US (United States) Code. Title 15. Chapter 56A: Global Change Research

Codificación normativa de EEUU (Estados Unidos). Legislación federal estadounidense # Commerce and Trade

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15 USC CHAPTER 56A - GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH 01/06/03

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CHAPTER 56A - GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

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CHAPTER 56A - GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

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Sec.

2921. Definitions.

SUBCHAPTER I - UNITED STATES GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

2931. Findings and purpose.

(a) Findings.

(b) Purpose.

2932. Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences.

(a) Establishment.

(b) Membership.

(c) Chairperson.

(d) Support personnel.

(e) Functions relative to global change.

2933. United States Global Change Research Program.

2934. National Global Change Research Plan.

(a) In general.

(b) Contents of Plan.

(c) Research elements.

(d) Information management.

(e) National Research Council evaluation.

(f) Public participation.

2935. Budget coordination.

(a) Committee guidance.

(b) Submission of reports with agency appropriations

requests.

(c) Consideration in President's budget.

2936. Scientific assessment.

2937. Omitted.

2938. Relation to other authorities.

(a) National Climate Program research activities.

(b) Availability of research findings.

(c) Effect on Federal response actions.

SUBCHAPTER II - INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

2951. Findings and purposes.

(a) Findings.

(b) Purposes.

2952. International discussions.

(a) Global change research.

(b) Energy research.

2953. Global Change Research Information Office.

SUBCHAPTER III - GROWTH DECISION AID

2961. Study and decision aid.

(a) Study of consequences of community growth and

development; decision aid to assist State and

local authorities in managing development.

(b) Consultation with appropriate Federal departments

and agencies.

(c) Report.

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CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This chapter is referred to in title 42 section 13383.

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Sec. 2921. Definitions

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As used in this chapter, the term -

(1) ''Committee'' means the Committee on Earth and

Environmental Sciences established under section 2932 of this

title;

(2) ''Council'' means the Federal Coordinating Council on

Science, Engineering, and Technology;

(3) ''global change'' means changes in the global environment

(including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or

other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological

systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain

life;

(4) ''global change research'' means study, monitoring,

assessment, prediction, and information management activities to

describe and understand -

(A) the interactive physical, chemical, and biological

processes that regulate the total Earth system;

(B) the unique environment that the Earth provides for life;

(C) changes that are occurring in the Earth system; and

(D) the manner in which such system, environment, and changes

are influenced by human actions;

(5) ''Plan'' means the National Global Change Research Plan

developed under section 2934 of this title, or any revision

thereof; and

(6) ''Program'' means the United States Global Change Research

Program established under section 2933 of this title.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, Sec. 2, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3096.)

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SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 101-606 provided that: ''This Act (enacting

this chapter) may be cited as the 'Global Change Research Act of

1990'.''

Section 201 of title II of Pub. L. 101-606 provided that: ''This

title (enacting subchapter II of this chapter) may be cited as the

'International Cooperation in Global Change Research Act of

1990'.''

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Sec. 2931. Findings and purpose

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(a) Findings

The Congress makes the following findings:

(1) Industrial, agricultural, and other human activities,

coupled with an expanding world population, are contributing to

processes of global change that may significantly alter the Earth

habitat within a few human generations.

(2) Such human-induced changes, in conjunction with natural

fluctuations, may lead to significant global warming and thus

alter world climate patterns and increase global sea levels.

Over the next century, these consequences could adversely affect

world agricultural and marine production, coastal habitability,

biological diversity, human health, and global economic and

social well-being.

(3) The release of chlorofluorocarbons and other stratospheric

ozone-depleting substances is rapidly reducing the ability of the

atmosphere to screen out harmful ultraviolet radiation, which

could adversely affect human health and ecological systems.

(4) Development of effective policies to abate, mitigate, and

cope with global change will rely on greatly improved scientific

understanding of global environmental processes and on our

ability to distinguish human-induced from natural global change.

(5) New developments in interdisciplinary Earth sciences,

global observing systems, and computing technology make possible

significant advances in the scientific understanding and

prediction of these global changes and their effects.

(6) Although significant Federal global change research efforts

are underway, an effective Federal research program will require

efficient interagency coordination, and coordination with the

research activities of State, private, and international

entities.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to provide for development and

coordination of a comprehensive and integrated United States

research program which will assist the Nation and the world to

understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and

natural processes of global change.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 101, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3096.)

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SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2932 of this title.

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Sec. 2932. Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences

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(a) Establishment

The President, through the Council, shall establish a Committee

on Earth and Environmental Sciences. The Committee shall carry out

Council functions under section 6651 of title 42 relating to global

change research, for the purpose of increasing the overall

effectiveness and productivity of Federal global change research

efforts.

(b) Membership

The Committee shall consist of at least one representative from -

(1) the National Science Foundation;

(2) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

(3) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the

Department of Commerce;

(4) the Environmental Protection Agency;

(5) the Department of Energy;

(6) the Department of State;

(7) the Department of Defense;

(8) the Department of the Interior;

(9) the Department of Agriculture;

(10) the Department of Transportation;

(11) the Office of Management and Budget;

(12) the Office of Science and Technology Policy;

(13) the Council on Environmental Quality;

(14) the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of

the National Institutes of Health; and

(15) such other agencies and departments of the United States

as the President or the Chairman of the Council considers

appropriate.

Such representatives shall be high ranking officials of their

agency or department, wherever possible the head of the portion of

that agency or department that is most revelant (FOOTNOTE 1) to the

purpose of the subchapter described in section 2931(b) of this

title.

(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''relevant''.

(c) Chairperson

The Chairman of the Council, in consultation with the Committee,

biennially shall select one of the Committee members to serve as

Chairperson. The Chairperson shall be knowledgeable and experienced

with regard to the administration of scientific research programs,

and shall be a representative of an agency that contributes

substantially, in terms of scientific research capability and

budget, to the Program.

(d) Support personnel

An Executive Secretary shall be appointed by the Chairperson of

the Committee, with the approval of the Committee. The Executive

Secretary shall be a permanent employee of one of the agencies or

departments represented on the Committee, and shall remain in the

employ of such agency or department. The Chairman of the Council

shall have the authority to make personnel decisions regarding any

employees detailed to the Council for purposes of working on

business of the Committee pursuant to section 6651 of title 42.

(e) Functions relative to global change

The Council, through the Committee, shall be responsible for

planning and coordinating the Program. In carrying out this

responsibility, the Committee shall -

(1) serve as the forum for developing the Plan and for

overseeing its implementation;

(2) improve cooperation among Federal agencies and departments

with respect to global change research activities;

(3) provide budgetary advice as specified in section 2935 of

this title;

(4) work with academic, State, industry, and other groups

conducting global change research, to provide for periodic public

and peer review of the Program;

(5) cooperate with the Secretary of State in -

(A) providing representation at international meetings and

conferences on global change research in which the United

States participates; and

(B) coordinating the Federal activities of the United States

with programs of other nations and with international global

change research activities such as the International

Geosphere-Biosphere Program;

(6) consult with actual and potential users of the results of

the Program to ensure that such results are useful in developing

national and international policy responses to global change; and

(7) report at least annually to the President and the Congress,

through the Chairman of the Council, on Federal global change

research priorities, policies, and programs.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 102, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3097.)

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SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2921 of this title.

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Sec. 2933. United States Global Change Research Program

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The President shall establish an interagency United States Global

Change Research Program to improve understanding of global change.

The Program shall be implemented by the Plan developed under

section 2934 of this title.

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(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 103, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3098.)

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SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2921 of this title.

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Sec. 2934. National Global Change Research Plan

-STATUTE-

(a) In general

The Chairman of the Council, through the Committee, shall develop

a National Global Change Research Plan for implementation of the

Program. The Plan shall contain recommendations for national global

change research. The Chairman of the Council shall submit the Plan

to the Congress within one year after November 16, 1990, and a

revised Plan shall be submitted at least once every three years

thereafter.

(b) Contents of Plan

The Plan shall -

(1) establish, for the 10-year period beginning in the year the

Plan is submitted, the goals and priorities for Federal global

change research which most effectively advance scientific

understanding of global change and provide usable information on

which to base policy decisions relating to global change;

(2) describe specific activities, including research

activities, data collection and data analysis requirements,

predictive modeling, participation in international research

efforts, and information management, required to achieve such

goals and priorities;

(3) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant programs and

activities of the Federal agencies and departments represented on

the Committee that contribute to the Program;

(4) set forth the role of each Federal agency and department in

implementing the Plan;

(5) consider and utilize, as appropriate, reports and studies

conducted by Federal agencies and departments, the National

Research Council, or other entities;

(6) make recommendations for the coordination of the global

change research activities of the United States with such

activities of other nations and international organizations,

including -

(A) a description of the extent and nature of necessary

international cooperation;

(B) the development by the Committee, in consultation when

appropriate with the National Space Council, of proposals for

cooperation on major capital projects;

(C) bilateral and multilateral proposals for improving

worldwide access to scientific data and information; and

(D) methods for improving participation in international

global change research by developing nations; and

(7) estimate, to the extent practicable, Federal funding for

global change research activities to be conducted under the Plan.

(c) Research elements

The Plan shall provide for, but not be limited to, the following

research elements:

(1) Global measurements, establishing worldwide observations

necessary to understand the physical, chemical, and biological

processes responsible for changes in the Earth system on all

relevant spatial and time scales.

(2) Documentation of global change, including the development

of mechanisms for recording changes that will actually occur in

the Earth system over the coming decades.

(3) Studies of earlier changes in the Earth system, using

evidence from the geological and fossil record.

(4) Predictions, using quantitative models of the Earth system

to identify and simulate global environmental processes and

trends, and the regional implications of such processes and

trends.

(5) Focused research initiatives to understand the nature of

and interaction among physical, chemical, biological, and social

processes related to global change.

(d) Information management

The Plan shall provide recommendations for collaboration within

the Federal Government and among nations to -

(1) establish, develop, and maintain information bases,

including necessary management systems which will promote

consistent, efficient, and compatible transfer and use of data;

(2) create globally accessible formats for data collected by

various international sources; and

(3) combine and interpret data from various sources to produce

information readily usable by policymakers attempting to

formulate effective strategies for preventing, mitigating, and

adapting to the effects of global change.

(e) National Research Council evaluation

The Chairman of the Council shall enter into an agreement with

the National Research Council under which the National Research

Council shall -

(1) evaluate the scientific content of the Plan; and

(2) provide information and advice obtained from United States

and international sources, and recommended priorities for future

global change research.

(f) Public participation

In developing the Plan, the Committee shall consult with

academic, State, industry, and environmental groups and

representatives. Not later than 90 days before the Chairman of the

Council submits the Plan, or any revision thereof, to the Congress,

a summary of the proposed Plan shall be published in the Federal

Register for a public comment period of not less than 60 days.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 104, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3099.)

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SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 2921, 2933 of this title.

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Sec. 2935. Budget coordination

-STATUTE-

(a) Committee guidance

The Committee shall each year provide general guidance to each

Federal agency or department participating in the Program with

respect to the preparation of requests for appropriations for

activities related to the Program.

(b) Submission of reports with agency appropriations requests

(1) Working in conjunction with the Committee, each Federal

agency or department involved in global change research shall

include with its annual request for appropriations submitted to the

President under section 1108 of title 31 a report which -

(A) identifies each element of the proposed global change

research activities of the agency or department;

(B) specifies whether each element (i) contributes directly to

the Program or (ii) contributes indirectly but in important ways

to the Program; and

(C) states the portion of its request for appropriations

allocated to each element of the Program.

(2) Each agency or department that submits a report under

paragraph (1) shall submit such report simultaneously to the

Committee.

(c) Consideration in President's budget

(1) The President shall, in a timely fashion, provide the

Committee with an opportunity to review and comment on the budget

estimate of each agency and department involved in global change

research in the context of the Plan.

(2) The President shall identify in each annual budget submitted

to the Congress under section 1105 of title 31 those items in each

agency's or department's annual budget which are elements of the

Program.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 105, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3100.)

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SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 2932 of this title.

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Sec. 2936. Scientific assessment

-STATUTE-

On a periodic basis (not less frequently than every 4 years), the

Council, through the Committee, shall prepare and submit to the

President and the Congress an assessment which -

(1) integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the

Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated

with such findings;

(2) analyzes the effects of global change on the natural

environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and

water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human

social systems, and biological diversity; and

(3) analyzes current trends in global change, both

human-inducted (FOOTNOTE 1) and natural, and projects major

trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.

(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be

''human-induced''.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 106, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3101.)

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Sec. 2937. Omitted

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CODIFICATION

Section, Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 107, Nov. 16, 1990, 104

Stat. 3101, which required the Chairman of the Federal Coordinating

Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology to submit an annual

report to Congress on the activities conducted by the Committee on

Earth and Environmental Sciences pursuant to this subchapter,

terminated effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub.

L. 104-66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of

Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 157 of House Document

No. 103-7.

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Sec. 2938. Relation to other authorities

-STATUTE-

(a) National Climate Program research activities

The President, the Chairman of the Council, and the Secretary of

Commerce shall ensure that relevant research activities of the

National Climate Program, established by the National Climate

Program Act (15 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.), are considered in developing

national global change research efforts.

(b) Availability of research findings

The President, the Chairman of the Council, and the heads of the

agencies and departments represented on the Committee, shall ensure

that the research findings of the Committee, and of Federal

agencies and departments, are available to -

(1) the Environmental Protection Agency for use in the

formulation of a coordinated national policy on global climate

change pursuant to section 1103 of the Global Climate Protection

Act of 1987 (15 U.S.C. 2901 note); and

(2) all Federal agencies and departments for use in the

formulation of coordinated national policies for responding to

human-induced and natural processes of global change pursuant to

other statutory responsibilities and obligations.

(c) Effect on Federal response actions

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed, interpreted, or

applied to preclude or delay the planning or implementation of any

Federal action designed, in whole or in part, to address the

threats of stratospheric ozone depletion or global climate change.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title I, Sec. 108, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3101.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The National Climate Program Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is

Pub. L. 95-367, Sept. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 601, as amended, which is

classified principally to chapter 56 (Sec. 2901 et seq.) of this

title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see

Short Title note set out under section 2901 of this title and

Tables.

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Sec. 2951. Findings and purposes

-STATUTE-

(a) Findings

The Congress makes the following findings:

(1) Pooling of international resources and scientific

capabilities will be essential to a successful international

global change program.

(2) While international scientific planning is already

underway, there is currently no comprehensive intergovernmental

mechanism for planning, coordinating, or implementing research to

understand global change and to mitigate possible adverse

effects.

(3) An international global change research program will be

important in building future consensus on methods for reducing

global environmental degradation.

(4) The United States, as a world leader in environmental and

Earth sciences, should help provide leadership in developing and

implementing an international global change research program.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of this subchapter are to -

(1) promote international, intergovernmental cooperation on

global change research;

(2) involve scientists and policymakers from developing nations

in such cooperative global change research programs; and

(3) promote international efforts to provide technical and

other assistance to developing nations which will facilitate

improvements in their domestic standard of living while

minimizing damage to the global or regional environment.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title II, Sec. 202, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3102.)

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Sec. 2952. International discussions

-STATUTE-

(a) Global change research

The President should direct the Secretary of State, in

cooperation with the Committee, to initiate discussions with other

nations leading toward international protocols and other agreements

to coordinate global change research activities. Such discussions

should include the following issues:

(1) Allocation of costs in global change research programs,

especially with respect to major capital projects.

(2) Coordination of global change research plans with those

developed by international organizations such as the

International Council on Scientific Unions, the World

Meteorological Organization, and the United Nations Environment

Program.

(3) Establishment of global change research centers and

training programs for scientists, especially those from

developing nations.

(4) Development of innovative methods for management of

international global change research, including -

(A) use of new or existing intergovernmental organizations

for the coordination or funding of global change research; and

(B) creation of a limited foundation for global change

research.

(5) The prompt establishment of international projects to -

(A) create globally accessible formats for data collected by

various international sources; and

(B) combine and interpret data from various sources to

produce information readily usable by policymakers attempting

to formulate effective strategies for preventing, mitigating,

and adapting to possible adverse effects of global change.

(6) Establishment of international offices to disseminate

information useful in identifying, preventing, mitigating, or

adapting to the possible effects of global change.

(b) Energy research

The President should direct the Secretary of State (in

cooperation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of

Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, and other

appropriate members of the Committee) to initiate discussions with

other nations leading toward an international research protocol for

cooperation on the development of energy technologies which have

minimally adverse effects on the environment. Such discussions

should include, but not be limited to, the following issues:

(1) Creation of an international cooperative program to fund

research related to energy efficiency, solar and other renewable

energy sources, and passively safe and diversion-resistant

nuclear reactors.

(2) Creation of an international cooperative program to develop

low cost energy technologies which are appropriate to the

environmental, economic, and social needs of developing nations.

(3) Exchange of information concerning environmentally safe

energy technologies and practices, including those described in

paragraphs (1) and (2).

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title II, Sec. 203, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3102.)

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Sec. 2953. Global Change Research Information Office

-STATUTE-

Not more than 180 days after November 16, 1990, the President

shall, in consultation with the Committee and all relevant Federal

agencies, establish an Office of Global Change Research

Information. The purpose of the Office shall be to disseminate to

foreign governments, businesses, and institutions, as well as the

citizens of foreign countries, scientific research information

available in the United States which would be useful in preventing,

mitigating, or adapting to the effects of global change. Such

information shall include, but need not be limited to, results of

scientific research and development on technologies useful for -

(1) reducing energy consumption through conservation and energy

efficiency;

(2) promoting the use of solar and renewable energy sources

which reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the

atmosphere;

(3) developing replacements for chlorofluorocarbons, halons,

and other ozone-depleting substances which exhibit a

significantly reduced potential for depleting stratospheric

ozone;

(4) promoting the conservation of forest resources which help

reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere;

(5) assisting developing countries in ecological pest

management practices and in the proper use of agricultural, and

industrial chemicals; and

(6) promoting recycling and source reduction of pollutants in

order to reduce the volume of waste which must be disposed of,

thus decreasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title II, Sec. 204, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3103.)

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-HEAD-

Sec. 2961. Study and decision aid

-STATUTE-

(a) Study of consequences of community growth and development;

decision aid to assist State and local authorities in managing

development

The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct a study of the

implications and potential consequences of growth and development

on urban, suburban, and rural communities. Based upon the findings

of the study, the Secretary shall produce a decision aid to assist

State and local authorities in planning and managing urban,

suburban, and rural growth and development while preserving

community character.

(b) Consultation with appropriate Federal departments and agencies

The Secretary of Commerce shall consult with other appropriate

Federal departments and agencies as necessary in carrying out this

section.

(c) Report

The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the Congress a report

containing the decision aid produced under subsection (a) of this

section no later than January 30, 1992. The Secretary shall notify

appropriate State and local authorities that such decision aid is

available on request.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 101-606, title III, Sec. 301, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat.

3104.)

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