees or payments under contracts through

advances or otherwise, for concessions, services, space, or other

consideration, and the credit of such receipts to the applicable

appropriation, and (ii) rental or lease for periods not exceeding

ten years of buildings and grounds.

(b) It is directed (1) that all waivers of statutes and

limitations of authority effected by the foregoing provisions of

this section shall be utilized in a prudent manner and as sparingly

as may be practical, and (2) that suitable steps shall be taken by

the administrative agencies concerned to insure that result,

including, as may be appropriate, the imposition of administrative

limitations in lieu of waived statutory requirements and

limitations of authority.

Sec. 9. Definition. As used in this order, the word "function" or

"functions" includes any duty, obligation, power, authority,

responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity.

Sec. 10. References to orders and acts. Except as may for any

reason be inappropriate:

(a) References in this order to the Act or any provision of the

Act shall be deemed to include references thereto as amended from

time to time.

(b) References in this order to any prior Executive order not

superseded by this order shall be deemed to include references

thereto as amended from time to time.

(c) References in this order to this order shall be deemed to

include references thereto as amended from time to time.

Sec. 11. Prior directives and actions. (a) This order supersedes

Executive Order No. 10716 of June 17, 1957, and Executive Order No.

10912 of January 18, 1961. Except to the extent that they may be

inconsistent with law or with this order, other directives,

regulations, and actions relating to the functions delegated by

this order and in force immediately prior to the issuance of this

order shall remain in effect until amended, modified, or revoked by

appropriate authority.

(b) This order shall neither limit nor be limited by Executive

Order No. 11014 of April 17, 1962 [formerly set out under this

section].

(c) To the extent not heretofore superseded, there are hereby

superseded the provisions of the letters of the President to the

Director of the United States Information Agency dated August 16,

1955, and August 21, 1956 (22 F.R. 101-103).

Sec. 12. Effective date. The provisions of this order shall be

effective immediately.

[For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than

Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting

Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references

thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of this title.]

EX. ORD. NO. 11380. AMENDING PRIOR EXECUTIVE ORDERS RELATING TO

MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE AND TO ALLOWANCES AND

BENEFITS FOR GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL ON OVERSEAS DUTY

Ex. Ord. No. 11380, Nov. 8, 1967, 32 F.R. 15627, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Mutual Educational

and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 527; 22 U.S.C. 2451 et

seq.) and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as

President of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

PART I - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE

Section 101. Executive Order No. 11034 of June 25, 1962 [set out

as a note above], is hereby amended as follows:

(1) By changing the period at the end of section 1(b) to a comma

and by inserting after that comma the following: "excluding,

however, the reports for which the Director of the United States

Information Agency is responsible under section 2(b) of this

order.".

(2) By substituting for the paragraph designations (a), (b), (c),

and (d) in section 2 new paragraph designations (1), (2), (3), and

(4), respectively; by inserting the subsection designation (a)

after the catchline of section 2; and by adding a new subsection

(b) of section 2, reading as follows:

(b) The Director of the United States Information Agency shall

prepare and transmit to the President the reports which the

President is required to submit to the Congress by section 108(b)

of the Act [section 2458(b) of this title] to the extent that they

are with respect to activities carried out by the United States

Information Agency pursuant to section 102(a)(2)(iii) and section

102(a)(3) of the Act [section 2452(a)(2)(iii) and (a)(3) of this

title].

(3) By adding a new paragraph at the end of section 8(a), reading

as follows:

"(15) Any provision of law or limitation of authority to the

extent that such provision or limitation would limit or prohibit

(i) receipt of admission fees or payments under contracts through

advances or otherwise, for concessions, services, space, or other

consideration, and the credit of such receipts to the applicable

appropriation, and (ii) rental or lease for periods not exceeding

ten years of buildings and grounds."

(4) By adding a new paragraph at the end of section 10, reading

as follows:

"(c) References in this order to this order shall be deemed to

include references thereto as amended from time to time."

Sec. 2. It is hereby determined that the performance by any

department or other executive agency of functions authorized by

sections 102(a)(2) and 102(a)(3) of the Mutual Educational and

Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2452(a)(2) and (3))

without regard to the provisions and limitations referred to in

section (8)(a)(15) of Executive Order No. 11034 of June 25, 1962

(to the extent set forth in the latter section) is in furtherance

of the purposes of that Act.

PART II - APPROVAL OF CERTAIN REGULATIONS RELATING TO LIVING

QUARTERS

Sec. 201. Executive Order No. 10903 of January 9, 1961, as

amended [set out as a note under section 5921 of Title 5,

Government Organization and Employees], is hereby further amended

by inserting at the end of section 1 thereof a new paragraph (g),

reading as follows:

"(g) The authority vested in the President by section 5912 of

title 5 of the United States Code to approve regulations prescribed

by heads of agencies (under which employees who are citizens of the

United States permanently stationed in foreign countries may be

furnished, without cost to them, living quarters, including heat,

fuel, and light, in government-owned or rented buildings)."

Lyndon B. Johnson.

[For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than

Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting

Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references

thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of this title.]

EX. ORD. NO. 11770. DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS RESPECTING

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY - 1975

Ex. Ord. No. 11770, Feb. 21, 1974, 39 F.R. 7127, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 104 of the

Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C.

2454; hereinafter referred to as the act), and section 301 of Title

3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States,

it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized, with

respect to the International Symposium on Geothermal Energy to be

held in San Francisco, California, in May 1975, to perform the

functions conferred by section 102(b)(5), (7), and (8) of the act

[section 2452(b)(5), (7) and (8) of this title].

Sec. 2. I find that the delegation made by section 1 of this

order is in the interest of the purposes expressed in the act and

the efficient administration of the International Symposium on

Geothermal Energy.

Sec. 3. The delegation made by this order shall become effective

upon the expiration of sixty days while the Congress is in session.

In computing that sixty days, there shall be excluded days on which

either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more

than three days.

Richard Nixon.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2452 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2455 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2455. Appropriations

-STATUTE-

(a) Availability

Amounts appropriated to carry out the purposes of this chapter

are authorized to be made available until expended.

(b) Acquisition of foreign currencies

Funds appropriated for programs under this chapter may, without

regard to section 3651 (!1) of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C.

543), be used for the acquisition from any source of foreign

currencies in such amounts as may be necessary for current

expenditures and for grants, including grants to foundations and

commissions in accordance with international agreements providing

for the accomplishment of the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Transfer of funds

Moneys appropriated to any department or agency of the Government

in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter for research,

technical aid, and educational and cultural programs, may be

transferred by the President to any other appropriation available

for like purposes, but no appropriation authorized by this chapter

shall be increased or decreased by more than 10 per centum by

reason of transfers pursuant to this subsection.

(d) Reserve and use of certain funds

The President is authorized -

(1) to reserve in such amounts and for such periods as he shall

determine to be necessary to provide for the programs authorized

by subsections (a)(1), (2)(i) of section 2452 of this title, and

(2) notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, to use in

such amounts as may from time to time be specified in

appropriation Acts, to the extent that such use is not restricted

by agreement with the foreign nations concerned, for any programs

authorized by this chapter,

any currencies of foreign nations received or to be received by the

United States or any agency thereof -

(i) under agreements disposing of surplus property or settling

lend-lease and other war accounts concluded after World War II;

(ii) as the proceeds of sales or loan repayments, including

interest, for transactions heretofore or hereafter effected under

the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as

amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.];

(iii) in repayment of principal or interest on any other credit

extended or loan heretofore or hereafter made by the United

States or any agency thereof; or

(iv) as deposits to the account of the United States pursuant

to section 1513(b)(6) (!1) or section 1513(h) (!1) of this title,

or any similar provision of any other law.

(e) Reservation and use of sums due or paid by the Republic of

Finland

The Director of the United States Information Agency is further

authorized to reserve and use for educational and cultural exchange

programs and other activities authorized in subsections (a) and (b)

of section 2452 of this title, in relation to Finland and the

people of Finland, all sums due or paid on and after August 24,

1949, by the Republic of Finland to the United States as interest

on or in retirement of the principal of the debt incurred under the

Act of February 25, 1919, as refunded by the agreement dated May 1,

1923, pursuant to the authority contained in the Act of February 9,

1922, or of any other indebtedness incurred by that Republic and

owing to the United States as a result of World War I.

(f) Contribution of funds, property, and services by foreign

governments, international organizations, and private

individuals, firms, associations, and agencies

Foreign governments, international organizations and private

individuals, firms, associations, agencies, and other groups shall

be encouraged to participate to the maximum extent feasible in

carrying out this chapter and to make contributions of funds,

property, and services which the President is authorized to accept,

to be utilized to carry out the purposes of this chapter. Funds

made available for the purposes of this chapter may be used to

contribute toward meeting the expenses of activities carried out

through normal private channels, by private means, and through

foreign governments and international organizations.

(g) Currency exchanges

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, there are

authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of making currency

exchanges under section 2452(b)(10) of this title, not to exceed

$10,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, and not to

exceed $15,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 105, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 531; Pub. L.

89-698, title II, Sec. 203(c), Oct. 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 1072; 1977

Reorg. Plan No. 2, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637; Pub.

L. 97-241, title III, Sec. 303(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291;

Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 227, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 423.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (d), (f), and (g),

was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21,

1961, 75 Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and

Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this

Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of

this title and Tables.

Section 3651 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 543), referred to

in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 97-258, Sec. 5(b), Sept.

13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, the first section of which enacted Title

31, Money and Finance.

The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as

amended, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(ii), is act July 10, 1954,

ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, as amended, which is classified principally

to chapter 41 (Sec. 1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title

note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

Sections 1513(b)(6) and 1513(h) of this title, referred to in

subsec. (d)(2)(iv), were repealed by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937,

title V, Sec. 542(a), 68 Stat. 861.

The acts of February 25, 1919, and February 9, 1922, referred to

in subsec. (e), are not classified to the Code.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-236 amended subsec. (a)

generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows:

"Appropriations to carry out the purposes of this chapter, to

remain available until expended, are authorized, and this

authorization includes the authority to grant, in any appropriation

Act, the authority to enter into contracts, within the amounts so

authorized, creating obligations in advance of appropriations."

1966 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 89-698 added subsec. (g).

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board

of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and

functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and

6532 of this title. "Director of the United States Information

Agency" substituted for "Director of the International

Communication Agency" in subsec. (e), pursuant to section 303(b) of

Pub. L. 97-241, title III, Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as

a note under section 1461 of this title. Previously, "Director of

the International Communication Agency" substituted for "President"

in subsec. (e), pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, Sec.

7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out under section 1461

of this title, effective on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as

specified by President, which transferred functions vested in

President, Secretary of State, Department of State, United States

Information Agency or Director thereof, under this chapter, to

Director of International Communication Agency, except (A) for such

functions as are vested by subsecs. (a), (b), and (c) of this

section, sections 2452(b)(6), (10), 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g),

2456(a) and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as are

vested by subsecs. (d)(2) and (f) of this section, sections 2454(b)

and 2456(d), (f) of this title, to the extent that such functions

were assigned to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now

Secretary of Education] immediately prior to effective date of

Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, and (C) for such functions as are vested

by section 2456(b), (c) of this title to the extent that any such

function therein is vested in President or Secretary of State.

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary

of State, Director of United States Information Agency, Secretary

of Commerce, and Secretary of Education, see Ex. Ord. No. 11034,

June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, set out as a note under section 2454

of this title.

-MISC2-

INCREASE IN GRANTS FOR EXCHANGE-OF-PERSONS ACTIVITIES; FUNDS FOR

SPECIFIC PROGRAMS, REDUCTIONS, OTHER USE OF FUNDS, REPORT TO

CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES

Pub. L. 97-241, title III, Sec. 305(c), (d), Aug. 24, 1982, 96

Stat. 294, provided that the amount obligated by United States

Information Agency each fiscal year for grants for

exchange-of-persons activities should be increased, through regular

annual increases, so that by fiscal year 1986 the amount obligated

for such grants would at least double (in terms of constant

dollars) the amount obligated for such grants for fiscal year 1982

and in furtherance of this purpose provided for appropriations for

the United States Information Agency for fiscal year 1983.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 2362, 2452b of this

title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2456 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2456. J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board

-STATUTE-

(a) Appointment; members; considerations for selection

(1) For the purpose of selecting students, scholars, teachers,

trainees, and other persons to participate in the programs

authorized under section 2452(a)(1) of this title, and of

supervising such programs and the programs authorized under section

2452(b)(4) and (6) of this title, there is continued the authority

of the President to appoint a board of foreign scholarships which

shall be known as the "J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship

Board" (hereinafter referred to as the "Board") consisting of

twelve members. In connection with appointments to such Board, due

consideration shall be given to the selection of distinguished

representatives of cultural, educational, student advisory, and war

veterans groups, and representatives of the United States

Department of Education, the United States Department of Veterans

Affairs, public and private nonprofit educational institutions.

(2) In the selection of American citizens for participation in

programs under this chapter, preference shall be given to those who

have served in the Armed Forces of the United States, and due

consideration shall be given to applicants from all geographical

areas of the United States.

(b) Omitted

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIII, Sec.

1336(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-790

(d) Creation of interagency and other advisory committees;

conferences of persons

The President is authorized to create such interagency and other

advisory committees as in his judgment may be of assistance in

carrying out the purposes of this chapter, and from time to time to

convene conferences of persons interested in educational and

cultural affairs to consider matters relating to the purposes of

this chapter.

(e) Availability of appropriations for expenses; transportation

expenses and per diem; compensation of members of Board and

Committees

The provisions of section 1346(b) of title 31 shall be applicable

to any interagency committee created pursuant to the provisions of

this chapter. Members of the committees provided for in this

section shall be entitled (i) to transportation expenses and per

diem in lieu of subsistence at the rate prescribed by or

established pursuant to section 5703 of title 5 while away from

home in connection with attendance at meetings or in consultation

with officials of the Government or otherwise carrying out duties

as authorized, and (ii) if not otherwise in the employ of the

United States Government, to compensation at rates not in excess of

$50 per diem while performing services for such committees. Members

of the Board shall be entitled to such expenses and per diem in

lieu of subsistence as provided for under clause (i) of the

preceding sentence and, while performing services for the Board, to

compensation at a rate, prescribed by the Director of the United

States Information Agency, not in excess of the daily rate for the

first step of GS-15 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of

title 5.

(f) Secretarial and staff assistance

The President is authorized to provide for necessary secretarial

and staff assistance for the Board and such committees as may be

created under this section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 106, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 532; 1977

Reorg. Plan No. 2, Secs. 8(b), 9(a)(3), (6), 42 F.R. 62461, 91

Stat. 1638, 1639; Pub. L. 96-60, title II, Sec. 205(a), Aug. 15,

1979, 93 Stat. 401; Pub. L. 96-88, title III, Sec. 301(b)(2), title

V, Sec. 507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 678, 692; Pub. L. 97-241,

title III, Sec. 303(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291; Pub. L.

101-246, title II, Sec. 204(a)(1), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 49;

Pub. L. 102-54, Sec. 13(h)(1), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 275; Pub.

L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XIII, Sec. 1336(2), Oct. 21,

1998, 112 Stat. 2681-790.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d), and (e), was in

the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75

Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural

Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to

the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this

title and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Subsec. (b), which established the United States Advisory

Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs to

replace the United States Advisory Commission on Educational

Exchange, and provided for its functions and the appointment and

terms of its members, and the provisions of subsecs. (e) and (f)

referring to the "Commission", were omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan

No. 2 of 1977, Sec. 9(a)(3), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1639, set out

under section 1461 of this title, which abolished that Commission

effective on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as specified by

the President.

In subsec. (e), "section 1346(b) of title 31" substituted for

"section 214 of the Act of May 3, 1945 (59 Stat. 134; 31 U.S.C.

691)" on authority of Pub. L. 97-258, Sec. 4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96

Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and

Finance.

In subsec. (e), "section 5703 of title 5" substituted for

"section 5 of the Administrative Expense Act of 1946, as amended (5

U.S.C. 73b-2)" on authority of Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 7(b), Sept. 6,

1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5,

Government Organization and Employees.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1998 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-277 repealed subsec. (c), which

related to the continuation of the Advisory Committee on the Arts

and the appointment, qualifications, and terms of office of its

members.

1991 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102-54 substituted "Department of

Veterans Affairs" for "Veterans' Administration".

1990 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101-246 substituted "board of

foreign scholarships which shall be known as the 'J. William

Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board' " for "Board of Foreign

Scholarships".

1979 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96-60 struck from second sentence

"the Board," before "the Commission" and from cl. (ii) thereof

"such Board," before "Commission" and provided for entitlement of

members of the Board to expenses and per diem in lieu of

subsistence and to compensation for services not exceeding a daily

rate for first step, GS-15 of General Schedule.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-277 effective Oct. 1, 1999, see section

1301 of Pub. L. 105-277, set out as an Effective Date note under

section 6531 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1979 AMENDMENT

Section 205(b) of Pub. L. 96-60 provided that: "The amendments

made by subsection (a) [to subsec. (e) of this section] shall take

effect on October 1, 1979."

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

"Department of Education" substituted for "Office of Education"

in subsec. (a), pursuant to sections 301(b)(2) and 507 of Pub. L.

96-88, which are classified to sections 3441(b)(2) and 3507 of

Title 20, Education, and which transferred the Office of Education

to the Department of Education.

"Director of the United States Information Agency" substituted

for "Director of the International Communication Agency" in subsec.

(e), pursuant to section 303(b) of Pub. L. 97-241, title III, Aug.

24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461 of

this title. United States Information Agency (other than

Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting

Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State,

see sections 6531 and 6532 of this title.

Functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of

State, United States Information Agency or Director thereof under

this chapter transferred to Director of International Communication

Agency by section 7(a)(2) of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, set out

under section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1,

1978, at such time as specified by President, except (A) for such

functions as are vested by subsec. (a) of this section, sections

2452(b)(6), (10), 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455(a), (b), (c)

and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as are vested by

subsecs. (d) and (f) of this section, sections 2454(b) and

2455(d)(2), (f) of this title, to extent that such functions were

assigned to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now

Secretary of Education] immediately prior to effective date of

Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, and (C) for such functions as are vested

by subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section to extent that any function

therein is vested in President or Secretary of State.

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary

of State, Director of United States Information Agency, Secretary

of Commerce, and Secretary of Education, see Ex. Ord. No. 11034,

June 25, 1962, 27 F.R. 6071, set out as a note under section 2454

of this title.

-MISC2-

TERMINATION OF ADVISORY COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES

Advisory commissions or committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973,

to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period

following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission or

committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal

Government, such commission or committee is renewed by appropriate

action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the

case of a commission or committee established by the Congress, its

duration is otherwise provided for by law. See sections 3(2) and 14

of Pub. L. 92-463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the

Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CONTINUED SERVICE OF BOARD MEMBERS

Section 204(b) of Pub. L. 101-246 provided that: "Each member

appointed to the Board of Foreign Scholarships before the date of

the enactment of this Act [Feb. 16, 1990] shall continue to serve

for the remainder of the term to which each such member was

appointed."

REFERENCES TO BOARD OF FOREIGN SCHOLARSHIPS

Section 204(c) of Pub. L. 101-246 provided that: "Any reference

in any provision of law to the Board of Foreign Scholarships shall,

on and after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 16, 1990], be

deemed to be a reference to the J. William Fulbright Foreign

Scholarship Board."

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2457 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2457. Reports by Board

-STATUTE-

The Board shall submit annual reports to the Congress and such

other reports to the Congress as it deems appropriate, and shall

make reports to the public in the United States and abroad to

develop a better understanding of and support for the programs

authorized by this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 107, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 534; 1977

Reorg. Plan No. 2, Sec. 9(a)(3), (6), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat.

1639.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this

Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, as

amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act

of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and

Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Provisions relating to the submission of reports to Congress by

the United States Advisory Commission on International Educational

and Cultural Affairs [which replaced the United States Advisory

Commission on Educational Exchange], and the Advisory Committee on

the Arts, were omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, Sec.

9(a)(3), (6), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1639, set out under section

1461 of this title, which abolished the Commission and the

Committee effective on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as

specified by the President.

-MISC1-

TERMINATION OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in this

section relating to submitting annual reports to Congress, see

section 3003 of Pub. L. 104-66, as amended, set out as a note under

section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 155 of House

Document No. 103-7.

TERMINATION OF ADVISORY COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES

Advisory commissions or committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973,

to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period

following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission or

committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal

Government, such commission or committee is renewed by appropriate

action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the

case of a commission or committee established by the Congress, its

duration is otherwise provided for by law. See sections 3(2) and 14

of Pub. L. 92-463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the

Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2458 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2458. Authority of President

-STATUTE-

(a) Performance of certain functions without regard to other laws;

appropriation credits upon reimbursement for services in

connection with exchange activities

(1) Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of

this chapter, the functions authorized in section 2452(a)(2) and

(3) of this title may be performed without regard to such

provisions of law or limitations of authority regulating or

relating to the making, performance, amendment, or modification of

contracts, the acquisition and disposition of property, and the

expenditure of Government funds, as he may specify.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Director of

the United States Information Agency may provide, on a reimbursable

basis, services within the United States in connection with

exchange activities otherwise authorized by this chapter when such

services are requested by a department or executive agency.

Reimbursements under this paragraph shall be credited to the

applicable appropriation of the Agency.

(b) Periodic reports of activities and expenditures

The President shall submit periodic reports to the Congress of

activities carried on and expenditures made in furtherance of the

purposes of this chapter and of the United States Information and

Educational Exchange Act of 1948, as amended [22 U.S.C. 1431 et

seq.].

(c) Expenditures in selection, purchase, rental, construction, or

other acquisition of exhibits and materials and equipment

therefor

In connection with activities authorized by section 2452(a)(2)

and (3) of this title, the President is authorized to provide for

all necessary expenditures involved in the selection, purchase,

rental, construction, or other acquisition of exhibits and

materials and equipment therefor, and the actual display thereof,

including but not limited to costs of transportation, insurance,

installation, safekeeping and storage, maintenance and operation,

rental of space, and dismantling.

(d) Utilization of provisions of other laws

The President is authorized to utilize the provisions of title

VIII of the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act

of 1948, as amended [22 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.], to the extent he

deems necessary in carrying out the provisions and purposes of this

chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 108, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 534; Pub. L.

96-60, title II, Sec. 203(d), Aug. 15, 1979, 93 Stat. 399; Pub. L.

96-470, title II, Sec. 212(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2246; Pub.

L. 97-241, title III, Sec. 303(b), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (d), was in

the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75

Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural

Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to

the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this

title and Tables.

The United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of

1948, as amended, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (d), is act Jan.

27, 1948, ch. 36, 62 Stat. 6, as amended, which is classified

generally to chapter 18 (Sec. 1431 et seq.) of this title. Title

VIII of the Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is classified

generally to subchapter VII (Sec. 1471 et seq.) of chapter 18 of

this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see Short Title note set out under section 1431 of this title and

Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1980 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96-470 substituted provision

requiring periodic reports on activities and expenditures made

under this chapter and the United States Information and

Educational Exchange Act of 1948 for provision requiring an annual

report be made on activities and expenditures under this chapter.

1979 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96-60 designated existing provisions

as par. (1) and added par. (2).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1979 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 96-60 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section

209 of Pub. L. 96-60, set out as a note under section 1471 of this

title.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board

of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and

functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and

6532 of this title.

"Director of the United States Information Agency" substituted

for "Director of the International Communication Agency" in subsec.

(a)(2), pursuant to section 303(b) of Pub. L. 97-241, title III,

Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461

of this title.

Functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of

State, United States Information Agency or Director thereof under

this chapter transferred to Director of International Communication

Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, Sec. 7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461,

91 Stat. 1637, set out under section 1461 of this title, effective

on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as specified by President,

except (A) for such functions as are vested by this section, and

sections 2452(b)(6), (10), 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455(a),

(b), (c), 2456(a) of this title, (B) for such functions as are

vested by sections 2454(b), 2455(d)(2), (f), and 2456(d), (f) of

this title, to the extent that such functions were assigned to

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of

Education] immediately prior to effective date of Reorg. Plan No. 2

of 1977, and (C) for such functions as are vested by section

2456(b), (c) of this title to the extent that any such function

therein is vested in President or Secretary of State.

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary

of State, Director of United States Information Agency, and

Secretary of Commerce, see Ex. Ord. No. 11034, June 25, 1962, 27

F.R. 6071, set out as a note under section 2454 of this title.

-MISC2-

SOVIET NATIONALS PARTICIPATING IN EXCHANGE PROGRAMS; TOPICS AND

LOCATION OF STUDY; NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS; REPORT TO CONGRESS

Pub. L. 97-241, title I, Sec. 126(c), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat.

282, directed Secretary of State to submit annually to Congress a

list of Soviet nationals participating during the upcoming academic

year in the United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

graduate student/young faculty exchange or in the United

States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics senior scholar exchange,

their topics of study, and where they were to study, such report to

also include a determination by Secretary of State, in consultation

with heads of other agencies involved in these exchange programs,

that these exchange programs would not jeopardize United States

national security interests, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103-199,

title III, Sec. 306, Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2324.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2458a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2458a. Federal employee participation in cultural exchange

programs

-STATUTE-

(a) Grants and other foreign government assistance; family or

household expense assistance prohibited; "Federal employee"

defined

(1) Congress consents to the acceptance by a Federal employee of

grants and other forms of assistance provided by a foreign

government to facilitate the participation of such Federal employee

in a cultural exchange -

(A) which is of the type described in section 2452(a)(2)(i) of

this title,

(B) which is conducted for a purpose comparable to the purpose

stated in section 2451 of this title, and

(C) which is specifically approved by the Secretary of State

for purposes of this section;

but the Congress does not consent to the acceptance by any Federal

employee of any portion of any such grant or other form of

assistance which provides assistance with respect to any expenses

incurred by or for any member of the family or household of such

Federal employee.

(2) For purposes of this section, the term "Federal employee"

means any employee as defined in subparagraphs (A) through (F) of

section 7342(a)(1) of title 5, but does not include a person

described in subparagraph (G) of such section.

(b) Foreign grants and other assistance not gifts for purposes of

section 7342 of title 5

The grants and other forms of assistance with respect to which

the consent of Congress is given in subsection (a) of this section

shall not constitute gifts for purposes of section 7342 of title 5.

(c) Regulations

The Secretary of State is authorized to promulgate regulations

for purposes of this section.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 108A, as added Pub. L. 94-350, title I, Sec.

111, July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 825; amended Pub. L. 96-60, title II,

Sec. 204(d), Aug. 15, 1979, 93 Stat. 400.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1979 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96-60 substituted "(F)" for "(E)"

and "(G)" for "(F)".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1979 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 96-60 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section

209 of Pub. L. 96-60, set out as a note under section 1471 of this

title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in title 5 section 7342.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2459 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2459. Immunity from seizure under judicial process of cultural

objects imported for temporary exhibition or display

-STATUTE-

(a) Agreements; Presidential determination; publication in Federal

Register

Whenever any work of art or other object of cultural significance

is imported into the United States from any foreign country,

pursuant to an agreement entered into between the foreign owner or

custodian thereof and the United States or one or more cultural or

educational institutions within the United States providing for the

temporary exhibition or display thereof within the United States at

any cultural exhibition, assembly, activity, or festival

administered, operated, or sponsored, without profit, by any such

cultural or educational institution, no court of the United States,

any State, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession

of the United States may issue or enforce any judicial process, or

enter any judgment, decree, or order, for the purpose or having the

effect of depriving such institution, or any carrier engaged in

transporting such work or object within the United States, of

custody or control of such object if before the importation of such

object the President or his designee has determined that such

object is of cultural significance and that the temporary

exhibition or display thereof within the United States is in the

national interest, and a notice to that effect has been published

in the Federal Register.

(b) Intervention of United States attorney in pending judicial

proceedings

If in any judicial proceeding in any such court any such process,

judgment, decree, or order is sought, issued, or entered, the

United States attorney for the judicial district within which such

proceeding is pending shall be entitled as of right to intervene as

a party to that proceeding, and upon request made by either the

institution adversely affected, or upon direction by the Attorney

General if the United States is adversely affected, shall apply to

such court for the denial, quashing, or vacating thereof.

(c) Enforcement of agreements and obligations of carriers under

transportation contracts

Nothing contained in this section shall preclude (1) any judicial

action for or in aid of the enforcement of the terms of any such

agreement or the enforcement of the obligation of any carrier under

any contract for the transportation of any such object of cultural

significance; or (2) the institution or prosecution by or on behalf

of any such institution or the United States of any action for or

in aid of the fulfillment of any obligation assumed by such

institution or the United States pursuant to any such agreement.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 89-259, Oct. 19, 1965, 79 Stat. 985.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was not enacted as a part of the Mutual Educational and

Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, which comprises this chapter.

-EXEC-

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 11312

Ex. Ord. No. 11312, Oct. 14, 1966, 31 F.R. 13415, which related

to the delegation of functions to the Secretary of State, was

revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12047, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13359, set

out below.

EX. ORD. NO. 12047. IMPORTED OBJECTS OF CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE

Ex. Ord. No. 12047, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13359, as amended by

Ex. Ord. No. 12388, Oct. 14, 1982, 47 F.R. 46245, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Act of October 19,

1965, entitled "An Act to render immune from seizure under judicial

process certain objects of cultural significance imported into the

United States for temporary display or exhibition, and for other

purposes" (79 Stat. 985, 22 U.S.C. 2459), and as President of the

United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Director of the United States Information Agency

is designated and empowered to perform the functions conferred upon

the President by the above-mentioned Act and shall be deemed to be

authorized, without the approval, ratification, or other action of

the President, (1) to determine that any work of art or other

object to be imported into the United States within the meaning of

the Act is of cultural significance, (2) to determine that the

temporary exhibition or display of any such work of art or other

object in the United States is in the national interest, and (3) to

cause public notices of the determinations referred to above to be

published in the Federal Register.

Sec. 2. The Director of the United States Information Agency, in

carrying out this Order, shall consult with the Secretary of State

with respect to the determination of national interest, and may

consult with the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the

Director of the National Gallery of Art, and with such other

officers and agencies of the Government as may be appropriate, with

respect to the determination of cultural significance.

Sec. 3. The Director of the United States Information Agency is

authorized to delegate within the Agency the functions conferred

upon him by this Order.

Sec. 4. Executive Order No. 11312 of October 14, 1966 is revoked.

Sec. 5. Any order, regulation, determination or other action

which was in effect pursuant to the provisions of Executive Order

No. 11312 shall remain in effect until changed pursuant to the

authority provided in this Order.

Sec. 6. This Order shall be effective on April 1, 1978.

[For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than

Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting

Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references

thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of this title.]

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2611 of title 19.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2460 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2460. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

-STATUTE-

(a) Establishment; responsibilities

In order to carry out the purposes of this chapter, there is

established in the United States Information Agency, or in such

appropriate agency of the United States as the President shall

determine, a Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

(hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Bureau"). The

Bureau shall be responsible for managing, coordinating, and

overseeing programs established pursuant to this chapter, including

but not limited to -

(1) the J. William Fulbright Educational Exchange Program

which, by promoting the exchange of scholars, researchers,

students, trainees, teachers, instructors, and professors,

between the United States and foreign countries, accomplishes the

purposes of section 2452(a)(1) of this title;

(2) the Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program which finances

(A) study at American universities and institutions of higher

learning, including study in degree granting programs, and (B)

participation in fellowships, internships, or other programs in

American governmental and nongovernmental institutions for public

managers and other individuals from developing countries;

(3) the International Visitors Program which provides grants

for short-term visits to the United States for foreign nationals

who are, or have the potential to be, leaders in their respective

fields in their own countries;

(4) the American Cultural Centers and Libraries which make

available at selected foreign locations, books, films, sound

recordings, and other materials about the United States, its

people and culture, and about other topics;

(5) the American Overseas Schools Program which provides

financial assistance to the operations of American-sponsored

schools overseas;

(6) the American Studies Program which fosters and supports the

study of the United States, and its people and culture, in

foreign countries;

(7) a program of working with private, not-for-profit groups

through contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements, as

authorized by section 2452 of this title, so as to provide

financial assistance to nongovernmental organizations engaged in

implementing and enhancing exchange-of-persons programs;

(8) the Samantha Smith Memorial Exchange Program which advances

understanding between the United States and the independent

states of the former Soviet Union and between the United States

and Eastern European countries through the exchange of persons

under the age of 21 years and of students at an institution of

higher education (as defined in section 1001 of title 20) who

have not received their initial baccalaureate degree or through

other programs designed to promote contact between the young

peoples of the United States, the independent states of the

former Soviet Union, and Eastern European countries; and

(9) the Arts America program which promotes a greater

appreciation and understanding of American art abroad by

supporting exhibitions and tours by American artists in other

countries.

(b) Revocation or diminution of grants

(1) All recipients of Fulbright Academic Exchange and Humphrey

Fellowship awards shall have full academic and artistic freedom,

including freedom to write, publish, and create. No award granted

pursuant to this chapter may be revoked or diminished on account of

the political views expressed by the recipient or on account of any

scholarly or artistic activity that would be subject to the

protections of academic and artistic freedom normally observed in

universities in the United States. The Board shall ensure that the

academic and artistic freedoms of all persons receiving grants are

protected.

(2) The J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board shall

formulate a policy on revocation of Fulbright grants which shall be

made known to all grantees. Such policy shall fully protect the

right to due process as well as the academic and artistic freedom

of all grantees.

(c) Program requirements

The President shall insure that all programs under the authority

of the Bureau shall maintain their nonpolitical character and shall

be balanced and representative of the diversity of American

political, social, and cultural life. The President shall insure

that academic and cultural programs under the authority of the

Bureau shall maintain their scholarly integrity and shall meet the

highest standards of academic excellence or artistic achievement.

(d) Administration of programs

(1) The Bureau shall administer no programs except those

operating under the authority of this chapter and consistent with

its purposes.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Bureau may also exercise

the authorities of this chapter to administer programs authorized

by, or funded pursuant to, the FREEDOM Support Act, the Support for

East European Democracy Act [22 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.], the Foreign

Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], or any other Act

authorizing educational or cultural exchanges or activities, to the

extent that such programs are consistent with the purposes of this

chapter.

(e) Office of Citizen Exchanges

There is established in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural

Affairs an Office of Citizen Exchanges. The Office shall support

private not-for-profit organizations engaged in the exchange of

persons between the United States and other countries.

(f) Coordination of exchange programs; reports

(1) The President shall ensure that all exchange programs

conducted by the United States Government, its departments and

agencies, directly or through agreements with other parties, are

reported at a time and in a format prescribed by the Director. The

President shall ensure that such exchanges are consistent with

United States foreign policy and avoid duplication of effort.

(2) Not later than 90 days after April 30, 1994, and annually

thereafter, the President shall submit to the Speaker of the House

of Representatives and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign

Relations of the Senate a report pursuant to paragraph (1). Such

report shall include information for each exchange program

supported by the United States on the objectives of such exchange,

the number of exchange participants supported, the types of

exchange activities conducted, the total amount of Federal

expenditures for such exchanges, and the extent to which such

exchanges are duplicative.

(g) Working Group on United States Government-Sponsored

International Exchanges and Training

(1) In order to carry out the purposes of subsection (f) of this

section and to improve the coordination, efficiency, and

effectiveness of United States Government-sponsored international

exchanges and training, there is established within the Department

of State a senior-level interagency working group to be known as

the Working Group on United States Government-Sponsored

International Exchanges and Training (in this section referred to

as the "Working Group").

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term

"Government-sponsored international exchanges and training" means

the movement of people between countries to promote the sharing of

ideas, to develop skills, and to foster mutual understanding and

cooperation, financed wholly or in part, directly or indirectly,

with United States Government funds.

(3) The Working Group shall be composed as follows:

(A) The Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and

Cultural Affairs, who shall act as Chair.

(B) A senior representative of the Department of Defense, who

shall be designated by the Secretary of Defense.

(C) A senior representative of the Department of Education, who

shall be designated by the Secretary of Education.

(D) A senior representative of the Department of Justice, who

shall be designated by the Attorney General.

(E) A senior representative of the Agency for International

Development, who shall be designated by the Administrator of the

Agency.

(F) Senior representatives of such other departments and

agencies as the Chair determines to be appropriate.

(4) Representatives of the National Security Adviser and the

Director of the Office of Management and Budget may participate in

the Working Group at the discretion of the Adviser and the

Director, respectively.

(5) The Working Group shall be supported by an interagency staff

office established in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural

Affairs of the Department of State.

(6) The Working Group shall have the following purposes and

responsibilities:

(A) To collect, analyze, and report data provided by all United

States Government departments and agencies conducting

international exchanges and training programs.

(B) To promote greater understanding and cooperation among

concerned United States Government departments and agencies of

common issues and challenges in conducting international

exchanges and training programs, including through the

establishment of a clearinghouse for information on international

exchange and training activities in the governmental and

nongovernmental sectors.

(C) In order to achieve the most efficient and cost-effective

use of Federal resources, to identify administrative and

programmatic duplication and overlap of activities by the various

United States Government departments and agencies involved in

Government-sponsored international exchange and training

programs, to identify how each Government-sponsored international

exchange and training program promotes United States foreign

policy, and to report thereon.

(D)(i) Not later than 1 year after October 21, 1998, the

Working Group shall develop a coordinated and cost-effective

strategy for all United States Government-sponsored international

exchange and training programs, including an action plan with the

objective of achieving a minimum of 10 percent cost savings

through greater efficiency, the consolidation of programs, or the

elimination of duplication, or any combination thereof.

(ii) Not later than 1 year after October 21, 1998, the Working

Group shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional

committees setting forth the strategy and action plan required by

clause (i).

(iii) Each year thereafter the Working Group shall assess the

strategy and plan required by clause (i).

(E) Not later than 2 years after October 21, 1998, to develop

recommendations on common performance measures for all United

States Government-sponsored international exchange and training

programs, and to issue a report.

(F) To conduct a survey of private sector international

exchange activities and develop strategies for expanding public

and private partnerships in, and leveraging private sector

support for, United States Government-sponsored international

exchange and training activities.

(G) Not later than 6 months after October 21, 1998, to report

on the feasibility and advisability of transferring funds and

program management for the ATLAS or the Mandela Fellows programs,

or both, in South Africa from the Agency for International

Development to the Department of State. The report shall include

an assessment of the capabilities of the South African Fulbright

Commission to manage such programs and the cost effects of

consolidating such programs under one entity.

(7) All reports prepared by the Working Group shall be submitted

to the President, through the Secretary of State, acting through

the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy.

(8) The Working Group shall meet at least on a quarterly basis.

(9) All decisions of the Working Group shall be by majority vote

of the members present and voting.

(10) The members of the Working Group shall serve without

additional compensation for their service on the Working Group. Any

expenses incurred by a member of the Working Group in connection

with service on the Working Group shall be compensated by that

member's department or agency.

(11) With respect to any report issued under paragraph (6), a

member may submit dissenting views to be submitted as part of the

report of the Working Group.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 112, as added Pub. L. 98-164, title II, Sec.

213, Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1034; amended Pub. L. 100-204, title

III, Secs. 302(a), 303, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1378, 1379; Pub.

L. 101-246, title II, Secs. 204(a)(2), 222(a), 223, Feb. 16, 1990,

104 Stat. 50, 55, 56; Pub. L. 103-199, title III, Sec. 301(1), Dec.

17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 103-236, title II, Sec. 229(a),

Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 423; Pub. L. 105-244, title I, Sec.

102(a)(7)(B), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1619; Pub. L. 105-277, div.

G, subdiv. B, title XXIV, Sec. 2414, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat.

2681-832; Pub. L. 107-228, div. A, title II, Secs. 221, 229, Sept.

30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1367, 1371.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), and (d), was

in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961,

75 Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and

Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this

Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of

this title and Tables.

The FREEDOM Support Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub.

L. 102-511, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3320, as amended, also known

as the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and

Open Markets Support Act of 1992. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

5801 of this title and Tables.

The Support for East European Democracy Act, referred to in

subsec. (d)(2), probably means the Support for East European

Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989, Pub. L. 101-179, Nov. 28, 1989, 103

Stat. 1298, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter

63 (Sec. 5401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification

of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

5401 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec.

(d)(2), is Pub. L. 87-195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended,

which is classified principally to chapter 32 (Sec. 2151 et seq.)

of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and

Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 221, designated

existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 229(1), substituted

"Department of State" for "United States Information Agency".

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 229(2)(A), substituted

"Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs"

for "Associate Director for Educational and Cultural Affairs of the

United States Information Agency".

Subsec. (g)(3)(B) to (G). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 229(2)(B), (C),

redesignated subpars. (C) to (G) as (B) to (F), respectively, and

struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "A senior

representative of the Department of State, who shall be designated

by the Secretary of State."

Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 229(3), substituted

"Department of State" for "United States Information Agency".

Subsec. (g)(6)(G). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 229(4), substituted

"Department of State" for "United States Information Agency".

Subsec. (g)(7). Pub. L. 107-228, Sec. 229(5), substituted

"Secretary of State, acting through the Under Secretary of State

for Public Diplomacy" for "Director of the United States

Information Agency".

1998 - Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 105-244 substituted "section 1001"

for "section 1141(a)".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-277 added subsec. (g).

1994 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103-236 added subsec. (f).

1993 - Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 103-199 substituted "independent

states of the former Soviet Union" for "Soviet Union" in two

places.

1990 - Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 101-246, Sec. 223, inserted "or

through other programs designed to promote contact between the

young peoples of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Eastern

European countries" after "degree".

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 101-246, Sec. 204(a)(2), added

subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and

(d), respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101-246, Sec. 222(a), added subsec. (e).

1987 - Subsec. (a)(8), (9). Pub. L. 100-204 added pars. (8) and

(9).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 105-244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as

otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105-244, see section 3 of Pub. L.

105-244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20,

Education.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board

of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and

functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and

6532 of this title.

Section 222(b) of Pub. L. 101-246 provided that: "There are

hereby transferred to the Office of Citizen Exchanges on the date

of enactment of this Act [Feb. 16, 1990] all functions carried out

by the Office of Private Sector Programs on the day before such

date."

-MISC2-

PRIVATE SECTOR PROGRAM; RESTRICTIONS ON FUNDS FOR FOREIGN TRAVEL;

WAIVER; REPORTS

Section 207 of Pub. L. 98-164, as amended by Pub. L. 103-236,

title I, Sec. 139(11), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 398, provided that:

"(a) No funds authorized to be appropriated for the Private

Sector Program shall be used to pay for foreign travel by any

United States citizen who, in the five years preceding the date of

the proposed foreign travel, made two or more trips financed in

whole or in substantial part by grants from the Private Sector

Program. This limitation shall not apply to escort interpreters

accompanying delegations, to artists accompanying exhibitions, to

persons engaging in theatrical or musical performances, or to the

full-time staff of the grantee organization. In addition, the

Director of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs may

waive this limitation in exceptional cases if he determines that

foreign travel is essential to the successful completion of the

grant program and so certifies in writing to the Speaker of the

House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on

Foreign Relations of the Senate at least fifteen days prior to the

commencement of the proposed foreign travel.

"[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 103-236, title I, Sec. 139(11), Apr. 30,

1994, 108 Stat. 398.]"

-EXEC-

EX. ORD. NO. 13055. COORDINATION OF UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES AND TRAINING PROGRAMS

Ex. Ord. No. 13055, July 15, 1997, 62 F.R. 39099, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution

and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to

improve the coordination of United States Government International

Exchanges and Training Programs, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. There is hereby established within the United States

Information Agency a senior-level Interagency Working Group on

United States Government-Sponsored International Exchanges and

Training ("the Working Group"). The purpose of the Working Group is

to recommend to the President measures for improving the

coordination, efficiency, and effectiveness of United States

Government-sponsored international exchanges and training. The

Working Group shall establish a clearinghouse to improve data

collection and analysis of international exchanges and training.

Sec. 2. The term "Government-sponsored international exchanges

and training" shall mean the movement of people between countries

to promote the sharing of ideas, to develop skills, and to foster

mutual understanding and cooperation, financed wholly or in part,

directly or indirectly, with United States Government funds.

Sec. 3. The Working Group shall consist of the Associate Director

for Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States

Information Agency, who shall act as Chair, and a comparable senior

representative appointed by the respective Secretary of each of the

Departments of State, Defense, Education, and the Attorney General,

by the Administrator of the United States Agency for International

Development, and by heads of other interested executive departments

and agencies. In addition, representatives of the National Security

Council and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget

shall participate in the Working Group at their discretion. The

Working Group shall be supported by an interagency staff office

established in the Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs of the

United States Information Agency.

Sec. 4. The Working Group shall have the following

responsibilities:

(a) Collect, analyze, and report data provided by all United

States Government departments and agencies conducting international

exchanges and training programs;

(b) Promote greater understanding of and cooperation on, among

concerned United States Government departments and agencies, common

issues and challenges faced in conducting international exchanges

and training programs, including through the establishment of a

clearinghouse for information on international exchange and

training activities in the governmental and nongovernmental

sectors;

(c) In order to achieve the most efficient and cost-effective use

of Federal resources, identify administrative and programmatic

duplication and overlap of activities by the various United States

Government agencies involved in Government-sponsored international

exchange and training programs, and report thereon;

(d) No later than 1 year from the date of this order, develop

initially and thereafter assess annually a coordinated strategy for

all United States Government-sponsored international exchange and

training programs, and issue a report on such strategy;

(e) No later than 2 years from the date of this order, develop

recommendations on performance measures for all United States

Government-sponsored international exchange and training programs,

and issue a report thereon; and

(f) Develop strategies for expanding public and private

partnerships in, and leveraging private sector support for, United

States Government-sponsored international exchange and training

activities.

Sec. 5. All reports prepared by the Working Group pursuant to

section 4 shall be made to the President, through the Director of

the United States Information Agency.

Sec. 6. The Working Group shall meet on at least a quarterly

basis.

Sec. 7. Any expenses incurred by a member of the Working Group in

connection with such member's service on the Working Group shall be

borne by the member's respective department or agency.

Sec. 8. If any member of the Working Group disagrees with respect

to any matter in any report prepared pursuant to section 4, such

member may prepare a statement setting forth the reasons for such

disagreement and such statement shall be appended to, and

considered a part of, the report.

Sec. 9. Nothing in this Executive order is intended to alter the

authorities and responsibilities of the head of any department or

agency.

William J. Clinton.

[For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than

Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting

Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references

thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of this title.]

-CROSS-

DEFINITIONS

In subsec. (a)(8), independent states of the former Soviet Union

has the meaning given in section 5801 of this title, see section 3

of Pub. L. 103-199, set out as a note under section 5801 of this

title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 4704 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2461 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2461. Exchanges between United States and independent states

of the former Soviet Union

-STATUTE-

(a) Financing of exchanges with repayments on Lend-Lease debts

The President is authorized to negotiate and implement agreements

with the independent states of the former Soviet Union under which

repayments made by the independent states on Lend-Lease debts to

the United States would be used to finance the exchange of persons

between the United States and the independent states for

educational, cultural, and artistic purposes. Exchanges authorized

pursuant to this section shall be administered subject to the

provisions of this chapter. Part of the funds repaid to the United

States shall be in convertible currency for the purpose of paying

the expenses associated with study and other exchange activities in

the United States by citizens of the independent states.

(b) Limitation on availability of funds

Funds made available for the purposes of this section shall be

available only to the extent and in the amounts provided for in an

appropriation Act.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 113, as added Pub. L. 101-246, title II, Sec.

224, Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 56; amended Pub. L. 103-199, title

III, Sec. 301(2), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2322.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original

"this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527,

as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange

Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and

Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1993 - Pub. L. 103-199, Sec. 301(2)(A), substituted "Exchanges

between United States and independent states of the former Soviet

Union" for "United States-Soviet exchanges" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-199, Sec. 301(2)(B)-(E), substituted

"agreements with the independent states of the former Soviet Union"

for "an agreement with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics",

"made by the independent states" for "made by the Soviet Union",

"and the independent states" for "and the Soviet Union", and "in

the United States by citizens of the independent states" for "by

Soviet citizens in the United States".

-CROSS-

DEFINITIONS

In subsec. (a), independent states of the former Soviet Union and

independent states have the meanings given in section 5801 of this

title, see section 3 of Pub. L. 103-199, set out as a note under

section 5801 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2462 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2462. Establishment of grant program for foreign study by

American college students of limited financial means

-STATUTE-

(a) Establishment

Subject to the availability of appropriations and under the

authorities of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of

1961 [22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.], the Secretary of State shall

establish and carry out a program in each fiscal year to award

grants of up to $5,000, to individuals who meet the requirements of

subsection (b) of this section, toward the cost of up to one

academic year of undergraduate study abroad. Grants under this Act

shall be known as the "Benjamin A. Gilman International

Scholarships".

(b) Eligibility

An individual referred to in subsection (a) of this section is an

individual who -

(1) is a student in good standing at an institution of higher

education in the United States (as defined in section 101(a) of

the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001(a)]);

(2) has been accepted for up to one academic year of study on a

program of study abroad approved for credit by the student's home

institution;

(3) is receiving any need-based student assistance under title

IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.,

42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.]; and

(4) is a citizen or national of the United States.

(c) Application and selection

(1) Grant application and selection shall be carried out through

accredited institutions of higher education in the United States or

a combination of such institutions under such procedures as are

established by the Secretary of State.

(2) In considering applications for grants under this section -

(A) consideration of financial need shall include the increased

costs of study abroad; and

(B) priority consideration shall be given to applicants who are

receiving Federal Pell Grants under title IV of the Higher

Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et

seq.].

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 106-309, title III, Sec. 303, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat.

1095.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961,

referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 87-256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75

Stat. 527, as amended, which is classified principally to this

chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and

Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means title III of

Pub. L. 106-309, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1094, known as the

International Academic Opportunity Act of 2000, which enacted this

section and provisions set out as notes under this section. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)

and (c)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 89-329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, as

amended. Title IV of the Act is classified generally to subchapter

IV (Sec. 1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education, and

part C (Sec. 2751 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 34 of Title

42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was enacted as part of the International Academic

Opportunity Act of 2000, and also as part of the Microenterprise

for Self-Reliance and International Anti-Corruption Act of 2000,

and not as part of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act

of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC OPPORTUNITY

Pub. L. 106-309, title III, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1094,

provided that:

"SEC. 301. SHORT TITLE.

"This title [enacting this section and this note] may be cited as

the 'International Academic Opportunity Act of 2000'.

"SEC. 302. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.

"It is the purpose of this title to establish an undergraduate

grant program for students of limited financial means from the

United States to enable such students to study abroad. Such foreign

study is intended to broaden the outlook and better prepare such

students of demonstrated financial need to assume significant roles

in the increasingly global economy.

"SEC. 303. ESTABLISHMENT OF GRANT PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN STUDY BY

AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS OF LIMITED FINANCIAL MEANS.

"[Enacted this section.]

"SEC. 304. REPORT TO CONGRESS.

"The Secretary of State shall report annually to the Congress

concerning the grant program established under this title. Each

such report shall include the following information for the

preceding year:

"(1) The number of participants.

"(2) The institutions of higher education in the United States

that participants attended.

"(3) The institutions of higher education outside the United

States participants attended during their study abroad.

"(4) The areas of study of participants.

"SEC. 305. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated $1,500,000 for each

fiscal year to carry out this title.

"SEC. 306. EFFECTIVE DATE.

"This title shall take effect October 1, 2000."

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2463 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2463. Allocation of funds transferred to the Bureau of

Educational and Cultural Affairs

-STATUTE-

Of each amount transferred to the Bureau of Educational and

Cultural Affairs out of appropriations other than appropriations

under the heading "Educational and Cultural Exchange Programs" for

support of an educational or cultural exchange program,

notwithstanding any other provision of law, not more than 7.5

percent shall be made available to cover administrative expenses

incurred in connection with support of the program. Amounts made

available to cover administrative expenses shall be credited to the

appropriations under the heading "Educational and Cultural Exchange

Programs" and shall remain available until expended.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 114, as added Pub. L. 107-77, title IV, Sec.

406, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 790.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 2464 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 33 - MUTUAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM

-HEAD-

Sec. 2464. Ethical issues in international health research

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

The Secretary shall make available funds for international

exchanges to provide opportunities to researchers in developing

countries to participate in activities related to ethical issues in

human subject research, as described in subsection (c) of this

section.

(b) Coordination with other programs

The Secretary shall coordinate programs conducted pursuant to

this section with similar programs that may be conducted by the

United States Agency for International Development and other

Federal agencies as part of United States international health

programs, particularly with respect to research and treatment of

infectious diseases.

(c) Ethical issues in human subject research

For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the phrase

"activities related to ethical issues in human subject research"

includes courses of study, conferences, and fora on development of

and compliance with international ethical standards for clinical

trials involving human subjects, particularly with respect to

responsibilities of researchers to individuals and local

communities participating in such trials, and on management and

monitoring of such trials based on such international ethical

standards.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 107-228, div. A, title II, Sec. 228, Sept. 30, 2002, 116

Stat. 1371.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was enacted as part of the Department of State

Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003, and also as part of the

Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003, and not as

part of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961

which comprises this chapter.

-CROSS-

DEFINITION

For definition of "Secretary" as used in this section, see

section 3 of Pub. L. 107-228, set out as a note under section 2651

of this title.

-End-