Psicología Social

Sociología # Mind. Mental processes. Nonverbal communication. Motivation

  • Enviado por: Erick
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: Estados Unidos Estados Unidos
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Midterm Examination

  • a. Social psychology is the study of the mind and mental processes, particularly as regards social interactions, focusing on the ways our actions influence others, and vice versa. Social psychology is a hybrid discipline, a fusion product of sociology and psychology, social psychologists examine, for example, how people's perceptions, belief systems, and behaviors are determined by their positions in social space.

  • b. Psychology social goes through Persuasion, compliance, indoctrination, and the fields, which depend on successful influence for success. Marketing, public relations, social action campaigns, politics lobbying and many others, depend on voluntary human cooperation. Psychology social influence is directed to genders by mass media, which consist of television, radio, magazine, movies, games, etc.

  • a. Social influence is when the actions or thoughts of individual(s) are changed by other individual(s). Examples of social influence can be seen in socialization and peer pressure. In the case of peer pressure, a person might be forced into doing something that he/she might no like but is necessary to upkeep the positive relationship with the other party. Social influence can also be describe by the word “power” which means to posses the ability to embrace a person/ group of people to one's own will.

  • a. Nonverbal communication is often regarded as body languages designation falls far short of its true nature and potential. In its broadest definition, nonverbal communication is according to DeVito “all the messages other than words that people exchange in interactive contexts.” These include body language, positions, facial expression, movement and eye contact.

  • b. The primary uses of nonverbal communication: first expressing Emotion, for example (sad, angry or happy). Second conveying Attitudes (I like you or vise versa). Third communicating one's person traits and fourth facilitating verbal communication.

    c. Psychological research has classified six facial expressions, which correspond to distinct universal emotions: 1. Happiness; raising and lowering of mouth corners. 2. Sadness; lowering of mouth corners raise inner portion of brows. 3. Surprise; brows arch eyes open wide to expose more white jaw drops slightly. 4. Fear; brows raised eyes open. 5. Disgust; upper lip is raised; nose bridged is wrinkled and cheeks raised. 6. Anger; brows lowered, lips pressed firmly eyes bulging.

  • a. Attribution theory is concerned with the ways in which people explain or attribute the behavior of others. It explores how individuals “attribute” cause to events and how this cognitive perception affects their motivation. Think of "explanation" as a synonym and "why" as the question to be answered. The theory divides the way people attribute causes to events into two types. External attribution assigns causality to an outside factor, such as the weather, whereas Internal attribution assigns causality to factors within the person, such as their own level of intelligence or other variables that make the individual responsible for the event.

  • The fundamental attribution error is the tendency for people to over-emphasize dispositional, or personality-based, explanations for behaviors observed in others while underemphasizing the role and power of situational influences on the same behavior. This default assumption leads to people sometimes making erroneous explanations for behavior.

  • Spotlight effect; the tendency to believe that other people are paying closer attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are.

  • Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people where we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group. These classifications can be positive or negative, such as when various nationalities are stereotyped as friendly or unfriendly. It is easier to create stereotypes when there is a clearly visible and consistent attribute that can easily be recognized. People from stereotyped groups can find this very disturbing as they experience an apprehension stereotype threat of being treated unfairly. The idea is that anyone in a stereotyped group can feel pressure to not fulfill negative expectations about that group. This pressure leads to underperformance.

  • a. Self-aware means knowing how you feel in real time and represents the extent to which you know about yourself.

  • b. Self-concept consists of your feelings and thoughts about your strength, weaknesses, your abilities, limitations, and your aspiration as well as your worldview.

  • Self-reference effect predicts that material that relates to one's self-concept will be easier to remember. Self reference effect because it is believed that people have the tendency to remember something better when they can relate it to themselves. People who can personally relate to something have the tendency to embed it deeper into their memory. For example, students taking a course in abnormal psychology often suffer from medical students syndrome. Most psychological disorders seem to fit themselves! The professor describes how a depressed person feels pessimistic about the future, and suddenly dozens of students are wondering if their own pessimism means that they are clinically depressed.

  • a. Extrinsic motivation is when someone is motivated by external factors, as opposed to the internal drivers of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation drives people to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it. For example:

  • Supermarkets use loyalty cards and discounts, airlines use air miles, companies use bonuses and commissions. Extrinsic motivation is everywhere.

  • b. Intrinsic motivation is when I someone is motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation drives people to do things just for the fun of it or because I believe it is a good or right thing to do.

  • Most people's hobbies are intrinsically motivated. Notice the passion with which people collect little bits of china or build detailed model ships. Few people carry that passion into their workplace.

  • Upward social comparison occurs where we mostly compare ourselves with people who we deem to be socially better than us in some way. Downward social comparison acts in the opposite direction.

  • Three styles of love are (Sternberg):Intimacy: Closeness to, and liking of, the other person. Passion: Intense longing and physiological arousal. Ecstasy on reciprocation, despair on rejection. Commitment: The readiness to do anything for the sake of the love.

  • The universal criteria for beauty are:

  • Women's criteria large eyes, prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high eyebrows and small chin.

  • Men's criteria large eyes, prominent cheekbones, and large chin.

  • The Ainsworth's 3 attachment theory of lover are:

  • Secure-trust, lack of concern of being abandoned, view that one is worthy and well liked. 2. Trusting, without concerns for abandonment, feeling self-worth and being liked.

  • Avoidant-suppression of attachment needs, because attempts have been rebuffed in the past. People with this style have a hard time finding intimate relationship. 2. Suppression of needs due to repeated rejection. Difficulty in forming intimate relationships.

  • c. Anxious/Ambivalent-had caregivers that were inconsistent and overbearing in their affection. This causes adults who had these parental relationship to not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, results in higher that average relationship anxiety. 2. Worry that others will not reciprocate intimacy, which is caused by inconsistent experiences.

  • Rusbult's model is the theory that people's commitment to their relationship depends not only on their satisfaction but also on how much they have invested in the relationship and would be lost if they left it.

  • Rewards

    Costs

    Comparison Level

  • a. How we feel about a relationship with another person as depending on our perceptions of: The balance between what we put into the relationship and what we get out of it. The kind of relationship we deserve. The chances of having a better relationship with someone else. 2. Track of who is contributing what and feel taken advantage of when they feel that they are putting more into the relationship that they are getting.

  • Communal relationship is closer family and friend relationships where people's primacy concern is being responsive to another person's needs.

  • Extra Credit

    A cooperative learning technique that tracks back three decades of success, the jigsaw classroom is an essential understanding process. The process is simply a group of students typing to complete and understand a product.

    I believe that jigsaw classroom is an extraordinary process that not only helps individuals in the expert group to understand their topics but is also an essential way to get students together to realize the importance of cooperation and understanding. I also believe it's a good way to get students to understand and listen to other peoples perspective.

    Knowing that it was done in the 1950's and was very successful for tree decades. I would not only think we could do something like it now but also hope we do to help each other out. I believe it would bond very intelligent students with non-intelligent students.

    I believe we could use the jigsaw classroom learning technique in schools by getting low GPA with high GPA students' quizzes and SAT preparations.

    Satisfaction with Relationship

    Investment

    Alternative Quality to relationship

    Commitment

    Stability