Tiempos verbales

Gramática # Present. Past. Passive voice. Quetions. Modal verbs. First conditional. Will. Going to. Vocabulary

  • Enviado por: Nazgul
  • Idioma: catalán
  • País: España España
  • 7 páginas
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W.W. QUESTIONS

PRESENT SIMPLE

+ Sub + v p·p1 + complement.

- Sub + don't / doesn't + v p·p1 + complement.

? Do / does + sub + v p·p1 + complement + ?

PAST SIMPLE

+ Sub + v p·p2 + complement.

- Sub + didn't + v p·p1 + complement.

? Did + sub + v p·p1 + complement + ?

PRESENT CONTINOUS

+ Sub + am / is / are + vb ing + complement.

- Sub + am not / isn't / aren't + vb ing + complement.

? To be am / is / are + sub + vb ing + complement + ?

PAST CONTINOUS

+ Sub + was / were + vb ing + complement.

- Sub + wasn't / weren't + vb ing + complement.

? Was / were + sub + vb ing + complement + ?

PRESENT PERFECT

+ Sub + have / has + v p·p3 + complement.

- Sub + haven't / hasn't + v p·p3 + complement.

? Have / has + sub + v p·p3 + complement + ?

THE PASSIVE VOICE

  • Dos homes varen robar un banc

  • Un banc va ésser robat (per dos homes).

  • 1- Transitive VS intransitive

      • I arrived late to the cinema

      • Mary wrote a letter.

    2- Verb to be (same tense main verb) + past participel p·p3 ( main verb)

    Present simple

    Break (am/ are) + broken am am not

    Breaks (is) + broken is + PP isn't + PP

    Are aren't

    Send (am/ are/ is) + sent don't read aren't read

    Isn't read

    Past simple

    Broke (was/ were) + broken was + PP + wasn't + PR

    Sent ( was/ were) + sent were “ ” + weren't + “ “

    3- Active object --> Passive subject

    Active: Mary writes a letter

    Passive: A letter is written

    4- Agent: introduced BY

    Active: Mary writes a letter

    Passive: A letter is written by Mary

    Active: I write letters

    Pasive: Letters are written by me

    Active: The postman delivered the letter

    Passive: The letter was delivered ( by the postman) es evident no es posa

    THE PASSIVE QUESTIONS

    WH - WORD + AUX + SUB + VB P·P3 + C + ?

    Active: When did Lisa paint the picture?

    Passive: When was the picture painted by Lisa?

    ___________________________________________________

    1- interrogativa activa: When do they show the film?

    2- afirmativa activa: They show the film when.

    3- afirmativa passiva: The film is shown when.

    4- interrogativa passiva: When is the film shown?

    Verbs with two objects

    Active: Peter sent Mary a letter.

    Passive: Mary was sent a letter by Peter.

    Active: He told me the secret

    Passive: I was told the secret

  • Who wrote this book?

  • Who wrote this book.

  • This book was written by who.

  • W ho was this book written by?

  • 1- Who bought that interesting book?

    2- Who bought that interesting book.

    3- That interesting book was bought by who.

    4- Who was that interesting book bought by?

  • Who told him the secret?

  • Who told him the secret.

  • He was told the secret by who.

  • Who was he told the secret by?

  • MODAL VERBS

    + must, - can't ( musn't)

    Possibilitat

    May = might/ may not = might not

    • Utilitzam may; might; must i can't per parlar sobre possiblitat o probabilitat que alguna cosa sigui certa.

    • Your picture must be a copy.

    • It can't be the original picture.

    • Utilitzam may; might per parlar sobre alguna cosa que pot ésser possible però no amb seguretat.

    • I may be late tomorrow.

    • Jim might not understand the question.

    • El significat de may i might es similar.

    • I may be late = I might be late

    • Podem utilitzar must i can't per parlar sobre coses que pensam que són certes.

    • Your picture must be a copy.

    • It can't be the original picture.

    • Quan parlam sobre probabilitat utilitzam must per frases afirmatives i can't per frases negatives.

    • The lights are on. They must be at home.

    • The lights are off. They can't be at home.

    • May; might; must i can't són verbs modals. Els verbs modals tots van seguits amb infinitu sense to.

    • She must like you.

    Can - can't present

    Habilitat

    Could - couldn't passat

    Will be able to / won't be able to

    • Utilitzem can i could per parlar sobre habilitats en el present i el passat.

    • Could és el passat simple de can.

    • Nosaltres utilitzem can i could + verb, sense to.

    • I couldn't go out.

    Have to / has to, don't h t / doesn't h t - absence of obligation

    Obligació

    Had to / didn't have to INF

    • Nosaltres utilitzem fromes del have to i had to quan volem parlar sobre obligació en el present i en el passat.

    • I had to go. ( M'obliguen a anar-hi).

    • Nosaltres utilitzem la forma - negativa quan no hi ha una obligació per fer alguna cosa.

    - I didn't have to go. (No és necessari).

    FIRST CONDITONAL

    • Nosaltres utilitzem el 1er condicional per parlar sobre accions i les seves probables conseqüències.

    - If Dave comes, he will have a good time.

    • A una de les clàusules nosaltres utilitzem if+ present simple. Aquesta clàusula descriu una acció.

    - If I see Linda....

    • A l'altra clàusula, nosaltres utilitzem will o won't + infinitiu. Aquesta clàusula descriu probables conseqüències de la acció.

    - .... I will say “Hello”

    • Nosaltres podem canviar l'ordre de les clàusules.

    Cuan la cláusula if és la primera, hi ha una (,) coma entre les dues clausules.

    • If I see Linda, I will say “Hello”.

    • I will say “Hello” if I see Linda.

    If - clause

    MAIN - clause

    Present Simple

    Future will / won't + infinitive

    WILL AND GOING TO

      • Nosaltres utilitzem will i going to per parlar sobre el futur.

      • Nosaltres utilitzem will per les prediccions.

    - I think that she will be happy.

      • Nosaltres utilitzem going to per plans i intencions.

    - She is going to start a new job soon.

    Will / Won't

    + Sub + will + v p·p 1 + c

    - Sub + won't + v p·p 1 + c

    ? Will / won't + sub + v p·p 1 + c

    Going to

    + Sub + to be + going to + v p·p 1 + c

    - Sub + to be not + going to + v p·p 1 + c

    ? To be Aux + sub + going to + v p·p 1 + c

    VOCABULARY

    Verb

    Noun ( person)

    Noun ( thing)

    entertain

    entertainer

    entertainment

    compete

    competitor

    comptetion

    invent

    inventor

    invention

    compose

    composer

    composition

    explore

    explorer

    exploration

    ADDICTION

    CONSTRAST

    also: també

    but: però

    in addiction: a més a més

    however: no obstant

    both: ambdues

    on the other hand: per altra banda

    Adjectives describing art

    colorful: coloretjat realistic: real fun: divertit

    simple: simple modern:modern depressing: depressiu

    beautifu: guapo expressive: expressiu shocking: xocant

    sophisticated: sofisticat

    Art: nouns

    Mural: mural exhibition: exhibició

    Abstract: abstracte sculpture: escultura

    Gallery: galeria still life:

    Nude: nuu landscape: paissatge

    Portrait: retrat

    World issues


    Animal rights: drets dels animals

    The environment: el medi ambient

    War: la guerra

    The developing world: el món subdesenvolupat

    Immigration: la immigració

    Genetic engineering: Enginyeria genètica

    Terrorims: terrorisme

    Disease: enfermetats


    Causes


    Collection box: recol·lecta

    Charity: ONG

    Poster: pòster

    Placard: pancarta

    Sticker: ferratina

    Boycott: boicotejar


    Petition: petició

    Leaflet: follet

    Demonstration: manifestació

    Banner: pancarta


    Goverment: Govern

    What: que

    When: quando

    Where: donde

    Why: porque

    Who: quien

    Whose: de qui

    Which: cual

    How long: quant temps

    How much: quantitat incon

    How many: quantitat con

    How tall: altura persones

    How far: distància

    How old: quants anys

    How high: altura montany

    How often: frequència

    I

    You

    He

    She MAI ES POSA!

    It

    We

    You

    They

    Someone

    Somebody

    people

    Si es té “problemes” per passar la frase activa a passiva directament, podem recurrir a fer-la d'aquesta manera:

    Indirect object --> passive subject

    Quan dins la mateixa frase activa trobem CD i CI, el CI passa a ésser el subjecte de la frase passiva.

    Si no sabem passar la frase interrogativa activa a interrogativa passiva directament, podem fer... Primer la posem amb afirmativa activa per després passar-la a passiva afirmativa, i ja posteriorment passar-la a passiva interrogativa.

    Sempre que WHO faci la funció del subjecte de la oració, la passiva interrogativa acabarà amb by.

    LOGICAL DEDUCTION