The adventures of Tom Sawyer; Mark Twain

Literatura universal contemporánea. Narrativa norteamericana juvenil y de aventuras # Argument. Characters. Mississippi

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  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Colombia Colombia
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Index

Introduction……………………………….. 2

Biography…………………………………….3

Narrator……………………………………….4

Author's Attitude….……………………….5

Setting………………………………………..6

Theme………………………………………..7

Characters…………………………………..8

Summary…………………………………..10

Conclution………………………………….14

Introduction

Tom sawyer is a very good book. This book contains many important things that you can apply them for your own life. Sometimes is good to be the little guy that we have in side. Reading this book we could see that we can be all those little adventures… tom sawyer is not only a book for kids, is for all those people who have a happy spirit.

Samuel Clemens, alias Mark Twain

He was born in Hannibal, Missouri in 1835.  The Clemens family consisted of two brothers, a sister, and the family-owned slave, Jenny, whose vivid storytelling was a formative influence on the young Sam.  As he was growing up, his parents explained their perspective on the nature of things in the established South, about the slave-owning tradition, and about 'rough western justice.'

Sam Clemens first discovered his literary talents through an apprenticeship at a local printing shop. He was exposed to countless books and became an avid reader. For him, a career in journalism was more than natural, but it wasn't until the marriage of his sister that Sam was inspired to real action. Bound by train, he left Hannibal for New York City. Shortly thereafter he found himself in Philadelphia, working in the publishing and journalism fields.

Eventually he relocated to Cincinnati, with the intention of saving enough money to explore the Amazon by way of New Orleans. His method of travel was to be the fateful steamboat, and while contemplating his future, he discovered his deep internal connection with the Mississippi river. Suddenly, he knew he had to learn how to pilot steamboats, and this urge proved stronger than anything he had known before. Stronger, even, than the idea of explorations in South America.

Some years later, after he had left the river to continue his journalistic career, Sam realized he needed a pen-name for the more comedic and fantastic columns he was writing. This was especially necessary since he had been dispatched to Carson City to report the activities of the Nevada legislature. He searched his memory for the proper association and remembered those halcyon river days. As his pen name, he chose a bit of the lingo, relating to the periodic measurement of the distance between the bottom of the steamboat and the riverbed. When the leadsman detected a depth of only twelve feet (two fathoms), he would sound the alert: 'by the maaa-ark, twain!'

While working in Carson City he met his mentor, the popular humorist Art emus Ward, who recognized Clemens' talent and encouraged him to write 'as much as possible.' Mark Twain did precisely that.

Clemens married, and his finely honed abilities earned him international renown as a writer, lecturer and traveler. Along the way, he composed some of the best-loved and most widely known literature of 19th-century America. As the chancellor of Oxford University told an aged Clemens in 1907: 'Most amiable and charming sir, you shake the sides of the whole world with your merriment.'

Narrator: 1st person; 3rd person limited; 3rd person omniscient
The narrator's point of view is third person omniscient; he can describe the feelings and thoughts of many people in the story.

Author's attitude: serious, dramatic, humorous, sarcastic, irreverent, and mysterious.

Setting: The story takes place in a small village, St. Petersberg. On the Mississippi River before the Civil War. The village has access to the river, hills, an island, caves, and a haunted house. Superstitions runs high and children run barefoot. Some people in the village own slaves. Everyone knows everyone else and their business. The main character often plays hooky from school and was always getting in trouble.

Theme: The theme of the story has to do with being courageous, generous and honest. Tom told lies but he felt bad about it and ended up telling the truth.  Even though Tom was afraid he still testified and helped free an innocent man from jail. And when he found a treasure he shared it with his friend who had nothing. When it came down to it, Tom always did the right thing.
We should always strive to do the right thing no matter how difficult it is.

Characters

Tom Sawyer: The young protagonist of the novel. Living with his aunt St. Petersburg, Missouri, Tom has a penchant for adventure and "showing off." Constantly getting into mischief, he plays hooky from school and would rather go swimming than tend to his Sunday school lessons. Blessed with an active imagination, Tom dreams to be a noble robber such as Robin Hood or a pirate. Hungry for attention, Tom is obsessed with appearing noble and obtaining the envy of his peers. However, Tom is extremely clever and possesses an incredible insight on human nature. Throughout the novel, Tom must learn to listen to his conscience and become accountable for his actions.

Huckleberry Finn: The town's social pariah. Son of an abusive and drunkard father who left town, Huck has failed to be raised with any parental guidance or authority figures. Because he can smoke a pipe and never has to attend church or school, he is the envy of every schoolboy and the nightmare of every mother in town. Huck and Tom often have adventures and both believe in various superstitions. Although disregarded by the "sociable," Huck possesses a kind spirit and consideration for others.

Aunt Polly: Tom's somewhat elderly aunt and guardian. Religious, simple-mannered, and kind-hearted, Aunt Polly is respected among the citizens of St. Petersburg. Responsible for Tom's discipline and upbringing, Aunt Polly is constantly torn between expressing her exasperation and showing her lover for Tom. Every time he causes trouble, another hair on her head turns gray; she often wishes Tom would behave properly like his brother, Sid.

Sid Sawyer: Tom's younger half-brother. Always trying to tattle on Tom, Sid keeps a close on eye his brother's wrongdoings. A goody-two-shoes, he is a punctual and studious pupil.

Mary: Tom's older cousin who resides with Aunt Polly. Mary is depicted as a sweet and good-hearted young lady who sees the good qualities in Tom's character. Religious and pious, Mary was an exceptional student ­ the opposite of Tom.

Becky Thatcher: The daughter of Judge Thatcher. Becky is Tom's age and has recently moved into town. Prim and proper, Becky is the opposite of Tom: she has never been in trouble and is used to obeying her mother's words. With blonde hair and dressy frocks, she quickly wins Tom's affection and attention.

Judge Thatcher: Becky's father. A proud and well-respected man of justice, whose family has recently moved into town.

Mrs. Thatcher: Becky's mother, wife of the Judge.

Injun Joe: The antagonist of the novel. Guilty of several murders, Injun Joe possess a violent temperament is set on seeking revenge on those who have treated him harshly in the past. He attempts to frame Muff Potter for one of his own crimes and is pursued by the village authorities.

Muff Potter: The town drunk who is framed for the murder of Dr. Robinson. Although his kind nature and drunken state make him harmless, Potter is persecuted by the entire town that believes that he is a murderer.

Mr. Jones/Old Welshman: The old Welshman who lives with his two strong sons in the vicinity of Widow Douglas's house. With Huck's help, the Welshman is able to come to the widow's aide.

Widow Douglas: A rich, upper-class widow. With a kind spirit and a devotion to the Christian faith, the widow Douglas is known for her open hospitality and good nature. She also appears as a major character in Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Dr. Robinson: The young doctor, guilty of grave robbing, whose murder instigates the chaotic happenings in St. Petersburg.

Joe Harper: Tom's bosom friend. One of Tom's "gang" of pirates, Joe accompanies Tom on some of his adventures.

Mrs. Harper: Joe's mother

Amy Lawrence: Tom Sawyer's former girlfriend, whom he occasionally flirts with and was previously "engaged" to.

Alfred Temple: A well-dressed boy whom Tom thinks is snobby. Alfred also vies for Becky Thatcher's attention.

Mr. Dobbins: The schoolmaster. Hated by all the children, Mr. Dobbins is depicted as a stern and pathetic man who uses lashings as a method of discipline.

Mr. Walter: The Sunday School Superintendent who issues Bibles to the top students.

Mr. Sprague: The long-winded minister.

Ben Rogers: A young boy who is Tom's friend.

Summary

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer revolves around the youthful adventures of the novel's schoolboy protagonist, Thomas Sawyer, whose reputation precedes him for causing mischief and strife. Tom lives with his Aunt Polly, half-brother Sid, and cousin Mary in the quaint town of St. Petersburg, just off the shore of the Mississippi River. St. Petersburg is described as a typical small-town atmosphere where the Christian faith is predominant, the social network is close-knit, and familiarity resides.

Unlike his brother Sid, Tom receives "lickings" from his Aunt Polly; ever the mischief-maker, would rather play hooky than attend school and often sneaks out his bedroom window at night to adventure with his friend, Huckleberry Finn ­ the town's social outcast. Tom, despite his dread of schooling, is extremely clever and would normally get away with his pranks if Sid were not such a "tattle-tale."

As punishment for skipping school to go swimming, Aunt Polly assigns Tom the chore of whitewashing the fence surrounding the house. In a brilliant scheme, Tom is able to con the neighborhood boys into completing the chore for him, managing to convince them of the joys of whitewashing. At school, Tom is equally as flamboyant, and attracts attention by chasing other boys, yelling, and running around. With his usual antics, Tom attempts to catch the eye of one girl in particular: Becky Thatcher, the Judge's daughter. When he first sees her, Tom immediately falls in love with Becky. After winning her over, Tom suggests that they "get engaged." But when Tom accidentally blurts that he has been engaged before to Amy Lawrence, he ruins his relationship with Becky and becomes heartbroken.

One night, Huck and Tom sneak off at midnight to the town's graveyard, where they are planning to carry out a special ritual used to cure warts. Believers in superstition and folklore, the two expect the graveyard to be full of ghosts. After hearing voices approach them, the two boys hide in fear; the voices belong to Injun Joe ­ the villainous savage, Muff Potter- the town drunk, and Dr. Robinson. The three men are grave robbing! Soon, a fight breaks out between Dr. Robinson and the two other men. As Dr. Robinson grabs a headboard and knocks the liquored Muff Potter into unconsciousness, Injun Joe grabs Muff's knife and stabs the doctor to death. The boys run away from the graveyard before they learn that Injun Joe is planning on framing Muff for the doctor's murder. Fearful of Injun Joe and horrified at what they have witnessed, Huck and Tom vow to keep silent regarding the night's events.

The next day brings only grief for Tom. Aunt Polly learns from Sid that Tom snuck out the night before and cries over him. At school, Becky snubs Tom by paying no heed to his boyish antics. Hurt and angry, Tom assembles a "gang" of pirates: himself, Joe Harper, and Huck. The three boys decide that they have had enough of normal society and run away to Jackson Island, in the middle of the Mississippi River. When the boys are missing, the whole town assumes that they have drowned in the river and villagers drag the river for their bodies. In the darkness of the night, Tom sneaks off the island to return home and leave a note for Aunt Polly informing her that he is not dead. Instead, he overhears Polly and Mrs. Harper making plans for their funerals. The boys then wait until the morning of their own funeral, sneak back into town and attend their own funerals before revealing to the congregation that they are alive!

At school, the boys are the envy of each pupil; however, Tom has still not won back Becky's heart. When Tom inadvertently catches Becky reading the schoolmaster's book, she jump out of surprise and breaks it. Later that day, when the schoolmaster questions Becky whether it was she who broke the book, Tom lies and says that it was he who committed the act. Although he takes the punishment for Becky, he wins back her love and attention.

After school is let out for the summer, Muff Potter's trial begins. The town of St. Petersburg has already convicted the innocent man in their minds. Tom and Huck are both racked by their guilty consciences, and are made to feel even worse when Muff Potter thanks them for being kind to him. When the trial begins, the defense council calls Tom Sawyer to the witness stand. To the surprise of Huck, Muff Potter, and all those who are in the audience, Tom divulges all he knows about the murder, naming Injun Joe as Dr. Robinson's killer. Before the trial ends, Injun Joe sprints out of the courtroom before anybody can catch him.

Injun Joe is declared missing and Muff Potter is set free with the apologies of the town. Meanwhile, Tom is afraid that Injun Joe will attempt to seek revenge on him for being a witness, and Huck holds similar fears. One day, Huck and Tom decide to dig for buried treasure at the old haunted house on Cardiff Hill. As they begin their search, the entrance of two strange men surprises the boys. In hiding, Tom and Huck realize that one of the men is Injun Joe in disguise as a deaf-and-dumb Spaniard. Tom and Huck watch as Injun Joe and his accomplice discuss plans for a "revenge job." The two villains are planning to hide a bag of six-hundred dollars in the haunted house and meet back there; but when they hide their bag of money, they discover a box of buried treasure that has already been hidden in the haunted house ­ treasure that once belonged to a gang of robbers. The villains decide to hide their loot in "Number Two" under "the cross" and exit the house. Obsessed with obtaining the treasure, Tom and Huck make plans to follow Injun Joe and find out where the treasure is buried.

Becky, who has been out-of-town, returns to St. Petersburg and holds a picnic for all of her friends. As part of the picnic festivities, the children go exploring in MacDougal's cave: a large cave with secret underground passageways. Unbeknownst to the other picnickers and adults, Tom and Becky lose themselves within the depths of the cave.

In the meantime, Huck has resigned himself to waiting outside the Temperance Tavern, where they suspect Injun Joe is staying. On the brink of giving up, Huck's patience is rewarded when the two villain step out into the night and head off towards the haunted house. But instead of entering the haunted house, the villains go toward the old Widow Douglas's house, with the intention of torturing ­ and maybe even killing ­ her. Remembering times when the widow bestowed her kindness upon him, Huck races toward the Mr. Jones's house, informing him of Injun Joe's plans to hurt the widow. Mr. Jones and his two younger sons hurry over to the widow's estate and scare off Injun Joe and his accomplice before any harm is done.

The word of Widow Douglas's near attack is circulated around town. But news of the missing children breaks out, and for the moment, the entire town concentrates on praying and searching for Tom and Becky. Deep within the cave, Tom and Becky have lost all sense of direction. With the last of their candle burnt out and no food to eat, the two are aware that they may starve to death. Tom attempts to comfort Becky, and continues to explore the cave's passages in hoping of finding a way out. Winding down one passageway, Tom sees a man and shouts to him; to his surprise, the figure belongs to Injun Joe! Frightened by Tom's shouts (and not recognizing the boy's voice), Injun Joe runs away. Tom never tells Becky of this incident, for fear that we would cause her even more worries. Eventually, Tom's persistence pays off when he discovers a tiny hole that the children manage to crawl through and escape peril.

With the safe return of Becky and Tom, the town of St. Petersburg rejoices. Judge Thatcher orders that the door to MacDougal's cave be locked and sealed with metal. When Tom learns of this, he tells finally tells the Judge that Injun Joe is in the cave. Upon breaking the sealed door, Tom, the Judge, and the other citizens find Injun Joe at the mouth of the cave, starved to death.

When he meets up with Huck, Tom informs him that he knows where the treasure is buried. Mistaking the treasure for lost, Huck is eager to return to MacDougal's cave with Tom in search of the money. After recovering the treasure from the cave, the two boys return to town, only to be ushered into the Widow Douglas's parlor. To express her gratitude towards Huck for saving her life, the widow intends on giving Huck a permanent home and providing him with an education. Declaring that Huck is now independently wealthy, Tom spring forward with their newfound treasure, totaling over twelve thousand dollars.

To conclude, to novel ends with Huck and Tom discussing their future plans of becoming world-class robbers.

Conclution

Tom Sawyer is a boy who is full of adventures. In his world there is an adventure around every corner. Some of his adventures have lead him into some bad situations but with his good heart and bright mind he has gotten out of them. This means that we have to learn about all is around us and also inside, lets be like Tom sawyer.

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