Stephen Crane

Literatura universal contemporánea del siglo XIX. Novela y lírica naturalista norteamericana # Highlights. Biography

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1. INTRODUCTION

Stephen Crane was the fourteenth child born into the ministerial household of the Reverend Jonathan Crane and his wife Mary, at Newark, New Jersey, on November 1, 1871.

The father`s frecuent moves to pastorates in New Jersey and New York gave the youngest

AUTHOR INDEX FILE

AUTHOR: Stephen Crane

BORN: Newark, New Jersey

DATE: November 1, 1871

DIED: Badenweiler, Germany

DATE: June 5, 1900

PRINCIPAL WORKS:

*Novels: Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, 1893

The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War, 1895

George`s Mother, 1896

The Third Violet, 1897

Active Service, 1899

The O`Ruddy, 1903 (completed by Robert Barr)

*Short Stories: The Little Regiment and Other Episodes of the American Civil War, 1896

The Open Boat and Other Tales of Adventure, 1898

The Monster and other Stories, 1899

Whilomville Stories, 1900

Wounds in the Rain: War Stories, 1900

*Poems: The Black Riders, 1895

War is Kind, 1899

*History: Great Battles of the World, 1901

COMMON THEMES & ISSUES EXPLORED IN CRANE'S WORKS

• Physical, emotional, and intellectual responses of people under extreme pressure •Nature's indifference to humanity's fate and the consequent need for compassionate collective action

• Fallen humanity

• Effect of colours on the human mind

• Harsh realities of war and fighting

• Father/Son relationships.

• Betrayal, guilt, and repentance

• Social and Literary rebelliousness

• Religion/Fear of retribution: Interlaced theme of sin and virtue

HIGHLIGHTS ON STEPHEN CRANE'S LIFE: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY

• He was born on November 1, 1871.

• He lived to be only 29 years old, he died in June 5, 1900.

• Family: last of 14 children, son of Methodist minister who died when he was nine. He also moved three times when he was a child in the New York area.

• He never cared for schooling, attended Syracuse University for one semester where he was most noted for playing baseball.

• Crane lived the down-and-out life of a penniless artist who became well known as a poet, journalist, social critic, and a realist. He was noted as being an "original" in his field of work.

• He was obsessed by war and other forms of physical and psychic violence.

• He began writing for newspapers in 1891 when he settled in New York where he developed his powers as an observer of psychological and social reality.

• After he wrote “The Red Badge of Courage”, he was hired as a reporter in the American West and Mexico.

• “The Red Badge of Courage” earned Crane international acclaim at age 24.

• Crane moved to Jacksonville, Florida when he was 27 where he got married. •While he was in Jacksonville, his boat The Commodore sank off the coast and he wrote about the harrowing adventure in The New York Press.

• Crane covered the Greco-Turkish War and later settled in England where he made friends with famous writers of the time including H.G. Wells and Henry James. •He later covered the Spanish-American War for Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. •During the last few years of his life, he began writing furiously because he was in debt and suffering from tuberculosis. He later died while he was in Germany.

LITERARY TECHNIQUES USED IN CRANE'S WORKS

• Tough-minded irony

• Projection of vision for a sympathetic but unflinching demand for courage, integrity, grace, and generosity in a tough world

• Allusions to war and fighting

• Comparisons, Contradictions

• Dramatic personification

• Powerful paradox

• Allusions to religion: Intertwined themes of sin and virtue

• Colorful metaphors

A SAMPLE OF CRANE'S MOST FAMOUS WORKS

PROSE

•The Red Badge of Courage (1895)

•Maggie, A Girl of the Streets (1896)

•The Open Boat (1898)

•The Blue Hotel (1898)

•Active Service (1899)

•The Monster and Other Stories (1899)

POETRY

•War is Kind & Other Lines (1899)

•The Black Riders & Other Lines (1905)

Sin & Virtue:

What Role Does RELIGION Play In Life?

An essay on Stephen Crane's The Blue Hotel

It is not surprising for an author's background and surroundings to profoundly affect his writing. Having come from a Methodist lineage and living at a time when the church was still an influential facet in people's daily lives, Stephen Crane was deeply instilled with religious dogmas. However, fear of retribution soon turned to cynicism and criticism of his idealistic parents' God, "the wrathful Jehovah of the Old Testament" (Stallman 16), as he was confronted with the harsh realities of war as a journalistic correspondent. Making extensive use of religious metaphors and allusions in The Blue Hotel (1898), Crane thus explores the interlaced themes of the sin and virtue.

Ironically, although "he disbelieved it and hated it," Crane simply "could not free himself from" the religious background that haunted his entire life (Stallman 5). His father, a well-respected reverend in New Jersey, advocated Bible reading and preached "the right way." Similarly, his mother, who "lived in and for religion," was influential in Methodist church affairs as a speaker and a journalist in her crusade against the vices of her sinful times (Stallman 5). This emotional frenzy of revival Methodism had a strong impact on young Stephen. Nonetheless, he -- falling short of his parents' expectations on moral principles and spiritual outlook -- chose to reject and defy all those abstract religious notions and sought to probe instead into life's realities.

Moreover, Crane's genius as "an observer of psychological and social reality" (Baym 1608) was refined after witnessing battle sights during the late 19th century. What he saw was a stark contrast of the peacefulness and morality preached in church and this thus led him to religious rebelliousness. As a prisoner to his surroundings, man (a soldier) is physically, emotionally, and psychologically challenged by nature's indifference to humankind. For instance, in the story, "what traps the Swede is his fixed idea of his environment," but in the end, it is the environment itself -- comprised of the Blue Hotel, Sculley, Johnnie, Cowboy Bill, the Easterner, and the saloon gambler -- that traps him (Stallman 488).

To further illustrate how religion permeated into Crane's writing, many scenes from The Blue Hotel can be cited. Similar to the biblical Three Wise Men (Stallman 487), three individuals out of the East came traveling to Palace Hotel at Fort Romper. The issue explored is the search for identity and the desire of an outsider (the Swede) to define himself through conflict with a society. Referring then to the martyr-like Swede, who is convinced that everyone is against him, the Easterner says "... he thinks he's right in the middle of hell" (Crane 1633). On the contrary, the Blue Hotel can be seen as a church, with its proprietor Patrick Scully who looks "curiously like an old priest" and who vows that "a guest under my roof has sacred privileges" (Crane 1634). Personification of a wrathful God is portrayed when the guests are escorted through the portals of a room that "seemed to be merely a proper temple for an enormous stove...humming with god-like violence" (Crane 1627). Additionally, alluding to baptism, the guests then formed part of a "series of small ceremonies" by washing themselves in the basins of water (Crane 1627). To further prove the innocence of his building, Scully points out the pictures of his little girl on the wall (Crane 1632). All in all, in contrast to the safe haven of the hotel, the reality is that "hell" turns out to be the red-lighted town saloon where the Swede is eventually murdered.

Another recurring topic in Crane's writing is the responsibility for a man's death. For not acting upon his knowledge of Johnnie's sin (his lying and cheating at the card game), the Easterner is portrayed as a betrayer, with guilt eating him inside. At the beginning, no one at the hotel would discuss fear or death with the Swede. Thus, in repentance on his part, the Easterner comments, "Every sin is the result of a collaboration" (Crane 1645). Indeed, in the end, the conspiracy of silence between the 5 men involved in the murder leads to a brutal result: The Swede "losses fear and gains death" (Solomon 257-258). A rhetorical question is left then for the reader to reflect upon, posed innocently by the Cowboy, "Well, I didn't do anythin', did I?" (Crane 1645).

In conclusion, it can be seen that -- through the exploration of responsibility, guilt, betrayal, and repentance -- Stephen Crane develops the theme that man is alone in a hostile society and nature. The virtuous religious dogmas cannot always explain and help make sense of the cruel realities that each of us faces. Thus, it is only through trusting "the God of [one's] inner thoughts" (Stallman 16) that one can hope to cope with and survive in this brutal world.

2. THE BIBLIOGRAPHY

•Baym, Nina, et al. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 4th ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1995.

•Crane, Stephen. Maggie a Girl of the Streets. Gainesville: Scholar's Facsimiles & Reprints, 1966.

•Crane, Stephen. "The Blue Hotel." 1898. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 4th ed. Ed. Baym, Nina, et al. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1995. 1626-1645.

•Solomon, Eric. Stephen Crane. From Parody to Realism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.

•Stallman, Robert. Stephen Crane. New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1968.

•Williams, Ames and Vincent Starrett. Stephen Crane: A Bibliography. Glendale: John Valentine, 1948.

•Solomon, Eric.

Stephen Crane in England; a portrait of the artist.

[Columbus] Ohio State University Press [1965, c1964]

•Grennen, Joseph E.

Stephen Crane's Red badge of courage, Joseph E. Grennen.

New York, Distributed by Monarch Press [1965]

•Greene, Jay E.

Stephen Crane's The red badge of courage : and related readings / [by] Jay E. Greene.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.

Katz, Joseph.

Stephen Crane in transition; centenary essays, edited, with an introd. and afterword, by Joseph Katz.

DeKalb, Northern Illinois University Press [1972]

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane.

N.Y., Sloane c1950.

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane.

[New York] Sloane [1950]

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane.

Cleveland, World Pub. Co. [1962, c1950]

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane.

New York, Twayne Publishers [1962]

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane/ by Edwin H. Cady.

New Haven : College and University Press, [1962]

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane / by Edwin H. Cady.

Boston : Twayne Publishers, 1980.

•Cazemajou, Jean.

Stephen Crane.

Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press [1969]

•Cazemajou, Jean.

Stephen Crane.

Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press [1969]

•Colvert, James B.

Stephen Crane / by James B. Colvert.

San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, c1984.

•Knapp, Bettina Liebowitz, 1926-

Stephen Crane / Bettina L. Knapp.

New York : Ungar, 1987.

•Readings on Stephen Crane / Bonnie Szumski, book editor.

San Diego, Calif. : Greenhaven Press, 1998.

•Stephen Crane / edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom.

New York : Chelsea House, 1987.

•Sufrin, Mark.

Stephen Crane / by Mark Sufrin.

New York : Atheneum ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; New York : Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992.

•Kay, Ulysses, 1917-

Stephen Crane set. Vocal score

Stephen Crane set, for mixed chorus (SATB) and 13 players.

[New York] Duchess Music Corp.; sole selling agent: MCA Music [c1972]

Title:

•Stephen Crane set, for mixed chorus (SATB) and 13 players.

Uniform title:

•Stephen Crane set. Vocal score

Author:

•Kay, Ulysses, 1917- •Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Published:

•[New York] Duchess Music Corp.; sole selling agent: MCA Music [c1972]

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900 --Musical settings. •Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices) with instrumental ensemble --Vocal scores with piano.

Material:

•54 p. 27 cm.

Note:

•Cover title. •Duration: about 16 min. •Black riders -- Mystic shadow -- A spirit -- War is kind.

•Kay, Ulysses, 1917-

Stephen Crane set. Vocal score

Stephen Crane set, for mixed chorus (SATB) and 13 players.

[New York] Duchess Music Corp.; sole selling agent: MCA Music [c1972]

•Dixler, Elsa.

Stephen Crane's The red badge of courage / by Elsa Dixler.

Woodbury, N.Y. : Barron's, c1984.

•Stephen Crane's The red badge of courage / edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom.

New York : Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.

•Stephen Crane's The red badge of courage / edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom.

Broomall, PA : Chelsea House Publishers, c1996.

•Weatherford, Richard M.

Stephen Crane, the critical heritage, edited by Richard M. Weatherford.

London, Boston, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.

•Franchere, Ruth.

Stephen Crane : the story of an American writer / Ruth Franchere.

New York : Crowell, 1961.

•Franchere, Ruth.

Stephen Crane : the story of an American writer / Ruth Franchere.

New York : Crowell, 1961.

•Franchere, Ruth.

Stephen Crane : the story of an American writer / Ruth Franchere.

New York : Crowell, 1961.

•Bergon, Frank.

Stephen Crane's artistry / Frank Bergon.

New York : Columbia University Press, 1975.

•Williams, Ames W. (Ames William)

Stephen Crane, a bibliography, by Ames W. Williams and Vincent Starrett.

Glendale, Calif., J. Valentine, 1948.

•Grennen, Joseph E.

Stephen Crane's red badge of courage / by Joseph E. Grennen.

New York : Distributed by Monarch Press, Inc., c1966.

•Stallman, R. W. (Robert Wooster), 1911-

Stephen Crane; a biography, by R. W. Stallman.

New York, G. Braziller [1968]

•Stallman, R. W. (Robert Wooster), 1911-

Stephen Crane; a biography, by R. W. Stallman.

New York, G. Braziller [1968]

•Stallman, R. W. (Robert Wooster), 1911-

Stephen Crane; a biography, by R. W. Stallman.

New York, G. Braziller [1968]

Title:

•Stephen Crane; a biography, by R. W. Stallman.

Author:

•Stallman, R. W. (Robert Wooster), 1911-

Published:

•New York, G. Braziller [1968]

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Material:

•xvi, 664 p. illus., facsims., ports. 24 cm.

Note:

•Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 563-624). "Checklist" [of works by and about Stephen Crane] p. 625-641.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Stephen Crane's The red badge of Courage : text and criticism / Richard Lettis, Robert F. McDonnell, William E. Morris.

New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, c1960.

•Bassan, Maurice.

Stephen Crane; a collection of critical essays.

Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1967]

•Bassan, Maurice, comp.

Stephen Crane; a collection of critical essays.

Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1967]

Title:

•Stephen Crane; a collection of critical essays.

Author:

•Bassan, Maurice.

Published:

•Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1967]

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900 --Criticism and interpretation.

Series:

•(Spectrum book: Twentieth century views, S-TC-66)

Material:

•184 p. 21 cm.

Note:

•Bibliography: p. 181-184.

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane, a critical biography / John Berryman.

New York : Farrar Straus Giroux, c1977.

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane, a critical biography / John Berryman.

New York : Farrar Straus Giroux, [1982?], c1950.

Title:

•Stephen Crane, a critical biography / John Berryman.

Author:

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Published:

•New York : Farrar Straus Giroux, c1977.

Edition:

•Rev. ed.

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900. •Authors, American --19th century --Biography.

Material:

•xvii, 347 p. : port. ; 22 cm.

Note:

•Originally published in 1950 by William Sloane Associates. •Includes indexes. •Bibliography: p. 326-332.

Title:

•Stephen Crane, a critical biography / John Berryman.

Author:

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Published:

•New York : Farrar Straus Giroux, [1982?], c1950.

Edition:

•Rev. ed.

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900. •Authors, American --19th century --Biography.

Material:

•xvii, 347 p. : port. ; 22 cm.

Note:

•Originally published: Cleveland : World Pub. Co., 1962. (Meridian books) •Includes index. •Bibliography: p. 326-332.

•Beer, Thomas, 1889-1940.

Stephen Crane; a study in American letters. With an introduction by Joseph Conrad.

New York, Octagon Books, 1972 [c1923]

Title:

•Stephen Crane; a study in American letters. With an introd. by Joseph Conrad.

Author:

•Beer, Thomas, 1889-1940.

Published:

•New York, Octagon Books, 1972 [c1923]

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Material:

•248 p. 21 cm.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Stephen Crane: an omnibus; edited, with introd. and notes, by Robert Wooster Stallman.

New York, Knopf, 1952.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Stephen Crane: an omnibus; edited, with introduction and notes, by Robert Wooster Stallman.

New York, Knopf, 1952.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Stephen Crane: an omnibus; edited, with introd. and notes, by Robert Wooster Stallman.

New York, Knopf, 1952.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Stephen Crane: an omnibus; edited, with introd. and notes, by Robert Wooster Stallman.

New York, Knopf, 1970 [c1952]

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Works. 1961

Stephen Crane: an omnibus. Edited, with introd. and notes, by Robert Wooster Stallman.

New York, A.A. Knopf, 1961.

Title:

•Stephen Crane: an omnibus; edited, with introd. and notes, by Robert Wooster Stallman.

Author:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Published:

•New York, Knopf, 1952.

Edition:

•[1st collected ed.]

Material:

•xiv, 703 p. port. 22 cm.

Note:

•Bibliography: p. 697-703.

•Wolford, Chester L., 1944-

Stephen Crane : a study of the short fiction / Chester L. Wolford.

Boston : Twayne Publishers, c1989.

•Wolford, Chester L., 1944-

Stephen Crane : a study of the short fiction / [by] Chester L. Wolford.

Boston : Twayne Publishers, c1989.

•Solomon, Eric.

Stephen Crane, from parody to realism.

Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1966.

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane.

N.Y., Sloane c1950.

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane.

[New York] Sloane [1950]

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Stephen Crane.

Cleveland, World Pub. Co. [1962, c1950]

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane.

New York, Twayne Publishers [1962]

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane/ by Edwin H. Cady.

New Haven : College and University Press, [1962]

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane / by Edwin H. Cady.

Boston : Twayne Publishers, 1980.

•Cazemajou, Jean.

Stephen Crane.

Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press [1969]

•Cazemajou, Jean.

Stephen Crane.

Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press [1969]

•Colvert, James B.

Stephen Crane / by James B. Colvert.

San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, c1984.

•Knapp, Bettina Liebowitz, 1926-

Stephen Crane / Bettina L. Knapp.

New York : Ungar, 1987.

•Readings on Stephen Crane / Bonnie Szumski, book editor.

San Diego, Calif. : Greenhaven Press, 1998.

•Stephen Crane / edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom.

New York : Chelsea House, 1987.

•Sufrin, Mark.

Stephen Crane / by Mark Sufrin.

New York : Atheneum ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; New York : Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992.

Title:

•Stephen Crane.

Author:

•Berryman, John, 1914-1972.

Published:

•N.Y., Sloane c1950.

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Series:

•Meridian books ; M131

Material:

•347 p.

Note:

•Includes bibliography.

•Gullason, Thomas A.

Stephen Crane's career: perspectives and evaluations. Edited with introductions and notes by Thomas A. Gullason.

New York, New York University Press, 1972.

•Gullason, Thomas A., comp.

Stephen Crane's career: perspectives and evaluations. Edited with introductions and notes by Thomas A. Gullason.

New York, New York University Press, 1972.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

Stephen Crane: letters. Edited by R. W. Stallman and Lillian Gilkes. With an introd. by R. W. Stallman.

[New York] New York University Press, 1960.

•Cady, Edwin Harrison.

Stephen Crane's love letters to Nellie Crouse/ with six other letters, new materials on Crane at Syracuse University and a number of unusual photographs; edited with notes and introductions by Edwin H. Cady and Lester G. Wells.

Syracuse, New York : Syracuse Univ. Press, 1954.

Title:

•Stephen Crane number.

Uniform title:

•Modern fiction studies.

Published:

•[Lafayette, Ind.] Purdue University, 1959.

Subject:

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900.

•Crane, Stephen, 1871-1900 --Bibliography.

Material:

•199-291 p. 22 cm.

Note:

•"Criticism of Stephen Crane: A selected checklist with an index to studies of his separate works": p. 282-91.

•Modern fiction studies.

Stephen Crane number.

[Lafayette, Ind.] Purdue University, 1959.

*Marcus Mordecai. Structure and Irony in Stephen Crane's `War is Kind´.

CLAJ., Mar., IX, 274-8.

Annual Bibliography of World Authors

VOLUME XLI 1966

A Publication of the Modern Humanities Research Association

*Benfey, Christofer

The Double Life of Stephen Crane: a Biography

(Bibl. 1992, 8440) Rev. By John Bayley in LRB (15:2) 1993, 14-15;

By Zachary Leader in TLS, 23 July 1993, 6;

By: Standley Wertheim in ALR (25:3) 1993, 92-4

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Budianta, Melani.

A Glimpse of Another World: Representations of difference and “race”: Stephen Crane and the American 1890s.

Unpub. Doct. Diss, Cornell University, 1992 (Abstr. In DA (53) 1993, 3526A)

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Covici, Pascal Jr.

(Ed.) The Red Badge of Courage, and other stories.

New York; London: Penguin, 1991. Pp323 (Penguin classics)

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Curran, Jonhe.

Nobody seems to know where to go: Uncertainty, History, and Irony in The Red Badge of Courage.

ALR (26:7) 1993, 1-12

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Dooley, Patrick K.

The Pluralist Philosophy of Stephen Crane

Foreword by John J. McDermott.

Urbana: Illinois Up; 1993, pp XXVI, 212.

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Gandal, Keith.

Stephen Crane's Maggie and the Modern Soul

ELH (60:3), 1993, 759-85

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Halliburton, David.

The Colour of the Sky: a Study of Stephen Crane

(Bibl. 1991, 8078)

Rev. By James Nagel in Review (13) 1991, 229-35

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Mariani, Giorgio.

Spectacular Narrative: Representations of Class and War in Stephen Crane and the American 1890s.

New York; Frankfurt; Bern; Paris; Lang; 1992.

Pp 184 (American Universal Studies)

XXIV: American Literature, 37

(Cf bibl. 1991, 8082)

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Metress, Christopher

From the Indifference to Anxiety: Knowledge and the Reader in the Open Boat

SSF (28:1) 1991, 47-53

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Monteiro, George

John Sloan's “Crane's”

JML (14:4)

1988, 584-98

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Pizer, Doland

Critical Essays of Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage

(Bibl. 1991, 8084)

Rev. By Eric Solomon in ARL (25:2)

1993, 88-9

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

*Slotkin, Allan Robert.

The Language of Stephen Crane's Bowery Tales: Developing Mastery of Character Diction.

New York; London; Garland; 1993

Pp XXI, 150.

(Garland reference Library of the Humanities, 1686)

(Carland studies in Nineteenth-Century American Literature, 4.)

Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature for 1993

Volume 68

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION

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Facultad DE FILOSOFÍA Y LETRAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE EXTREMADURA

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COMENTARIO DE TEXTOS INGLESES