US (United States) Code. Title 18. Chapter 25: Counterfeiting and forgery

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos) Legislación Federal estadounidense # Crimes and criminal procedure

  • Enviado por: El remitente no desea revelar su nombre
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Estados Unidos Estados Unidos
  • 83 páginas
publicidad

-CITE-

18 USC CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

.

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-MISC1-

Sec.

470. Counterfeit acts committed outside the United States.

471. Obligations or securities of United States.

472. Uttering counterfeit obligations or securities.

473. Dealing in counterfeit obligations or securities.

474. Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images for

counterfeiting obligations or securities.

474A. Deterrents to counterfeiting of obligations and securities.

475. Imitating obligations or securities; advertisements.

476. Taking impressions of tools used for obligations or

securities.

477. Possessing or selling impressions of tools used for

obligations or securities.

478. Foreign obligations or securities.

479. Uttering counterfeit foreign obligations or securities.

480. Possessing counterfeit foreign obligations or securities.

481. Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images for

counterfeiting foreign obligations or securities.

482. Foreign bank notes.

483. Uttering counterfeit foreign bank notes.

484. Connecting parts of different notes.

485. Coins or bars.

486. Uttering coins of gold, silver or other metal.

487. Making or possessing counterfeit dies for coins.

488. Making or possessing counterfeit dies for foreign coins.

489. Making or possessing likeness of coins.

490. Minor coins.

491. Tokens or paper used as money.

492. Forfeiture of counterfeit paraphernalia.

493. Bonds and obligations of certain lending agencies.

494. Contractors' bonds, bids, and public records.

495. Contracts, deeds, and powers of attorney.

496. Customs matters.

497. Letters patent.

498. Military or naval discharge certificates.

499. Military, naval, or official passes.

500. Money orders.

501. Postage stamps, postage meter stamps, and postal cards.

502. Postage and revenue stamps of foreign governments.

503. Postmarking stamps.

504. Printing and filming of United States and foreign obligations

and securities.

505. Seals of courts; signatures of judges or court officers.

506. Seals of departments or agencies.

507. Ship's papers.

508. Transportation requests of Government.

509. Possessing and making plates or stones for Government

transportation requests.

510. Forging endorsements on Treasury checks or bonds or securities

of the United States.

511. Altering or removing motor vehicle identification numbers.

511A. Unauthorized application of theft prevention decal or device.

512. Forfeiture of certain motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts.

513. Securities of the States and private entities.

514. Fictitious obligations.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56, title III, Sec. 374(e)(4), 375(d)(4), Oct.

26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340, 341, substituted '', stones, or analog,

digital, or electronic images'' for ''or stones'' in items 474 and

481.

1996 - Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(f) (title VI,

Sec. 648(b)(2)), title II, Sec. 2603(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110

Stat. 3009-314, 3009-368, 3009-470, amended analysis identically,

adding item 514.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, title XII, Sec. 120003(b)(1), title XXII,

Sec. 220003(d)(2), title XXXIII, Sec. 330010(14), Sept. 13, 1994,

108 Stat. 2022, 2077, 2144, added item 470, struck out extraneous

period after ''money'' in item 491, and added item 511A.

1992 - Pub. L. 102-550, title XV, Sec. 1553(b), Oct. 28, 1992,

106 Stat. 4071, added item 474A.

1990 - Pub. L. 101-647, title XXXV, Sec. 3513, Nov. 29, 1990, 104

Stat. 4922, substituted ''or paper used as money.'' for ''used as

money or similar to coins'' in item 491, ''matters'' for ''entry

certificates'' in item 496, and ''stamps, postage meter stamps,''

for ''stamps'' in item 501.

1986 - Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 31(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3598,

redesignated second item 510, relating to securities of the State

and private entities, as item 513 and substituted ''States'' for

''State''.

1984 - Pub. L. 98-547, title II, Sec. 201(b), Oct. 25, 1984, 98

Stat. 2770, added items 511 and 512.

Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 1105(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat.

2145, added second item 510 ''Securities of the State and private

entities''.

1983 - Pub. L. 98-151, Sec. 115(c), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 977,

added item 510, relating to forging endorsements.

1965 - Pub. L. 89-81, title II, Sec. 211(b), July 23, 1965, 79

Stat. 257, struck out ''Gold or silver'' before ''Coins or bars''

in item 485.

1958 - Pub. L. 85-921, Sec. 2, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771,

substituted ''Printing and filming of United States and foreign

obligations and securities'' for ''Printing stamps for philatelic

purposes'' in item 504.

1951 - Act July 16, 1951, ch. 226, Sec. 5(c), 65 Stat. 122,

struck out ''; publisher's illustrations excepted'' in item 489.

-SECREF-

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in title 7 section 12a; title 15

sections 78o, 80b-3.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 470 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 470. Counterfeit acts committed outside the United States

-STATUTE-

A person who, outside the United States, engages in the act of -

(1) making, dealing, or possessing any counterfeit obligation

or other security of the United States; or

(2) making, dealing, or possessing any plate, stone, analog,

digital, or electronic image, or other thing, or any part

thereof, used to counterfeit such obligation or security,

if such act would constitute a violation of section 471, 473, or

474 if committed within the United States, shall be punished as is

provided for the like offense within the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 103-322, title XII, Sec. 120003(a), Sept. 13, 1994,

108 Stat. 2021; amended Pub. L. 107-56, title III, Sec. 374(a),

Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 374(a)(2), in concluding provisions,

substituted ''shall be punished as is provided for the like offense

within the United States'' for ''shall be fined under this title,

imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both''.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 374(a)(1), inserted ''analog,

digital, or electronic image,'' after ''plate, stone,''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

COMBATTING INTERNATIONAL COUNTERFEITING OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY

Pub. L. 104-132, title VIII, Sec. 807, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat.

1308, provided that:

''(a) In General. - The Secretary of the Treasury (hereafter in

this section referred to as the 'Secretary'), in consultation with

the advanced counterfeit deterrence steering committee, shall -

''(1) study the use and holding of United States currency in

foreign countries; and

''(2) develop useful estimates of the amount of counterfeit

United States currency that circulates outside the United States

each year.

''(b) Evaluation Audit Plan. -

''(1) In general. - The Secretary shall develop an effective

international evaluation audit plan that is designed to enable

the Secretary to carry out the duties described in subsection (a)

on a regular and thorough basis.

''(2) Submission of detailed written summary. - The Secretary

shall submit a detailed written summary of the evaluation audit

plan developed pursuant to paragraph (1) to the Congress before

the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date of the

enactment of this Act (Apr. 24, 1996).

''(3) First evaluation audit under plan. - The Secretary shall

begin the first evaluation audit pursuant to the evaluation audit

plan no later than the end of the 1-year period beginning on the

date of the enactment of this Act.

''(4) Subsequent evaluation audits. - At least 1 evaluation

audit shall be performed pursuant to the evaluation audit plan

during each 3-year period beginning after the date of the

commencement of the evaluation audit referred to in paragraph

(3).

''(c) Reports. -

''(1) In general. - The Secretary shall submit a written report

to the Committee on Banking and Financial Services (now Committee

on Financial Services) of the House of Representatives and the

Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate on

the results of each evaluation audit conducted pursuant to

subsection (b) within 90 days after the completion of the

evaluation audit.

''(2) Contents. - In addition to such other information as the

Secretary may determine to be appropriate, each report submitted

to the Congress pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include the

following information:

''(A) A detailed description of the evaluation audit process

and the methods used to develop estimates of the amount of

counterfeit United States currency in circulation outside the

United States.

''(B) The method used to determine the currency sample

examined in connection with the evaluation audit and a

statistical analysis of the sample examined.

''(C) A list of the regions of the world, types of financial

institutions, and other entities included.

''(D) An estimate of the total amount of United States

currency found in each region of the world.

''(E) The total amount of counterfeit United States currency

and the total quantity of each counterfeit denomination found

in each region of the world.

''(3) Classification of information. -

''(A) In general. - To the greatest extent possible, each

report submitted to the Congress under this subsection shall be

submitted in an unclassified form.

''(B) Classified and unclassified forms. - If, in the

interest of submitting a complete report under this subsection,

the Secretary determines that it is necessary to include

classified information in the report, the report shall be

submitted in a classified and an unclassified form.

''(d) Sunset Provision. - This section shall cease to be

effective as of the end of the 10-year period beginning on the date

of the enactment of this Act (Apr. 24, 1996).

''(e) Rule of Construction. - No provision of this section shall

be construed as authorizing any entity to conduct investigations of

counterfeit United States currency.

''(f) Findings. - The Congress hereby finds the following:

''(1) United States currency is being counterfeited outside the

United States.

''(2) The One Hundred Third Congress enacted, with the approval

of the President on September 13, 1994, section 470 of title 18,

United States Code, making such activity a crime under the laws

of the United States.

''(3) The expeditious posting of agents of the United States

Secret Service to overseas posts, which is necessary for the

effective enforcement of section 470 and related criminal

provisions, has been delayed.

''(4) While section 470 of title 18, United States Code,

provides for a maximum term of imprisonment of 20 years as

opposed to a maximum term of 15 years for domestic

counterfeiting, the United States Sentencing Commission has

failed to provide, in its sentencing guidelines, for an

appropriate enhancement of punishment for defendants convicted of

counterfeiting United States currency outside the United States.

''(g) Timely Consideration of Requests for Concurrence in

Creation of Overseas Posts. -

''(1) In general. - The Secretary of State shall -

''(A) consider in a timely manner the request by the

Secretary of the Treasury for the placement of such number of

agents of the United States Secret Service as the Secretary of

the Treasury considers appropriate in posts in overseas

embassies; and

''(B) reach an agreement with the Secretary of the Treasury

on such posts as soon as possible and, in any event, not later

than December 31, 1996.

''(2) Cooperation of treasury required. - The Secretary of the

Treasury shall promptly provide any information requested by the

Secretary of State in connection with such requests.

''(3) Reports required. - The Secretary of the Treasury and the

Secretary of State shall each submit, by February 1, 1997, a

written report to the Committee on Banking and Financial Services

of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking,

Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate explaining the reasons

for the rejection, if any, of any proposed post and the reasons

for the failure, if any, to fill any approved post by such date.

''(h) Enhanced Penalties for International Counterfeiting of

United States Currency. - Pursuant to the authority of the United

States Sentencing Commission under section 994 of title 28, United

States Code, the Commission shall amend the sentencing guidelines

prescribed by the Commission to provide an appropriate enhancement

of the punishment for a defendant convicted under section 470 of

title 18 of such Code.''

(For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and

obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the

functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the

Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related

references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6,

Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security

Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a

note under section 542 of Title 6.)

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 471 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 471. Obligations or securities of United States

-STATUTE-

Whoever, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, forges,

counterfeits, or alters any obligation or other security of the

United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not

more than 20 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 374(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 262 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 148, 35 Stat. 1115).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''fifteen

years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

SHORT TITLE OF 1992 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 102-550, title XV, Sec. 1551, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat.

4070, provided that: ''This subtitle (subtitle E (Sec. 1551-1554)

of title XV of Pub. L. 102-550, enacting section 474A of this title

and amending sections 474 and 504 of this title) may be cited as

the 'Counterfeit Deterrence Act of 1992'.''

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 470, 981, 982, 1961, 2516

of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 472 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 472. Uttering counterfeit obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, with intent to defraud, passes, utters, publishes, or

sells, or attempts to pass, utter, publish, or sell, or with like

intent brings into the United States or keeps in possession or

conceals any falsely made, forged, counterfeited, or altered

obligation or other security of the United States, shall be fined

under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 374(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 265 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 151, 35 Stat. 1116).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''fifteen

years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982, 1961, 2516 of

this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 473 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 473. Dealing in counterfeit obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever buys, sells, exchanges, transfers, receives, or delivers

any false, forged, counterfeited, or altered obligation or other

security of the United States, with the intent that the same be

passed, published, or used as true and genuine, shall be fined

under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 374(d), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 268 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 154, 35 Stat. 1117).

Reference to circulating notes of banking associations was

omitted as covered by definition of obligation or other security in

section 8 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''ten years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 470, 981, 982, 1961, 2516

of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 474 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 474. Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images

for counterfeiting obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever, having control, custody, or possession of any plate,

stone, or other thing, or any part thereof, from which has been

printed, or which may be prepared by direction of the Secretary of

the Treasury for the purpose of printing, any obligation or other

security of the United States, uses such plate, stone, or other

thing, or any part thereof, or knowingly suffers the same to be

used for the purpose of printing any such or similar obligation or

other security, or any part thereof, except as may be printed for

the use of the United States by order of the proper officer

thereof; or

Whoever makes or executes any plate, stone, or other thing in the

likeness of any plate designated for the printing of such

obligation or other security; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes, acquires,

scans, captures, records, receives, transmits, reproduces, sells,

or has in such person's control, custody, or possession, an analog,

digital, or electronic image of any obligation or other security of

the United States; or

Whoever sells any such plate, stone, or other thing, or brings

into the United States any such plate, stone, or other thing,

except under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury or

other proper officer, or with any other intent, in either case,

than that such plate, stone, or other thing be used for the

printing of the obligations or other securities of the United

States; or

Whoever has in his control, custody, or possession any plate,

stone, or other thing in any manner made after or in the similitude

of any plate, stone, or other thing, from which any such obligation

or other security has been printed, with intent to use such plate,

stone, or other thing, or to suffer the same to be used in forging

or counterfeiting any such obligation or other security, or any

part thereof; or

Whoever has in his possession or custody, except under authority

from the Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer, any

obligation or other security made or executed, in whole or in part,

after the similitude of any obligation or other security issued

under the authority of the United States, with intent to sell or

otherwise use the same; or

Whoever prints, photographs, or in any other manner makes or

executes any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the

likeness of any such obligation or other security, or any part

thereof, or sells any such engraving, photograph, print, or

impression, except to the United States, or brings into the United

States, any such engraving, photograph, print, or impression,

except by direction of some proper officer of the United States -

Is guilty of a class B felony.

(b) For purposes of this section, the term ''analog, digital, or

electronic image'' includes any analog, digital, or electronic

method used for the making, execution, acquisition, scanning,

capturing, recording, retrieval, transmission, or reproduction of

any obligation or security, unless such use is authorized by the

Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary shall establish a system

(pursuant to section 504) to ensure that the legitimate use of such

electronic methods and retention of such reproductions by

businesses, hobbyists, press and others shall not be unduly

restricted.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 706; Pub. L. 102-550, title XV,

Sec. 1552, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4070; Pub. L. 104-208, div. A,

title I, Sec. 101(f) (title VI, Sec. 648(a)), title II, Sec.

2603(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-314, 3009-367, 3009-470;

Pub. L. 107-56, title III, Sec. 374(e)(1)-(3), Oct. 26, 2001, 115

Stat. 340.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 264 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 150, 35 Stat. 1116).

References to persons causing, procuring, assisting or aiding

were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 374(e)(3), substituted '', stones, or

analog, digital, or electronic images'' for ''or stones'' in

section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 374(e)(1), inserted after

second par. ''Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes,

acquires, scans, captures, records, receives, transmits,

reproduces, sells, or has in such person's control, custody, or

possession, an analog, digital, or electronic image of any

obligation or other security of the United States; or''.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 374(e)(2), inserted first

sentence and struck out former first sentence which read as

follows: ''For purposes of this section, the terms 'plate',

'stone', 'thing', or 'other thing' includes any electronic method

used for the acquisition, recording, retrieval, transmission, or

reproduction of any obligation or other security, unless such use

is authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury.''

1996 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104-208, Sec. 101(f) (title VI, Sec.

648(a)) and 2603(a), amended subsec. (a) identically, substituting

''class B felony'' for ''class C felony'' in last par.

1992 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1552(1)-(4), designated

existing provisions as subsec. (a), in sixth undesignated par.,

substituted ''United States - '' for ''United States; or'' at end,

struck out seventh undesignated par. which read as follows:

''Whoever has or retains in his control or possession, after a

distinctive paper has been adopted by the Secretary of the Treasury

for the obligations and other securities of the United States, any

similar paper adapted to the making of any such obligation or other

security, except under the authority of the Secretary of the

Treasury or some other proper officer of the United States - '',

and amended last undesignated par. generally. Prior to amendment,

last par. read as follows: ''Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or

imprisoned not more than fifteen years, or both.''

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1552(5), added subsec. (b).

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Section 101(f) (title VI, Sec. 648(c)) of div. A of Pub. L.

104-208 provided that: ''This section (enacting section 514 of this

title and amending this section and section 474A of this title) and

the amendments made by this section shall become effective on the

date of enactment of this Act (Sept. 30, 1996) and shall remain in

effect during each fiscal year following that date of enactment.''

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 470, 981, 982 of this

title; title 16 section 718e.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 474A 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 474A. Deterrents to counterfeiting of obligations and

securities

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever has in his control or possession, after a distinctive

paper has been adopted by the Secretary of the Treasury for the

obligations and other securities of the United States, any similar

paper adapted to the making of any such obligation or other

security, except under the authority of the Secretary of the

Treasury, is guilty of a class B felony.

(b) Whoever has in his control or possession, after a distinctive

counterfeit deterrent has been adopted by the Secretary of the

Treasury for the obligations and other securities of the United

States by publication in the Federal Register, any essentially

identical feature or device adapted to the making of any such

obligation or security, except under the authority of the Secretary

of the Treasury, is guilty of a class B felony.

(c) As used in this section -

(1) the term ''distinctive paper'' includes any distinctive

medium of which currency is made, whether of wood pulp, rag,

plastic substrate, or other natural or artificial fibers or

materials; and

(2) the term ''distinctive counterfeit deterrent'' includes any

ink, watermark, seal, security thread, optically variable device,

or other feature or device;

(A) in which the United States has an exclusive property

interest; or

(B) which is not otherwise in commercial use or in the public

domain and which the Secretary designates as being necessary in

preventing the counterfeiting of obligations or other

securities of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 102-550, title XV, Sec. 1553(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106

Stat. 4070; amended Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(f)

(title VI, Sec. 648(a)), title II, Sec. 2603(a), Sept. 30, 1996,

110 Stat. 3009-314, 3009-367, 3009-470.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 104-208, Sec. 101(f) (title VI,

Sec. 648(a)) and 2603(a), amended section identically, substituting

''class B felony'' for ''class C felony''.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 104-208 effective Sept. 30, 1996, and to

remain in effect for each fiscal year following Sept. 30, 1996, see

section 101(f) (title VI, Sec. 648(c)) of Pub. L. 104-208, set out

as a note under section 474 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 475 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 475. Imitating obligations or securities; advertisements

-STATUTE-

Whoever designs, engraves, prints, makes, or executes, or utters,

issues, distributes, circulates, or uses any business or

professional card, notice, placard, circular, handbill, or

advertisement in the likeness or similitude of any obligation or

security of the United States issued under or authorized by any Act

of Congress or writes, prints, or otherwise impresses upon or

attaches to any such instrument, obligation, or security, or any

coin of the United States, any business or professional card,

notice, or advertisement, or any notice or advertisement whatever,

shall be fined under this title.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 706; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, Sec.

2, 65 Stat. 122; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(G),

Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 292 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 177, 35 Stat. 1122).

Enumeration of obligations of the United States was omitted in

view of definition in section 8 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $500''.

1951 - Act July 16, 1951, prohibited use of notices or

advertising prints or labels on United States coins.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 476 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 476. Taking impressions of tools used for obligations or

securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, without authority from the United States, takes,

procures, or makes an impression, stamp, analog, digital, or

electronic image, or imprint of, from or by the use of any tool,

implement, instrument, or thing used or fitted or intended to be

used in printing, stamping, or impressing, or in making other

tools, implements, instruments, or things to be used or fitted or

intended to be used in printing, stamping, or impressing any

obligation or other security of the United States, shall be fined

under this title or imprisoned not more than 25 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 374(f), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 266 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 152, 35 Stat. 1117).

Enumeration of substances on which impressions could be made and

enumeration of various kinds of tools to be used were omitted as

unnecessary.

Reference to circulating note or evidence of debt was omitted in

view of definition of obligations and securities in section 8 of

this title.

Changes in phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 inserted ''analog, digital, or electronic

image,'' after ''impression, stamp,'' and substituted ''25 years''

for ''ten years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 477, 981, 982 of this

title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 477 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 477. Possessing or selling impressions of tools used for

obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, with intent to defraud, possesses, keeps, safeguards, or

controls, without authority from the United States, any imprint,

stamp, analog, digital, or electronic image, or impression, taken

or made upon any substance or material whatsoever, of any tool,

implement, instrument or thing, used, fitted or intended to be

used, for any of the purposes mentioned in section 476 of this

title; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, sells, gives, or delivers any

such imprint, stamp, analog, digital, or electronic image, or

impression to any other person -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 25

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 374(g), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 267 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 153, 35 Stat. 1117).

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 inserted ''analog, digital, or electronic

image,'' after ''imprint, stamp,'' in first and second pars. and

substituted ''25 years'' for ''ten years'' in third par.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 478 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 478. Foreign obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, with intent to defraud,

falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bond,

certificate, obligation, or other security of any foreign

government, purporting to be or in imitation of any such security

issued under the authority of such foreign government, or any

treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, lawfully issued by such

foreign government and intended to circulate as money, shall be

fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or

both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 375(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 270 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 156, 35 Stat. 1117).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were also made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''five

years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 479, 981, 982 of this

title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 479 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 479. Uttering counterfeit foreign obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, knowingly and with intent to

defraud, utters, passes, or puts off, in payment or negotiation,

any false, forged, or counterfeited bond, certificate, obligation,

security, treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, mentioned in

section 478 of this title, whether or not the same was made,

altered, forged, or counterfeited within the United States, shall

be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or

both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(J), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 375(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 271 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 157, 35 Stat. 1118).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''three

years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $3,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 480 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 480. Possessing counterfeit foreign obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, knowingly and with intent to

defraud, possesses or delivers any false, forged, or counterfeit

bond, certificate, obligation, security, treasury note, bill,

promise to pay, bank note, or bill issued by a bank or corporation

of any foreign country, shall be fined under this title or

imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 375(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 274 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 160, 35 Stat. 1118).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were also made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''one year''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 481 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 481. Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images

for counterfeiting foreign obligations or securities

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States except by lawful authority,

controls, holds, or possesses any plate, stone, or other thing, or

any part thereof, from which has been printed or may be printed any

counterfeit note, bond, obligation, or other security, in whole or

in part, of any foreign government, bank, or corporation, or uses

such plate, stone, or other thing, or knowingly permits or suffers

the same to be used in counterfeiting such foreign obligations, or

any part thereof; or

Whoever, except by lawful authority, makes or engraves any plate,

stone, or other thing in the likeness or similitude of any plate,

stone, or other thing designated for the printing of the genuine

issues of the obligations of any foreign government, bank, or

corporation; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes, acquires,

scans, captures, records, receives, transmits, reproduces, sells,

or has in such person's control, custody, or possession, an analog,

digital, or electronic image of any bond, certificate, obligation,

or other security of any foreign government, or of any treasury

note, bill, or promise to pay, lawfully issued by such foreign

government and intended to circulate as money; or

Whoever, except by lawful authority, prints, photographs, or

makes, executes, or sells any engraving, photograph, print, or

impression in the likeness of any genuine note, bond, obligation,

or other security, or any part thereof, of any foreign government,

bank, or corporation; or

Whoever brings into the United States any counterfeit plate,

stone, or other thing, engraving, photograph, print, or other

impressions of the notes, bonds, obligations, or other securities

of any foreign government, bank, or corporation -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 25

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 375(d)(1)-(3), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat.

341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 275 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 161, 35 Stat. 1118).

References to persons causing, procuring, assisting or aiding

were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted '', stones, or analog, digital,

or electronic images'' for ''or stones'' in section catchline and

''25 years'' for ''five years'' in last par. and inserted after

second par. ''Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes,

acquires, scans, captures, records, receives, transmits,

reproduces, sells, or has in such person's control, custody, or

possession, an analog, digital, or electronic image of any bond,

certificate, obligation, or other security of any foreign

government, or of any treasury note, bill, or promise to pay,

lawfully issued by such foreign government and intended to

circulate as money; or''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000'' in last par.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 482 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 482. Foreign bank notes

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, with intent to defraud,

falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bank note or

bill issued by a bank or corporation of any foreign country, and

intended by the law or usage of such foreign country to circulate

as money, such bank or corporation being authorized by the laws of

such country, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not

more than 20 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 375(e), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 342.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 272 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 158, 35 Stat. 1118).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding and assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 inserted ''20 years'' for ''two years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $2,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 483 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 483 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 483. Uttering counterfeit foreign bank notes

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, utters, passes, puts off, or

tenders in payment, with intent to defraud, any such false, forged,

altered, or counterfeited bank note or bill, mentioned in section

482 of this title, knowing the same to be so false, forged,

altered, and counterfeited, whether or not the same was made,

forged, altered, or counterfeited within the United States, shall

be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or

both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 375(f), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 342.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 273 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 159, 35 Stat. 1118).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''20 years'' for ''one year''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 484 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 484. Connecting parts of different notes

-STATUTE-

Whoever so places or connects together different parts of two or

more notes, bills, or other genuine instruments issued under the

authority of the United States, or by any foreign government, or

corporation, as to produce one instrument, with intent to defraud,

shall be guilty of forgery in the same manner as if the parts so

put together were falsely made or forged, and shall be fined under

this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

107-56, title III, Sec. 374(h), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 276 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 162, 35 Stat. 1119).

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''10 years'' for ''five

years''.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 485 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 485. Coins or bars

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, or counterfeits any coin or bar in

resemblance or similitude of any coin of a denomination higher than

5 cents or any gold or silver bar coined or stamped at any mint or

assay office of the United States, or in resemblance or similitude

of any foreign gold or silver coin current in the United States or

in actual use and circulation as money within the United States; or

Whoever passes, utters, publishes, sells, possesses, or brings

into the United States any false, forged, or counterfeit coin or

bar, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterfeit, with

intent to defraud any body politic or corporate, or any person, or

attempts the commission of any offense described in this paragraph

-

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than

fifteen years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 89-81, title II,

Sec. 211(a), July 23, 1965, 79 Stat. 257; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 277 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 163, 35 Stat. 1119).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

The provision for imprisonment for 10 years was changed to 15

years to conform to sections 471 and 472 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

1965 - Pub. L. 89-81 struck out ''Gold or silver'' before ''Coins

or bars'' in section catchline, changed the description of the

United States coins covered in first par. from gold or silver coins

to any coin of a denomination higher than 5 cents, and made minor

structural changes in second par.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 486 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 486. Uttering coins of gold, silver or other metal

-STATUTE-

Whoever, except as authorized by law, makes or utters or passes,

or attempts to utter or pass, any coins of gold or silver or other

metal, or alloys of metals, intended for use as current money,

whether in the resemblance of coins of the United States or of

foreign countries, or of original design, shall be fined under this

title (FOOTNOTE 1) or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(FOOTNOTE 1) See 1994 Amendment note below.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 281 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 167, 35 Stat. 1120).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as

unnecessary in view of definition of ''principal'' in section 2 of

this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, which directed the amendment of this

section by substituting ''fined under this title'' for ''fined not

more than $2,000'', was executed by making the substitution for

''fined not more than $3,000'', to reflect the probable intent of

Congress.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 487 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 487. Making or possessing counterfeit dies for coins

-STATUTE-

Whoever, without lawful authority, makes any die, hub, or mold,

or any part thereof, either of steel or plaster, or any other

substance, in likeness or similitude, as to the design or the

inscription thereon, of any die, hub, or mold designated for the

coining or making of any of the genuine gold, silver, nickel,

bronze, copper, or other coins coined at the mints of the United

States; or

Whoever, without lawful authority, possesses any such die, hub,

or mold, or any part thereof, or permits the same to be used for or

in aid of the counterfeiting of any such coins of the United States

-

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than

fifteen years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 283 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 169, 35 Stat. 1120).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

The provision for imprisonment for 10 years was changed to 15

years to conform to section 471 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 488 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 488. Making or possessing counterfeit dies for foreign coins

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, without lawful authority,

makes any die, hub, or mold, or any part thereof, either of steel

or of plaster, or of any other substance, in the likeness or

similitude, as to the design or the inscription thereon, of any

die, hub, or mold designated for the coining of the genuine coin of

any foreign government; or

Whoever, without lawful authority, possesses any such die, hub,

or mold, or any part thereof, or conceals, or knowingly suffers the

same to be used for the counterfeiting of any foreign coin -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 284 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 170, 35 Stat. 1120).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Provision for $2,000 fine was increased to $5,000 to conform with

section 481 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 489 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 489. Making or possessing likeness of coins

-STATUTE-

Whoever, within the United States, makes or brings therein from

any foreign country, or possesses with intent to sell, give away,

or in any other manner uses the same, except under authority of the

Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer of the United

States, any token, disk, or device in the likeness or similitude as

to design, color, or the inscription thereon of any of the coins of

the United States or of any foreign country issued as money, either

under the authority of the United States or under the authority of

any foreign government shall be fined under this title.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, Sec.

3, 65 Stat. 122; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(B),

Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2146.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 285 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 171, 35 Stat. 1121; Feb. 15, 1912, ch. 38, 37 Stat. 64).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as

unnecessary in view of definition of ''principal'' in section 2 of

this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $100''.

1951 - Act July 16, 1951, struck out ''publisher's illustrations

excepted'' in section catchline, struck out from text all language

which could be interpreted to prohibit or restrict the making and

printing of coin illustrations in magazines and other publications,

and gave the Secretary of the Treasury the authority to make

exceptions to the application of this section.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 490 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 490. Minor coins

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, or counterfeits any coin in the

resemblance or similitude of any of the one-cent and 5-cent coins

minted at the mints of the United States; or

Whoever passes, utters, publishes, or sells, or brings into the

United States, or possesses any such false, forged, or

counterfeited coin, with intent to defraud any person, shall be

fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or

both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 98-216, Sec.

3(b)(1), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 6; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII,

Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 278 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 164, 35 Stat. 1119).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

1984 - Pub. L. 98-216 substituted ''one-cent and 5-cent coins

minted'' for ''minor coins coined''.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Section 4(c) of Pub. L. 98-216 provided that: ''The amendments

made by sections 1(3), (4), and (7) and 3(b)(1) of this Act

(amending this section and sections 3322, 3528, and 5132 of Title

31, Money and Finance) are effective as of September 13, 1982.''

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 491 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 491. Tokens or paper used as money

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever, being 18 years of age or over, not lawfully

authorized, makes, issues, or passes any coin, card, token, or

device in metal, or its compounds, intended to be used as money, or

whoever, being 18 years of age or over, with intent to defraud,

makes, utters, inserts, or uses any card, token, slug, disk,

device, paper, or other thing similar in size and shape to any of

the lawful coins or other currency of the United States or any coin

or other currency not legal tender in the United States, to procure

anything of value, or the use or enjoyment of any property or

service from any automatic merchandise vending machine,

postage-stamp machine, turnstile, fare box, coinbox telephone,

parking meter or other lawful receptacle, depository, or

contrivance designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins

or other currency of the United States, shall be fined under this

title, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(b) Whoever manufactures, sells, offers, or advertises for sale,

or exposes or keeps with intent to furnish or sell any token, slug,

disk, device, paper, or other thing similar in size and shape to

any of the lawful coins or other currency of the United States, or

any token, disk, paper, or other device issued or authorized in

connection with rationing or food and fiber distribution by any

agency of the United States, with knowledge or reason to believe

that such tokens, slugs, disks, devices, papers, or other things

are intended to be used unlawfully or fraudulently to procure

anything of value, or the use or enjoyment of any property or

service from any automatic merchandise vending machine,

postage-stamp machine, turnstile, fare box, coinbox telephone,

parking meter, or other lawful receptacle, depository, or

contrivance designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins

or other currency of the United States shall be fined under this

title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Nothing contained in this section shall create immunity from

criminal prosecution under the laws of any State, Commonwealth of

Puerto Rico, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia.

(c) ''Knowledge or reason to believe'', within the meaning of

paragraph (b) of this section, may be shown by proof that any

law-enforcement officer has, prior to the commission of the offense

with which the defendant is charged, informed the defendant that

tokens, slugs, disks, or other devices of the kind manufactured,

sold, offered, or advertised for sale by him or exposed or kept

with intent to furnish or sell, are being used unlawfully or

fraudulently to operate certain specified automatic merchandise

vending machines, postage-stamp machines, turnstiles, fare boxes,

coin-box telephones, parking meters, or other receptacles,

depositories, or contrivances, designed to receive or to be

operated by lawful coins of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 87-667, Sept. 19,

1962, 76 Stat. 555; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec.

330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 282, 282a (Mar. 4,

1909, ch. 321, Sec. 168, 35 Stat. 1120, and Sec. 168a as added Apr.

1, 1944, ch. 151, 58 Stat. 149).

Mandatory punishment provision in subsection (a) was rephrased in

the alternative.

Sections were consolidated and changes were made in phraseology.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as

unnecessary in view of definition of ''principal'' in section 2 of

this title.

Punishment provision in paragraph (a) of 5 years was changed to 1

year to make the offense a misdemeanor as was done in paragraph (b)

of this section, which represents the latest expression of the

intention of Congress. See definition of felony and misdemeanor in

section 1 of this title and note thereunder.

In paragraph (b) the $3,000 fine was reduced to $1,000 to conform

to paragraph (a) and as more in keeping with the gravity of

offense.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined

under this title'' for ''fined not more than $1,000''.

1962 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87-667 inserted ''being 18 years of

age or over,'' before ''not lawfully authorized'', and ''or

whoever, being 18 years of age or over, with intent to defraud,

makes, utters, inserts, or uses any card, token, slug, disk,

device, paper, or other thing similar in size and shape to any of

the lawful coins or other currency of the United States or any coin

or other currency not legal tender in the United States, to procure

anything of value, or the use or enjoyment of any property or

service from any automatic merchandise vending machine,

postage-stamp machine, turnstile, fare box, coinbox telephone,

parking meter or other lawful receptacle, depository, or

contrivance designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins

or other currency of the United States,'' and deleted ''for any

1-cent, 2-cent, 3-cent, or 5-cent piece, authorized by law, or for

coins of equal value'' after ''intended to be used as money''.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87-667 substituted ''device, paper, or other

thing similar'' for ''device similar'', ''paper, or other device

issued or authorized in connection with rationing or food and fiber

distribution'' for ''or other device issued or authorized in

connection with rationing'', and ''devices, papers, or other things

are intended to be used unlawfully'' for ''or other devices may be

used unlawfully'', inserted ''or other currency'' before ''of the

United States'' in two places, and ''lawful'' before ''receptacle,

depository'', and provided that nothing in this section shall

create immunity from criminal prosecution under the laws of any

State, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, territory, possession, or the

District of Columbia.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 492 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 492. Forfeiture of counterfeit paraphernalia

-STATUTE-

All counterfeits of any coins or obligations or other securities

of the United States or of any foreign government, or any articles,

devices, and other things made, possessed, or used in violation of

this chapter or of sections 331-333, 335, 336, 642 or 1720, of this

title, or any material or apparatus used or fitted or intended to

be used, in the making of such counterfeits, articles, devices or

things, found in the possession of any person without authority

from the Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer, shall

be forfeited to the United States.

Whoever, having the custody or control of any such counterfeits,

material, apparatus, articles, devices, or other things, fails or

refuses to surrender possession thereof upon request by any

authorized agent of the Treasury Department, or other proper

officer, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more

than one year, or both.

Whenever, except as hereinafter in this section provided, any

person interested in any article, device, or other thing, or

material or apparatus seized under this section files with the

Secretary of the Treasury, before the disposition thereof, a

petition for the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, the

Secretary of the Treasury, if he finds that such forfeiture was

incurred without willful negligence or without any intention on the

part of the petitioner to violate the law, or finds the existence

of such mitigating circumstances as to justify the remission or the

mitigation of such forfeiture, may remit or mitigate the same upon

such terms and conditions as he deems reasonable and just.

If the seizure involves offenses other than offenses against the

coinage, currency, obligations or securities of the United States

or any foreign government, the petition for the remission or

mitigation of forfeiture shall be referred to the Attorney General,

who may remit or mitigate the forfeiture upon such terms as he

deems reasonable and just.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 107-273, div. B,

title IV, Sec. 4002(d)(1)(A), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1809.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 286 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 172, 35 Stat. 1121; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 10, Sec. 4, 52

Stat. 7).

Section was materially shortened through merger of former third

and fourth sentences with present first and second paragraphs by

extending latter to include ''articles, devices, and other

things''. This necessitated many insertions and deletions in the

first two paragraphs, which, however, did not affect the substance

of the section.

A reference in the former third sentence to violations of certain

sections was broadened to read ''in violation of this chapter or of

sections 331-333, 335-336, 642, 1720, of this title'' and

incorporated in the first paragraph. This translation extends for

the first time the provisions of this section to subject matter of

sections 493-496, 498, 499, 504-509 of this title. All of the

sections covered by the original reference in this section are

represented in the translation except section 261, now section 8 of

this title, and section 287 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which

were omitted therefrom as unnecessary, since the former is

definitive and the latter related to procedure only, and is

superseded by rule 41(a), (b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal

Procedure.

The revised section was so written as to limit the authority of

the Secretary of the Treasury to forfeitures within the enforcement

powers of the Treasury Department, which advises that it does not

investigate counterfeiting offenses not involving coins, currency,

or Government obligations and securities. The Attorney General is

the appropriate officer to remit or mitigate other forfeitures.

Changes in phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Pub. L. 107-273 substituted ''under this title'' for ''not

more than $100'' in second par.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 493 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 493. Bonds and obligations of certain lending agencies

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits or alters any note,

bond, debenture, coupon, obligation, instrument, or writing in

imitation or purporting to be in imitation of, a note, bond,

debenture, coupon, obligation, instrument or writing, issued by the

Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Federal Deposit Insurance

Corporation, National Credit Union Administration, Home Owners'

Loan Corporation, Farm Credit Administration, Department of Housing

and Urban Development, or any land bank, intermediate credit bank,

insured credit union, bank for cooperatives or any lending,

mortgage, insurance, credit or savings and loan corporation or

association authorized or acting under the laws of the United

States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than

10 years, or both.

Whoever passes, utters, or publishes, or attempts to pass, utter

or publish any note, bond, debenture, coupon, obligation,

instrument or document knowing the same to have been falsely made,

forged, counterfeited or altered, contrary to the provisions of

this section, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not

more than 10 years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 87-353, Sec. 3(p),

Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 90-19, Sec. 24(a), May 25,

1967, 81 Stat. 27; Pub. L. 91-468, Sec. 3, Oct. 19, 1970, 84 Stat.

1016; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(L), Sept. 13,

1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107-56, title III, Sec. 374(i), Oct.

26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on sections 264(t), 982, 1126, 1138d(b), 1316, 1441(b),

1467(b), 1731(b) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking,

and section 616(b) of title 15, U.S.C. 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, Sec. 12B(t), as added June 16, 1933, ch. 89,

Sec. 8, 48 Stat. 178, and amended Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, Sec. 101,

49 Stat. 684; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, Sec. 31 (second paragraph),

39 Stat. 383; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, Sec. 211(f), as added Mar. 4,

1923, ch. 252, title I, Sec. 2, 42 Stat. 1460; Mar. 4, 1923, ch.

252, title II, Sec. 216(f), 42 Stat. 1472; Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8,

Sec. 16(b), 47 Stat. 11; July 22, 1932, ch. 522, Sec. 21(b), 47

Stat. 738; June 13, 1933, ch. 64, Sec. 8(b), 48 Stat. 134; June 16,

1933, ch. 98, Sec. 64(b), 48 Stat. 268; June 27, 1934, ch. 847,

Sec. 512(b), 48 Stat. 1265).

Each of the nine sections from which this section was derived

contained similar provisions with respect to one or more named

agencies or corporations. The punishment was the same in each

section except that in sections 982, 1126, and 1316 of title 12,

U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, the maximum fine was $5,000.

This section adopts the $10,000 maximum fine provided in the other

six former sections.

This section condenses and simplifies the form of the former

sections without change of substance, except where the maximum fine

differs as noted above.

The enumeration of ''note, bond, debenture, coupon, obligation,

instrument, or writing'' does not occur in any one of the original

sections but is an adequate enumeration of the instruments

mentioned in each.

Certain specific agencies are enumerated by name as are ''land

bank, intermediate credit bank, bank for cooperatives,'' but the

phrase ''or any lending, mortgage, insurance, credit, or savings

and loan corporation or association'' was used to embrace the

following: National Farm Loan Association, Federal Savings and Loan

Insurance Corporation, Federal Savings and Loan Associations,

National Agricultural Credit Corporation, Production Credit

Corporations, Production Credit Associations, Home Loan Banks,

National Mortgage Associations, and Central Bank for Cooperatives,

Regional Agricultural Credit Corporation, or any instrumentalities

created for similar purposes.

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary, such persons being principals by section 2

of this title.

The section was written in two paragraphs; the first denouncing

forgery, counterfeiting, and altering; the second, passing,

uttering, and publishing. This arrangement, together with the

simplified style of the rewritten section, will permit the repeal

of similar provisions in at least nine complicated sections now in

title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

Section 1138d(f) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and

Banking, was omitted from this revision and recommended for

repeal. It provides as follows: ''Whoever conspires with another

to accomplish any of the acts made unlawful by the preceding

provisions of this section shall, on conviction thereof, be subject

to the same fine or imprisonment, or both, as is applicable in the

case of conviction for doing such unlawful act.''

The only case construing such subsection (f) is United States v.

Halbrook, D.C. Mo. 1941, 36 F. Supp. 345, in which the District

Judge said by way of obiter dictum in a footnote that ''Under this

section no overt act need be shown as is true in the case of a

prosecution under section 37 of the Criminal Code'', now section

371 of this title.

Indeed the indictment upon which Halbrook was acquitted was drawn

under section 88 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., now section 371 of

this title, which required allegation and proof of an overt act and

provided punishment by fine of not more than $10,000, or

imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or both. The second

indictment charged only substantive violations and involved neither

conspiracy section.

It will be noted that section 1138d(f) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940

ed., Banks and Banking, applies in terms only to the Farm Credit

Administration, intermediate credit banks, Federal Farm Mortgage

Corporation, and by reference to the banks for cooperatives,

Production Credit Associations and Production Credit Corporations,

and is not applicable to land banks, loan associations, Federal

Housing Administration, Home Owners' Loan Corporation, or other

institutions.

It is also noted that in the only reported case involving this

section, the United States attorney drew his conspiracy indictment

not under section 1138d(f) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and

Banking, but under section 88 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which

is now section 371 of this title, indicating considerable doubt as

to the scope and effect of section 1138d(f) of said title 12,

U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

There is no sound reason for differentiating between types of

credit, insurance, banking and lending agencies in the punishment

of conspiracy or in the requirement as to proof of overt acts.

Since conspiracies involving offenses equally serious such as

obstruction of justice, bribery, embezzlements, counterfeiting and

false statements and offenses against the Treasury of the United

States as well as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the

Home Owners' Loan Corporation are punishable under the general

conspiracy statute, the same rule should be applied to lesser

agencies.

The blanket provision for punishment of ''any person who

willfully violates any other provision of this Act'' was omitted as

useless, in view of the specific provisions for penalties elsewhere

in the Act.

AMENDMENTS

2001 - Pub. L. 107-56 substituted ''10 years'' for ''five years''

in two places.

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $10,000'' in two places.

1970 - Pub. L. 91-468 inserted National Credit Union

Administration and insured credit unions in enumeration of lending

agencies.

1967 - Pub. L. 90-19 substituted ''Department of Housing and

Urban Development'' for ''Federal Housing Administration''.

1961 - Pub. L. 87-353 struck out reference to the Federal Farm

Mortgage Corporation.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT

Amendments by title III of Pub. L. 107-56 to terminate effective

on and after the first day of fiscal year 2005 if Congress enacts a

joint resolution that such amendments no longer have the force of

law, see section 303 of Pub. L. 107-56, set out as a Four-Year

Congressional Review; Expedited Consideration note under section

5311 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

-TRANS-

EXCEPTIONS FROM TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

Functions of corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of

directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of

Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any

agency, officer or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of

said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies,

and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by Reorg.

Plan No. 2 of 1953, Sec. 1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67

Stat. 633, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government

Organization and Employees.

ABOLITION OF RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION

Section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, eff. June 30, 1957,

22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5,

Government Organization and Employees, abolished the Reconstruction

Finance Corporation.

ABOLITION OF HOME OWNERS' LOAN CORPORATION

For dissolution and abolition of Home Owners' Loan Corporation,

referred to in this section, by act June 30, 1953, ch. 170, Sec.

21, 67 Stat. 126, see note set out under section 1463 of Title 12,

Banks and Banking.

-MISC5-

FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION

Establishment of Farm Credit Administration as independent

agency, and other changes in status, function, etc., see Ex. Ord.

No. 6084 set out prec. section 2241 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

See also section 2001 et seq. of Title 12.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 3056 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 494 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 494. Contractors' bonds, bids, and public records

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bond,

bid, proposal, contract, guarantee, security, official bond, public

record, affidavit, or other writing for the purpose of defrauding

the United States; or

Whoever utters or publishes as true or possesses with intent to

utter or publish as true, any such false, forged, altered, or

counterfeited writing, knowing the same to be false, forged,

altered, or counterfeited; or

Whoever transmits to, or presents at any office or to any officer

of the United States, any such false, forged, altered, or

counterfeited writing, knowing the same to be false, forged,

altered, or counterfeited -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 72 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 28, 35 Stat. 1094).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Changes were also made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 495 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 495. Contracts, deeds, and powers of attorney

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any deed,

power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, contract, or other

writing, for the purpose of obtaining or receiving, or of enabling

any other person, either directly or indirectly, to obtain or

receive from the United States or any officers or agents thereof,

any sum of money; or

Whoever utters or publishes as true any such false, forged,

altered, or counterfeited writing, with intent to defraud the

United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or

counterfeited; or

Whoever transmits to, or presents at any office or officer of the

United States, any such writing in support of, or in relation to,

any account or claim, with intent to defraud the United States,

knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 73 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 29, 35 Stat. 1094).

Reference in first paragraph to persons causing, procuring,

aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are

made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 496 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 496. Customs matters

-STATUTE-

Whoever forges, counterfeits or falsely alters any writing made

or required to be made in connection with the entry or withdrawal

of imports or collection of customs duties, or uses any such

writing knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited or falsely

altered, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more

than three years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 119 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 63, 35 Stat. 1100).

Section was rewritten to apply to all customs documents or

writings. The Treasury Department advises that certificates of

entry are obsolete.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $10,000''.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 497 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 497. Letters patent

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, or alters any

letters patent granted or purporting to have been granted by the

President of the United States; or

Whoever passes, utters, or publishes, or attempts to pass, utter,

or publish as genuine, any such letters patent, knowing the same to

be forged, counterfeited or falsely altered -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 71 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 27, 35 Stat. 1094).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 498 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 498. Military or naval discharge certificates

-STATUTE-

Whoever forges, counterfeits, or falsely alters any certificate

of discharge from the military or naval service of the United

States, or uses, unlawfully possesses or exhibits any such

certificate, knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited, or

falsely altered, shall be fined under this title (FOOTNOTE 1) or

imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(FOOTNOTE 1) See 1994 Amendment note below.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940, ed., Sec. 136 (Mar. 4, 1917, ch.

180, 39 Stat. 1182).

Reference to any person causing, procuring, aiding or assisting

was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

At the end of this section words ''in the discretion of the

court'' were omitted as unnecessary, as the punishment provisions,

being framed in the alternative by the use of the disjunctive

''or,'' vest in the court the power to impose a fine or prison

sentence in its discretion.

Changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, which directed the amendment of this

section by substituting ''fined under this title'' for ''fined not

more than $5,000'', was executed by making the substitution for

''fined not more than $1,000'', to reflect the probable intent of

Congress.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 499 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 499. Military, naval, or official passes

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, alters, or tampers

with any naval, military, or official pass or permit, issued by or

under the authority of the United States, or with intent to defraud

uses or possesses any such pass or permit, or personates or falsely

represents himself to be or not to be a person to whom such pass or

permit has been duly issued, or willfully allows any other person

to have or use any such pass or permit, issued for his use alone,

shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 132 (June 15, 1917, ch.

30, title X, Sec. 3, 40 Stat. 228).

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $2,000''.

-SECREF-

SECTIONS REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1717 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 500 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 500. Money orders

-STATUTE-

Whoever, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, forges,

counterfeits, engraves, or prints any order in imitation of or

purporting to be a blank money order or a money order issued by or

under the direction of the Post Office Department or Postal

Service; or

Whoever forges or counterfeits the signature or initials of any

person authorized to issue money orders upon or to any money order,

postal note, or blank therefor provided or issued by or under the

direction of the Post Office Department or Postal Service, or post

office department or corporation of any foreign country, and

payable in the United States, or any material signature or

indorsement thereon, or any material signature to any receipt or

certificate of identification thereof; or

Whoever falsely alters, in any material respect, any such money

order or postal note; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, passes, utters or publishes or

attempts to pass, utter or publish any such forged or altered money

order or postal note, knowing any material initials, signature,

stamp impression or indorsement thereon to be false, forged, or

counterfeited, or any material alteration therein to have been

falsely made; or

Whoever issues any money order or postal note without having

previously received or paid the full amount of money payable

therefor, with the purpose of fraudulently obtaining or receiving,

or fraudulently enabling any other person, either directly or

indirectly, to obtain or receive from the United States or Postal

Service, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof, any sum of

money whatever; or

Whoever embezzles, steals, or knowingly converts to his own use

or to the use of another, or without authority converts or disposes

of any blank money order form provided by or under the authority of

the Post Office Department or Postal Service; or

Whoever receives or possesses any such money order form with the

intent to convert it to his own use or gain or use or gain of

another knowing it to have been embezzled, stolen or converted; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud the United States, the Postal

Service, or any person, transmits, presents, or causes to be

transmitted or presented, any money order or postal note knowing

the same -

(1) to contain any forged or counterfeited signature, initials,

or any stamped impression, or

(2) to contain any material alteration therein unlawfully made,

or

(3) to have been unlawfully issued without previous payment of

the amount required to be paid upon such issue, or

(4) to have been stamped without lawful authority; or

Whoever steals, or with intent to defraud or without being

lawfully authorized by the Post Office Department or Postal

Service, receives, possesses, disposes of or attempts to dispose of

any postal money order machine or any stamp, tool, or instrument

specifically designed to be used in preparing or filling out the

blanks on postal money order forms -

Shall be fined under this title (FOOTNOTE 1) or imprisoned not

more than five years, or both.

(FOOTNOTE 1) See 1994 Amendment note below.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 91-375, Sec.

6(j)(5), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 92-430, Sept. 23,

1972, 86 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec.

330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 347 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 218, 35 Stat. 1131).

References to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting

were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, which directed the amendment of this

section by substituting ''fined under this title'' for ''fined not

more than $10,000'', was executed by making the substitution for

''fined not more than $5,000'' in last par., to reflect the

probable intent of Congress.

1972 - Pub. L. 92-430 substituted ''a blank money order or a

money order issued by or under the direction of'' for ''a money

order issued by'' and struck out '', or by any officer or employee

thereof'' in first par.; substituted ''or initials of any person

authorized to issue money orders'' for ''of any officer or employee

of the Postal Service,'' in second par.; inserted ''or attempts to

pass, utter or publish'' before ''any such forged'' and substituted

''material initials, signature, stamp impression'' for ''material

signature'' in fourth par.; inserted ''or Postal Service'' after

''the United States'' in fifth par.; inserted sixth and seventh

pars.; inserted '', the Postal Service'' after ''the United

States'', and substituted ''presents, or causes to be transmitted

or presented, any money order'' for ''or presents to any officer or

employee, or at any office of the United States, any money order''

and designated material after ''knowing the same'' as cls. (1) to

(3) with minor changes and added cl. (4) in eighth par.; inserted

ninth par., and enacted provisions of former seventh par. as tenth

par.

1970 - Pub. L. 91-375 inserted reference to Postal Service and

substituted ''officer or employee'' for ''postmaster or agent'' in

first par. and substituted ''officer or employee of the Postal

Service'' for ''postmaster, assistant postmaster, chief clerk, or

clerk'' and ''Post Office Department or the Postal Service, or post

office department or corporation of any foreign country'' for

''Post Office Department of the United States, or of any foreign

country'' in second par.

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Post Office Department redesignated United States Postal Service

pursuant to Pub. L. 91-375, Sec. 6(o), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733,

set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal

Service.

-MISC4-

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1970 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 91-375 effective within 1 year after Aug.

12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of

the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal

Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91-375, set out as an

Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal

Service.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1956 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 501 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 501. Postage stamps, postage meter stamps, and postal cards

-STATUTE-

Whoever forges or counterfeits any postage stamp, postage meter

stamp, or any stamp printed upon any stamped envelope, or postal

card, or any die, plate, or engraving thereof; or

Whoever makes or prints, or knowingly uses or sells, or possesses

with intent to use or sell, any such forged or counterfeited

postage stamp, postage meter stamp, stamped envelope, postal card,

die, plate, or engraving; or

Whoever makes, or knowingly uses or sells, or possesses with

intent to use or sell, any paper bearing the watermark of any

stamped envelope, or postal card, or any fraudulent imitation

thereof; or

Whoever makes or prints, or authorizes to be made or printed, any

postage stamp, postage meter stamp, stamped envelope, or postal

card, of the kind authorized and provided by the Post Office

Department or by the Postal Service, without the special authority

and direction of the Department or Postal Service; or

Whoever after such postage stamp, postage meter stamp, stamped

envelope, or postal card has been printed, with intent to defraud,

delivers the same to any person not authorized by an instrument in

writing, duly executed under the hand of the Postmaster General and

the seal of the Post Office Department or the Postal Service, to

receive it -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 91-375, Sec.

6(j)(6), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 91-448, Sec. 1(a),

Oct. 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 920; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec.

330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 348 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 219, 35 Stat. 1132).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as

unnecessary in view of definition of ''principal'' in section 2 of

this title.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $500'' in last par.

1970 - Pub. L. 91-448 inserted references to the Postal Service

and to postage meter stamps. Pub. L. 91-448, Sec. 1(b), repealed

section 6(j)(6) of the Postal Reorganization Act, Pub. L. 91-375,

Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719, by which the references to the Postal

Service had been inserted earlier.

Pub. L. 91-375 inserted ''or by the Postal Service,'' after

''Post Office Department,'' and substituted ''the Department or

Postal Service'' for ''said department'' in fourth par. and struck

out the comma after ''stamped envelope'' and ''to defraud'' and

inserted ''or the Postal Service'' after ''Post Office Department''

in fifth par.

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Post Office Department redesignated United States Postal Service

pursuant to Pub. L. 91-375, Sec. 6(o), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733,

set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal

Service.

-MISC4-

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1970 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 91-375 effective within 1 year after Aug.

12, 1970, on date established therefor by Board of Governors of

United States Postal Service and published by it in Federal

Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91-375, set out as an

Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal

Service.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982, 1956 of this

title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 502 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 502. Postage and revenue stamps of foreign governments

-STATUTE-

Whoever forges, or counterfeits, or knowingly utters or uses any

forged or counterfeit postage stamp or revenue stamp of any foreign

government, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more

than five years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 349 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 220, 35 Stat. 1132; May 26, 1926, ch. 396, 44 Stat. 653).

A paragraph defining ''foreign government'' was combined with

other like provisions to form section 11 of this title. A proviso

against repeal, ''Provided, however, That nothing in this section

shall be held to repeal or modify section 350 of this title (now

section 504 of this title)'', was deleted as unnecessary since that

section by express reference to this one makes it clear that these

sections are in pari materia.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $500''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982, 1956 of this

title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 503 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 503. Postmarking stamps

-STATUTE-

Whoever forges or counterfeits any postmarking stamp, or

impression thereof with intent to make it appear that such

impression is a genuine postmark, or makes or knowingly uses or

sells, or possesses with intent to use or sell, any forged or

counterfeited postmarking stamp, die, plate, or engraving, or such

impression thereof, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned

not more than five years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 349a (Aug. 26, 1935,

ch. 692, 49 Stat. 866).

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1956 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 504 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 504. Printing and filming of United States and foreign

obligations and securities

-STATUTE-

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the

following are permitted:

(1) The printing, publishing, or importation, or the making or

importation of the necessary plates for such printing or

publishing, of illustrations of -

(A) postage stamps of the United States,

(B) revenue stamps of the United States,

(C) any other obligation or other security of the United

States, and

(D) postage stamps, revenue stamps, notes, bonds, and any

other obligation or other security of any foreign government,

bank, or corporation.

Illustrations permitted by the foregoing provisions of this

section shall be made in accordance with the following conditions

-

(i) all illustrations shall be in black and white, except that

illustrations of postage stamps issued by the United States or by

any foreign government and stamps issued under the Migratory Bird

Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 may be in color;

(ii) all illustrations (including illustrations of uncanceled

postage stamps in color and illustrations of stamps issued under

the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 in color) shall be

of a size less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half,

in linear dimension, of each part of any matter so illustrated

which is covered by subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of this

paragraph, except that black and white illustrations of postage

and revenue stamps issued by the United States or by any foreign

government and colored illustrations of canceled postage stamps

issued by the United States may be in the exact linear dimension

in which the stamps were issued; and

(iii) the negatives and plates used in making the illustrations

shall be destroyed after their final use in accordance with this

section.

The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations to

permit color illustrations of such currency of the United States

as the Secretary determines may be appropriate for such purposes.

(2) The provisions of this section shall not permit the

reproduction of illustrations of obligations or other securities,

by or through electronic methods used for the acquisition,

recording, retrieval, transmission, or reproduction of any

obligation or other security, unless such use is authorized by

the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary shall establish a

system to ensure that the legitimate use of such electronic

methods and retention of such reproductions by businesses,

hobbyists, press or others shall not be unduly restricted.

(3) The making or importation of motion-picture films,

microfilms, or slides, for projection upon a screen or for use in

telecasting, of postage and revenue stamps and other obligations

and securities of the United States, and postage and revenue

stamps, notes, bonds, and other obligations or securities of any

foreign government, bank, or corporation. No prints or other

reproductions shall be made from such films or slides, except for

the purposes of paragraph (1), without the permission of the

Secretary of the Treasury.

For the purposes of this section the term ''postage stamp''

includes postage meter stamps.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 85-921, Sec. 1,

Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771; Pub. L. 90-353, Sec. 1, June 20,

1968, 82 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 91-448, Sec. 2, Oct. 14, 1970, 84 Stat.

921; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title X, Sec. 1077(b)(1), (2), July

18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 102-550, title XV, Sec. 1554, Oct.

28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4071; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Sec. 601(e),

(f)(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 350 (Mar. 3, 1923, ch.

218, 42 Stat. 1437; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 10, Sec. 2, 52 Stat. 6).

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, referred to in par. (1)(i),

(ii), is act Mar. 16, 1934, ch. 71, 48 Stat. 451, as amended, which

is classified generally to subchapter IV (Sec. 718 et seq.) of

chapter 7 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

718 of Title 16 and Tables.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Par. (1). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(e)(1), substituted

''The printing'' for ''the printing'' in introductory provisions.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(e)(2), (f)(3), substituted

''The making or importation of'' for ''the making or importation,

of''.

1992 - Par. (1). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1554(1), (2), in subpar.

(D), substituted a period for the comma at end, in provisions

following subpar. (D), struck out ''for philatelic, numismatic,

educational, historical, or newsworthy purposes in articles, books,

journals, newspapers, or albums (but not for advertising purposes,

except illustrations of stamps and paper money in philatelic or

numismatic advertising of legitimate numismatists and dealers in

stamps or publishers of or dealers in philatelic or numismatic

articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums).'' before

''Illustrations permitted'', and inserted at end ''The Secretary of

the Treasury shall prescribe regulations to permit color

illustrations of such currency of the United States as the

Secretary determines may be appropriate for such purposes.''

Par. (2). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1554(3), added par. (2). Former

par. (2) redesignated (3).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1554(3), (4), redesignated par.

(2) as (3) and struck out ''but not for advertising purposes except

philatelic advertising,'' after ''or importation,''.

1984 - Par. (1)(i). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 1077(b)(1), inserted

''and stamps issued under the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of

1934''.

Par. (1)(ii). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 1077(b)(2), inserted ''and

illustrations of stamps issued under the Migratory Bird Hunting

Stamp Act of 1934 in color''.

1970 - Pub. L. 91-448 inserted provision including postage meter

stamp within the meaning of postage stamp for the purposes of this

section.

1968 - Par. (1). Pub. L. 90-353 inserted provisions so as to

permit colored illustrations of canceled United States postage

stamps in the exact size of genuine stamps and colored

illustrations of uncanceled United States and foreign stamps if the

size of the illustrations is less than three-fourths or more than

one and one-half times the size of the genuine stamps and permitted

the use of colored illustrations of stamps in public documents

relating to stamps printed by the Government Printing Office at the

request of the Postmaster General.

1958 - Pub. L. 85-921 permitted black and white illustrations of

revenue stamps of the United States for philatelic and numismatic

purposes, black and white illustrations of United States and

foreign paper money and other obligations and securities for

educational, historical, and newsworthy purposes, and permitted

motion picture films, microfilms, and slides of United States and

foreign postage and revenue stamps, paper money, and other

obligations and securities, except films in connection with

advertising.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 effective July 18, 1984, see section

1077(c) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under section 718e of

Title 16, Conservation.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 474 of this title; title

16 section 718e.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 505 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 505. Seals of courts; signatures of judges or court officers

-STATUTE-

Whoever forges the signature of any judge, register, or other

officer of any court of the United States, or of any Territory

thereof, or forges or counterfeits the seal of any such court, or

knowingly concurs in using any such forged or counterfeit signature

or seal, for the purpose of authenticating any proceeding or

document, or tenders in evidence any such proceeding or document

with a false or counterfeit signature of any such judge, register,

or other officer, or a false or counterfeit seal of the court,

subscribed or attached thereto, knowing such signature or seal to

be false or counterfeit, shall be fined under this title or

imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 236 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 130, 35 Stat. 1112).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 506 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 506. Seals of departments or agencies

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever -

(1) falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, mutilates, or alters

the seal of any department or agency of the United States, or any

facsimile thereof;

(2) knowingly uses, affixes, or impresses any such fraudulently

made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal or

facsimile thereof to or upon any certificate, instrument,

commission, document, or paper of any description; or

(3) with fraudulent intent, possesses, sells, offers for sale,

furnishes, offers to furnish, gives away, offers to give away,

transports, offers to transport, imports, or offers to import any

such seal or facsimile thereof, knowing the same to have been so

falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered,

shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than 5

years, or both.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a) or any other provision of law,

if a forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal of a

department or agency of the United States, or any facsimile

thereof, is -

(1) so forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered;

(2) used, affixed, or impressed to or upon any certificate,

instrument, commission, document, or paper of any description; or

(3) with fraudulent intent, possessed, sold, offered for sale,

furnished, offered to furnish, given away, offered to give away,

transported, offered to transport, imported, or offered to

import,

with the intent or effect of facilitating an alien's application

for, or receipt of, a Federal benefit to which the alien is not

entitled, the penalties which may be imposed for each offense under

subsection (a) shall be two times the maximum fine, and 3 times the

maximum term of imprisonment, or both, that would otherwise be

imposed for an offense under subsection (a).

(c) For purposes of this section -

(1) the term ''Federal benefit'' means -

(A) the issuance of any grant, contract, loan, professional

license, or commercial license provided by any agency of the

United States or by appropriated funds of the United States;

and

(B) any retirement, welfare, Social Security, health

(including treatment of an emergency medical condition in

accordance with section 1903(v) of the Social Security Act (19

(FOOTNOTE 1) U.S.C. 1396b(v))), disability, veterans, public

housing, education, food stamps, or unemployment benefit, or

any similar benefit for which payments or assistance are

provided by an agency of the United States or by appropriated

funds of the United States; and

(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''42''.

(2) each instance of forgery, counterfeiting, mutilation, or

alteration shall constitute a separate offense under this

section.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.

104-208, div. C, title V, Sec. 561, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat.

3009-681.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 131 (June 15, 1917, ch.

30, title X, Sec. 2, 40 Stat. 228).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was

omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

In view of definitions of department and agency in section 6 of

this title, words ''department or agency'' in first paragraph were

substituted for ''executive department, or any bureau, commission,

or office''.

Provision for 10 years' imprisonment was reduced to 5 years to

conform to punishment provision in section 505 of this title,

covering an offense of like gravity.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Pub. L. 104-208 reenacted section catchline without change

and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as

follows:

''Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, mutilates, or

alters the seal of any department or agency of the United States;

or

''Whoever knowingly uses, affixes, or impresses any such

fraudulently made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered

seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document,

or paper, of any description; or

''Whoever, with fraudulent intent, possesses any such seal,

knowing the same to have been so falsely made, forged,

counterfeited, mutilated, or altered -

''Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than

five years, or both.''

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1717 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 507 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 507. Ship's papers

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, or alters any

instrument in imitation of or purporting to be, an abstract or

official copy or certificate of the recording, registry, or

enrollment of any vessel, in the office of any collector of the

customs, or a license to any vessel for carrying on the coasting

trade or fisheries of the United States, or a certificate of

ownership, pass, or clearance, granted for any vessel, under the

authority of the United States, or a permit, debenture, or other

official document granted by any collector or other officer of the

customs by virtue of his office; or

Whoever utters, publishes, or passes, or attempts to utter,

publish, or pass, as true, any such false, forged, counterfeited,

or falsely altered instrument, abstract, official copy,

certificate, license, pass, clearance, permit, debenture, or other

official document herein specified, knowing the same to be false,

forged, counterfeited, or falsely altered, with an intent to

defraud -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 129 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.

321, Sec. 72, 35 Stat. 1101).

The words ''passport'' and ''sea letter'' were omitted as

obsolete, in view of the Presidential proclamation of April 10,

1815, discontinuing the use of such passports and sea letters.

Mandatory punishment provisions were rephrased in the

alternative.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $1,000''.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs,

surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of

Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were

required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate

ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later

than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25,

1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title

5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices

eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by

Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64

Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 508 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 508. Transportation requests of Government

-STATUTE-

Whoever falsely makes, forges, or counterfeits in whole or in

part, any form or request in similitude of the form or request

provided by the Government for requesting a common carrier to

furnish transportation on account of the United States or any

department or agency thereof, or knowingly alters any form or

request provided by the Government for requesting a common carrier

to furnish transportation on account of the United States or any

department or agency thereof; or

Whoever knowingly passes, utters, publishes, or sells, or

attempts to pass, utter, publish, or sell, any such false, forged,

counterfeited, or altered form or request -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 715; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 146 (Dec. 11, 1926, ch.

2, Sec. 1, 44 Stat. 917).

References to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting

were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Also, in first paragraph, word ''agency'' was substituted for

''branch'', in view of definitions of department and agency in

section 6 of this title.

Words ''upon conviction'' in last paragraph were omitted as

surplusage since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is

secured.

Minor changes of phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 3056 of this title; title

22 section 3622.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 509 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 509. Possessing and making plates or stones for Government

transportation requests

-STATUTE-

Whoever, except by lawful authority, controls, holds or possesses

any plate, stone, or other thing, or any part thereof, from which

has been printed or may be printed any form or request for

Government transportation, or uses such plate, stone, or other

thing, or knowingly permits or suffers the same to be used in

making any such form or request or any part of such a form or

request; or

Whoever makes or engraves any plate, stone, or thing, in the

likeness of any plate, stone, or thing designated for the printing

of the genuine issues of the form or request for Government

transportation; or

Whoever prints, photographs, or in any other manner makes,

executes, or sells any engraving, photograph, print, or impression

in the likeness of any genuine form or request for Government

transportation, or any part thereof; or

Whoever brings into the United States or any place subject to the

jurisdiction thereof, any plate, stone, or other thing, or

engraving, photograph, print, or other impression of the form or

request for Government transportation -

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten

years, or both.

-SOURCE-

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 715; Pub. L. 103-322, title

XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

-MISC1-

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 147 (Dec. 11, 1926, ch.

2, Sec. 2, 44 Stat. 918).

References to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting

were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by

section 2 of this title.

Words ''upon conviction'' in last paragraph were omitted as

surplusage since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is

secured.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Pub. L. 103-322 substituted ''fined under this title'' for

''fined not more than $5,000'' in last par.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 3056 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 510 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 510. Forging endorsements on Treasury checks or bonds or

securities of the United States

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever, with intent to defraud -

(1) falsely makes or forges any endorsement or signature on a

Treasury check or bond or security of the United States; or

(2) passes, utters, or publishes, or attempts to pass, utter,

or publish, any Treasury check or bond or security of the United

States bearing a falsely made or forged endorsement or signature;

shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten

years, or both.

(b) Whoever, with knowledge that such Treasury check or bond or

security of the United States is stolen or bears a falsely made or

forged endorsement or signature buys, sells, exchanges, receives,

delivers, retains, or conceals any such Treasury check or bond or

security of the United States shall be fined under this title or

imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(c) If the face value of the Treasury check or bond or security

of the United States or the aggregate face value, if more than one

Treasury check or bond or security of the United States, does not

exceed $1,000, in any of the above-mentioned offenses, the penalty

shall be a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than

one year, or both.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 98-151, Sec. 115(a), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 976;

amended Pub. L. 101-647, title XXXV, Sec. 3514, Nov. 29, 1990, 104

Stat. 4923; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), (L),

Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Sec.

602(e), 606(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3503, 3511; Pub. L.

107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4002(a)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116

Stat. 1806.)

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107-273 substituted ''fine under this

title'' for ''fine of under this title''.

1996 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 602(e), struck out

''that in fact is stolen or bears a forged or falsely made

endorsement or signature'' after ''bond or security of the United

States''.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 606(b), substituted ''$1,000''

for ''$500''.

1994 - Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(L),

substituted ''fined under this title'' for ''fined not more than

$10,000''.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(H), substituted

''fined under this title'' for ''fined not more than $1,000''.

1990 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101-647 inserted semicolon after ''or

signature'' in par. (2) and moved provisions beginning with ''shall

be fined'' flush with left margin.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982, 3056 of this

title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 511 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 511. Altering or removing motor vehicle identification numbers

-STATUTE-

(a) A person who -

(1) knowingly removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters an

identification number for a motor vehicle or motor vehicle part;

or

(2) with intent to further the theft of a motor vehicle,

knowingly removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters a decal

or device affixed to a motor vehicle pursuant to the Motor

Vehicle Theft Prevention Act,

shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years,

or both.

(b)(1) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a

removal, obliteration, tampering, or alteration by a person

specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection (unless such person

knows that the vehicle or part involved is stolen).

(2) The persons referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection

are -

(A) a motor vehicle scrap processor or a motor vehicle

demolisher who complies with applicable State law with respect to

such vehicle or part;

(B) a person who repairs such vehicle or part, if the removal,

obliteration, tampering, or alteration is reasonably necessary

for the repair;

(C) a person who restores or replaces an identification number

for such vehicle or part in accordance with applicable State law;

and

(D) a person who removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters

a decal or device affixed to a motor vehicle pursuant to the

Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, if that person is the owner

of the motor vehicle, or is authorized to remove, obliterate,

tamper with or alter the decal or device by -

(i) the owner or his authorized agent;

(ii) applicable State or local law; or

(iii) regulations promulgated by the Attorney General to

implement the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act.

(c) As used in this section, the term -

(1) ''identification number'' means a number or symbol that is

inscribed or affixed for purposes of identification under chapter

301 and part C of subtitle VI of title 49;

(2) ''motor vehicle'' has the meaning given that term in

section 32101 of title 49;

(3) ''motor vehicle demolisher'' means a person, including any

motor vehicle dismantler or motor vehicle recycler, who is

engaged in the business of reducing motor vehicles or motor

vehicle parts to metallic scrap that is unsuitable for use as

either a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle part;

(4) ''motor vehicle scrap processor'' means a person -

(A) who is engaged in the business of purchasing motor

vehicles or motor vehicle parts for reduction to metallic scrap

for recycling;

(B) who, from a fixed location, uses machinery to process

metallic scrap into prepared grades; and

(C) whose principal product is metallic scrap for recycling;

but such term does not include any activity of any such person

relating to the recycling of a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle

part as a used motor vehicle or a used motor vehicle part.

(d) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term

''tampers with'' includes covering a program decal or device

affixed to a motor vehicle pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft

Prevention Act for the purpose of obstructing its visibility.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 98-547, title II, Sec. 201(a), Oct. 25, 1984, 98

Stat. 2768; amended Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 5(e)(3), July 5, 1994,

108 Stat. 1373; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXII, Sec. 220003(a)-(c),

Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2076, 2077; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI,

Sec. 604(b)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3507.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, referred to in subsecs.

(a)(2), (b)(2)(D), and (d), is title XXII of Pub. L. 103-322, Sept.

13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2074, which enacted section 511A of this title

and section 14171 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare,

amended this section, and enacted provisions set out as a note

under section 13701 of Title 42. For complete classification of

this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section

13701 of Title 42 and Tables.

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Another section 511 was renumbered section 513 of this title.

-MISC3-

AMENDMENTS

1996 - Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104-294 realigned margins.

1994 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 220003(a), amended

subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as

follows: ''Whoever knowingly removes, obliterates, tampers with, or

alters an identification number for a motor vehicle, or motor

vehicle part, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned

not more than five years, or both.''

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 220003(b), added subpar.

(D).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 5(e)(3)(A), substituted

''chapter 301 and part C of subtitle VI of title 49'' for ''the

National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, or the Motor

Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act''.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 5(e)(3)(B), substituted

''section 32101 of title 49'' for ''section 2 of the Motor Vehicle

Information and Cost Savings Act''.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 220003(c), added subsec. (d).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 104-294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see

section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a note under section

13 of this title.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 512, 553, 981, 982, 2321

of this title; title 49 section 33107.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 511A 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 511A. Unauthorized application of theft prevention decal or

device

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever affixes to a motor vehicle a theft prevention decal

or other device, or a replica thereof, unless authorized to do so

pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, shall be

punished by a fine not to exceed $1,000.

(b) For purposes of this section, the term ''theft prevention

decal or device'' means a decal or other device designed in

accordance with a uniform design for such devices developed

pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 103-322, title XXII, Sec. 220003(d)(1), Sept. 13,

1994, 108 Stat. 2077.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, referred to in text, is

title XXII of Pub. L. 103-322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2074,

which enacted this section and section 14171 of Title 42, The

Public Health and Welfare, amended section 511 of this title, and

enacted provisions set out as a note under section 13701 of Title

42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short

Title note set out under section 13701 of Title 42 and Tables.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 512 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 512. Forfeiture of certain motor vehicles and motor vehicle

parts

-STATUTE-

(a) If an identification number for a motor vehicle or motor

vehicle part is removed, obliterated, tampered with, or altered,

such vehicle or part shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture to

the United States unless -

(1) in the case of a motor vehicle part, such part is attached

to a motor vehicle and the owner of such motor vehicle does not

know that the identification number has been removed,

obliterated, tampered with, or altered;

(2) such motor vehicle or part has a replacement identification

number that -

(A) is authorized by the Secretary of Transportation under

chapter 301 of title 49; or

(B) conforms to applicable State law;

(3) such removal, obliteration, tampering, or alteration is

caused by collision or fire or is carried out as described in

section 511(b) of this title; or

(4) such motor vehicle or part is in the possession or control

of a motor vehicle scrap processor who does not know that such

identification number was removed, obliterated, tampered with, or

altered in any manner other than by collision or fire or as

described in section 511(b) of this title.

(b) All provisions of law relating to -

(1) the seizure and condemnation of vessels, vehicles,

merchandise, and baggage for violation of customs laws, and

procedures for summary and judicial forfeiture applicable to such

violations;

(2) the disposition of such vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and

baggage or the proceeds from such disposition;

(3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture; and

(4) the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to

informers with respect to such forfeiture;

shall apply to seizures and forfeitures under this section, to the

extent that such provisions are not inconsistent with this

section. The duties of the collector of customs or any other

person with respect to seizure and forfeiture under such provisions

shall be performed under this section by such persons as may be

designated by the Attorney General.

(c) As used in this section, the terms ''identification number'',

''motor vehicle'', and ''motor vehicle scrap processor'' have the

meanings given those terms in section 511 of this title.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 98-547, title II, Sec. 201(a), Oct. 25, 1984, 98

Stat. 2769; amended Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 5(e)(4), July 5, 1994,

108 Stat. 1373.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The customs laws, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), are classified

generally to Title 19, Customs Duties.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103-272 substituted ''chapter

301 title 49'' for ''the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety

Act of 1966''.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 513 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 513. Securities of the States and private entities

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever makes, utters or possesses a counterfeited security

of a State or a political subdivision thereof or of an

organization, or whoever makes, utters or possesses a forged

security of a State or political subdivision thereof or of an

organization, with intent to deceive another person, organization,

or government shall be fined under this title (FOOTNOTE 1) or

imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both.

(FOOTNOTE 1) See 1994 Amendment note below.

(b) Whoever makes, receives, possesses, sells or otherwise

transfers an implement designed for or particularly suited for

making a counterfeit or forged security with the intent that it be

so used shall be punished by a fine under this title or by

imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both.

(c) For purposes of this section -

(1) the term ''counterfeited'' means a document that purports

to be genuine but is not, because it has been falsely made or

manufactured in its entirety;

(2) the term ''forged'' means a document that purports to be

genuine but is not because it has been falsely altered,

completed, signed, or endorsed, or contains a false addition

thereto or insertion therein, or is a combination of parts of two

or more genuine documents;

(3) the term ''security'' means -

(A) a note, stock certificate, treasury stock certificate,

bond, treasury bond, debenture, certificate of deposit,

interest coupon, bill, check, draft, warrant, debit instrument

as defined in section 916(c) of the Electronic Fund Transfer

Act, money order, traveler's check, letter of credit, warehouse

receipt, negotiable bill of lading, evidence of indebtedness,

certificate of interest in or participation in any

profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate,

pre-reorganization certificate of subscription, transferable

share, investment contract, voting trust certificate, or

certificate of interest in tangible or intangible property;

(B) an instrument evidencing ownership of goods, wares, or

merchandise;

(C) any other written instrument commonly known as a

security;

(D) a certificate of interest in, certificate of

participation in, certificate for, receipt for, or warrant or

option or other right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the

foregoing; or

(E) a blank form of any of the foregoing;

(4) the term ''organization'' means a legal entity, other than

a government, established or organized for any purpose, and

includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership,

joint stock company, foundation, institution, society, union, or

any other association of persons which operates in or the

activities of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; and

(5) the term ''State'' includes a State of the United States,

the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands,

and any other territory or possession of the United States.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 1105(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98

Stat. 2144, Sec. 511; renumbered Sec. 513, Pub. L. 99-646, Sec.

31(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3598; amended Pub. L. 101-647,

title XXXV, Sec. 3515, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4923; Pub. L.

103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330008(1), 330016(2)(C), Sept. 13,

1994, 108 Stat. 2142, 2148.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 916(c) of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, referred to

in par. (3)(A), is classified to section 1693n(c) of Title 15,

Commerce and Trade.

-MISC2-

AMENDMENTS

1994 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(2)(C), which

directed the amendment of this section by substituting ''under this

title'' for ''of not more than $250,000'', was executed by making

the substitution for ''not more than $250,000'', to reflect the

probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(2)(C), substituted

''fine under this title'' for ''fine of not more than $250,000''.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330008(1), substituted

''association of persons'' for ''association or persons''.

1990 - Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101-647 struck out ''(15 U.S.C.

1693(c))'' after ''Electronic Fund Transfer Act'' and inserted

comma after ''profit-sharing agreement''.

-SECREF-

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 514, 1956 of this title.

-CITE-

18 USC Sec. 514 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

-HEAD-

Sec. 514. Fictitious obligations

-STATUTE-

(a) Whoever, with the intent to defraud -

(1) draws, prints, processes, produces, publishes, or otherwise

makes, or attempts or causes the same, within the United States;

(2) passes, utters, presents, offers, brokers, issues, sells,

or attempts or causes the same, or with like intent possesses,

within the United States; or

(3) utilizes interstate or foreign commerce, including the use

of the mails or wire, radio, or other electronic communication,

to transmit, transport, ship, move, transfer, or attempts or

causes the same, to, from, or through the United States,

any false or fictitious instrument, document, or other item

appearing, representing, purporting, or contriving through scheme

or artifice, to be an actual security or other financial instrument

issued under the authority of the United States, a foreign

government, a State or other political subdivision of the United

States, or an organization, shall be guilty of a class B felony.

(b) For purposes of this section, any term used in this section

that is defined in section 513(c) has the same meaning given such

term in section 513(c).

(c) The United States Secret Service, in addition to any other

agency having such authority, shall have authority to investigate

offenses under this section.

-SOURCE-

(Added Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(f) (title VI,

Sec. 648(b)(1)), title II, Sec. 2603(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110

Stat. 3009-314, 3009-367, 3009-470.)

-COD-

CODIFICATION

Sections 101(f) (title VI, Sec. 648(b)(1)) and 2603(b)(1) of

div. A of Pub. L. 104-208 added identical sections 514.

-MISC3-

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section effective Sept. 30, 1996, and to remain in effect for

each fiscal year following Sept. 30, 1996, see section 101(f)

(title VI, Sec. 648(c)) of Pub. L. 104-208, set out as an Effective

Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 474 of this title.

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations

of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the

Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of

Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see

sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic

Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization

Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under

section 542 of Title 6.

-CITE-