US (United States) Code. Title 22. Chapter 24: Mutual Security Program

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos) Legislación Federal estadounidense # Foreign Relations and Intercourse

  • Enviado por: El remitente no desea revelar su nombre
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Estados Unidos Estados Unidos
  • 123 páginas
publicidad

-CITE-

22 USC CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

-MISC1-

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Sec.

1750 to 1753a. Repealed.

1754. Foreign currencies.

(a) Availability and use.

(b) Availability to Members and employees of

Congress; authorization requirements; reports.

1755 to 1782. Repealed or Omitted.

1783. Coordination with foreign policy.

1784 to 1795. Repealed.

1796. Participation in Joint Commission on Rural

Reconstruction in China.

1797. Repealed.

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

1811 to 1834. Repealed.

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

PART A - DEFENSE SUPPORT

1841 to 1852. Repealed.

1853. Assistance to Yugoslavia.

1854. Repealed.

PART B - DEVELOPMENT LOAN FUND

1870 to 1876. Repealed.

PART C - TECHNICAL COOPERATION

1891 to 1896. Repealed.

1896a. Restriction on commitments for technical assistance.

1896b. Colombo Plan Council for Technical Cooperation;

authorization.

1897, 1898. Repealed.

PART D - SPECIAL ASSISTANCE AND OTHER PROGRAMS

1920 to 1927. Repealed.

1928. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

(a) Authorization for expenses.

(b) Appointment of personal representative.

(c) Duration of staff service.

1928a. North Atlantic Treaty Parliamentary Conference;

participation; appointment of United States Group.

1928b. Authorization of appropriations.

1928c. Report to the Congress.

1928d. Auditing and accounting.

1928e. North Atlantic Assembly; appropriations for expenses

of annual meeting.

1929 to 1936. Repealed.

1937. Irish counterpart account; approval of disposition.

1938 to 1941. Repealed.

1942. Development assistance in Latin America; Congressional

declaration of policy.

1943. Authorization of appropriations; restrictions; reports

to Congressional committees.

1944. Reconstruction assistance in Chile; authorization of

appropriations.

1945. Utilization of funds for assistance in Latin America;

availability for transportation of immigrants from

Ryukyuan Archipelago.

SUBCHAPTER IV - CONTINGENCY FUND

1951. Repealed.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in sections 1945, 2103 of this title;

title 26 sections 995, 1441.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE

PROVISIONS 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1750 to 1753a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1750 to 1753a. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), (5), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1750, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, Sec. 2, formerly ch.

IV, Sec. 549, as added July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 11, 69 Stat.

289, renumbered and amended July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 2, 70

Stat. 555; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, Sec. 2, 73 Stat. 246; May

14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, Sec. 2, 74 Stat. 134, stated the

Congressional declaration of purpose for this chapter. See section

2151 et seq. of this title.

Section 1750a, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 503, June 30, 1958, 72

Stat. 275, related to strengthening cooperation in the Western

Hemisphere.

Section 1750b, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 552, as

added May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(m), 74 Stat.

140, prohibited assistance to Cuba. See section 2370 of this title.

Section 1751, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 545, 68

Stat. 862; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 11(b), 70 Stat. 565; June

30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(i), ch. V, Sec.

501(31)-(33), 72 Stat. 270, 272, defined terms used in this

chapter. See section 2403 of this title.

Section 1752, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 546, 68

Stat. 863; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 11(c), 71 Stat 365,

related to construction and application of this chapter.

Section 1753, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 501, 68

Stat. 849; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 9(a), 70 Stat. 560,

authorized transferability of funds. See section 2360 of this

title.

Section 1753a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 551, as

added July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(m), 73 Stat.

255; amended Sept. 8, 1960, Pub. L. 86-735, Sec. 4, 74 Stat. 870,

provided for limitations on the use of the President's special

authority.

TRANSFER OF FUNDS TO CARRY OUT INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE

ACTIVITIES

Section 13 of act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, 70 Stat. 565, was

repealed by Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(4). Sept. 4, 1961,

75 Stat. 460.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1754 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1754. Foreign currencies

-STATUTE-

(a) Availability and use

Notwithstanding section 1306 of title 31, or any other provision

of law, proceeds of sales made under section 1675p (!1) of this

title, shall remain available and shall be used for any of the

purposes of this chapter, giving particular regard to the following

purposes -

(1) for providing military assistance to nations or mutual

defense organizations eligible to receive assistance under this

chapter;

(2) for purchase of goods or services in friendly nations;

(3) for loans, under applicable provisions of this chapter, to

increase production of goods or services, including strategic

materials, needed in any nation with which an agreement was

negotiated, or in other friendly nations, with the authority to

use currencies received in repayment for the purposes stated in

the section or for deposit to the general account of the Treasury

of the United States;

(4) for developing new markets on a mutually beneficial basis;

(5) for grants-in-aid to increase production for domestic needs

in friendly countries; and

(6) for purchasing materials for United States stockpiles.

(b) Availability to Members and employees of Congress;

authorization requirements; reports

(1)(A) Notwithstanding section 1306 of title 31, or any other

provision of law -

(i) local currencies owned by the United States which are in

excess of the amounts reserved under section 2362(a) of this

title and of the requirements of the United States Government in

payment of its obligations outside of the United States, as such

requirements may be determined from time to time by the

President; and

(ii) any other local currencies owned by the United States in

amounts not to exceed the equivalent of $75 per day per person or

the maximum per diem allowance established under the authority of

subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5 for employees of the United

States Government while traveling in a foreign country, whichever

is greater, exclusive of the actual cost of transportation;

shall be made available to Members and employees of the Congress

for their local currency expenses when authorized as provided in

subparagraph (B).

(B) The authorization required for purposes of subparagraph (A)

may be provided -

(i) by the Speaker of the House of Representatives in the case

of a Member or employee of the House;

(ii) by the chairman of a standing or select committee of the

House of Representatives in the case of a member or employee of

that committee;

(iii) by the President of the Senate, the President pro tempore

of the Senate, the Majority Leader of the Senate, or the Minority

Leader of the Senate, in the case of a Member or employee of the

Senate;

(iv) by the chairman of a standing, select, or special

committee of the Senate in the case of a member or employee of

that committee or of an employee of a member of that committee;

and

(v) by the chairman of a joint committee of the Congress in the

case of a member or employee of that committee.

(C) Whenever local currencies owned by the United States are not

otherwise available for purposes of this subsection, the Secretary

of the Treasury shall purchase such local currencies as may be

necessary for such purposes, using any funds in the Treasury not

otherwise appropriated.

(2) On a quarterly basis, the chairman of each committee of the

House of Representatives or the Senate and of each joint committee

of the Congress (A) shall prepare a consolidated report (i) which

itemizes the amounts and dollar equivalent values of each foreign

currency expended and the amounts of dollar expenditures from

appropriated funds in connection with travel outside the United

States, stating the purposes of the expenditures including per diem

(lodging and meals), transportation, and other purposes, and (ii)

which shows the total itemized expenditures, by such committee and

by each member or employee of such committee (including in the case

of a committee of the Senate, each employee of a member of the

committee who received an authorization under paragraph (1) from

the chairman of the committee); and (B) shall forward such

consolidated report to the Clerk of the House of Representatives

(if the committee is a committee of the House of Representatives or

a joint committee whose funds are disbursed by the Chief

Administrative Officer of the House) or to the Secretary of the

Senate (if the committee is a committee of the Senate or a joint

committee whose funds are disbursed by the Secretary of the

Senate). Each such consolidated report shall be open to public

inspection and shall be published in the Congressional Record

within ten legislative days after the report is forwarded pursuant

to this paragraph. In the case of the Select Committee on

Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on

Intelligence of the House of Representatives, such consolidated

report may, in the discretion of the chairman of the committee,

omit such information as would identify the foreign countries in

which members and employees of that committee traveled.

(3)(A) Each Member or employee who receives an authorization

under paragraph (1) from the Speaker of the House of

Representatives, the President of the Senate, the President pro

tempore of the Senate, the Majority Leader of the Senate, or the

Minority Leader of the Senate, shall within thirty days after the

completion of the travel involved, submit a report setting forth

the information specified in paragraph (2), to the extent

applicable, to the Clerk of the House of Representatives (in the

case of a Member of the House or an employee whose salary is

disbursed by the Chief Administrative Officer of the House) or the

Secretary of the Senate (in the case of a Member of the Senate or

an employee whose salary is disbursed by the Secretary of the

Senate). In the case of an authorization for a group of Members or

employees, such reports shall be submitted for all Members of the

group by its chairman, or if there is no designated chairman, by

the ranking Member or if the group does not include a Member, by

the senior employee in the group. Each report submitted pursuant to

this subparagraph shall be open to public inspection.

(B) On a quarterly basis, the Clerk of the House of

Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate shall each prepare

a consolidation of the reports received by them under this

paragraph with respect to expenditures during the preceding quarter

by each Member and employee or by each group in the case of

expenditures made on behalf of a group which are not allocable to

individual members of the group. Each such consolidation shall be

open to public inspection and shall be published in the

Congressional Record within ten legislative days after its

completion.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 502, 68 Stat. 849; Sept. 3,

1954, ch. 1262, Sec. 104, 68 Stat. 1223; July 8, 1955, ch. 301,

Sec. 9(a), 69 Stat. 288; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 9(b), 70

Stat. 560; Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(a), June 30, 1958, 72

Stat. 268; Pub. L. 85-766, ch. X, Sec. 1001, Aug. 27, 1958, 72

Stat. 880; Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(a), May 14, 1960, 74

Stat. 138; Pub. L. 86-628, title I, Sec. 105(a), July 12, 1960, 74

Stat. 460; Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961,

75 Stat. 460; Pub. L. 88-633, pt. IV, Sec. 402, Oct. 7, 1964, 78

Stat. 1015; Pub. L. 93-126, Sec. 5, Oct. 18, 1973, 87 Stat. 452;

Pub. L. 93-371, Sec. 107, Aug. 13, 1974, 88 Stat. 444; Pub. L.

94-59, title XI, Sec. 1105, July 25, 1975, 89 Stat. 299; Pub. L.

94-157, title I, ch. IV, Dec. 18, 1975, 89 Stat. 837; Pub. L.

94-350, title IV, Sec. 402, July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 833; Pub. L.

94-440, title I, Sec. 109, Oct. 1, 1976, 90 Stat. 1445; Pub. L.

95-384, Sec. 22(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 742; Pub. L. 104-186,

title II, Sec. 218(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1747.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 1675p of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was

repealed by section 542(a)(9) of act Aug. 26, 1954, and is covered

by section 1922 of this title.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

In subsecs. (a) and (b)(1)(A), "section 1306 of title 31"

substituted for "section 1415 of the Supplemental Appropriation

Act, 1953 [31 U.S.C. 724]" on authority of Pub. L. 97-258, Sec.

4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which

enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Subsec. (b)(2), (3)(A). Pub. L. 104-186 substituted "by

the Chief Administrative Officer" for "by the Clerk".

1978 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95-384, among other changes, inserted

provisions requiring authorization by certain individuals of local

currency expenses of members of employees of Congress and requiring

each member or employee who has received an authorization for his

local currency expenses to submit a report within 30 days setting

forth certain specified information.

1976 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-440 inserted "and the Select

Committee on Intelligence of the Senate" after "Joint Committee on

Congressional Operations" and inserted provision authorizing

chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate to

omit information from the consolidated report that would identify

the foreign countries in which members and employees of such

committee traveled.

Pub. L. 94-350 required publication of each consolidated report

in the Congressional Record within ten legislative days after being

forwarded pursuant to subsec. (b).

1975 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-157 made local currencies

available to Joint Committee on Congressional Operations.

Pub. L. 94-59 struck out provisions requiring each member or

employee to make, to the chairman of the committee in accordance

with regulations prescribed by the committee, an itemized report

showing the amounts and dollar equivalent values of each foreign

currency expended and the amounts of dollar expenditures made from

appropriated funds in connection with travel outside the United

States, together with the purposes of the expenditure, including

lodging, meals, transportation, and other purposes, and, in the

provision requiring a consolidated report by the chairman of each

committee within the first sixty-days that Congress is in session

in each calendar year, inserted requirement that such report

itemize those items, struck out references to subcommittees,

substituted "Committee on House Administration" for "Clerk", and

inserted provision for public inspection.

1974 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93-371 inserted provisions requiring

each member or employee of any committee to make to the chairman,

in accordance with prescribed regulations, an itemized report

showing the amounts of foreign currency expended and dollar

expenditure made from appropriated funds in connection with travel

outside the United States, and substituted provisions relating to

the preparation and submission of a consolidated report by the

chairman, within the first sixty days that Congress is in session

in each calendar year, showing total itemized expenditures during

the preceding calendar year of the committee, for provisions

relating to the submission by the Department of State to the

chairman of each committee, within the first ninety calendar days

that Congress is in session in each calendar year, showing amounts

and equivalent dollar values of foreign currency expended during

the preceding calendar year for travel outside the United States.

1973 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93-126 substituted "$75" for "$50"

and "shall be made available to Members and employees of

appropriate committees" for "shall be made available to appropriate

committees" and substituted a reporting procedure under which the

Department of State, within the first 90 calendar days that

Congress is in session in each calendar year, submits a report

covering the amounts and dollar equivalent values of each foreign

currency expended by each Member and employee with respect to

travel outside the United States, with such report to be available

for public inspection, for a reporting procedure under which both

the amounts and dollar equivalent values of each foreign currency

expended and the amount of dollar expenditures made from

appropriated funds with respect to travel outside the United States

were reported within the first 60 days that Congress was in session

in each calendar year, with each such report published in the

Congressional Record.

1964 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88-633 inserted "which are in excess

of the amounts reserved under section 2362(a) of this title and of

the requirements of the United States Government in payment of its

obligations outside the United States, as such requirements may be

determined from time to time by the President (and any other local

currencies owned by the United States in amounts not to exceed the

equivalent of $50 per day per person exclusive of the actual cost

of transportation)".

1961 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87-195 repealed subsec. (c) which

related to the preservation of cultural monuments of the Upper

Nile.

1960 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86-628 required inclusion in the

reports of expenditures of each member and employee of the

committees and subcommittees.

Pub. L. 86-472, Sec. 401(a)(1), required members and employees of

committees to report the amounts of dollar expenditures made from

appropriated funds in connection with travel outside the United

States, and provided that the consolidated report shall show the

total itemized expenditures incurred as a result of official

activities of members and employees of committees or subcommittees.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86-472, Sec. 401(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

1958 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85-766 required reports to the Select

Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration of the House of

Representatives and the Special Committee on Space and Astronautics

of the Senate.

Pub. L. 85-477 required each member or employee of the committees

to make an itemized report to the chairman of his committee,

provided that the chairman shall consolidate the reports and

forward the consolidated report to the appropriate Congressional

committee within the first 60 days that Congress is in session in

each year, and required publication of each report in the

Congressional Record.

1956 - Subsec. (b). Act July 18, 1956, substituted "Joint

Economic Committee and the Select Committees on Small Business of

the Senate and House of Representatives" for "Joint Committee on

the Economic Report".

1955 - Subsec. (b). Act July 8, 1955, authorized the use of local

currencies by the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy and the Joint

Committee on the Economic Report.

1954 - Subsec. (b). Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted "Committee on

Appropriations of the Senate" for "Committee on Rules and

Administration of the Senate".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT

Section 22(b) of Pub. L. 95-384 provided that: "Notwithstanding

section 30 of this Act [set out as a note below], the amendment

made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section]

shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 26,

1978]."

SHORT TITLE OF 1960 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 86-735, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 869, as amended, which

enacted sections 1942 to 1945 of this title and amended section

1753a of this title, is known as the "Latin American Development

Act". For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

Short Title note set out under section 1942 of this title and

Tables.

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended

by act June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, Sec. 2, 72 Stat. 261,

provided in part: "That this act [enacting this chapter, section

281b-2 of this title, and section 151c of former Title 5, Executive

Departments and Government Officers and Employees, amending

sections 279a, 281b, 290b, 1148, 1442, and 2658 of this title,

section 1704 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 1441 of Title 26,

Internal Revenue Code, and section 1641 of Title 50, App., War and

National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as notes under

section 1751 of this title] may be cited as the 'Mutual Security

Act of 1954'."

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

Certain functions of Clerk of House of Representatives

transferred to Director of Non-legislative and Financial Services

by section 7 of House Resolution No. 423, One Hundred Second

Congress, Apr. 9, 1992. Director of Non-legislative and Financial

Services replaced by Chief Administrative Officer of House of

Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Fourth

Congress, Jan. 4, 1995.

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see

Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set

out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary

of the Treasury pursuant to section 1-501(a)(3) of Ex. Ord. No.

12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56675, eff. Oct. 1, 1979, set out as

a note under section 2381 of this title.

-MISC2-

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1978 NOT TO AFFECT

AUTHORIZATIONS OF APPROPRIATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF AUTHORITY

APPLICABLE TO FISCAL YEAR 1978

Section 30 of Pub. L. 95-384 provided that: "Enactment of this

Act [see Short Title of 1978 Amendment note set out under section

2151 of this title] shall not affect the authorizations of

appropriations and limitations of authority applicable to the

fiscal year 1978 which are contained in provisions of law amended

by this Act (other than sections 31(a), (b), and (d) of the Arms

Export Control Act [section 2771(a), (b), and (d) of this title])."

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 3007 of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1755 to 1759 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1755 to 1759. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1755, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 503, 68

Stat. 850; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 9(b), 69 Stat. 288; Aug. 14,

1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 9(a), 71 Stat. 363; June 30, 1958, Pub.

L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(17), 72 Stat. 271; July 24, 1959, Pub.

L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(a), 73 Stat. 252, provided for

termination of assistance under this chapter. See section 2367 of

this title.

Section 1756, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 504, 68

Stat. 851; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 9(b), 71 Stat. 363;

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V Sec. 501(18), 72 Stat. 271;

July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(b), 73 Stat. 252;

May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(b), 74 Stat. 139,

related to small business participation in furnishing of

commodities and services. See section 2352 of this title.

Section 1757, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 505, 68

Stat. 851; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 9(c), 69 Stat. 288; Aug. 14,

1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 9(c), 71 Stat. 363; July 24, 1959, Pub.

L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(c), 73 Stat. 252; May 14, 1960, Pub. L.

86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(c), 74 Stat. 139, provided for manner and

terms of furnishing loan assistance and sales. See section 2395 of

this title.

Section 1758, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 506, 68

Stat. 852, related to patents and technical information. See

section 2356 of this title.

Section 1759, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 507, 68

Stat. 852; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 9(c), 70 Stat. 560, related

to availability of funds.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1759a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1759a. Repealed. Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(g742l), July

24, 1959, 73 Stat. 255

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 549, as added

July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 1(d), 70 Stat. 565; amended Aug. 14,

1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 11(e), 71 Stat. 365; June 30, 1958, Pub.

L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(34), 72 Stat. 272, authorized an amount

equal to 25 per centum of funds authorized to be appropriated for

any fiscal year for purposes of sections 1891 to 1896, 1897, 1898,

or 1923 of this title to be continued available for three months

beyond end of fiscal year for which appropriated.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1760 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1760. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 508, 68 Stat.

853, prohibited use of funds for propaganda purposes.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1760a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1760a. Omitted

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section, which limited use of counterpart funds with respect to

payment of debts of foreign countries, was enacted as a part of

section 105 of the Mutual Security Appropriation Act, 1958, Pub. L.

85-279, Sec. 105, Sept. 3, 1957, 71 Stat. 603, and was not repeated

in subsequent appropriation acts.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1761 to 1765 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1761 to 1765. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1761, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 509, 68

Stat. 853; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 9(d), 69 Stat. 288; July 18,

1956, ch. 627, Sec. 9(d), 70 Stat. 560; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 9(d), 71 Stat. 363; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

IV, Sec. 401(b), 72 Stat. 269, related to shipping on United States

vessels. See section 2353 of this title.

Section 1762, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 510, 68

Stat. 853; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(c), ch.

V, Sec. 501(19), 72 Stat. 269, 271; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108,

ch. IV, Sec. 401(d), 73 Stat. 253, related to purchase of

commodities in bulk and to surplus agricultural commodities. See

section 2354 of this title.

Section 1763, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 511, 68

Stat. 853; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 9(e), 71 Stat. 363;

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(20), (21), 72 Stat.

271, provided for preservation of military stock and retention and

return of equipment. See section 2355 of this title.

Section 1764, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 512, 68

Stat. 854, prescribed penalties for accepting commissions, etc.,

for procurement services by United States officers and employees.

Section 1765, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 513, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 9(f), 71 Stat. 363;

amended June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(22), 72

Stat. 271; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(d), 74

Stat. 139, provided for notice to legislative committees. See

section 2394(d) of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1766 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1766. Omitted

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 514, 68 Stat.

854, related to reservation of foreign currencies or credits owed

to or by the United States by the Secretary of the Treasury for

sale to the Department of State for international educational

exchange activities on basis of dollar value at time of

reservation. See sections 2362 and 2455 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1766a to 1766c 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1766a to 1766c. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1766a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 515, as

added July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 9(e), 70 Stat. 560, related to

authorization for grant of contract authority. See section 2365 of

this title.

Section 1766b, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 516, as

added June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(d), 72 Stat.

269, prohibited use of funds for debt retirement.

Section 1766c, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 517, as

added June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(d), 72 Stat.

269; amended July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(e), 73

Stat. 253; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(e), 74

Stat. 139, related to completion of plans and cost estimates, and

to computation of benefits and costs. See section 2361 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1767 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1767. Repealed. Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 11(d), Aug. 14, 1957, 71

Stat. 365

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, Sec. 547, 68 Stat.

864, provided for a general limitation on authorizations.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1767a, 1768 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1767a, 1768. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1767a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 548, as

added July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 11, 69 Stat. 289; amended July

18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 11(c), 70 Stat. 565, related to

availability of unexpended balances of funds. See section 2404 of

this title.

Section 1768, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 543, 68

Stat. 861; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 11(a), 71 Stat. 365;

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(g), 72 Stat. 270;

July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(k), 73 Stat. 255,

contained savings provisions. See section 2392 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1781, 1782 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1781, 1782. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1781, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 521, 68

Stat. 855; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 10(a), 70 Stat. 560; Aug.

14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 10(a), 71 Stat. 363; June 30, 1958,

Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(24), (25), 72 Stat. 271, empowered

the President to delegate his authority and provided for the

promulgation of rules and regulations. See section 2381 of this

title.

Section 1782, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 522, 68

Stat. 855; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 10(b), 70 Stat. 560; June

30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(26), 72 Stat. 272,

related to allocation and transfer of funds among Government

agencies, utilization of services and facilities, reimbursement for

military assistance, commodities, services, and facilities,

establishment of accounts, and to charge of expenses to

appropriation. See section 2392 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1783 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1783. Coordination with foreign policy

-STATUTE-

(a) to (c) Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2),

Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460.

(d) Whenever the President determines that the prevention of

improper currency transactions in a given country requires it, he

may direct the chief of the United States diplomatic mission there

to issue regulations applicable to members of the Armed Forces and

officers and employees of the United States Government, and to

contractors with the United States Government and their employees,

governing the extent to which their pay and allowances received and

to be used in that country shall be paid in local currency.

Notwithstanding any other law, United States Government agencies

are authorized and directed to comply with such regulations.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 523, 68 Stat. 856; Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 10(b), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 364; Pub. L. 85-477,

ch. V, Sec. 501(27), June 30, 1958, 72 Stat. 272; Pub. L. 86-108,

ch. IV, Sec. 401(f), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 86-472,

ch. IV, Sec. 401(f), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 87-195,

pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), pt. IV, Sec. 707, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat.

460, 464.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1961 - Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 87-195, Sec. 642(a)(2),

repealed subsecs. (a) to (c) which related to powers and functions

of the Secretary of State, required the President to prescribe

procedures to assure coordination among representatives of the

Government, and made the Secretary of State responsible for the

continuous supervision and general direction of the assistance

programs. See section 2382 of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87-195, Sec. 707, substituted "prevention of

improper currency transactions" for "achievement of United States

foreign policy objectives".

1960 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86-472 added subsec. (d).

1959 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86-108, Sec. 401(f)(1), required the

chief of the diplomatic mission to make sure that recommendations

of representatives pertaining to military assistance are

coordinated with political and economic considerations.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86-108, Sec. 401(f)(2), substituted

provisions making the Secretary of State responsible for the

continuous supervision and general direction of the assistance

programs for provisions which required the Secretary of State to

coordinate the various forms of assistance and to determine the

value of the program under subchapter II of this chapter for any

country.

1958 - Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 85-477 substituted "subchapter II

of this chapter" for "sections 1811 to 1817 of this title".

1957 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85-141 added subsec. (c).

REPEALS

Section 707 of Pub. L. 87-195, cited as a credit to this section,

was repealed by section 401 of Pub. L. 87-565, pt. IV, Aug. 1,

1962, 76 Stat. 263, except insofar as section 707 affected this

section.

-TRANS-

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

For delegation of functions of President under this section, see

Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set

out as a note under section 2381 of this title.

-MISC2-

STUDY OF AGENCIES ENGAGED IN FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Section 604 of Pub. L. 86-472, ch. VI, May 14, 1960, 74 Stat.

141, which related to study of agencies engaged in foreign economic

activities, was repealed by Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(8), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1784 to 1795 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Secs. 1784 to 1795. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1784, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 524, 68

Stat. 856; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 10(a), 69 Stat. 288; Aug.

14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 10(c), 71 Stat. 364; June 30, 1958,

Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(28), 72 Stat. 272, prescribed

duties of Secretary of Defense. See section 2383 of this title.

Section 1785, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 525, 68

Stat. 856; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 10(b), 69 Stat. 288; Aug.

14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 10(d), 71 Stat. 364, authorized

transfer of functions of Foreign Operations Administration.

Section 1786, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 526, 68

Stat. 857; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 10(c), 69 Stat. 289,

authorized maintenance of special missions and staffs abroad. See

section 2391 of this title.

Section 1787, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 527, 68

Stat. 857; July 31, 1956, ch. 804, title I, Sec. 113, 70 Stat. 740;

Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 10(e), 71 Stat. 364; June 30,

1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(e), 72 Stat. 269; July 24,

1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(g), 73 Stat. 253; May 14,

1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(g), ch. V, Sec. 501(c), (d),

74 Stat. 139, 140, related to employment of personnel. See section

2385 of this title.

Section 1788, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 528, 68

Stat. 858, authorized detail of personnel to foreign governments.

See section 2387 of this title.

Section 1789, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 529, 68

Stat. 858, authorized detail of personnel to international

organizations. See section 2388 of this title.

Section 1790, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 530, 68

Stat. 859; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 10(d), 69 Stat. 289; July

18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 10(c), 70 Stat. 561; May 14, 1960, Pub. L.

86-472, ch. V, Sec. 501(e), 74 Stat. 140, authorized employment of

experts and consultants. See section 2386 of this title.

Section 1791, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 531, 68

Stat. 859; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(h), 74

Stat. 139, related to security clearance.

Section 1792, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 532, 68

Stat. 859; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 10(d), 70 Stat. 561,

related to exemption of personnel from certain Federal laws. See

section 2386 of this title.

Section 1793, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 533, 68

Stat. 860, provided for waiver of certain Federal laws. See section

2393 of this title.

Section 1793a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 533A, as

added July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(h), 73 Stat.

253; amended May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(i), 74

Stat. 140, established Office of Inspector General and Comptroller

and transferred certain functions thereto. See section 2384 of this

title.

Section 1794, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. V, Sec. 534, 68

Stat. 860; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 10(e), 69 Stat. 289; Aug.

14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 10(f), 71 Stat. 364; July 24, 1959,

Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(i), 73 Stat. 254; May 14, 1960,

Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(j), 74 Stat. 140, provided for

reports to Congress and for furnishing documents and other material

to General Accounting Office and committees of Congress. See

section 2394 of this title.

Section 1794a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 550, as

added July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(m), 73 Stat.

255, required President to make public information concerning

mutual security program not deemed to be incompatible with security

of United States. See section 2394(b) of this title.

Section 1795, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 535, 68

Stat. 860; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 10(e), 70 Stat. 561; Aug.

14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 10(g), 71 Stat. 364, related to

cooperation with nations and international organizations.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1796 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1796. Participation in Joint Commission on Rural

Reconstruction in China

-STATUTE-

The President is authorized to continue to participate in the

Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction in China and to appoint

citizens of the United States to the Commission.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 536, 68 Stat. 861.)

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1797 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

-HEAD-

Sec. 1797. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. IV, Sec. 537, as added

July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 10(f), 70 Stat. 561; amended Aug. 14,

1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Secs. 6, 10(h), 71 Stat. 357, 364; June 30,

1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. IV, Sec. 401(f), ch. V, Sec. 501(29), 72

Stat. 270, 272; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. IV, Sec. 401(j),

73 Stat. 255; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 401(k),

(l), ch. V, Sec. 501(f), 74 Stat. 140, related to uses of funds

under this chapter. See section 2396 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

-HEAD-

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1811 to 1817 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

-HEAD-

Secs. 1811 to 1817. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1811, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 101, 68

Stat. 833, stated the Congressional declaration of purpose for

military assistance. See section 2301 of this title.

Section 1811a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, Sec. 2, formerly ch.

IV, Sec. 549, as added July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 11, 69 Stat.

289, renumbered and amended July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 2, 70

Stat. 555; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, Sec. 2, 73 Stat. 246; May

14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, Sec. 2, 74 Stat. 134, stated the

Congressional declaration of purpose for this chapter. See sections

2151 and 2301 of this title.

Section 1812, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 102, 68

Stat. 833, related to the basis and terms of military assistance.

See section 2395 of this title.

Section 1813, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 103, 68

Stat. 833; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 2(a)-(c), 69 Stat. 283; July

18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 3(a), 70 Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 2(a), 71 Stat. 355; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

I, Sec. 101, 72 Stat. 261; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. I,

Sec. 101(a), 73 Stat. 247; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. I,

Sec. 101(a), 74 Stat. 134, authorized appropriations for military

assistance. See section 2312 of this title.

Section 1814, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 104, 68

Stat. 834; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 2(b), 71 Stat. 356,

authorized NATO infrastructure contributions.

Section 1815, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 105, 68

Stat. 834; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 2(d)-(f), 69 Stat. 284; July

18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 3(b), 70 Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 2(c), 71 Stat. 356; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

I, Secs. 102, 103, 72 Stat. 262; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

I, Sec. 101(b), 73 Stat. 247; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. I,

Sec. 101(b), 74 Stat. 134, prescribed the conditions and

eligibility for military assistance. See section 2314 of this

title.

Section 1816, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 106, 68

Stat. 836, authorized the President to sell military equipment,

materials and services and prescribed the manner of payment. See

sections 2342 and 2343 of this title.

Section 1817, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. I, Sec. 107, 68

Stat. 836; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 2(d), 71 Stat. 356,

authorized the waiver of certain laws. See section 2393 of this

title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1818 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1818. Repealed. Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 2(e), Aug. 14, 1957, 71

Stat. 356

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title I, Sec. 108, 68 Stat.

837; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 2(g), 69 Stat. 284, authorized,

until June 30, 1956, the transfer of military equipment and

supplies to Japan.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1819 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

-HEAD-

Sec. 1819. Repealed. Pub. L. 95-148, title I, Oct. 31, 1977, 91

Stat. 1232

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 2, 1955, ch. 491, Sec. 108, 69 Stat. 438,

related to an accounting for military assistance funds.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL

Pub. L. 95-148 provided that the repeal of this section is

effective Oct. 1, 1977.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1831 to 1834 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER II - MILITARY ASSISTANCE

-HEAD-

Secs. 1831 to 1834. Repealed. Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 3, Aug. 14,

1957, 71 Stat. 356

-MISC1-

Section 1831, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title 1, Sec. 121, 68

Stat. 837; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 3(a), 69 Stat. 284,

authorized appropriations for assistance for Southeast Asia and

Western Pacific for the fiscal year 1955.

Sections 1832, 1833, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title I, Secs.

122, 123, 68 Stat. 837, 838, authorized appropriations for fiscal

year 1955 for manufacture in United Kingdom of military aircraft,

and for provision of any common-use equipment, materials,

commodities, or services which are to be used by military forces of

nations receiving assistance.

Section 1834, act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 937, title I, Sec. 124, as

added July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 3(b), 69 Stat. 284, authorized

appropriations for fiscal year 1956 to provide assistance in form

of direct forces support to be delivered or rendered directly to

military forces of nations eligible for military assistance.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

-HEAD-

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Part A - Defense Support 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part A - Defense Support

-HEAD-

PART A - DEFENSE SUPPORT

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1841 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part A - Defense Support

-HEAD-

Sec. 1841. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 131, 68 Stat.

838; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 4, 69 Stat. 284; July 18, 1956,

ch. 627, Sec. 4, 70 Stat. 556; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec.

4(a), 71 Stat. 356; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec.

201, ch. V, Sec. 501(3), (4), 72 Stat. 262, 270; July 24, 1959,

Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 201, 73 Stat. 248; May 14, 1960, Pub.

L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 201(a), (b), 74 Stat. 134, authorized

economic assistance to sustain and increase the military effort and

provided for executive authority to furnish assistance,

appropriations, marine insurance and assistance for Korea. See

section 2354(d) of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1842 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part A - Defense Support

-HEAD-

Sec. 1842. Repealed. Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 4(b), Aug. 14, 1957, 71

Stat. 356

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title I, Sec. 132, 68 Stat.

838, authorized appropriations for defense support, relief and

rehabilitation, and other necessary assistance for those parts of

Korea which the President determined to be not under Communist

control.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1851, 1852 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part A - Defense Support

-HEAD-

Secs. 1851, 1852. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1851, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 141, 68

Stat. 839; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(6), 72

Stat. 270; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 201(c), 74

Stat. 135, prescribed conditions of eligibility.

Section 1852, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 142, 68

Stat. 839; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 5, 69 Stat. 285; Aug. 14,

1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 5(a), 71 Stat. 356; June 30, 1958, Pub.

L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 202, ch. V, Sec. 501(7, 8), 72 Stat. 262,

271; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 202, 73 Stat. 248;

May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 201(d), 74 Stat. 135,

related to agreements by recipient nations for furnishing of

defense support or military equipment and materials.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1853 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part A - Defense Support

-HEAD-

Sec. 1853. Assistance to Yugoslavia

-STATUTE-

In furnishing assistance to Yugoslavia, the President shall

continuously assure himself (1) that Yugoslavia continues to

maintain its independence, (2) that Yugoslavia is not participating

in any policy or program for the Communist conquest of the world,

and (3) that the furnishing of such assistance is in the interest

of the national security of the United States. The President shall

keep the Foreign Relations Committee and the Appropriations

Committee of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of

Representatives fully and constantly informed of any assistance

furnished to Yugoslavia under this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 143, as added July 18, 1956,

ch. 627, Sec. 5, 70 Stat. 556; amended Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 5(b),

Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 356.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1957 - Pub. L. 85-141 required the President to continuously

assure himself that Yugoslavia continues to maintain its

independence, that she is not participating in any policy or

program for the Communist conquest of the world, and that the

furnishing of assistance is in the interest of national security,

and provided that certain committees of the Senate and the Speaker

of the House of Representatives should be constantly informed of

assistance furnished.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1854 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part A - Defense Support

-HEAD-

Sec. 1854. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 144, as added

Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 5(c), 71 Stat. 357; amended

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. V, Sec. 501(9), 72 Stat. 271,

authorized assistance to Southeast Asia.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Part B - Development Loan Fund 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part B - Development Loan Fund

-HEAD-

PART B - DEVELOPMENT LOAN FUND

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1870 to 1876 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part B - Development Loan Fund

-HEAD-

Secs. 1870 to 1876. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), (4), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1870, act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 14, 70 Stat. 566,

stated Congressional declaration of policy to promote economic

development of underdeveloped countries. See section 2151 of this

title.

Section 1871, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 201, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 6, 71 Stat. 357; amended

May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 202(a), 74 Stat. 135,

stated Congressional declaration of purpose for development loan

program. See section 2151 of this title.

Section 1872, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 202, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 6, 71 Stat. 357; amended

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85 477, ch. II, Sec. 203(a), ch. V, Sec.

501(10), 72 Stat. 262, 271; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II,

Sec. 203(a), 73 Stat. 248; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II,

Sec. 202(b), 74 Stat. 135, created Development Loan Fund,

authorized Fund to make loans, credits or guaranties, provided for

repayment, administration, and reports, and restricted allocation,

reservation, earmarking, commitment, or set-aside of funds.

Section 1873, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 203, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 6, 71 Stat. 358; amended

July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 203(b), 73 Stat. 248,

authorized appropriations for capitalization of Fund.

Section 1874, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 204, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 6, 71 Stat. 358; amended

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 86-477, ch. II, Sec. 203(b), 72 Stat. 263;

July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 203(c), 73 Stat. 249,

related to fiscal provisions for Fund.

Section 1875, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 205, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 6, 71 Stat. 358; amended

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 203(c), 72 Stat. 263;

July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 203(d), 73 Stat. 249;

May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 202(c), ch. V, Sec.

501(a), 74 Stat. 135, 140, related to management of Fund, and

powers and authority of Board of Directors.

Section 1876, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 205, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 6, 71 Stat. 359, provided

for applicability of functions of National Advisory Council on

International Monetary and Financial Problems.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Part C - Technical Cooperation 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part C - Technical Cooperation

-HEAD-

PART C - TECHNICAL COOPERATION

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1891 to 1896 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part C - Technical Cooperation

-HEAD-

Secs. 1891 to 1896. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1891, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 301, 68

Stat. 841, stated Congressional declaration of policy and purpose

for technical cooperation.

Section 1892, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 302, 68

Stat. 841, related to authority of President and defined technical

cooperation programs. See section 2171 of this title.

Section 1893, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 303, 68

Stat. 841, enumerated prerequisites to assistance. See section 2171

of this title.

Section 1894, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II. Sec. 304, 68

Stat. 842; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 7(a), 69 Stat. 285; July 18,

1956, ch. 627; Sec. 7(a), 70 Stat. 557; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 7(a), 71 Stat. 359; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

II, Sec. 204(a), 72 Stat. 265; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

II, Sec. 204(a), 73 Stat. 249; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch.

II, Sec. 203(a), 74 Stat. 136, authorized appropriations for

technical cooperation programs. See section 2172 of this title.

Section 1895, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 305, 68

Stat. 842, related to limitation on use of funds.

Section 1896, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 306, 68

Stat. 842; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 7(b), 69 Stat. 285; July 18,

1956, ch. 627, Sec. 7(b), 70 Stat. 557; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 7(b), 71 Stat. 359; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

II, Sec. 204(b), 72 Stat. 265; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

II, Sec. 204(b), 73 Stat. 249; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch.

II, Sec. 203(b), 74 Stat. 136, authorized appropriations for

multilateral technical cooperation and related programs.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1896a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part C - Technical Cooperation

-HEAD-

Sec. 1896a. Restriction on commitments for technical assistance

-STATUTE-

No commitment for the calendar year 1955 or thereafter, with

respect to contributions to the United Nations expanded program of

technical assistance, shall be pledged on behalf of the United

States until the Congress appropriates for said purpose.

-SOURCE-

(Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1262, Sec. 101, 68 Stat. 1221.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was enacted as a part of section 101 of the Mutual

Security Appropriation Act, 1955. No other part of section 101 of

the Mutual Security Appropriation Act, 1955, was classified to the

Code.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1896b 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part C - Technical Cooperation

-HEAD-

Sec. 1896b. Colombo Plan Council for Technical Cooperation;

authorization

-STATUTE-

To enable the United States to maintain membership in the Colombo

Plan Council for Technical Cooperation, there is authorized to be

appropriated from time to time to the Department of State such sums

as may be necessary for the payment by the United States of its

share of the expenses of the Colombo Plan Council for Technical

Cooperation.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 86-108, ch. V, Sec. 502, July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 256.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Section was enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act of 1959.

-MISC1-

ANNUAL APPROPRIATIONS

Annual appropriations to meet the obligations of membership in

various international organizations were contained in acts listed

in a note set out under section 269a of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1897 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part C - Technical Cooperation

-HEAD-

Sec. 1897. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 307, 68 Stat.

842; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 7(c), 70 Stat. 557; May 14, 1960,

Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 203(c), 74 Stat. 136, authorized

advances and grants-in-aid for technical cooperation program.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1898 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part C - Technical Cooperation

-HEAD-

Sec. 1898. Repealed. Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 203(d), May 14,

1960, 74 Stat. 136

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 308, 68 Stat.

842; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 7(c), 69 Stat. 286; July 24, 1959,

Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 204(c), 73 Stat, 249, created an

advisory board and provided for its duties, membership, allowances,

and expenses.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

PART D - SPECIAL ASSISTANCE AND OTHER PROGRAMS

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1920, 1921 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Secs. 1920, 1921. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1920, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 400, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 8(a), 71 Stat. 360;

amended June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(a), 72

Stat. 266; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(a), 73

Stat. 249; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(a), 74

Stat. 136, authorized assistance for special programs to maintain

political or economic stability, for programs of economic

development in Latin America and for schools and libraries abroad.

See section 2171 et seq. of this title.

Section 1921, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 401, as

added July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(b), 73 Stat.

249; amended May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(b), 74

Stat. 136, authorized contributions to the United Nations Emergency

Fund. See section 2221 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1922 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1922. Repealed. Pub. L. 104-127, title II, Sec. 228, Apr. 4,

1996, 110 Stat. 963

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title IV, Sec. 402, 68

Stat. 843; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(b), 69 Stat. 286; July 18,

1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(b), 70 Stat. 558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 8(c), 71 Stat. 361; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

II, Sec. 205(b), 72 Stat. 266; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

II, Sec. 205(c), 73 Stat. 250; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch.

II, Sec. 204(c), 74 Stat. 136, related to disposition of surplus

agricultural commodities and use of foreign currency proceeds.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1923, 1924 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Secs. 1923, 1924. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1923, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 403, as

added June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(c), 72 Stat.

266; amended July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(d), 73

Stat. 250; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(d), 74

Stat. 136, authorized the use of funds to meet responsibilities in

Germany. See section 2364(b) of this title.

Section 1924, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 404, as

added May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(e), 74 Stat.

136, related to the Indus Basin Development. See section 2223 of

this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1925 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1925. Repealed

-MISC1-

Subsecs. (a), (c), and (d), acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II,

Sec. 405(a), (c), (d), 68 Stat. 844; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec.

8(d), 69 Stat. 286; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(d), 70 Stat.

558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 8(e), 71 Stat. 361; June

30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(d), ch. V, Sec. 501(13),

72 Stat. 266, 271; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec.

205(e), 73 Stat. 250; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec.

204(f), 74 Stat. 137, related to movement of migrants, refugees,

and escapees, and were repealed by Pub. L. 87-510, Sec. 6, June 28,

1962, 76 Stat. 124. See section 2601(a), (b)(1) of this title.

Subsec. (b), act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 405(b), 68

Stat. 844, which related to the use of funds to facilitate

migration of persons resident in Ryukyu Island Archipelago, was

repealed by Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961,

75 Stat. 460. See section 1945(b) of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1926, 1927 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Secs. 1926, 1927. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1926, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 406, 68

Stat. 844; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(e), 69 Stat. 286; July 18,

1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(e), 70 Stat. 558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 8(f), 71 Stat. 361; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

II, Sec. 205(e), 72 Stat. 266; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

II, Sec. 205(f), 73 Stat. 250; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch.

II, Sec. 204(g), 74 Stat. 137, authorized appropriations for United

Nations Children's Fund.

Section 1927, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 407, 68

Stat. 844; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(f), 69 Stat. 286; July 18,

1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(f), 70 Stat. 558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 8(g), 71 Stat. 361; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

II, Sec. 205(f), 72 Stat. 266; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

II, Sec. 205(g), 73 Stat. 250; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch.

II, Sec. 204(h), 74 Stat. 137, authorized appropriations for

contributions to Palestine refugees in Near East. See section 2221

of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1928 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1928. North Atlantic Treaty Organization

-STATUTE-

(a) Authorization for expenses

In order to provide for United States participation in the North

Atlantic Treaty Organization, there is authorized to be

appropriated such amounts as may be necessary from time to time for

the payment by the United States of its share of the expenses of

the Organization and all necessary salaries and expenses of the

United States permanent representative to the Organization, of such

persons as may be appointed to represent the United States in the

subsidiary bodies of the Organization or in any multilateral

organization which participates in achieving the aims of the North

Atlantic Treaty, and of their appropriate staffs, and the expenses

of participation in meetings of such organizations, including

salaries, expenses, and allowances of personnel and dependents as

authorized by the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et

seq.], and allowances and expenses as provided in section 287r of

this title.

(b) Appointment of personal representative

The United States permanent representative to the North Atlantic

Treaty Organization shall be appointed by the President by and with

the advice and consent of the Senate and shall hold office at the

pleasure of the President. Such representative shall have the rank

and status of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary and

shall be a chief of mission under the Foreign Service Act of 1980

[22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.].

(c) Duration of staff service

Persons detailed to the international staff of the North Atlantic

Treaty Organization in accordance with section 2388 of this title

who are members of the Foreign Service serving under limited

appointments may serve for periods of more than five years

notwithstanding the limitation in section 309 of the Foreign

Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3949].

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title IV, Sec. 408, 68 Stat. 845; Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 8(h), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 361; Pub. L. 86-108, ch.

II, Sec. 205(h), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 250; Pub. L. 96-465, title

II, Sec. 2206(a)(6), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2161.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsecs. (a) and

(b), is Pub. L. 96-465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, as amended,

which is classified principally to chapter 52 (Sec. 3901 et seq.)

of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,

see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of this title and

Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1980 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96-465, Sec. 2206(a)(6)(A),

substituted "Foreign Service Act of 1980" for "Foreign Service Act

of 1946, as amended (22 U.S.C. 801),".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96-465, Sec. 2206(a)(6)(B), substituted

"chief of mission under the Foreign Service Act of 1980" for "chief

of mission, class 1, within the meaning of the Foreign Service Act

of 1946, as amended (22 U.S.C. 801)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96-465, Sec. 2206(a)(6)(C), among other

changes, substituted references to sections 2388 and 3949 of this

title for references to sections 1789 and 922 of this title,

respectively, and reference to members of the Foreign Service for

reference to Foreign Service Reserve officers.

1959 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86-108 substituted "five years" for

"four years".

1957 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85-141 struck out provisions

authorizing appropriations of not more than $3,200,000 for the

fiscal year 1955.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1980 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 96-465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as

otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96-465, set out as

an Effective Date note under section 3901 of this title.

ANNUAL APPROPRIATIONS

Annual appropriations to meet the obligations of membership in

various international organizations were contained in acts listed

in a note set out under section 269a of this title.

GERALD B. H. SOLOMON FREEDOM CONSOLIDATION ACT

Pub. L. 107-187, June 10, 2002, 116 Stat. 590, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Gerald B. H. Solomon Freedom

Consolidation Act of 2002'.

"SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

"The Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) In the NATO Participation Act of 1994 (title II of Public

Law 103-447; 22 U.S.C. 1928 note), Congress declared that 'full

and active participants in the Partnership for Peace in a

position to further the principles of the North Atlantic Treaty

and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area

should be invited to become full NATO members in accordance with

Article 10 of such Treaty at an early date . . .'.

"(2) In the NATO Enlargement Facilitation Act of 1996 (title VI

of section 101(c) of title I of division A of Public Law 104-208;

22 U.S.C. 1928 note), Congress called for the prompt admission of

Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia to NATO, and

declared that 'in order to promote economic stability and

security in Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,

Bulgaria, Albania, Moldova, and Ukraine . . . the process of

enlarging NATO to include emerging democracies in Central and

Eastern Europe should not be limited to consideration of

admitting Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia as

full members of the NATO Alliance'.

"(3) In the European Security Act of 1998 (title XXVII of

division G of Public Law 105-277; 22 U.S.C. 1928 note), Congress

declared that 'Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic should not

be the last emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe

invited to join NATO' and that 'Romania, Estonia, Latvia,

Lithuania, and Bulgaria . . . would make an outstanding

contribution to furthering the goals of NATO and enhancing

stability, freedom, and peace in Europe should they become NATO

members [and] upon complete satisfaction of all relevant criteria

should be invited to become full NATO members at the earliest

possible date'.

"(4) At the Madrid Summit of the NATO Alliance in July 1997,

Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic were invited to join the

Alliance in the first round of NATO enlargement, and the NATO

heads of state and government issued a declaration stating '[t]he

Alliance expects to extend further invitations in coming years to

nations willing and able to assume the responsibilities and

obligations of membership . . . [n]o European democratic country

whose admission would fulfill the objectives of the [North

Atlantic] Treaty will be excluded from consideration'.

"(5) At the Washington Summit of the NATO Alliance in April

1999, the NATO heads of state and government issued a communique

declaring '[w]e pledge that NATO will continue to welcome new

members in a position to further the principles of the [North

Atlantic] Treaty and contribute to peace and security in the

Euro-Atlantic area . . . [t]he three new members will not be the

last . . . [n]o European democratic country whose admission would

fulfill the objectives of the Treaty will be excluded from

consideration, regardless of its geographic location . . .'.

"(6) In late 2002, NATO will hold a summit in Prague, the Czech

Republic, at which it will decide which additional emerging

democracies in Central and Eastern Europe to invite to join the

Alliance in the next round of NATO enlargement.

"(7) In May 2000 in Vilnius, Lithuania, the foreign ministers

of Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Former

Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia

issued a statement (later joined by Croatia) declaring that their

countries will cooperate in jointly seeking NATO membership in

the next round of NATO enlargement, that the realization of NATO

membership by one or more of these countries would be a success

for all, and that eventual NATO membership for all of these

countries would be a success for Europe and NATO.

"(8) On June 15, 2001, in a speech in Warsaw, Poland, President

George W. Bush stated '[a]ll of Europe's new democracies, from

the Baltic to the Black Sea and all that lie between, should have

the same chance for security and freedom - and the same chance to

join the institutions of Europe - as Europe's old democracies

have . . . I believe in NATO membership for all of Europe's

democracies that seek it and are ready to share the

responsibilities that NATO brings . . . [a]s we plan to enlarge

NATO, no nation should be used as a pawn in the agenda of others

. . . [w]e will not trade away the fate of free European peoples

. . . [n]o more Munichs . . . [n]o more Yaltas . . . [a]s we plan

the Prague Summit, we should not calculate how little we can get

away with, but how much we can do to advance the cause of

freedom'.

"(9) On October 22, 1996, in a speech in Detroit, Michigan,

former President William J. Clinton stated 'NATO's doors will not

close behind its first new members . . . NATO should remain open

to all of Europe's emerging democracies who are ready to shoulder

the responsibilities of membership . . . [n]o nation will be

automatically excluded . . . [n]o country outside NATO will have

a veto . . . [a] gray zone of insecurity must not reemerge in

Europe'.

"SEC. 3. DECLARATIONS OF POLICY.

"Congress -

"(1) reaffirms its previous expressions of support for

continued enlargement of the NATO Alliance contained in the NATO

Participation Act of 1994 [title II of Pub. L. 103-447, set out

as a note below], the NATO Enlargement Facilitation Act of 1996

[section 101(c) [title VI] of div. A of Pub. L. 104-208, set out

as a note below], and the European Security Act of 1998 [title

XXVII of div. G of Pub. L. 105-277, set out as a note below];

"(2) supports the commitment to further enlargement of the NATO

Alliance expressed by the Alliance in its Madrid Declaration of

1997 and its Washington Summit Communique of 1999; and

"(3) endorses the vision of further enlargement of the NATO

Alliance articulated by President George W. Bush on June 15,

2001, and by former President William J. Clinton on October 22,

1996, and urges our NATO allies to work with the United States to

realize this vision at the Prague Summit in 2002.

"SEC. 4. DESIGNATION OF SLOVAKIA TO RECEIVE ASSISTANCE UNDER THE

NATO PARTICIPATION ACT OF 1994.

"(a) In General. - Slovakia is designated as eligible to receive

assistance under the program established under section 203(a) of

the NATO Participation Act of 1994 (title II of Public Law 103-447;

22 U.S.C. 1928 note) and shall be deemed to have been so designated

pursuant to section 203(d)(1) of such Act.

"(b) Rule of Construction. - The designation of Slovakia pursuant

to subsection (a) as eligible to receive assistance under the

program established under section 203(a) of the NATO Participation

Act of 1994 -

"(1) is in addition to the designation of Poland, Hungary, the

Czech Republic, and Slovenia pursuant to section 606 of the NATO

Enlargement Facilitation Act of 1996 (title VI of section 101(c)

of title I of division A of Public Law 104-208; 22 U.S.C. 1928

note) and the designation of Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,

and Bulgaria pursuant to section 2703(b) of the European Security

Act of 1998 (title XXVII of division G of Public Law 105-277; 22

U.S.C. 1928 note) as eligible to receive assistance under the

program established under section 203(a) of the NATO

Participation Act of 1994; and

"(2) shall not preclude the designation by the President of

other emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe pursuant

to section 203(d)(2) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 as

eligible to receive assistance under the program established

under section 203(a) of such Act.

"SEC. 5. AUTHORIZATION OF SECURITY ASSISTANCE FOR COUNTRIES

DESIGNATED UNDER THE NATO PARTICIPATION ACT OF 1994.

"(a) Authorization of Foreign Military Financing. - Of the

amounts made available for fiscal year 2002 under section 23 of the

Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763) -

"(1) $6,500,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Estonia;

"(2) $7,000,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Latvia;

"(3) $7,500,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Lithuania;

"(4) $8,500,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Slovakia;

"(5) $4,500,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Slovenia;

"(6) $10,000,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Bulgaria; and

"(7) $11,500,000 is authorized to be available on a grant basis

for Romania.

"(b) Conforming Amendment. - Subsection (a) of section 515 of the

Security Assistance Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-280) [114 Stat.

858] is amended by striking paragraphs (1), (5), (6), (7), and (8)

and redesignating paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (9) as paragraphs

(1) through (4), respectively."

REPORTS ON BURDENSHARING OF FUTURE NATO OPERATIONS

Pub. L. 106-398, Sec. 1 [[div. A], title XII, Sec. 1221(b)-(d)],

Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-328, provided that:

"(b) Report on Burdensharing of Future NATO Operations. -

Whenever the North Atlantic Treaty Organization undertakes a

military operation, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the

Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on

Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report describing

-

"(1) the contributions to that operation made by each of the

member nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization during

that operation; and

"(2) the contributions that each of the member nations of the

North Atlantic Treaty Organization are making or have pledged to

make during any follow-on operation.

"(c) Time for Submission of Report. - A report under subsection

(b) shall be submitted not later than 90 days after the completion

of the military operation.

"(d) Applicability. - Subsection (b) shall apply only with

respect to military operations begun after the date of the

enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

EUROPEAN SECURITY

Pub. L. 105-277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXVII, Oct. 21, 1998,

112 Stat. 2681-839, as amended by Pub. L. 106-113, div. B, Sec.

1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, Sec. 209(d)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113

Stat. 1536, 1501A-423, provided that:

"SEC. 2701. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'European Security Act of 1998'.

"SEC. 2702. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

"(a) Policy With Respect to NATO Enlargement. - Congress urges

the President to outline a clear and complete strategic rationale

for the enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

(NATO), and declares that -

"(1) Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic should not be the

last emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe invited

to join NATO;

"(2) the United States should ensure that NATO continues a

process whereby all other emerging democracies in Central and

Eastern Europe that wish to join NATO will be considered for

membership in NATO as soon as they meet the criteria for such

membership;

"(3) the United States should ensure that no limitations are

placed on the numbers of NATO troops or types of equipment,

including tactical nuclear weapons, to be deployed on the

territory of new member states;

"(4) the United States should reject all efforts to condition

NATO decisions on review or approval by the United Nations

Security Council;

"(5) the United States should clearly delineate those NATO

deliberations, including but not limited to discussions on arms

control, further Alliance enlargement, procurement matters, and

strategic doctrine, that are not subject to review or discussion

in the NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council;

"(6) the United States should work to ensure that countries

invited to join the Alliance are provided an immediate seat in

NATO discussions; and

"(7) the United States already pays more than a proportionate

share of the costs of the common defense of Europe and should

obtain, in advance, agreement on an equitable distribution of the

cost of NATO enlargement to ensure that the United States does

not continue to bear a disproportionate burden.

"(b) Policy With Respect to Negotiations With Russia. -

"(1) Implementation. - NATO enlargement should be carried out

in such a manner as to underscore the Alliance's defensive nature

and demonstrate to Russia that NATO enlargement will enhance the

security of all countries in Europe, including Russia.

Accordingly, the United States and its NATO allies should make

this intention clear in negotiations with Russia, including

negotiations regarding adaptation of the Conventional Armed

Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty of November 19, 1990.

"(2) Limitations on commitments to russia. - In seeking to

demonstrate to Russia NATO's defensive and security-enhancing

intentions, it is essential that neither fundamental United

States security interests in Europe nor the effectiveness and

flexibility of NATO as a defensive alliance be jeopardized. In

particular, no commitments should be made to Russia that would

have the effect of -

"(A) extending rights or imposing responsibilities on new

NATO members different from those applicable to current NATO

members, including rights or responsibilities with respect to

the deployment of nuclear weapons and the stationing of troops

and equipment from other NATO members;

"(B) limiting the ability of NATO to defend the territory of

new NATO members by, for example, restricting the construction

of defense infrastructure or limiting the ability of NATO to

deploy necessary reinforcements;

"(C) providing any international organization, or any country

that is not a member of NATO, with authority to delay, veto, or

otherwise impede deliberations and decisions of the North

Atlantic Council or the implementation of such decisions,

including deliberations and decisions with respect to the

deployment of NATO forces or the admission of additional

members to NATO;

"(D) impeding the development of enhanced relations between

NATO and other European countries that do not belong to the

Alliance;

"(E) establishing a nuclear weapons-free zone in Central or

Eastern Europe;

"(F) requiring NATO to subsidize Russian arms sales, service,

or support to the militaries of those former Warsaw Pact

countries invited to join the Alliance; or

"(G) legitimizing Russian efforts to link concessions in arms

control negotiations to NATO enlargement.

"(3) Commitments from russia. - In order to enhance security

and stability in Europe, the United States should seek

commitments from Russia -

"(A) to demarcate and respect all its borders with

neighboring states;

"(B) to achieve the immediate and complete withdrawal of any

armed forces and military equipment under the control of Russia

that are deployed on the territories of the independent states

of the former Soviet Union without the full and complete

agreement of those states;

"(C) to station its armed forces on the territory of other

states only with the full and complete agreement of that state

and in strict accordance with international law; and

"(D) to take steps to reduce further its nuclear and

conventional forces in Kaliningrad.

"(4) Consultations. - As negotiations on adaptation of the

Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe proceed, the United

States should engage in close and continuous consultations not

only with its NATO allies, but also with the emerging democracies

of Central and Eastern Europe, Ukraine, and the South Caucasus.

"(c) Policy With Respect to Ballistic Missile Defense

Cooperation. -

"(1) In general. - As the United States proceeds with efforts

to develop defenses against ballistic missile attack, it should

seek to foster a climate of cooperation with Russia on matters

related to missile defense. In particular, the United States and

its NATO allies should seek to cooperate with Russia in such

areas as early warning.

"(2) Discussions with nato allies. - The United States should

initiate discussions with its NATO allies for the purpose of

examining the feasibility of deploying a ballistic missile

defense capable of protecting NATO's southern and eastern flanks

from a limited ballistic missile attack.

"(3) Constitutional prerogatives. - Even as the Congress seeks

to promote ballistic missile defense cooperation with Russia, it

must insist on its constitutional prerogatives regarding

consideration of arms control agreements with Russia that bear on

ballistic missile defense.

"SEC. 2703. AUTHORITIES RELATING TO NATO ENLARGEMENT.

"(a) Policy of Section. - This section is enacted in order to

implement the policy set forth in section 2702(a).

"(b) Designation of Additional Countries Eligible for NATO

Enlargement Assistance. -

"(1) Designation of additional countries. - Romania, Estonia,

Latvia, Lithuania, and Bulgaria are each designated as eligible

to receive assistance under the program established under section

203(a) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 [Pub. L. 103-447,

title II] (22 U.S.C. 1928 note) and shall be deemed to have been

so designated pursuant to section 203(d)(1) of such Act.

"(2) Rule of construction. - The designation of countries

pursuant to paragraph (1) as eligible to receive assistance under

the program established under section 203(a) of the NATO

Participation Act of 1994 -

"(A) is in addition to the designation of other countries by

law or pursuant to section 203(d)(2) of such Act as eligible to

receive assistance under the program established under section

203(a) of such Act; and

"(B) shall not preclude the designation by the President of

other emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe

pursuant to section 203(d)(2) of such Act as eligible to

receive assistance under the program established under section

203(a) of such Act.

"(3) Sense of congress. - It is the sense of Congress that

Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Bulgaria -

"(A) are to be commended for their progress toward political

and economic reform and meeting the guidelines for prospective

NATO members;

"(B) would make an outstanding contribution to furthering the

goals of NATO and enhancing stability, freedom, and peace in

Europe should they become NATO members; and

"(C) upon complete satisfaction of all relevant criteria

should be invited to become full NATO members at the earliest

possible date.

"(c) Regional Airspace Initiative and Partnership for Peace

Information Management System. -

"(1) In general. - Funds described in paragraph (2) are

authorized to be made available to support the implementation of

the Regional Airspace Initiative and the Partnership for Peace

Information Management System, including -

"(A) the procurement of items in support of these programs;

and

"(B) the transfer of such items to countries participating in

these programs.

"(2) Funds described. - Funds described in this paragraph are

funds that are available -

"(A) during any fiscal year under the NATO Participation Act

of 1994 [Pub. L. 103-447, title II, set out as a note below]

with respect to countries eligible for assistance under that

Act; or

"(B) during fiscal year 1998 under any Act to carry out the

Warsaw Initiative.

"(d) Extension of Authority Regarding Excess Defense Articles. -

[Amended section 105 of Pub. L. 104-164, 110 Stat. 1427.]

"(e) Conforming Amendments to the NATO Participation Act of 1994.

- [Amended section 203(c) of Pub. L. 103-447, set out in a note

below.]

"SEC. 2704. SENSE OF CONGRESS WITH RESPECT TO THE TREATY ON

CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCES IN EUROPE.

"It is the sense of Congress that no revisions to the Treaty on

Conventional Armed Forces in Europe will be approved for entry into

force with respect to the United States that jeopardize fundamental

United States security interests in Europe or the effectiveness and

flexibility of NATO as a defensive alliance by -

"(1) extending rights or imposing responsibilities on new NATO

members different from those applicable to current NATO members,

including rights or responsibilities with respect to the

deployment of nuclear weapons and the stationing of troops and

equipment from other NATO members;

"(2) limiting the ability of NATO to defend the territory of

new NATO members by, for example, restricting the construction of

defense infrastructure or limiting the ability of NATO to deploy

necessary reinforcements;

"(3) providing any international organization, or any country

that is not a member of NATO, with the authority to delay, veto,

or otherwise impede deliberations and decisions of the North

Atlantic Council or the implementation of such decisions,

including deliberations and decisions with respect to the

deployment of NATO forces or the admission of additional members

to NATO; or

"(4) impeding the development of enhanced relations between

NATO and other European countries that do not belong to the

Alliance.

"SEC. 2705. RESTRICTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO BALLISTIC

MISSILE DEFENSE.

"(a) Policy of Section. - This section is enacted in order to

implement the policy set forth in section 2702(c).

"(b) Restriction on Entry Into Force of ABM/TMD Demarcation

Agreements. - An ABM/TMD demarcation agreement shall not be binding

on the United States, and shall not enter into force with respect

to the United States, unless, after the date of enactment of this

Act [Oct. 21, 1998], that agreement is specifically approved with

the advice and consent of the United States Senate pursuant to

Article II, section 2, clause 2 of the Constitution.

"(c) Sense of Congress With Respect to Demarcation Agreements. -

"(1) Relationship to multilateralization of abm treaty. - It is

the sense of Congress that no ABM/TMD demarcation agreement will

be considered for advice and consent to ratification unless,

consistent with the certification of the President pursuant to

condition (9) of the resolution of ratification of the CFE Flank

Document, the President submits for Senate advice and consent to

ratification any agreement, arrangement, or understanding that

would -

"(A) add one or more countries as State Parties to the ABM

Treaty, or otherwise convert the ABM Treaty from a bilateral

treaty to a multilateral treaty; or

"(B) change the geographic scope or coverage of the ABM

Treaty, or otherwise modify the meaning of the term 'national

territory' as used in Article VI and Article IX of the ABM

Treaty.

"(2) Preservation of united states theater ballistic missile

defense potential. - It is the sense of Congress that no ABM/TMD

demarcation agreement that would reduce the capabilities of

United States theater missile defense systems, or the numbers or

deployment patterns of such systems, will be approved for entry

into force with respect to the United States.

"(d) Report on Cooperative Projects With Russia. - Not later than

January 1, 1999, January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2001, the

President shall submit to the Committees on International

Relations, National Security [now Armed Services], and

Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committees

on Foreign Relations, Armed Services, and Appropriations of the

Senate a report on cooperative projects with Russia in the area of

ballistic missile defense, including in the area of early warning.

Each such report shall include the following:

"(1) Cooperative projects. - A description of all cooperative

projects conducted in the area of early warning and ballistic

missile defense during the preceding fiscal year and the fiscal

year during which the report is submitted.

"(2) Funding. - A description of the funding for such projects

during the preceding fiscal year and the year during which the

report is submitted and the proposed funding for such projects

for the next fiscal year.

"(3) Status of dialogue or discussions. - A description of the

status of any dialogue or discussions conducted during the

preceding fiscal year between the United States and Russia aimed

at exploring the potential for mutual accommodation of

outstanding issues between the two nations on matters relating to

ballistic missile defense and the ABM Treaty, including the

possibility of developing a strategic relationship not based on

mutual nuclear threats.

"(e) Definitions. - In this section:

"(1) ABM/TMD demarcation agreement. - The term 'ABM/TMD

demarcation agreement' means any agreement that establishes a

demarcation between theater ballistic missile defense systems and

strategic antiballistic missile defense systems for purposes of

the ABM Treaty.

"(2) ABM treaty. - The term 'ABM Treaty' means the Treaty

Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile

Systems, signed at Moscow on May 26, 1972 (23 UST 3435), and

includes the Protocols to that Treaty, signed at Moscow on July

3, 1974 (27 UST 1645)."

[Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 3, 2000, 66

F.R. 3851, delegated to the Secretary of Defense the duties and

responsibilities of the President under section 2705(d) of div. G

of Pub. L. 105-277, set out above, with such duties and

responsibilities to be exercised subject to the concurrence of the

Secretary of State, authorized redelegation not lower than the

Under Secretary level of the delegated reporting requirements, and

provided that the Department of Defense was to obtain clearance on

the report from the Office of Management and Budget prior to its

submission to Congress.]

LIMITATION ON UNITED STATES SHARE OF COSTS OF NATO EXPANSION

Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1221, Oct. 17, 1998, 112

Stat. 2152, provided that:

"(a) Limitation. - The United States share of defined NATO

expansion costs may not exceed the lesser of -

"(1) the amount equal to 25 percent of those costs; or

"(2) $2,000,000,000.

"(b) Defined NATO Expansion Costs. - For purposes of subsection

(a), the term 'defined NATO expansion costs' means the commonly

funded costs of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

during fiscal years 1999 through 2011 for enlargement of NATO due

to the admission to NATO of Poland, Hungary, and the Czech

Republic."

REPORTS ON DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN SECURITY AND DEFENSE IDENTITY

Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1223, Oct. 17, 1998, 112

Stat. 2154, as amended by Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Sec.

1067(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774, provided that:

"(a) Requirement for Reports. - The Secretary of Defense shall

submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the

Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in

accordance with this section reports on the development of the

European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI) within the NATO

Alliance that would enable the Western European Union (WEU), with

the consent of the NATO Alliance, to assume the political control

and strategic direction of NATO assets and capabilities made

available by the Alliance.

"(b) Reports To Be Submitted. - The reports required to be

submitted under subsection (a) are as follows:

"(1) An initial report, submitted not later than December 15,

1998, that contains a discussion of the actions taken, and the

plans for future actions, to build the European Security and

Defense Identity, together with the matters required under

subsection (c).

"(2) A semiannual report on the progress made toward

establishing the European Security and Defense Identity,

submitted not later than June 15 and December 15 of each year

after 1998.

"(c) Content of Reports. - The Secretary shall include in each

report under this section the following:

"(1) A discussion of the arrangements between NATO and the

Western European Union for the release, transfer, monitoring,

return, and recall of NATO assets and capabilities.

"(2) A discussion of the development of such planning and other

capabilities by the Western European Union that are necessary to

provide political control and strategic direction of NATO assets

and capabilities.

"(3) A discussion of the development of terms of reference for

the Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, with respect to the

European Security and Defense Identity.

"(4) A discussion of the arrangements for the assignment or

appointment of NATO officers to serve in two positions

concurrently (commonly referred to as 'dual-hatting').

"(5) A discussion of the development of the Combined Joint Task

Force (CJTF) concept, including lessons-learned from the NATO-led

Stabilization Force in Bosnia.

"(6) Identification within the NATO Alliance of the types of

separable but not separate capabilities, assets, and support

assets for Western European Union-led operations.

"(7) Identification of separable but not separate headquarters,

headquarters elements, and command positions for command and

conduct of Western European Union-led operations.

"(8) The conduct by NATO, at the request of and in coordination

with the Western European Union, of military planning and

exercises for illustrative missions.

"(9) A discussion of the arrangements between NATO and the

Western European Union for the sharing of information, including

intelligence.

"(10) Such other information as the Secretary considers useful

for a complete understanding of the establishment of the European

Security and Defense Identity within the NATO Alliance.

"(d) Termination of Reporting Requirement. - The requirement to

submit reports under subsection (b)(2) terminates upon the

submission by the Secretary under that subsection of a report in

which the Secretary states that the European Security and Defense

Identity has been fully established."

NATO ENLARGEMENT FACILITATION

Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(c) [title VI], Sept.

30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-121, 3009-173, provided that:

"SEC. 601. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'NATO Enlargement Facilitation

Act of 1996'.

"SEC. 602. FINDINGS.

"The Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) Since 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

has played an essential role in guaranteeing the security,

freedom, and prosperity of the United States and its partners in

the Alliance.

"(2) The NATO Alliance is, and has been since its inception,

purely defensive in character, and it poses no threat to any

nation. The enlargement of the NATO Alliance to include as full

and equal members emerging democracies in Central and Eastern

Europe will serve to reinforce stability and security in Europe

by fostering their integration into the structures which have

created and sustained peace in Europe since 1945. Their admission

into NATO will not threaten any nation. America's security,

freedom, and prosperity remain linked to the security of the

countries of Europe.

"(3) The sustained commitment of the member countries of NATO

to a mutual defense has made possible the democratic

transformation of Central and Eastern Europe. Members of the

Alliance can and should play a critical role in addressing the

security challenges of the post-Cold War era and in creating the

stable environment needed for those emerging democracies in

Central and Eastern Europe to successfully complete political and

economic transformation.

"(4) The United States continues to regard the political

independence and territorial integrity of all emerging

democracies in Central and Eastern Europe as vital to European

peace and security.

"(5) The active involvement by the countries of Central and

Eastern Europe has made the Partnership for Peace program an

important forum to foster cooperation between NATO and those

countries seeking NATO membership.

"(6) NATO has enlarged its membership on 3 different occasions

since 1949.

"(7) Congress supports the admission of qualified new members

to NATO and the European Union at an early date and has sought to

facilitate the admission of qualified new members into NATO.

"(8) Lasting security and stability in Europe requires not only

the military integration of emerging democracies in Central and

Eastern Europe into existing European structures, but also the

eventual economic and political integration of these countries

into existing European structures.

"(9) As new members of NATO assume the responsibilities of

Alliance membership, the costs of maintaining stability in Europe

should be shared more widely. Facilitation of the enlargement

process will require current members of NATO, and the United

States in particular, to demonstrate the political will needed to

build on successful ongoing programs such as the Warsaw

Initiative and the Partnership for Peace by making available the

resources necessary to supplement efforts prospective new members

are themselves undertaking.

"(10) New members will be full members of the Alliance,

enjoying all rights and assuming all the obligations under the

North Atlantic Treaty, signed at Washington on April 4, 1949

(hereafter in this Act referred to as the 'Washington Treaty').

"(11) In order to assist emerging democracies in Central and

Eastern Europe that have expressed interest in joining NATO to be

prepared to assume the responsibilities of NATO membership, the

United States should encourage and support efforts by such

countries to develop force structures and force modernization

priorities that will enable such countries to contribute to the

full range of NATO missions, including, most importantly,

territorial defense of the Alliance.

"(12) Cooperative regional peacekeeping initiatives involving

emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe that have

expressed interest in joining NATO, such as the Baltic

Peacekeeping Battalion, the Polish-Lithuanian Joint Peacekeeping

Force, and the Polish-Ukrainian Peacekeeping Force, can make an

important contribution to European peace and security and

international peacekeeping efforts, can assist those countries

preparing to assume the responsibilities of possible NATO

membership, and accordingly should receive appropriate support

from the United States.

"(13) NATO remains the only multilateral security organization

capable of conducting effective military operations and

preserving security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic region.

"(14) NATO is an important diplomatic forum and has played a

positive role in defusing tensions between members of the

Alliance and, as a result, no military action has occurred

between two Alliance member states since the inception of NATO in

1949.

"(15) The admission to NATO of emerging democracies in Central

and Eastern Europe which are found to be in a position to further

the principles of the Washington Treaty would contribute to

international peace and enhance the security of the region.

Countries which have become democracies and established market

economies, which practice good neighborly relations, and which

have established effective democratic civilian control over their

defense establishments and attained a degree of interoperability

with NATO, should be evaluated for their potential to further the

principles of the Washington Treaty.

"(16) Democratic civilian control of defense forces is an

essential element in the process of preparation for those states

interested in possible NATO membership.

"(17) Protection and promotion of fundamental freedoms and

human rights is an integral aspect of genuine security, and in

evaluating requests for membership in NATO, the human rights

records of the emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe

should be evaluated according to their commitments to fulfill in

good faith the human rights obligations of the Charter of the

United Nations, the principles of the Universal Declaration on

Human Rights, and the Helsinki Final Act.

"(18) A number of Central and Eastern European countries have

expressed interest in NATO membership, and have taken concrete

steps to demonstrate this commitment, including their

participation in Partnership for Peace activities.

"(19) The Caucasus region remains important geographically and

politically to the future security of Central Europe. As NATO

proceeds with the process of enlargement, the United States and

NATO should continue to examine means to strengthen the

sovereignty and enhance the security of United Nations recognized

countries in that region.

"(20) In recognition that not all countries which have

requested membership in NATO will necessarily qualify at the same

pace, the accession date for each new member will vary.

"(21) The provision of additional NATO transition assistance

should include those emerging democracies most ready for closer

ties with NATO and should be designed to assist other countries

meeting specified criteria of eligibility to move forward toward

eventual NATO membership.

"(22) The Congress of the United States finds in particular

that Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic have made

significant progress toward achieving the criteria set forth in

section 203(d)(3) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 [Pub. L.

103-447, set out in a note below] and should be eligible for the

additional assistance described in this Act.

"(23) The evaluation of future membership in NATO for emerging

democracies in Central and Eastern Europe should be based on the

progress of those nations in meeting criteria for NATO

membership, which require enhancement of NATO's security and the

approval of all NATO members.

"(24) The process of NATO enlargement entails the consensus

agreement of the governments of all 16 NATO members and

ratification in accordance with their constitutional procedures.

"(25) Some NATO members, such as Spain and Norway, do not allow

the deployment of nuclear weapons on their territory although

they are accorded the full collective security guarantees

provided by Article 5 of the Washington Treaty. There is no a

priori requirement for the stationing of nuclear weapons on the

territory of new NATO members, particularly in the current

security climate. However, NATO retains the right to alter its

security posture at any time as circumstances warrant.

"SEC. 603. UNITED STATES POLICY.

"It is the policy of the United States -

"(1) to join with the NATO allies of the United States to adapt

the role of the NATO Alliance in the post-Cold War world;

"(2) to actively assist the emerging democracies in Central and

Eastern Europe in their transition so that such countries may

eventually qualify for NATO membership;

"(3) to support the enlargement of NATO in recognition that

enlargement will benefit the interests of the United States and

the Alliance and to consider these benefits in any analysis of

the costs of NATO enlargement;

"(4) to ensure that all countries in Central and Eastern Europe

are fully aware of and capable of assuming the costs and

responsibilities of NATO membership, including the obligation set

forth in Article 10 of the Washington Treaty that new members be

able to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area;

and

"(5) to work to define a constructive and cooperative political

and security relationship between an enlarged NATO and the

Russian Federation.

"SEC. 604. SENSE OF THE CONGRESS REGARDING FURTHER ENLARGEMENT OF

NATO.

"It is the sense of the Congress that in order to promote

economic stability and security in Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia,

Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Moldova, and Ukraine -

"(1) the United States should continue and expand its support

for the full and active participation of these countries in

activities appropriate for qualifying for NATO membership;

"(2) the United States Government should use all diplomatic

means available to press the European Union to admit as soon as

possible any country which qualifies for membership;

"(3) the United States Government and the North Atlantic Treaty

Organization should continue and expand their support for

military exercises and peacekeeping initiatives between and among

these nations, nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization,

and Russia; and

"(4) the process of enlarging NATO to include emerging

democracies in Central and Eastern Europe should not be limited

to consideration of admitting Poland, Hungary, the Czech

Republic, and Slovenia as full members of the NATO Alliance.

"SEC. 605. SENSE OF THE CONGRESS REGARDING ESTONIA, LATVIA AND

LITHUANIA.

"In view of the forcible incorporation of Estonia, Latvia,

Lithuania into the Soviet Union in 1940 under the

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the refusal of the United States and

other countries to recognize that incorporation for over 50 years,

it is the sense of the Congress that -

"(1) Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have valid historical

security concerns that must be taken into account by the United

States; and

"(2) Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania should not be disadvantaged

in seeking to join NATO by virtue of their forcible incorporation

into the Soviet Union.

"SEC. 606. DESIGNATION OF COUNTRIES ELIGIBLE FOR NATO ENLARGEMENT

ASSISTANCE.

"(a) In General. - The following countries are designated as

eligible to receive assistance under the program established under

section 203(a) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 [Pub. L.

103-447, set out in a note below] and shall be deemed to have been

so designated pursuant to section 203(d)(1) of such Act: Poland,

Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

"(b) Designation of Slovenia. - Effective 90 days after the date

of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], Slovenia is designated

as eligible to receive assistance under the program established

under section 203(a) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994, and

shall be deemed to have been so designated pursuant to section

203(d) of such Act, unless the President certifies to Congress

prior to such effective date that Slovenia fails to meet the

criteria under section 203(d)(3) of such Act.

"(c) Designation of Other Countries. - The President shall

designate other emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe

as eligible to receive assistance under the program established

under section 203(a) of such Act if such countries -

"(1) have expressed a clear desire to join NATO;

"(2) have begun an individualized dialogue with NATO in

preparation for accession;

"(3) are strategically significant to an effective NATO

defense; and

"(4) meet the other criteria outlined in section 203(d)(3) of

the NATO Participation Act of 1994 (title II of Public Law

103-447; 22 U.S.C. 1928 note).

"(d) Rule of Construction. - Nothing in this section precludes

the designation by the President of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,

Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, Moldova, Ukraine, or any

other emerging democracy in Central and Eastern Europe pursuant to

section 203(d) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 as eligible to

receive assistance under the program established under section

203(a) of such Act.

"SEC. 607. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR NATO ENLARGEMENT

ASSISTANCE.

"(a) In General. - There are authorized to be appropriated

$60,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 for the program established under

section 203(a) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 [Pub. L.

103-447, set out in a note below].

"(b) Availability. - Of the funds authorized to be appropriated

by subsection (a) -

"(1) not less than $20,000,000 shall be available for the cost,

as defined in section 502(5) of the [Federal] Credit Reform Act

of 1990 [2 U.S.C. 661a(5)], of direct loans pursuant to the

authority of section 203(c)(4) of the NATO Participation Act of

1994 (relating to the 'Foreign Military Financing Program');

"(2) not less than $30,000,000 shall be available for

assistance on a grant basis pursuant to the authority of section

203(c)(4) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994 (relating to the

'Foreign Military Financing Program'); and

"(3) not more than $10,000,000 shall be available for

assistance pursuant to the authority of section 203(c)(3) of the

NATO Participation Act of 1994 (relating to international

military education and training).

"(c) Rule of Construction. - Amounts authorized to be

appropriated under this section are authorized to be appropriated

in addition to such amounts as otherwise may be available for such

purposes.

"SEC. 608. REGIONAL AIRSPACE INITIATIVE AND PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.

"(a) In General. - To the extent provided in advance in

appropriations acts for such purposes, funds described in

subsection (b) are authorized to be made available to support the

implementation of the Regional Airspace Initiative and the

Partnership for Peace Information Management System, including -

"(1) the procurement of items in support of these programs; and

"(2) the transfer of such items to countries participating in

these programs.

"(b) Funds Described. - Funds described in this subsection are

funds that are available -

"(1) during any fiscal year under the NATO Participation Act of

1994 [Pub. L. 103-447, set out as a note below] with respect to

countries eligible for assistance under that Act; or

"(2) during fiscal year 1997 under any Act to carry out the

Warsaw Initiative.

"SEC. 609. EXCESS DEFENSE ARTICLES.

"(a) Priority Delivery. - Notwithstanding any other provision of

law, the delivery of excess defense articles under the authority of

section 203(c)(1) and (2) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994

[Pub. L. 103-447, set out in a note below] and section 516 of the

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2321j] shall be given

priority to the maximum extent feasible over the delivery of such

excess defense articles to all other countries except those

countries referred to in section 541 of the Foreign Operations,

Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1995

(Public Law 103-306; 108 Stat. 1640).

"(b) Cooperative Regional Peacekeeping Initiatives. - The

Congress encourages the President to provide excess defense

articles and other appropriate assistance to cooperative regional

peacekeeping initiatives involving emerging democracies in Central

and Eastern Europe that have expressed an interest in joining NATO

in order to enhance their ability to contribute to European peace

and security and international peacekeeping efforts.

"SEC. 610. MODERNIZATION OF DEFENSE CAPABILITY.

"The Congress endorses efforts by the United States to modernize

the defense capability of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic,

Slovenia, and any other countries designated by the President

pursuant to section 203(d) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994

[Pub. L. 103-447, set out in a note below], by exploring with such

countries options for the sale or lease to such countries of

weapons systems compatible with those used by NATO members,

including air defense systems, advanced fighter aircraft, and

telecommunications infrastructure.

"SEC. 611. TERMINATION OF ELIGIBILITY.

"(a) Termination of Eligibility. - The eligibility of a country

designated pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of section 606 or

pursuant to section 203(d) of the NATO Participation Act of 1994

[Pub. L. 103-447, set out in a note below] may be terminated upon a

determination by the President that such country does not meet the

criteria set forth in section 203(d)(3) of the NATO Participation

Act of 1994.

"(b) Notification. - At least 15 days before terminating the

eligibility of any country pursuant to subsection (a), the

President shall notify the congressional committees specified in

section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C.

2394-1] in accordance with the procedures applicable to

reprogramming notifications under that section.

"SEC. 612. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS TO THE NATO PARTICIPATION ACT.

"[Amended section 203 of Pub. L. 103-447, set out in a note

below.]"

DEFENSE BURDENSHARING

Pub. L. 105-85, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1221, Nov. 18, 1997, 111

Stat. 1935, as amended by Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title XII, Sec.

1233, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2156; Pub. L. 106-398, Sec. 1 [[div.

A], title X, Sec. 1087(e)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654,

1654A-293, provided that:

"(a) Efforts To Increase Allied Burdensharing. - The President

shall seek to have each nation that has cooperative military

relations with the United States (including security agreements,

basing arrangements, or mutual participation in multinational

military organizations or operations) take one or more of the

following actions:

"(1) For any nation in which United States military personnel

are assigned to permanent duty ashore, increase its financial

contributions to the payment of the nonpersonnel costs incurred

by the United States Government for stationing United States

military personnel in that nation, with a goal of achieving by

September 30, 2000, 75 percent of such costs. An increase in

financial contributions by any nation under this paragraph may

include the elimination of taxes, fees, or other charges levied

on United States military personnel, equipment, or facilities

stationed in that nation.

"(2) Increase its annual budgetary outlays for national defense

as a percentage of its gross domestic product by 10 percent or at

least to a level commensurate to that of the United States by

September 30, 1999.

"(3) Increase its annual budgetary outlays for foreign

assistance (to promote democratization, governmental

accountability and transparency, economic stabilization and

development, defense economic conversion, respect for the rule of

law and internationally recognized human rights, and humanitarian

relief efforts) by 10 percent or to provide such foreign

assistance at an annual rate that is not less than one percent of

its gross domestic product, by September 30, 1999.

"(4) Increase the military assets (including personnel,

equipment, logistics, support and other resources) that it

contributes or has pledged to contribute to multinational

military activities worldwide by 10 percent by September 30,

1999.

"(b) Authorities To Encourage Actions by United States Allies. -

In seeking the actions described in subsection (a) with respect to

any nation, or in response to a failure by any nation to undertake

one or more of such actions, the President may take any of the

following measures to the extent otherwise authorized by law:

"(1) Reduce the end strength level of members of the Armed

Forces assigned to permanent duty ashore in that nation.

"(2) Impose on that nation fees or other charges similar to

those that such nation imposes on United States forces stationed

in that nation.

"(3) Reduce (through rescission, impoundment, or other

appropriate procedures as authorized by law) the amount the

United States contributes to the NATO Civil Budget, Military

Budget, or Security Investment Program.

"(4) Suspend, modify, or terminate any bilateral security

agreement the United States has with that nation, consistent with

the terms of such agreement.

"(5) Reduce (through rescission, impoundment or other

appropriate procedures as authorized by law) any United States

bilateral assistance appropriated for that nation.

"(6) Take any other action the President determines to be

appropriate as authorized by law.

"(c) Report on Progress in Increasing Allied Burdensharing. - Not

later than March 1, 1999, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to

Congress a report on -

"(1) steps taken by other nations to complete the actions

described in subsection (a);

"(2) all measures taken by the President, including those

authorized in subsection (b), to achieve the actions described in

subsection (a);

"(3) the difference between the amount allocated by other

nations for each of the actions described in subsection (a)

during the period beginning on October 1, 1996, and ending on

September 30, 1997, and during the period beginning on October 1,

1997, and ending on September 30, 1998, or, in the case of any

nation for which the data for such periods is inadequate, the

difference between the amounts for the latest periods for which

adequate data is available; and

"(4) the budgetary savings to the United States that are

expected to accrue as a result of the steps described under

paragraph (1).

"(d) Report on National Security Bases for Forward Deployment and

Burdensharing Relationships. - (1) In order to ensure the best

allocation of budgetary resources, the President shall undertake a

review of the status of elements of the United States Armed Forces

that are permanently stationed outside the United States. The

review shall include an assessment of the following:

"(A) The alliance requirements that are to be found in

agreements between the United States and other countries.

"(B) The national security interests that support permanently

stationing elements of the United States Armed Forces outside the

United States.

"(C) The stationing costs associated with the forward

deployment of elements of the United States Armed Forces.

"(D) The alternatives available to forward deployment (such as

material prepositioning, enhanced airlift and sealift, or joint

training operations) to meet such alliance requirements or

national security interests, with such alternatives identified

and described in detail.

"(E) The costs and force structure configurations associated

with such alternatives to forward deployment.

"(F) The financial contributions that allies of the United

States make to common defense efforts (to promote

democratization, economic stabilization, transparency

arrangements, defense economic conversion, respect for the rule

of law, and internationally recognized human rights).

"(G) The contributions that allies of the United States make to

meeting the stationing costs associated with the forward

deployment of elements of the United States Armed Forces.

"(H) The annual expenditures of the United States and its

allies on national defense, and the relative percentages of each

nation's gross domestic product constituted by those

expenditures.

"(2) The President shall submit to Congress a report on the

review under paragraph (1). The report shall be submitted not later

than March 1, 1999, in classified and unclassified form."

[Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1233(a), Oct. 17, 1998,

112 Stat. 2156, provided that the amendments made by that section

to section 1221(a) of Pub. L. 105-85, set out above, are effective

Oct. 1, 1998.]

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior

authorization act:

Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title X, Sec. 1084, Sept. 23, 1996, 110

Stat. 2673.

NATO PARTICIPATION

Pub. L. 103-447, title II, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4695, as

amended by Pub. L. 104-107, title V, Sec. 585, Feb. 12, 1996, 110

Stat. 752; Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(c) [title VI,

Sec. 612], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-121, 3009-178; Pub. L.

105-277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXVII, Sec. 2703(e), Oct. 21,

1998, 112 Stat. 2681-842, provided that:

"SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'NATO Participation Act of 1994'.

"SEC. 202. SENSE OF THE CONGRESS.

"It is the sense of the Congress that -

"(1) the leaders of the NATO member nations are to be commended

for reaffirming that NATO membership remains open to Partnership

for Peace countries emerging from communist domination and for

welcoming eventual expansion of NATO to include such countries;

"(2) full and active participants in the Partnership for Peace

in a position to further the principles of the North Atlantic

Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic

area should be invited to become full NATO members in accordance

with Article 10 of such Treaty at an early date, if such

participants -

"(A) maintain their progress toward establishing democratic

institutions, free market economies, civilian control of their

armed forces, and the rule of law; and

"(B) remain committed to protecting the rights of all their

citizens and respecting the territorial integrity of their

neighbors;

"(3) the United States, other NATO member nations, and NATO

itself should furnish appropriate assistance to facilitate the

transition to full NATO membership at an early date of full and

active participants in the Partnership for Peace; and

"(4) in particular, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and

Slovakia have made significant progress toward establishing

democratic institutions, free market economies, civilian control

of their armed forces, and the rule of law since the fall of

their previous communist governments.

"SEC. 203. AUTHORITY FOR PROGRAM TO FACILITATE TRANSITION TO NATO

MEMBERSHIP.

"(a) In General. - The President may establish a program to

assist the transition to full NATO membership of Poland, Hungary,

the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and other Partnership for Peace

emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe designated

pursuant to subsection (d).

"(b) Conduct of Program. - The program established under

subsection (a) shall facilitate the transition to full NATO

membership of the countries designated under subsection (d) by

supporting and encouraging, inter alia -

"(1) joint planning, training, and military exercises with NATO

forces;

"(2) greater interoperability of military equipment, air

defense systems, and command, control, and communications

systems; and

"(3) conformity of military doctrine.

"(c) Type of Assistance. - In carrying out the program

established under subsection (a), the President may provide to the

countries designated under subsection (d) the following types of

security assistance:

"(1) The transfer of excess defense articles under section 516

of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2321j].

"(2) Assistance under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign

Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2347 et seq.] (relating to

international military education and training).

"(3) Assistance under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act

[22 U.S.C. 2763] (relating to the 'Foreign Military Financing

Program').

"(4) Assistance under chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign

Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] (relating to the

Economic Support Fund).

"(5) Funds made available for the 'Nonproliferation and

Disarmament Fund'.

"(6) Assistance under chapter 6 of part II of the Foreign

Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2348 et seq.] (relating to

peacekeeping operations and other programs).

"(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including

section 516(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C.

2321j(e)], the President may direct the crating, packing,

handling, and transportation of excess defense articles provided

pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection without charge to

the recipient of such articles.

"(d) Designation of Eligible Countries. -

"(1) Initial presidential review and designation. - Within 60

days of the enactment of the NATO Participation Act Amendments of

1995 [NATO Participation Act Amendments of 1995 was contained in

S. 602 and title VII of H.R. 1868 which were predecessor versions

of provisions enacted into law by section 585 of Pub. L. 104-107,

which was approved Feb. 12, 1996], the President should evaluate

the degree to which any emerging democracies in Central and

Eastern Europe which has expressed its interest in joining NATO

meets the criteria set forth in paragraph (3), and may designate

one or more of these countries as eligible to receive assistance

under the program established under subsection (a). The President

shall, at the time of designation of any country pursuant to this

paragraph, determine and report to the Committees on

International Relations and Appropriations of the House of

Representatives and the Committees on Foreign Relations and

Appropriations of the Senate with respect to each country so

designated that such country meets the criteria set forth in

paragraph (3).

"(2) Other european countries emerging from communist

domination. - In addition to the countries designated pursuant to

paragraph (1), the President may at any time designate other

European emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe as

eligible to receive assistance under the program established

under subsection (a). The President shall, at the time of

designation of any country pursuant to this paragraph, determine

and report to the Committees on International Relations and

Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committees

on Foreign Relations and Appropriations of the Senate with

respect to each country so designated that such country meets the

criteria set forth in paragraph (3).

"(3) Criteria. - The criteria referred to in paragraphs (1) and

(2) are, with respect to each country, that the country -

"(A) has made significant progress toward establishing -

"(i) shared values and interests;

"(ii) democratic governments;

"(iii) free market economies;

"(iv) civilian control of the military, of the police, and

of intelligence services, so that these organizations do not

pose a threat to democratic institutions, neighboring

countries, or the security of NATO or the United States;

"(v) adherence to the rule of law and to the values,

principles, and political commitments set forth in the

Helsinki Final Act and other declarations by the members of

the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe;

"(vi) commitment to further the principles of NATO and to

contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area;

"(vii) commitment to protecting the rights of all their

citizens and respecting the territorial integrity of their

neighbors;

"(viii) commitment and ability to accept the obligations,

responsibilities, and costs of NATO membership; and

"(ix) commitment and ability to implement infrastructure

development activities that will facilitate participation in

and support for NATO military activities;

"(B) is likely, within five years of such determination, to

be in a position to further the principles of the North

Atlantic Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North

Atlantic area; and

"(C) is not ineligible to receive assistance under section

552 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related

Programs Appropriations Act, 1996 [110 Stat. 741], with respect

to transfers of equipment to a country the government of which

the Secretary of State has determined is a terrorist government

for purposes of section 40(d) of the Arms Export Control Act

[22 U.S.C. 2780(d)].

"(e) Notification. - At least 15 days before designating any

country pursuant to subsection (d), the President shall notify the

appropriate congressional committees in accordance with the

procedures applicable under section 634A of the Foreign Assistance

Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2394-1), and shall include with such

notification a memorandum of justification with respect to the

proposed designation.

"(f) Determination. - It is hereby determined that Poland,

Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia meet the criteria

required in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (d).

"(g) Effect on Other Authorities. - Nothing in this Act [title]

shall affect the eligibility of countries to participate under

other provisions of law in programs described in this Act [title].

"SEC. 204. ADDITIONAL AUTHORITIES.

"(a) Arms Export Control Act. - The President is authorized to

exercise the authority of sections 63 and 65 of the Arms Export

Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2796b, 2796d] with respect to any country

designated under section 203(d) of this title on the same basis

authorized with respect to NATO countries.

"(b) Other NATO Authorities. - The President should designate any

country designated under section 203(d) of this title as eligible

under sections 2350c and 2350f of title 10, United States Code.

"(c) Sense of Congress. - It is the sense of Congress that, in

the interest of maintaining stability and promoting democracy in

Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and any other

Partnership for Peace country designated under section 203(d) of

this title, those countries should be included in all activities

under section 2457 of title 10, United States Code, related to the

increased standardization and enhanced interoperability of

equipment and weapons systems, through coordinated training and

procurement activities, as well as other means, undertaken by the

North Atlantic Treaty Organization members and other allied

countries.

"SEC. 205. ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENT.

"The President shall include in the annual report required by

section 514(a) of Public Law 103-236 (22 U.S.C. 1928 note) the

following:

"(1) A description of all assistance provided under the program

established under section 203(a), or otherwise provided by the

United States Government to facilitate the transition to full

NATO membership of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia,

and any other country designated by the President pursuant to

section 203(d).

"(2) A description, on the basis of information received from

the recipients and from NATO, of all assistance provided by other

NATO member nations or NATO itself to facilitate the transition

to full NATO membership of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic,

Slovakia, and any other country designated by the President

pursuant to section 203(d)."

COST-SHARING POLICY AND REPORT

Pub. L. 103-337, div. A, title XIII, Sec. 1313(a)-(d), Oct. 5,

1994, 108 Stat. 2894, 2895, provided that:

"(a) Policy. - It is the policy of the United States that the

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies should assist the

United States in paying the incremental costs incurred by the

United States for maintaining members of the Armed Forces in

assignments to permanent duty ashore in European member nations of

NATO solely for support of NATO roles and missions.

"(b) Implementation. - The President shall take all necessary

actions to ensure the effective implementation of the policy set

forth in subsection (a).

"(c) Report. - The Secretary of Defense shall include in the

annual report required by section 1002(d) of the Department of

Defense Authorization Act, 1985 [Pub. L. 98-525] (22 U.S.C. 1928

note) the following:

"(1) A description of the United States military forces

assigned to permanent duty ashore in European member nations of

NATO and an analysis of the cost of providing and maintaining

such forces in such assignment primarily for support of NATO

roles and missions.

"(2) A description of the United States military forces

assigned to permanent duty ashore in European member nations of

NATO primarily in support of other United States interests in

other regions of the world and an analysis of the cost of

providing and maintaining such forces in such assignment

primarily for that purpose.

"(3) A specific enumeration and description of the offsets to

United States costs of providing and maintaining United States

military forces in Europe that the United States received from

other NATO member nations in the fiscal year covered by the

report, set out by country and by type of assistance, including

both in-kind assistance and direct cash reimbursement, and the

projected offsets for the five fiscal years following the fiscal

year covered by the report.

"(d) Incremental Costs Defined. - For purposes of subsection (a),

the definition provided for the term 'incremental costs' in section

1046 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years

1992 and 1993 [Pub. L. 102-190, set out below], as added by

subsection (e), shall apply with respect to maintaining members of

the Armed Forces in assignments to permanent duty ashore in

European member nations of NATO in the same manner as such term

applies with respect to permanent stationing ashore of United

States forces in foreign nations for purposes of subsection (e)(4)

of such section 1046."

IMPLEMENTATION OF PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE

Pub. L. 103-236, title V, Sec. 514, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 467,

provided that:

"(a) Report to Congress. - The President shall submit annually,

beginning 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 30,

1994], a detailed report to the Committee on Foreign Relations of

the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs [now Committee on

International Relations] of the House of Representatives on the

implementation of the 'Partnership for Peace' initiative, including

an assessment of the progress made by former members of the Warsaw

Treaty Organization in meeting the criteria for full membership

articulated in Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty, wherein any

other European state may, by unanimous agreement, be invited to

accede to the North Atlantic Treaty if it is in a position to

further the principles of the Treaty and to contribute to the

security of the North Atlantic area.

"(b) Authority of the President. - The President is authorized to

confer, pursuant to agreement with any country eligible to

participate in the Partnership for Peace, rights in respect of the

military and related civilian personnel (including dependents of

any such personnel) and activities of that country in the United

States comparable to the rights conferred by that country in

respect of the military and related civilian personnel (including

dependents of any such personnel) and activities of the United

States in that country."

[Functions of President under section 514(b) of Pub. L. 103-236,

set out above, delegated to Secretary of State by Memorandum of

President of the United States, July 26, 1994, 59 F.R. 40205, set

out as a note under section 2370a of this title.]

DEFENSE COST-SHARING

Pub. L. 102-190, div. A, title X, Sec. 1046, Dec. 5, 1991, 105

Stat. 1466, as amended by Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XIV, Sec.

1412(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1829; Pub. L. 103-337, div. A,

title XIII, Sec. 1313(e), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2895, provided

that:

"(a) Defense Cost-Sharing Agreements. - (1) The President shall

consult with the foreign nations described in paragraph (2) to seek

to achieve, within 12 months after the date of the enactment of

this Act [Dec. 5, 1991], an agreement on equitable defense

cost-sharing with each such nation.

"(2) The foreign nations referred to in paragraph (1) are -

"(A) each member nation of the North Atlantic Treaty

Organization (other than the United States); and

"(B) every other foreign nation with which the United States

has a bilateral or multilateral defense agreement that provides

for the assignment of combat units of the Armed Forces of the

United States to permanent duty in the nation or the placement of

combat equipment of the United States in the nation.

"(3) Each defense cost-sharing agreement entered into under

paragraph (1) should provide that the foreign nation agrees to

share equitably with the United States, through cash compensation

or in-kind contributions, or a combination thereof, the costs to

the United States that arise solely from the implementation of the

provisions of the bilateral or multilateral defense agreement with

that nation.

"(b) Exception. - The provisions of subsection (a) shall not

apply to those foreign nations that receive assistance under

section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763) relating

to the foreign military financing program or under chapter 4 of

part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2346 et

seq.) relating to the Economic Support Fund.

"(c) Consultations. - In conducting the consultations required

under subsection (a), the President should make maximum feasible

use of the Department of Defense and the post of

Ambassador-at-Large created by section 8125(c) of the Department of

Defense Appropriations Act, 1989 [Pub. L. 100-463] (10 U.S.C. 113

note).

"(d) Allies Mutual Defense Payments Account. - The Secretary of

Defense shall maintain an accounting for defense cost-sharing under

each agreement entered into with a foreign nation pursuant to

subsection (a). The accounting shall show for each foreign nation

the amount and nature of the -

"(1) cost-sharing contributions agreed to by the nation;

"(2) cost-sharing contributions delivered by the nation;

"(3) additional contributions by the nation to any commonly

funded multilateral programs providing for United States

participation in the common defense;

"(4) contributions by the United States to any such commonly

funded multilateral programs;

"(5) contributions of all other nations to any such commonly

funded multilateral programs; and

"(6) costs to the United States that arise solely from the

implementation of the provisions of the bilateral or multilateral

defense agreement with the nation.

"(e) Reporting Requirements. - The Secretary of Defense shall

include in each Report on Allied Contributions to the Common

Defense prepared under section 1003 of Public Law 98-525 (22 U.S.C.

1928 note) information, in classified and unclassified form -

"(1) describing the efforts undertaken and the progress made by

the President in carrying out subsections (a) and (c) during the

period covered by the report;

"(2) specifying the accounting of defense cost-sharing

contributions maintained under subsection (d) during that period;

"(3) assessing how equitably foreign nations not described in

subsection (a) or excepted under subsection (b) are sharing the

costs and burdens of implementing defense agreements with the

United States and how those defense agreements serve the national

security interests of the United States; and

"(4) specifying the incremental costs to the United States

associated with the permanent stationing ashore of United States

forces in foreign nations.

"(f) Incremental Costs Defined. - In this section, the term

'incremental costs', with respect to permanent stationing ashore of

United States forces in foreign nations, means the difference

between the costs associated with maintaining United States

military forces in assignments to permanent duty ashore in the

foreign nations and the costs associated with maintaining those

same military forces at military bases in the United States."

ACTIVE-DUTY FORCES IN EUROPE OF MEMBER NATIONS OF NATO

Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title IX, Sec. 912, Nov. 29, 1989, 103

Stat. 1523, directed Secretary of Defense to ensure that, for the

next three years, the current ratio (expressed as a percentage) of

U.S. active duty forces in Europe to allied active duty forces in

Europe does not increase by more than a specified amount.

SENSE OF CONGRESS ON NEED FOR MODERNIZATION OF THEATER NUCLEAR

CAPABILITIES OF NATO

Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004, Sept. 29, 1988, 102

Stat. 2039, provided that:

"(a) Findings. - Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) The security of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

(NATO) alliance will continue for the foreseeable future to rely

on a modern and credible nuclear deterrent.

"(2) NATO should make every effort to achieve the goal of

raising the threshold for the use of nuclear weapons in the event

of a conflict in Europe.

"(3) While recognizing that there is a critical need for

improvements in conventional forces, Congress also recognizes

that the United States will have to devote defense resources in

the future to the continuing modernization of the theater nuclear

capabilities of NATO.

"(4) The modernization of the theater nuclear capabilities of

NATO is a continuing process and stems from the 1983 Montebello

decision by NATO to reduce the stockpile of nuclear weapons in

Europe while taking steps to ensure that the remaining nuclear

weapons of the alliance are responsive, survivable, and

effective.

"(5) Programs to modernize theater nuclear forces, which had a

high priority for NATO before the ratification of the

Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, are at least as

important following the ratification of that treaty in May 1988.

"(6) The NATO Nuclear Planning Group recently reaffirmed its

endorsement of development by the United States of a new missile

for delivery of theater nuclear weapons as a follow-on to the

current Lance missile, with a view toward an eventual decision on

deployment of such a follow-on missile.

"(b) Sense of Congress. - In light of the findings in subsection

(a), it is the sense of Congress that -

"(1) modernization of the theater nuclear capabilities of the

North Atlantic Treaty Organization is essential to the deterrence

strategy of the NATO alliance, particularly in light of the

requirements of the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF)

Treaty for the destruction of intermediate-range nuclear weapons;

"(2) continued modernization by the United States of theater

nuclear capabilities should be undertaken in close consultation

with other NATO member nations; and

"(3) the United States should proceed with ongoing activities

to meet the identified requirement of the NATO alliance for

development of a new missile for delivery of theater nuclear

weapons as a follow-on to the Lance missile."

REPORT ON OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM OF JAPAN

Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title X, Sec. 1009(b), Sept. 29, 1988,

102 Stat. 2041, provided that: "The Secretary of Defense shall

include with the annual report submitted pursuant to section 1003

of Public Law 98-525 (22 U.S.C. 1928 note) a report on the Official

Development Assistance program of the Government of Japan. Such

report shall be prepared each year in coordination with the

Secretary of State and the Administrator of the Agency for

International Development and shall include a description of the

amount and nature of spending under such program by recipient,

including distinguishing between grant aid, loans, and credits."

JAPAN-UNITED STATES SECURITY RELATIONSHIP AND EFFORTS BY JAPAN TO

FULFILL SELF-DEFENSE RESPONSIBILITIES

Pub. L. 99-93, title VIII, Sec. 812, Aug. 16, 1985, 99 Stat. 453,

as amended by Pub. L. 103-236, title I, Sec. 139(14), Apr. 30,

1994, 108 Stat. 398, provided that:

"(a) Findings. - The Congress hereby finds -

"(1) the Japan-United States security relationship is the

foundation of the peace and security of Japan and the Far East,

as well as a major contributor to the protection of the United

States and of the democratic freedoms and economic prosperity

enjoyed by both the United States and Japan;

"(2) the threats to our two democracies have increased

significantly since 1976, principally through the Soviet invasion

of Afghanistan, the expansion of Soviet armed forces in the Far

East, the invasion of Cambodia by Vietnam, and the instability in

the Persian Gulf region as signified by the continuing Iran-Iraq

conflict;

"(3) in recognition of these and other threats, the United

States has greatly increased its annual defense spending through

sustained real growth averaging 8.8 percent yearly between fiscal

1981 and 1985, and cumulative real growth of 50 percent in that

period;

"(4) the United States Government appreciates the May 1981

commitment by the Prime Minister of Japan that, pursuant to the

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security of 1960 between Japan

and the United States, Japan, on its own initiative, would seek

to make even greater efforts for improving its defense

capabilities, and pursuant to Japan's own Constitution, it was

national policy for his country to acquire and maintain the

self-defense forces adequate for the defense of its land area and

surrounding airspace and sealanes, out to a distance of 1,000

miles;

"(5) the United States Government applauds the policy of Japan

to obtain the capabilities to defend its sea and air lanes out to

1,000 miles, expects that these capabilities should be acquired

by the end of the decade, and recognizes that achieving those

capabilities would significantly improve the national security of

both Japan and the United States;

"(6) the United States Government appreciates the contribution

already made by Japan through the Host Nation Support Program and

its recent efforts to increase its defense spending; and

"(7) Japan, however, in recent years consistently has not

provided sufficient funding and resources to meet its

self-defense needs and to meet common United States-Japan defense

objectives and alliance responsibilities.

"(b) Sense of Congress. - It is the sense of the Congress that

Japan, to fulfill its self-defense responsibilities pursuant to the

1960 Mutual Cooperation and Security Treaty with the United States,

and in accordance with the national policy declaration made by its

Prime Minister in May 1981, to develop a 1,000-mile airspace and

sealanes defense capability, should implement a 1986-1990 Mid-Term

Defense Plan containing sufficient funding, program acquisition,

and force development resources to obtain the agreed-upon 1,000

mile self-defense capabilities by the end of the decade, including

the allocation of sufficient budgetary resources annually to reduce

substantially the ammunition, logistics, and sustainability

shortfalls of its self-defense forces."

SENSE OF CONGRESS RELATING TO INCREASE IN DEFENSE SPENDING BY

UNITED STATES ALLIES

Pub. L. 98-525, title X, Sec. 1001, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2574,

provided that: "It is the sense of Congress that the President -

"(1) should call on the pertinent member nations of the North

Atlantic Treaty Organization to meet or exceed their pledges for

an annual increase in defense spending during fiscal years 1984

and 1985 of at least 3 percent real growth; and

"(2) should call on Japan to further increase its defense

spending during fiscal years 1984 and 1985;

in furtherance of increased unity, equitable sharing of the common

defense burden, and international stability."

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 98-473, title I,

Sec. 101(e) [Sec. 127], (h) [title VIII, Sec. 8105], Oct. 12, 1984,

98 Stat. 1877, 1883, 1904, 1943.

IMPROVEMENTS TO NATO CONVENTIONAL CAPABILITY

Pub. L. 98-525, title X, Sec. 1002, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2574,

as amended by Pub. L. 99-145, title XI, Sec. 1101, Nov. 8, 1985, 99

Stat. 707; Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title IX, Sec. 911(a), Nov. 29,

1989, 103 Stat. 1523; Pub. L. 101-510, div. A, title IV, Sec. 406,

title XIII, Sec. 1312(c)(1), (2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1546,

1670; Pub. L. 102-25, title VII, Sec. 704(a)(2), Apr. 6, 1991, 105

Stat. 118; Pub. L. 102-190, div. A, title X, Sec. 1042, Dec. 5,

1991, 105 Stat. 1462; Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title XIII, Sec.

1303(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2546; Pub. L. 103-160, div. A,

title XIV, Sec. 1412(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1828; Pub. L.

103-337, div. A, title XIII, Sec. 1303(a)-(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108

Stat. 2889, 2890; Pub. L. 104-106, div. A, title XIII, Sec.

1334(a), title XV, Sec. 1502(c)(7), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 484,

508; Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Secs. 1032(b)(4), 1067(12),

Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 751, 775, provided that:

"(a) The Congress finds -

"(1) that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) should

improve its conventional defense capability so as to lengthen the

period of time that Western Europe can be defended by

conventional forces without the necessity of resorting to the

early use of nuclear weapons in the event of a non-nuclear attack

on any NATO member country;

"(2) that fulfillment by NATO member nations of their goals and

commitments to increase defense spending, improve conventional

sustainability, and provide support facilities in Western Europe

for rapid reinforcements from the United States is crucial to

accomplishing that objective; and

"(3) that an increase over current United States military

personnel levels in European member nations of NATO can be

justified only if these goals and commitments are substantially

met by NATO member nations (other than the United States).

"(b) The Congress urges the President and the Secretary of

Defense to continue to encourage member nations of NATO (other than

the United States) to work expeditiously to fulfill the following

commitments they have undertaken:

"(1) To achieve and maintain an annual increase in their

defense spending of at least 3 percent, after inflation.

"(2) To acquire a 30-day supply of air and ground munitions

among those NATO members which have committed forces to the

Northern, Center, and Southern Regions.

"(3) To construct the number of minimum essential and emergency

operating facilities and semihardened aircraft shelters in

Western Europe required by NATO Ministerial Guidance to support,

under NATO/SHAPE standards, as a minimum, the annual commitment

of United States reinforcing tactical aircraft.

"(c)(1) The end strength level of members of the Armed Forces of

the United States assigned to permanent duty ashore in European

member nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization may not

exceed a permanent ceiling of approximately 100,000 in any fiscal

year.

"(2) If the Secretary of Defense certifies to the Congress in

writing during any fiscal year after fiscal year 1985 that during

the previous fiscal year the member nations of NATO (other than the

United States) have undertaken significant measures to improve

their conventional defense capacity consistent with the goals set

forth in subsection (b) which contributes to lengthening the time

period between an armed attack on any NATO country and the time the

Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, would have to request the release

and use of nuclear weapons, the Congress would give strong

consideration to authorizing an increase in the permanent ceiling

prescribed in paragraph (1) for fiscal years after such fiscal

year.

"(3) For purposes of this subsection, the following members of

the Armed Forces are excluded in calculating the end strength level

of members of the Armed Forces of the United States assigned to

permanent duty ashore in European member nations of NATO:

"(A) Members assigned to permanent duty ashore in Iceland,

Greenland, and the Azores.

"(B) Members performing duties in Europe for more than 179 days

under a military-to-military contact program under section 168 of

title 10, United States Code.

"[(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1032(b)(4),

Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 751.]

"(e)(1) The Congress finds that a viable 'two-way street' of

defense procurement improves NATO interoperability and therefore is

important to overall improvements in conventional defense.

"(2) In addition to any funds appropriated pursuant to the

authorization contained in this Act for the activities of the

Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, Defense, the Director

may use an additional amount, not to exceed $50,000,000, to acquire

certain types of weapons, subsystems, and munitions of European

NATO manufacture for side-by-side testing with comparable United

States manufactured items. Such additional amount shall be derived

from any funds appropriated pursuant to an authorization contained

in this Act. Items that may be acquired under this paragraph

include submunitions and dispensers, anti-tank and anti-armor

guided missiles, mines, runway-cratering devices, torpedoes, mortar

systems, light armored vehicles, and high-velocity anti-tank guns.

"(f)(1) This section shall not apply in the event of a

declaration of war or an armed attack on any NATO member country.

"(2) This section may be waived by the President if he declares

an emergency and immediately informs the Congress of his action and

the reasons therefor."

[Section 1303(d) of Pub. L. 103-337 provided that: "The amendment

made by subsection (a) [amending section 1002(c)(1) of Pub. L.

98-525, set out above] shall take effect on October 1, 1995."]

[Section 1303(b) of Pub. L. 102-484, which provided that the

amendment of section 1002(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98-525, set out above,

by section 1303(a) of Pub. L. 102-484, take effect Oct. 1, 1995,

was repealed by Pub. L. 103-337, div. A, title XIII, Sec. 1303(c),

Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2890.]

[Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title IX, Sec. 911(b), Nov. 29, 1989,

103 Stat. 1523, which provided that the amendment of section 1002

of Pub. L. 98-525, set out above, by section 911(a) of Pub. L.

101-189, take effect on Sept. 30, 1991, was repealed by Pub. L.

101-510, div. A, title IV, Sec. 406(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat.

1546.]

REPORT ON ALLIED CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE COMMON DEFENSE

Pub. L. 98-525, title X, Sec. 1003, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2576,

as amended by Pub. L. 101-510, div. A, title XIII, Sec. 1312(c)(3),

Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1670; Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title X,

Sec. 1084(e), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2675, provided that:

"(a) In recognition of the increasing military threat faced by

the Western World and in view of the growth, relative to the United

States, in the economic strength of Japan, Canada, and a number of

Western European countries which has occurred since the signing of

the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949, and the Mutual

Cooperation and Security Treaty between Japan and the United States

on January 19, 1960, it is the sense of the Congress that -

"(1) the burdens of mutual defense now assumed by some of the

countries allied with the United States under those agreements

are not commensurate with their economic resources;

"(2) since May 1978, when each member nation of the North

Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) agreed to increase real

defense spending annually in the range of 3 percent, most NATO

members, except for the United States, have failed to meet the 3

percent real growth commitment consistently;

"(3) since May 1981, when the Government of Japan established

its policy to defend the air and sea lines of communication out

to 1,000 nautical miles from the coast of Japan, progress to

develop the necessary self-defense capabilities to fulfill that

pledge has been extremely disappointing;

"(4) Japan is the ally of the United States with the greatest

potential for improving its self-defense capabilities and should,

therefore, rapidly increase its annual defense spending to the

levels required to fulfill that pledge and to enable Japan to be

capable of an effective conventional self-defense capability by

1990, including the capability to carry out its 1,000-mile

defense policy, a development that would be consonant not only

with Japan's current prominent position in the family of nations

but also with its unique sensibilities on the issues of war and

peace, sensibilities that are recognized and respected by the

people of the United States; and

"(5) the continued unwillingness of such countries to increase

their contributions to the common defense to more appropriate

levels will endanger the vitality, effectiveness, and cohesion of

the alliances between those countries and the United States.

"(b) It is further the sense of the Congress that the President

should seek from each signatory country (other than the United

States) of the two treaties referred to in subsection (a)

acceptance of international security responsibilities and an

agreement to make contributions to the common defense which are

commensurate with the economic resources of such country,

including, when appropriate, an increase in host nation support.

"(c) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Congress by

March 1, 1998, and every other year thereafter, not later than

April 1, a classified report containing -

"(1) a comparison of the fair and equitable shares of the

mutual defense burdens of these alliances that should be borne by

the United States, by other member nations of NATO, and by Japan,

based upon economic strength and other relevant factors, and the

actual defense efforts of each nation together with an

explanation of disparities that currently exist and their impact

on mutual defense efforts;

"(2) a description of efforts by the United States and the

efforts of other members of the alliances to eliminate any

existing disparities;

"(3) projected estimates of the real growth in defense spending

for the fiscal year in which the report is submitted for each

NATO member nation;

"(4) a description of the defense-related initiatives

undertaken by each NATO member nation within the real growth in

defense spending of such nation in the fiscal year immediately

preceding the fiscal year in which the report is submitted;

"(5) an explanation of those instances in which the commitments

to real growth in defense spending have not been realized and a

description of efforts being made by the United States to ensure

fulfillment of these important NATO commitments;

"(6) a description of the activities of each NATO member and

Japan to enhance the security and stability of the Southwest Asia

region and to assume additional missions for their own defense as

the United States allocates additional resources to the mission

of protecting Western interests in world areas not covered by the

system of Western Alliances; and

"(7) a description of what additional actions the executive

branch plans to take should the efforts by the United States

referred to in clauses (2) and (5) fail, and, in those instances

where such additional actions do not include consideration of the

repositioning of American troops, a detailed explanation as to

why such repositioning is not being so considered.

"(d) The Secretary of Defense shall also submit to the Congress

not more than 30 days after the submission of the report required

under subsection (a) an unclassified report containing the matters

set forth in clauses (1) through (7) of such subsection."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior

authorization act:

Pub. L. 98-94, title XI, Sec. 1102, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 673.

NATO DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION

Pub. L. 97-252, title XI, Sec. 1122, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 755,

provided that:

"(a) The Congress finds that -

"(1) the United States remains firmly committed to cooperating

closely with its North Atlantic Treaty Organization (hereinafter

in this section referred to as 'NATO') allies in protecting

liberty and maintaining world peace;

"(2) the financial burden of providing for the defense of

Western Europe and for the protection of the interests of NATO

member countries in areas outside the NATO treaty area has

reached such proportions that new cooperative approaches among

the United States and its NATO allies are required to achieve and

maintain an adequate collective defense at acceptable costs;

"(3) the need for a credible conventional deterrent in Western

Europe has long been recognized in theory but has never been

fully addressed in practice;

"(4) a more equitable sharing by NATO member countries of both

the burdens and the technological and economic benefits of the

common defense would do much to reinvigorate the North Atlantic

Treaty Organization alliance with a restored sense of unity and

common purpose;

"(5) a decision to coordinate more effectively the enormous

technological, industrial, and economic resources of NATO member

countries will not only increase the efficiency and effectiveness

of NATO military expenditures but also provide inducement for the

Soviet Union to enter into a meaningful arms reduction agreement

so that both Warsaw Pact countries and NATO member countries can

devote more of their energies and resources to peaceful and

economically more beneficial pursuits.

"(b) It is the sense of the Congress that the President should

propose to the heads of government of the NATO member countries

that the NATO allies of the United States join the United States in

agreeing -

"(1) to coordinate more effectively their defense efforts and

resources to create, at acceptable costs, a credible, collective,

conventional force for the defense of the North Atlantic Treaty

area;

"(2) to establish a cooperative defense-industrial effort

within Western Europe and between Western Europe and North

America that would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of

NATO expenditures by providing a larger production base while

eliminating unnecessary duplication of defense-industrial

efforts;

"(3) to share more equitably and efficiently the financial

burdens, as well as the economic benefits (including jobs,

technology, and trade) of NATO defense; and

"(4) to intensify consultations promptly for the early

achievement of the objectives described in clauses (1) through

(3)."

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION COUNTRIES AND JAPAN;

CONTRIBUTIONS OF ALLIES OF UNITED STATES TO COMMON DEFENSE

COMMENSURATE WITH ECONOMIC RESOURCES; REPORT TO CONGRESS

Pub. L. 96-342, title X, Sec. 1006, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1120,

as amended by Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 919, Dec. 1, 1981, 95

Stat. 1132; Pub. L. 97-252, title XI, Sec. 1120, Sept. 8, 1982, 96

Stat. 754, provided that:

"(a) In recognition of the growth, relative to the United States,

in the economic strength of Japan, Canada, and Western European

countries which has occurred since the signing of the North

Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949, and the Mutual Cooperation and

Security Treaty between Japan and the United States on January 19,

1960, it is the sense of Congress that -

"(1) the burdens of mutual defense now assumed by the countries

allied with the United States under those agreements are not

commensurate with their economic resources; and

"(2) the continued unwillingness of those countries to increase

their contributions to the common defense to more appropriate

levels would endanger the vitality, effectiveness, and

cohesiveness of the alliances between those countries and the

United States.

"(b) It is further the sense of Congress that the President

should seek from each signatory country (other than the United

States) of the two treaties referred to in subsection (a)

acceptance of international security responsibilities and agreement

to make contributions to the common defense which are commensurate

with the economic resources of such country, including, when

appropriate, an increase in host nation support.

"(c)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Congress not

later than March 1, 1983, a report providing -

"(A) a comparison of the fair and equitable shares of the

mutual defense burdens of these alliances that should be borne by

the United States, by other member nations of the North Atlantic

Treaty Organization (NATO), and by Japan, based upon economic

strength and other relevant factors, and the actual defense

efforts of each nation together with an explanation of

disparities that currently exist and their impact on mutual

defense efforts;

"(B) a description of efforts by the United States and of other

efforts to eliminate existing disparities;

"(C) estimates of the real growth in defense spending in fiscal

year 1983 projected for each NATO member nation compared to the

annual real growth goal in the range of 3 percent set in May

1978;

"(D) a description of the defense-related initiatives

undertaken by each NATO member nation within the real growth in

defense spending of such nation in fiscal year 1983;

"(E) an explanation of those instances in which the commitments

to real growth in defense spending and to the Long-Term Defense

Program have not been realized and a description of efforts being

made by the United States to ensure fulfillment of these

important NATO commitments; and

"(F) a description of what additional actions the President

plans to take should the efforts by the United States referred to

in clauses (B) and (E) fail and, in those instances where such

additional actions do not include consideration of the

repositioning of elements of the Armed Forces of the United

States, a detailed explanation as to why such repositioning is

not being so considered.

"(2) If the report required by paragraph (1) as submitted to

Congress is designated as having been classified, pursuant to

Executive order, as requiring protection against unauthorized

disclosure in the interest of national defense or foreign policy,

then not later than thirty days after the submission of such report

the Secretary shall submit to Congress a further report containing

all the information in the initial report that does not require

such protection."

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION; BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS DEFICIT;

EQUITABLE COST SHARING; REPORT TO CONGRESS

Pub. L. 93-155, title VIII, Sec. 812, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat.

619, provided that:

"(a) The Congress finds that in order to achieve a more equitable

sharing of the costs and expenses arising from commitments and

obligations under the North Atlantic Treaty, the President should

seek, through appropriate bilateral and multilateral arrangements,

payments sufficient in amount to offset fully any

balance-of-payment deficit incurred by the United States during the

fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, as the result of the deployment

of forces in Europe in fulfillment of the treaty commitments and

obligations of the United States. This balance-of-payment deficit

shall be determined by the Secretary of Commerce in consultation

with the Secretary of Defense and the Comptroller General of the

United States.

"(b) In the event that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

members (other than the United States) fail to offset the net

balance-of-payment deficit described in subsection (a) prior to the

expiration of eighteen months after the date of enactment of this

section [Nov. 16, 1973], no funds may be expended after the

expiration of twenty-four months following the date of enactment of

this section [Nov. 16, 1973] for the purpose of maintaining or

supporting United States forces in Europe in any number greater

than a number equal to the average monthly number of United States

forces assigned to duty in Europe during the fiscal year ending

June 30, 1974, reduced by a percentage figure equal to the

percentage figure by which such balance-of-payment deficit during

such fiscal year was not offset.

"(c) The Congress further finds (1) that the other members of the

North Atlantic Treaty Organization should, in order to achieve a

more equitable sharing of the cost burden under the treaty,

substantially increase their contributions to assist the United

States in meeting those added budgeting expenses incurred as the

result of maintaining and supporting United States forces in

Europe, including, but not limited to, wages paid to local

personnel by the United States, recurring expenses incurred in

connection with the maintenance and operation of real property,

maintenance facilities, supply depots, cold storage facilities,

communications systems, and standby operations, and nonrecurring

expenses such as the construction and rehabilitation of plants and

facilities; (2) that the amount paid by the United States in

connection with the North Atlantic Treaty infrastructure program

should be reduced to a more equitable amount; and (3) that the

President should seek, through appropriate bilateral and

multilateral arrangements, a substantial reduction of the amounts

paid by the United States in connection with those matters

described in (1) and (2) above.

"(d) The President shall submit to the Congress within ninety

days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1973], and

at the end of each ninety-day period thereafter, a written report

informing the Congress of the progress that has been made in

implementing the provisions of this section."

UNITED STATES CITIZENS COMMISSION ON NATO

Pub. L. 86-719, Sept. 7, 1960, 74 Stat. 818, as amended by Pub.

L. 87-116, July 31, 1961, 75 Stat. 242, provided for a United

States Citizens Commission on NATO to terminate on June 30, 1962,

including the appointment of the Commission, vacancies, chairman

and vice chairman, statement of purpose, conferences in NATO

countries, representative status, authority of Commission,

compensation and expenses, appropriations, and reports to Congress.

-EXEC-

EX. ORD. NO. 11633. SECURITY CLEARANCE PROGRAM FOR UNITED STATES

CITIZENS EMPLOYED DIRECTLY BY NATO, SEATO, AND CENTO

Ex. Ord. No. 11633. Dec. 3, 1971, 36 F.R. 23197, provided:

The United States now participates in the activities of the North

Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the South-East Asia Treaty

Organization (SEATO), and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).

The Security regulations of these three treaty organizations

provide that each participating nation shall be responsible for the

security screening and security clearance of its own citizens

before they are authorized access to the Organization's TOP SECRET,

SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL information. There is no existing program,

however, under which United States civilians who are hired directly

by these organizations can be screened and cleared for access to

such Organization's TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL information

while so employed. It is, of course, in the interest of the United

States that United States citizens who participate in the

activities of NATO, SEATO, and CENTO as direct hire employees of

the civil or military agencies of those organizations be reliable,

trustworthy, of good conduct and character, and of complete and

unswerving loyalty to the United States. At the same time, it is a

fundamental principle of our Government to protect against

unreasonable or unwarranted encroachment on the freedom and privacy

of individuals.

I have determined that the provisions and procedures prescribed

by this Order are necessary to assure the preservation of the

integrity of the classified information of NATO, SEATO, and CENTO,

and to protect the national interest. I have also determined that

these provisions and procedures recognize the rights of individuals

affected thereby and provide maximum possible safeguards to protect

such rights.

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the

Constitution and statutes of the United States, and as

Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, it is

ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of Defense shall establish a program

and, by regulation, shall prescribe such specific requirements,

restrictions, and other safeguards as he considers necessary for

the administration of procedures whereby "Certificates of Security

Clearance" for the United States citizens directly employed by

civil or military agencies of NATO, SEATO, or CENTO may be provided

to these international organizations when they so request. Such

program shall also provide for the denial, revocation, or

suspension of such "Certificates."

Sec. 2. Subject to the provisions of applicable international

agreements, the procedures established by the Secretary of Defense

shall, insofar as is practical, be similar to those established by

him pursuant to the authority vested in him by Executive Order No.

10865 of February 20, 1960, as amended [set out as a note under

section 435 of Title 50, War and National Defense].

Sec. 3. The substance of the criteria, safeguards, and procedures

provided in Sections 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 of Executive Order No.

10865, as amended [set out as a note under section 435 of Title 50,

War and National Defense], shall be incorporated in the regulations

of the Secretary of Defense governing the program established

hereunder.

Sec. 4. Any authority vested in the Secretary of Defense by this

Order may be delegated to the Deputy Secretary of Defense or an

Assistant Secretary of Defense.

Richard Nixon.

DETERMINATION REGARDING END STRENGTH LEVEL OF U.S. ARMED FORCES IN

EUROPE FOR FISCAL YEAR 1991

Determination of President of the United States, No. 91-37, May

29, 1991, 56 F.R. 25611, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense

Consistent with section 406(b) of the National Defense

Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101-510; 104

Stat. 1546) [amending section 1002 of Pub. L. 98-525, set out as a

note above], I hereby authorize an end strength level of members of

the Armed Forces assigned to permanent duty ashore in European

member nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in excess

of 261,855 for fiscal year 1991, and determine that the national

security interests of the United States require such authorization.

You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress of this

determination and of the necessity therefor contained in the

attached justification [not set out in the Code], and to publish

this determination in the Federal Register.

George Bush.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2390 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1928a 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1928a. North Atlantic Treaty Parliamentary Conference;

participation; appointment of United States Group

-STATUTE-

Not to exceed twenty-four Members of Congress shall be appointed

to meet jointly and annually with representative parliamentary

groups from other NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

members, for discussion of common problems in the interests of the

maintenance of peace and security in the North Atlantic area. Of

the Members of the Congress to be appointed for the purposes of

this resolution (hereinafter designated as the "United States

Group"), half shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House from

Members of the House (not less than four of whom shall be from the

Committee on Foreign Affairs), and half shall be appointed by the

President of the Senate upon recommendations of the majority and

minority leaders of the Senate from Members of the Senate. Not more

than seven of the appointees from the Senate shall be of the same

political party. The Chairman or Vice Chairman of the House

delegation shall be a Member from the Foreign Affairs Committee,

and, unless the President of the Senate, upon the recommendation of

the Majority Leader, determines otherwise, the Chairman or Vice

Chairman of the Senate delegation shall be a Member from the

Foreign Relations Committee. Each delegation shall have a

secretary. The secretaries of the Senate and House delegations

shall be appointed, respectively, by the chairman of the Committee

on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the chairman of the

Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

-SOURCE-

(July 11, 1956, ch. 562, Sec. 1, 70 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 88-205, pt.

IV, Sec. 406, Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 392; Pub. L. 95-45, Sec.

4(c), June 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 222; Pub. L. 100-204, title VII, Sec.

744(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1396; Pub. L. 103-437, Sec.

9(a)(5), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-437 substituted "Foreign Affairs" for

"International Relations" wherever appearing.

1987 - Pub. L. 100-204 inserted at end "Each delegation shall

have a secretary. The secretaries of the Senate and House

delegations shall be appointed, respectively, by the chairman of

the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the chairman

of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of

Representatives."

1977 - Pub. L. 95-45 increased the size of the United States

Group from eighteen to twenty-four, inserted requirement that not

less than four of the appointees from the House of Representatives

be from the Committee on International Relations, inserted

requirement that the appointment of the Senate appointees by the

President of the Senate be made upon recommendations of the

majority and minority leaders of the Senate, substituted

requirement that not more than seven of the appointees from the

Senate be of the same political party for requirement which had

provided that not more than five of the appointees from each of the

respective Houses be of the same political party, and inserted

provision that the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the House

delegation be a Member from the International Relations Committee,

and, unless the President of the Senate, upon the recommendation of

the Majority Leader, determines otherwise, the Chairman or Vice

Chairman of the Senate delegation be a Member from the Foreign

Relations Committee.

1963 - Pub. L. 88-205 struck out "and when Congress is not in

session" after "to meet jointly and annually".

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives treated

as referring to Committee on International Relations of House of

Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104-14, set out as a

note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1928b 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1928b. Authorization of appropriations

-STATUTE-

There is authorized to be appropriated annually (1) for the

annual contribution of the United States toward the maintenance of

the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, such sum as may be agreed upon by

the United States Group and approved by such Assembly, but in no

event to exceed for any year an amount equal to 25 per centum of

the total annual contributions made for that year by all members of

the NATO Parliamentary Treaty Organization toward the maintenance

of such Assembly, and (2) $200,000, $100,000 for the House

delegation and $100,000 for the Senate delegation, or so much

thereof as may be necessary, to assist in meeting the expenses of

the United States Group of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly for each

fiscal year for which an appropriation is made, such appropriation

to be dispersed on voucher to be approved by the Chairman of the

House delegation and the Chairman of the Senate delegation.

-SOURCE-

(July 11, 1956, ch. 562, Sec. 2, 70 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

V, Sec. 502(d), June 30, 1958, 72 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 90-137, pt.

IV, Sec. 401(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 92-226, pt.

IV, Sec. 405, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 34; Pub. L. 100-202, Sec.

101(a) [title III, Sec. 303], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329,

1329-23; Pub. L. 100-204, title VII, Sec. 744(b), Dec. 22, 1987,

101 Stat. 1396; Pub. L. 106-113, div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A,

title VII, Sec. 701(b)(1)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536,

1501A-459; Pub. L. 107-77, title IV, Sec. 408(b)(1), Nov. 28, 2001,

115 Stat. 790.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-77 substituted "$200,000" for "$100,000" and

substituted "$100,000" for "$50,000" in two places.

1999 - Pub. L. 106-113 substituted "NATO Parliamentary Assembly"

for "North Atlantic Assembly" in two places.

1987 - Pub. L. 100-204 which directed amendment of this section

by increasing appropriation authorization to $75,000, with $50,000

for House delegation and $25,000 for Senate delegation, could not

be executed because of prior amendment by Pub. L. 100-202.

Pub. L. 100-202 substituted "annually (1)" for "annually,", "(2)

$100,000, $50,000" for "$50,000, $25,000", and "and $50,000" for

"and $25,000".

1972 - Pub. L. 92-226 increased annual appropriations

authorization for expenses of the United States Group of the North

Atlantic Assembly, including the amount for the House and Senate

delegations from $15,000 to $25,000.

1967 - Pub. L. 90-137 substituted "North Atlantic Assembly" for

"North Atlantic Treaty Organization Parliamentary Conference" and

"North Atlantic Treaty Parliamentary Conference" and "Assembly" for

"Conference" in two places, respectively.

1958 - Pub. L. 85-477 substituted provisions authorizing an

annual contribution towards the maintenance of the Conference of

such sum as may be agreed upon but in no event to exceed for any

year an amount equal to 25 per centum of the total annual

contributions made for that year for maintenance, for provisions

which authorized an annual contribution of $6,000 for maintenance.

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Pub. L. 106-113, div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title VII, Sec.

701(b)(3)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-459, provided

that: "In the case of any provision of law having application on or

after May 31, 1999 (other than a provision of law specified in

subparagraphs (A) or (B) [probably should be "paragraphs (1) or

(2)", which amended this section and sections 276c-1, 1928c, and

1928d of this title]), any reference contained in that provision to

the North Atlantic Assembly shall, on and after that date, be

considered to be a reference to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly."

-MISC2-

PERMANENT APPROPRIATION FOR DELEGATION EXPENSES

A permanent appropriation to carry out cl. (2) of this section is

contained in section 101(a) [title III, Sec. 303] of Pub. L.

100-202, as amended, set out as a note under section 276e of this

title.

ANNUAL APPROPRIATIONS

Annual appropriations to meet the obligations of membership in

various international organizations were contained in acts listed

in a note set out under section 269a of this title.

AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR EXPENSES OF 1959 ANNUAL MEETING

OF NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE

Section 702 of Pub. L. 86-108, ch. VII, July 24, 1959, 73 Stat.

258, authorized appropriations for expenses of 1959 annual meeting

of North Atlantic Treaty Parliamentary Conference, prior to repeal

by Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(7), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat.

460.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1928e of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1928c 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1928c. Report to the Congress

-STATUTE-

The United States Group of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly shall

submit to the Congress a report for each fiscal year for which an

appropriation is made, including its expenditures under such

appropriation.

-SOURCE-

(July 11, 1956, ch. 562, Sec. 3, 70 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 90-137, pt.

IV, Sec. 401(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 106-113,

div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title VII, Sec. 701(b)(1)], Nov.

29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-459.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1999 - Pub. L. 106-113 substituted "NATO Parliamentary Assembly"

for "North Atlantic Assembly".

1967 - Pub. L. 90-137 substituted "North Atlantic Assembly" for

"North Atlantic Treaty Parliamentary Conference".

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1928d 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1928d. Auditing and accounting

-STATUTE-

The certificate of the Chairman of the House delegation and the

Senate delegation of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly shall on and

after July 11, 1956, be final and conclusive upon the accounting

officers in the auditing of the accounts of the United States Group

of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly.

-SOURCE-

(July 11, 1956, ch. 562, Sec. 4, 70 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 90-137, pt.

IV, Sec. 401(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 106-113,

div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(7) [div. A, title VII, Sec. 701(b)(1)], Nov.

29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-459.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1999 - Pub. L. 106-113 substituted "NATO Parliamentary Assembly"

for "North Atlantic Assembly" in two places.

1967 - Pub. L. 90-137 substituted "North Atlantic Assembly" for

"North Atlantic Treaty Parliamentary Conference" in two places.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1928e 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1928e. North Atlantic Assembly; appropriations for expenses of

annual meeting

-STATUTE-

In addition to the amounts authorized by section 1928b of this

title, there is authorized to be appropriated $50,000 for fiscal

year 1977 to meet the expenses incurred by the United States group

in hosting the twenty-second annual meeting of the North Atlantic

Assembly. In addition to amounts authorized by section 1928b of

this title, there is authorized to be appropriated $550,000 for

fiscal year 1994 to meet the expenses incurred by the United States

group in hosting the fortieth annual meeting of the North Atlantic

Assembly. In addition to the amounts authorized by section 1928b of

this title, there is authorized to be appropriated $450,000 for

fiscal year 1984 to meet the expenses incurred by the United States

group in hosting the thirty-first annual meeting of the North

Atlantic Assembly. Amounts appropriated under this section are

authorized to remain available until expended.

-SOURCE-

(July 11, 1956, ch. 562, Sec. 5, as added Pub. L. 94-350, title I,

Sec. 107, July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 824; amended Pub. L. 98-164,

title I, Sec. 109(a), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1019; Pub. L.

102-138, title I, Sec. 168(g), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 677.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1991 - Pub. L. 102-138 inserted after first sentence provisions

authorizing appropriation of $550,000 for fiscal year 1994 to meet

expenses of the United States group in hosting the fortieth annual

meeting of the North Atlantic Assembly.

1983 - Pub. L. 98-164 inserted provisions authorizing additional

appropriations for fiscal year 1984 to meet the expenses of hosting

the annual meeting.

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Reference to North Atlantic Assembly considered to be reference

to NATO Parliamentary Assembly, see section 1000(a)(7) [div. A,

title VII, Sec. 701(b)(3)] of Pub. L. 106-113, set out as a note

under section 1928b of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1929 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1929. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 409, 68 Stat.

845; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(g), 69 Stat. 286; July 18, 1956,

ch. 627, Sec. 8(g), 70 Stat. 558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141,

Sec. 8(i), 71 Stat. 361; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II,

Sec. 205(g), 72 Stat. 267; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II,

Sec. 205(i), 73 Stat. 250; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II,

Sec. 204(i), 74 Stat. 137, authorized payment of ocean freight

charges and provided for arrangements for free entry.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1930 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1930. Repealed. Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(j), July 24,

1959, 73 Stat. 250

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 410, 68 Stat.

846; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(h), 69 Stat. 287; July 18, 1956,

ch. 627, Sec. 8(h), 70 Stat. 558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141,

Sec. 8(j), 71 Stat. 361; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II,

Sec. 205(h), ch. V, Sec. 501(14), 72 Stat. 267, 271, authorized

appropriations for carrying out objectives of Mutual Defense

Assistance Control Act of 1951, section 1611 et seq. of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1931 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1931. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 411, 68 Stat.

846; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(i), 69 Stat. 287; July 18, 1956,

ch. 627, Sec. 8(i), 70 Stat. 558; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141,

Sec. 8(k), 71 Stat. 362; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II,

Sec. 205(i), ch. V, Sec. 501(15), 72 Stat. 267, 271; July 24, 1959,

Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(k), 73 Stat. 250; May 14, 1960,

Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(j), ch. V, Sec. 501(b), 74 Stat.

137, 140, related to payment of administrative and other expenses.

See sections 2396(b), (f) and 2397 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1932 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1932. Repealed. Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(k), May 14,

1960, 74 Stat. 138

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 412, as added

July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(l), 73 Stat. 250,

authorized appropriations for President's special education and

training fund.

A prior section 412 of act Aug. 26, 1954, which authorized

assistance to selected Chinese and Korean students for studying or

teaching, or for research and related academic and technical

activities in the United States, was repealed by Pub. L. 85-141,

Sec. 8(l), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat. 362.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1933 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1933. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept.

4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 413, 68 Stat.

846; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(j), (k), 70 Stat. 558; June 30,

1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(j), 72 Stat. 267; July 24,

1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(m), 73 Stat. 251, related to

encouragement of free enterprise and private participation. See

section 2351 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1934 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1934. Repealed. Pub. L. 94-329, title II, Sec. 212(b)(1), June

30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745

-MISC1-

Section, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 414, 68 Stat.

848; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(k), 72 Stat.

267; Oct. 18, 1962, Pub. L. 87-845, Sec. 5, 76A Stat. 698; Nov. 14,

1967, Pub. L. 90-137, pt. IV, Sec. 403, 81 Stat. 463; Dec. 17,

1973, Pub. L. 93-189, Sec. 27, 87 Stat. 732; Nov. 29, 1975, Pub. L.

94-141, title I, Sec. 150(a), 89 Stat. 760, related to authority of

President to control export and import of arms, ammunition, and

implements of war.

REFERENCE TO FORMER SECTION 1934 OF THIS TITLE DEEMED REFERENCE TO

SECTION 2778

Section 212(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94-329 provided in part that: "Any

reference to such section [this section] shall be deemed to be a

reference to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [section

2778 of this title] and any reference to licenses issued under

section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act shall be deemed to

include a reference to licenses issued under section 414 of the

Mutual Security Act of 1954."

SAVING PROVISION

Section 212(b)(2) of Pub. L. 94-329 provided that: "All

determinations, authorizations, regulations, orders, contracts,

agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into

under section 414 of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 [this section]

shall continue in full force and effect until modified, revoked, or

superseded by appropriate authority."

-EXEC-

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 11432

Ex. Ord. No. 11432, Oct. 22, 1968, 33 F.R. 15701, which amended

section 301 of Ex. Ord. No. 10973, Nov. 6, 1961, 26 F.R. 10469, in

regard to delegation of certain functions concerning arms control

to the Department of the Treasury, was omitted in view of the

subsequent amendment to section 301 by Ex. Ord. No. 11959, Jan. 18,

1977, 42 F.R. 4315.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1935, 1936 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Secs. 1935, 1936. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1935, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 415, 68

Stat. 849; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(l), 70 Stat. 559, related

to stockpiling of supplies.

Section 1936, acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 416, 68

Stat. 849; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 8(m), 71 Stat. 362,

provided for facilitation and encouragement of travel.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1937 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1937. Irish counterpart account; approval of disposition

-STATUTE-

Pursuant to section 1513(b)(6) (!1) of this title, the

disposition within Ireland of the unencumbered balance, in the

amount of approximately 6,000,000 Irish pounds, of the special

account of Irish funds established under article IV of the Economic

Cooperation Agreement between the United States of America and

Ireland, dated June 28, 1948, for the purposes of -

(1) scholarship exchange between the United States and Ireland;

(2) other programs and projects (including the establishment of

an Agricultural Institute) to improve and develop the

agricultural production and marketing potential of Ireland and to

increase the production and efficiency of Irish industry; and

(3) development programs and projects in aid of the foregoing

objectives,

is approved, as provided in the agreement between the Government of

the United States of America and the Government of Ireland, dated

June 17, 1954.

-SOURCE-

(Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 417, 68 Stat. 849.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 1513(b)(6) of this title, referred to in text, was

repealed by section 542(a)(4) of act Aug. 26, 1954.

-FOOTNOTE-

(!1) See References in Text note below.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1938 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1938. Repealed. July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(m), 70 Stat.

559

-MISC1-

Section, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title IV, Sec. 418, as added

July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(j), 69 Stat. 287, authorized the

establishment of President's Fund for Asian Economic Development.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Secs. 1939 to 1941 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Secs. 1939 to 1941. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), (7), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460

-MISC1-

Section 1939, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 419, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 8(n), 71 Stat. 362;

amended June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(l), 72

Stat. 267; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Sec. 205(n), 73

Stat. 251; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(l), 74

Stat. 138, related to atoms for peace. See section 2171(c) of this

title.

Act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 12, 70 Stat. 565, which was

formerly classified to section 1939 of this title and authorized

appropriations for atoms for peace, was repealed by Pub. L. 87-195,

pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(4) Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460.

Section 1940, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 420, as

added Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 8(n), 71 Stat. 362;

amended June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. II, Sec. 205(m), 72

Stat. 267, provided for a program of malaria eradication.

Section 1940a, act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. II, Sec. 421, as

added May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Sec. 204(m), 74 Stat.

138, related to loans to small farmers. See section 2175 of this

title.

Section 1941, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. V, Sec. 501, July 24, 1959, 73

Stat. 255, provided for international cooperation in health.

Subsec. (b) of section 501 of Pub. L. 86-108 was previously

repealed by Pub. L. 86-472, ch. IV, Sec. 602, May 14, 1960, 74

Stat. 141.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1942 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1942. Development assistance in Latin America; Congressional

declaration of policy

-STATUTE-

(a) It is the sense of the Congress that -

(1) the historic, economic, political, and geographic

relationships among the American Republics are unique and of

special significance and, as appropriate, should be so recognized

in future legislation;

(2) although governmental forms differ among the American

Republics, the peoples of all the Americas are dedicated to the

creation and maintenance of governments which will promote

individual freedom;

(3) the interests of the American Republics are so interrelated

that sound social and economic progress in each is of importance

to all and that lack of it in any American Republic may have

serious repercussions in others;

(4) for the peoples of Latin America to continue to progress

within the framework of our common heritage of democratic ideals,

there is a compelling need for the achievement of social and

economic advance adequate to meet the legitimate aspirations of

the individual citizens of the countries of Latin America for a

better way of life;

(5) there is a need for a plan of hemispheric development, open

to all American Republics which cooperate in such plan, based

upon a strong production effort, the expansion of foreign trade,

the creation and maintenance of internal financial stability, the

growth of free economic and social institutions, and the

development of economic cooperation, including all possible steps

to establish and maintain equitable rates of exchange and to

bring about the progressive elimination of trade barriers;

(6) mindful of the advantages which the United States has

enjoyed through the existence of a large domestic market with no

internal trade barriers, and believing that similar advantages

can accrue to all countries, it is the hope of the people of the

United States that all American Republics will jointly exert

sustained common efforts which will speedily achieve that

economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere which is essential

for lasting peace and prosperity; and

(7) accordingly, it is declared to be the policy of the people

of the United States to sustain and strengthen principles of

individual liberty, free institutions, private enterprise, and

genuine independence in the Western Hemisphere through

cooperation with all American Republics which participate in a

joint development program based upon self-help and mutual

efforts.

(b) In order to carry forward the above policy, the Congress

hereby -

(1) urges the President through our constitutional processes to

develop cooperative programs on a bilateral or multilateral basis

which will set forth specific plans of action designed to foster

economic progress and improvements in the welfare and level of

living of all the peoples of the American Republics on the basis

of joint aid, mutual effort, and common sacrifice;

(2) proposes the development of workable procedures to expand

hemispheric trade and to moderate extreme price fluctuations in

commodities which are of exceptional importance in the economies

of the American Republics, and encourages the development of

regional economic cooperation among the American Republics;

(3) supports the development of a more accurate and sympathetic

understanding among the peoples of the American Republics through

a greater interchange of persons, ideas, techniques, and

educational, scientific, and cultural achievements;

(4) supports the strengthening of free democratic trade unions

to raise standards of living through improved management-labor

relations;

(5) favors the progressive development of common standards with

respect to the rights and the responsibilities of private

investment which flows across national boundaries within the

Western Hemisphere;

(6) supports the consolidation of the public institutions and

agencies of inter-American cooperation, insofar as feasible,

within the structure of the Organization of American States and

the strengthening of the personnel resources and authority of the

Organization in order that it may play a role of increasing

importance in all aspects of hemispheric cooperation; and

(7) declares that it is prepared to give careful and

sympathetic consideration to programs which the President may

develop for the purpose of promoting these policies.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 86-735, Sec. 1, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 869.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Pub. L. 88-205, pt. IV, Sec. 401(a), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 390,

amended Pub. L. 86-735 to provide: "That this Act [enacting this

section and sections 1943 to 1945 of this title and amending

section 1753a of this title] may be cited as the 'Latin American

Development Act'."

REVISION OF SOCIAL PROGRESS TRUST FUND AGREEMENT

Pub. L. 93-189, Sec. 36, Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 734, as amended

by Pub. L. 97-113, title VII, Sec. 734(a)(9), Dec. 29, 1981, 95

Stat. 1560, provided that:

"(a) The President or his delegate shall seek, as soon as

possible a revision of the Social Progress Trust Fund Agreement

(dated June 19, 1961) between the United States and the

Inter-American Development Bank. Such revision should provide for

the -

"(1) periodic transfer of unencumbered capital resources of

such trust fund, and of any future repayments or other accruals

otherwise payable to such trust fund, to the Inter-American

Foundation, to be administered by the Foundation for purposes of

part IV of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1969 (22 U.S.C. 290f and

following);

"(2) utilization of such unencumbered capital resources, future

repayments, and other accruals by the Inter-American Development

Bank for purposes of sections 1 and 2 of the Latin American

Development Act (22 U.S.C. 1942 and 1943) in such a way that the

resources received in the currencies of the more developed member

countries are utilized to the extent possible for the benefit of

the lesser developed member countries; or

"(3) both the transfer described in paragraph (1) and the

utilization described in paragraph (2).

"(b) Any transfer or utilization under this section shall be in

such proportions as may be agreed to between the United States and

the Inter-American Development Bank.

"(c) Any transfer under subsection (a)(1) shall be in the

amounts, and in available currencies, determined in consultation

with the Inter-American Foundation, to be required for its program

purposes.

"(d) The revision of the Social Progress Trust Fund Agreement

pursuant to this section shall provide that the President or his

delegate shall specify, from time to time, after consultation with

the Inter-American Development Bank, the particular currencies to

be used in making the transfer or utilization described in this

section.

"(e) [Repealed. Pub. L. 97-113, title VII, Sec. 734(a)(9), Dec.

29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1560]."

[For amendment of provisions of section 36 of Pub. L. 93-189, set

out above, see Pub. L. 106-113, div. B, Sec. 1000(a)(2) [title V,

Sec. 586(h)(2), (j)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-120, set

out in an Abolition of the Inter-American Foundation note under

section 290f of this title.]

-EXEC-

DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES RELATED TO THE LATIN AMERICAN

DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1960

Memorandum of President of the United States, May 30, 2001, 66

F.R. 30629, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the

United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the

United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the

functions conferred upon the President by the Latin American

Development Act of 1960, 22 U.S.C. 1942 et seq.

The functions delegated by this memorandum may be redelegated as

appropriate.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the

Federal Register.

George W. Bush.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1943, 1945 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1943 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1943. Authorization of appropriations; restrictions; reports

to Congressional committees

-STATUTE-

In order to carry out the purposes of section 1942 of this title,

there is authorized to be appropriated to the President not to

exceed $680,000,000, which shall remain available until expended,

and which the President may use, subject to such further

legislative provisions as may be enacted, in addition to other

funds available for such purposes, on such terms and conditions as

he may specify: Provided, That none of the funds made available

pursuant to this section shall be used to furnish assistance to any

country in Latin America being subjected to economic or diplomatic

sanctions by the Organization of American States. The Secretary of

State shall keep the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate

and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House currently

informed about plans and programs for the utilization of such

funds.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 86-735, Sec. 2, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 870; Pub. L.

88-205, pt. IV, Sec. 401(b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 390.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1963 - Pub. L. 88-205 substituted "$680,000,000" for

"$500,000,000".

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives treated

as referring to Committee on International Relations of House of

Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104-14, set out as a

note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

-TRANS-

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

For delegation of certain functions of President under this

section, see Memorandum of President of May 30, 2001, 66 F.R.

30629, set out as a note under section 1942 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1945 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1944 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1944. Reconstruction assistance in Chile; authorization of

appropriations

-STATUTE-

There is authorized to be appropriated to the President not to

exceed $100,000,000, which shall remain available until expended,

for use, in addition to other funds available for such purposes, in

the reconstruction and rehabilitation of Chile on such terms and

conditions as the President may specify.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 86-735, Sec. 3, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 870.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-TRANS-

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

For delegation of certain functions of President under this

section, see Memorandum of President of May 30, 2001, 66 F.R.

30629, set out as a note under section 1942 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1945 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1945 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER III - ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

Part D - Special Assistance and Other Programs

-HEAD-

Sec. 1945. Utilization of funds for assistance in Latin America;

availability for transportation of immigrants from Ryukyuan

Archipelago

-STATUTE-

(a) Funds appropriated under sections 1943 and 1944 of this title

may be used for assistance under sections 1942 to 1945 of this

title pursuant to such provisions applicable to the furnishing of

such assistance contained in any successor Act to the Mutual

Security Act of 1954, as amended, as the President determines to be

necessary to carry out the purposes for which such funds are

appropriated.

(b) Of the funds appropriated under section 1943 of this title

not more than $800,000 shall be available only for assisting in

transporting to and settling in Latin America selected immigrants

from that portion of the Ryukyuan Archipelago under United States

administration.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 86-735, Sec. 4, as added Pub. L. 87-195, pt. IV, Sec. 706,

Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 463.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Mutual Security Act of 1954, referred to in text, is act Aug.

26, 1954, ch. 937, 68 Stat. 832, as amended by acts July 8, 1955,

ch. 301, 69 Stat. 283; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Secs. 2 to 11, 70

Stat. 555; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, 71 Stat. 355; June 30,

1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch. 1, Secs. 101 to 103, ch. II, Secs. 201 to

205, ch. III, Sec. 301, ch. IV, Sec. 401, ch. V, Sec. 501, 72 Stat.

261; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, Sec. 2, ch. 1, Sec. 101, ch.

II, Secs. 201 to 205(a) to (i), (k) to (n), ch. III, Sec. 301, ch.

IV, Sec. 401(a) to (k), (m), 73 Stat. 246; May 14, 1960, Pub. L.

86-472, ch. I to V, 74 Stat. 134, which was principally classified

to chapter 24 (Sec. 1750 et seq.) of this title and which was

repealed by act July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(m), 70 Stat. 559,

Pub. L. 85-141, Secs. 2(e), 3, 4(b), 11(d), Aug. 14, 1957, 71 Stat.

356, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. II, Secs. 205(j), ch. IV, 401(1), July 24,

1959, 73 Stat. 250, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. II, Secs. 203(d), 204(k),

May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 138, Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec.

642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 460, Pub. L. 94-329, title II,

Sec. 212(b)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 745, Pub. L. 104-127, title

II, Sec. 228, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 963, except for sections

1754, 1783, 1796, 1853, 1928, and 1937 of this title. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1754 of this title and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

This section was not enacted as part of the Mutual Security Act

of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

-MISC1-

REPEALS

Section 706 of Pub. L. 87-195, cited as a credit to this section

was repealed by section 401 of Pub. L. 87-565, pt. IV, Aug. 1,

1962, 76 Stat. 263, except insofar as section 706 affected this

section.

-TRANS-

DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS

For delegation of certain functions of President under this

section, see Memorandum of President of May 30, 2001, 66 F.R.

30629, set out as a note under section 1942 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC SUBCHAPTER IV - CONTINGENCY FUND 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER IV - CONTINGENCY FUND

-HEAD-

SUBCHAPTER IV - CONTINGENCY FUND

-End-

-CITE-

22 USC Sec. 1951 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 22 - FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 24 - MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER IV - CONTINGENCY FUND

-HEAD-

Sec. 1951. Repealed

-MISC1-

Subsecs. (a) and (b), acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. III, Sec.

451(a), (b), 68 Stat. 843; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(a), 69

Stat. 286; July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(a), 70 Stat. 557; Aug.

14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 8(b), 71 Stat. 360; June 30, 1958,

Pub. L. 85-477, ch. III, Sec. 301, ch. V, Sec. 501(12)(B), 72 Stat.

268, 271; July 24, 1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. III, Sec. 301, 73

Stat. 252; May 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. III, Sec. 301, 74

Stat. 138, which related to the creation of the President's special

authority and contingency fund authorized appropriations, were

repealed by Pub. L. 87-195, pt. III, Sec. 642(a)(2), Sept. 4, 1961,

75 Stat. 460. See section 2261 of this title.

Subsec. (c), acts Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, ch. III, Sec. 451(c),

68 Stat. 843; July 8, 1955, ch. 301, Sec. 8(a), 69 Stat. 286; July

18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 8(a), 70 Stat. 557; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L.

85-141, Sec. 8(b), 71 Stat. 360; June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85-477, ch.

III, Sec. 301, ch. V, Sec. 501(12)(B), 72 Stat. 268, 271; July 24,

1959, Pub. L. 86-108, ch. III, Sec. 301, 73 Stat. 252; May 14,

1960, Pub. L. 86-472, ch. III, Sec. 301, 74 Stat. 138, related to

declaration of purpose and use of funds in connection with right of

self-determination for people subject to captivity of Communist

despotism, and was repealed by Pub. L. 87-510, Sec. 6, June 28,

1962, 76 Stat. 124.

-End-