US (United States) Code. Title 15. Chapter 78: Superconductivity and competitiveness

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos) Legislación Federal estadounidense # Commerce and trade

  • Enviado por: El remitente no desea revelar su nombre
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Estados Unidos Estados Unidos
  • 10 páginas
publicidad

-CITE-

15 USC CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

.

-HEAD-

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-MISC1-

Sec.

5201. Findings and purposes.

(a) Findings.

(b) Purposes.

5202. National Action Plan on Advanced Superconductivity Research

and Development.

(a) Establishment.

(b) Content and scope.

(c) Action Plan report.

(d) Update reports.

5203. Department of Energy.

5204. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

5205. National Science Foundation.

5206. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

5207. Department of Defense.

(a) Focus of research.

(b) Additional activities.

(c) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

5208. International cooperation.

5209. Technology transfer.

(a) Promotion.

(b) Impediments to commercialization.

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5201 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5201. Findings and purposes

-STATUTE-

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that -

(1) recent discoveries of high-temperature superconducting

materials could result in significant new applications of these

materials in such areas as microelectronics, computers, power

systems, transportation, medical imaging, and nuclear fusion, yet

most potential applications may well lie beyond our ability to

predict them;

(2) full application of the new superconductors is expected to

require 10 to 20 years, thus calling for long-term commitments by

the public and private sector to appropriate research and

development programs;

(3) the Nation's economic competitiveness and strategic

well-being depend greatly on the development and application of

critical advanced technologies such as those anticipated to

evolve from the new superconducting materials;

(4) the United States manufacturing industries confront strong

competition in both domestic and world markets as other countries

are increasingly taking advantage of modern technology and

production techniques and innovative management focused on

quality;

(5) whereas we have as a Nation been highly successful in the

conduct of basic research in a variety of scientific areas,

including superconductivity, other nations have been highly

successful in the commercial and military application of the

results of such fundamental research;

(6) if the United States is to begin its competitive advantage,

it must commit sufficient long-term resources to solving

processing and manufacturing problems in parallel with basic

research and development;

(7) Federal agencies have responded aggressively to this

exciting challenge by reprogramming funds to basic

superconductivity research while informally coordinating their

efforts to avoid unnecessary duplication; and further commitment

of Federal funding and efforts directed to developing

manufacturing, materials processing, and fabrication technologies

is essential so that these activities may be conducted in

parallel;

(8) successful development and application of the new

superconducting materials will require close collaboration

between the Federal Government and the industrial and academic

components of the private sector, as well as coordinating among

the Federal departments and agencies involved in research and

development on superconductors;

(9) a committed Federal program effort with appropriate

long-term goals, priorities, and adequate resources is necessary

for the rapid development and application of the new

superconducting materials; and

(10) a national program should serve as a test of new agency

authorities directed at technological competitiveness such as

those provided to the Department of Energy.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of this chapter are -

(1) to establish a 5-year national action plan to research and

develop new high-temperature superconducting materials with

appropriate goals and priorities; (FOOTNOTE 1)

(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be followed by

''and''.

(2) to designate the appropriate roles, mechanisms, and

responsibilities of various Federal departments and agencies in

implementing such a national research and development action

plan.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 2, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4613.)

-MISC1-

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 100-697 provided that: ''This Act (enacting

this chapter) may be cited as the 'National Superconductivity and

Competitiveness Act of 1988'.''

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5202 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5202. National Action Plan on Advanced Superconductivity

Research and Development

-STATUTE-

(a) Establishment

(1) The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy

shall establish a 5-year National Action Plan on Advanced

Superconductivity Research and Development (hereinafter in this

chapter referred to as the ''Superconductivity Action Plan'').

(2) The Office of Science and Technology Policy shall coordinate

the development of the Superconductivity Action Plan and any

recommendations required by this chapter with the National Critical

Materials Council and the National Commission on Superconductivity.

(b) Content and scope

The Superconductivity Action Plan shall include -

(1) goals and priorities for advanced superconductivity

research and development to be carried out by individual

departments and agencies and organizational elements therein;

(2) the assignment of responsibility for the conduct of

advanced superconductivity research and development among the

departments, agencies, and organization elements therein;

(3) recommendation of proposed funding levels for activities

relating to superconductivity of the 5 years following November

19, 1988, for each of the participating departments, agencies,

and organizational elements therein; and

(4) proposals for the participation by industry and academia in

the planning and implementation of the Superconductivity Action

Plan.

(c) Action Plan report

The Office of Science and Technology Policy, in conjunction with

the National Critical Materials Council, shall submit a report

detailing the Superconductivity Action Plan to the Committee on

Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, and

to the Committees on Energy and Natural Resources, and Commerce,

Science, and Transportation of the Senate, within 9 months after

November 19, 1988.

(d) Update reports

The Office of Science and Technology Policy, with the assistance

of the National Critical Materials Council as specified in the

National Critical Materials Act of 1984 (30 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.),

shall prepare an annual report setting forth and evaluating the

progress of the Superconductivity Action Plan. This report shall

include a description of the amount of funds expended in the

previous year by all Federal departments and agencies involved with

superconductivity. This report shall be submitted with the

President's annual budget request to the Committee on Science,

Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, and to the

Committees on Energy and Natural Resources, and Commerce, Science,

and Transportation of the Senate.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 3, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4614.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The National Critical Materials Act of 1984, referred to in

subsec. (d), is title II of Pub. L. 98-373, July 31, 1984, 98 Stat.

1248, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 30 (Sec.

1801 et seq.) of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete

classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set

out under section 1801 of Title 30 and Tables.

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of House of

Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Science of

House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104-14, set out

as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5203 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5203. Department of Energy

-STATUTE-

The Secretary of Energy shall conduct a program in

superconductivity research and development. Within 180 days after

November 19, 1988, and for the two succeeding years thereafter, the

Secretary shall submit annual reports on the implementation of

technology transfer activities under the Stevenson-Wydler

Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.) and

related legislation with respect to superconductivity research and

development to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of

the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Energy and

Natural Resources of the Senate. Such report shall include

recommendations for improvements in the technology transfer between

government and industry, and in the management of property

developed or made at the National Laboratories.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 4, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4615.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, referred

to in text, is Pub. L. 96-480, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2311, as

amended, which is classified generally to chapter 63 (Sec. 3701 et

seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to

the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of this

title and Tables.

-CHANGE-

CHANGE OF NAME

Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of House of

Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Science of

House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104-14, set out

as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5204 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5204. National Institute of Standards and Technology

-STATUTE-

In pursuance of the goals of this chapter, the National Institute

of Standards and Technology shall promote fundamental research and

materials standards to accelerate the use and application of the

new superconducting materials, and shall utilize the

Superconductivity Center Focusing on Electronic Applications at the

National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder,

Colorado.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 5, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4615.)

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5205 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5205. National Science Foundation

-STATUTE-

The National Science Foundation shall promote fundamental

research in pursuance of the goals of this chapter.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 6, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4615.)

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5206 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5206. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

-STATUTE-

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall utilize

existing programs in technology transfer, aeronautics and space

technology, and space commercialization to promote the commercial

applications of high-temperature superconductors, including

applications relating to thin film technology, communications

technology, sensors, space power, and propulsion.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 7, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4615.)

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5207 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5207. Department of Defense

-STATUTE-

(a) Focus of research

In conformance with the Superconductivity Action Plan, the

Secretary of Defense, in the superconductivity research and

development activities of the Department of Defense, shall give

emphasis to fundamental research, materials processing, and

applications of new superconducting materials.

(b) Additional activities

In conducting research under subsection (a) of this section, the

Secretary of Defense shall -

(1) systematically define the engineering parameters for

high-temperature superconducting materials; and

(2) conduct the necessary development, engineering, and

operational prototype testing considered appropriate to the

overall mission of the Department of Defense. Such operational

prototype testing shall, where appropriate, utilize criteria

developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

(c) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

The Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

shall, in conformance with the Superconductivity Action Plan,

conduct activities to -

(1) augment, as appropriate, basic and applied

superconductivity research conducted in other Federal agencies

and industry; and

(2) develop criteria for operational prototype testing within

the Department of Defense.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 8, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4615.)

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5208 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5208. International cooperation

-STATUTE-

The President, as part of the Superconductivity Action Plan,

shall establish a program of international cooperation in the

conduct of fundamental and basic research on superconducting

materials. Such program of international cooperation shall include

the exchange of basic information and data, as well as the

development of international standards for the use and application

of superconducting materials.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 9, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4616.)

-CITE-

15 USC Sec. 5209 01/06/03

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

CHAPTER 78 - SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS

-HEAD-

Sec. 5209. Technology transfer

-STATUTE-

(a) Promotion

In pursuance of the goals of this chapter, all Federal

departments and agencies shall conduct technology transfer

activities as appropriate to the overall mission of each department

or agency to -

(1) complement basic superconductivity research by promoting

the rapid development of manufacturing and processing

technologies necessary for the commercialization of

high-temperature superconductors; and

(2) promote collaborative arrangements and consortia of

industry (which shall include small business) in order to lower

the barriers to deployment of advanced high-temperature

superconductor technology; such consortia to also include, as

appropriate, universities and independent research organizations.

(b) Impediments to commercialization

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in

collaboration with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of

Energy, shall identify those Federal policies and regulations which

impede the ability of the private sector to undertake long-term

investment programs to commercialize superconductivity

applications.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 100-697, Sec. 10, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4616.)

-CITE-