Phrasal verbs

Particles. Different meanings. Types. Examples

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PHRASAL VERBS

Understanding Phrasal verbs

Verbs are often followed by particles like back, off, through, up, etc (the word particle means adverb or preposition). Sometimes both verb and particle have their normal meaning. At other times there is a new meaning when they are put together. Compare:

Can you bring up the radio from downstairs? (normal meaning)

She has brought up two children on her own (new meaning = look after until adult)

The term `phrasal verb' is used for the second case, where the verb + particle together have a special meaning. Phrasal verbs are common in informal English.

Often one phrasal verb can have several different meanings and the correct one is only clear from the context.

There are four types of phrasal verbs. Below you can see them:

  • Phrasal verbs with two particles.

  • Phrasal verbs with one particle; there must be an object; the particle is inseparable.

  • Phrasal verbs with one particle; there must be an object; the particle can be separated from the verb.

  • Phrasal verbs with one particle; there is no object.

Verbs with two particles

A selection of phrasal verbs is listed here with examples. Most of the verbs in the list need an object, and the object can only come at the end (so the verbs are inseparable).

Cut down on

I've decide to cut down on smoking. (reduce de amount of)

Catch up with

They are too far ahead for us to catch up with them. (reach the same place as)

Come up against

I'm afraid we've come up against a problem we can't solve. (meet, find)

Come up with

Have you come up with an answer yet? (think of)

Drop in on

I dropped in on Bill and Sheila on my way home. (visit for a short time)

Face up to

You must face up to reality! (accept, deal with)

Feel up to

You must feel up to going to work. (have the strength and energy to do)

Get away with

Jack stole the money and got away with it. (do something bad and not be punished)

Get along/on with

Do you get along/on with your new boss? (have good relations with)

Get on with

Stop talking and get on with your work! (continue with)

Get out of

I managed to get out of working late. (avoid a responsibility)

Get round of

I haven't got round to decorating yet (find time to do)

Get up to

What has young Bill been getting up to? (do something bad)

Go in for

Do you go in for sailing (have as a hobby)

Grow out of

Julie has grown out of playing with dolls. (become too old for)

Keep up with

You're going too fast! I can't keep up with you! (stay in the same place as)

Look down on

Our neighbours look down on anyone without a car. (feel superior to)

Look up to

I really look up to my teacher. (respect)

Look forward to

We are looking forward to our holiday. (think we will enjoy)

Make up for

This wonderful dinner made up for the bad service. (compensate for)

Put up with

I can't put up with these screaming children. (accept without complaining)

Run out of

Oh dear, we've run out of petrol! (have no more of)

Stand up for

You must learn to stand up for yourself. (defend)

Verbs with one particle: transitive and inseparable

These phrasal verbs take an object, and the object must come after the particle. It cannot go between the verb and the particle.

Ask after

Jim asked after you yesterday. (ask for news of)

Call for

I'll call for you at six. (come to your house and collect you)

Call on

I called on some friends in Plymouth. (visit for a short time)

Come across

Joe came across this old painting in the attic. (find by chance)

Come into

Sue came into a large sum of money. (inherit)

Count on

I'm counting on you to help me. (depend on)

Deal with

How can we deal with the traffic problem. (take action to solve a problem)

Do without

I like coffee. I can't do without it in the morning. (manage without having)

Get at

What are you getting at? (suggest)

Get over

Barry has got over his illness now. (recover from)

Go over

Let's go over our plan once more. (discuss the details)

Join in

Try to join in the lesson as much as you can. (take part in, contribute to)

Live on

They live on the money her father gives them. (have as income)

Look into

The government is looking into the problem. (investigate)

Look round

Let's look round the town today. (look at everything)

Make for

Where are you making for exactly? (go in the direction of)

Pick on

My teacher is always picking on me. (choose a person to punish)

Run into

I ran into Steve in the supermarket yesterday. (meet by chance)

See about

Well have to see about getting you an office. (make arrangements)

See to

Can you see to the dog's food? (attend to, take care of)

Stand for

I won't stand for such rudeness. (tolerate)

Andrew is standing for parliament. (be a candidate for)

Take after

Helen takes after her mother. (have the same characteristics as)

Verbs with one particle: transitive and separable

These phrasal verbs take an object. This object can come after the particle or between the verb and the particle (so the verbs are separable).

We brought up this child. We brought up her up.

In general, as in the examples above, object phrases tend to be put after the particle while pronouns are often put between the verb and the particle.

Two exceptions in the list below are call back and show around where the object is always put between the verb and the particle.

Bring up

We brought up this child. (look after until adult)

Carry out

You haven't carried out my instructions. (act upon)

Call off

We have decided to call of the match. (cancel)

Clear up

Could you clear up your room please? (make tidy)

Fill in

Can you fill in this form please? (complete by writing)

Find out

I want to find out what happened. (learn about, discover)

Give away

The millionaire gave all his money away. (make a gift of)

Jill asked me not to give her secret away. (make something known)

Give up

I've decided to give up eating meat. (stop doing something)

Hold up

Two masked men held up the bank. (rob)

Knock out

The blow on the head knocked me out. (make unconscious)

Leave out

I always leave out the difficult exercises. (not include)

Look up

I have to look this word up in my dictionary. (find information)

Make up

I think you made this story up. (invent)

Pick up

I'll pick you up at six. (collect)

Put aside

Harry puts money aside every week for his holiday. (save)

Put off

They put the meeting off until Thursday. (postpone)

The smell of fish put me off my tea. (make someone not want to do something)

Put up

If you come to Florence I can put you up. (provide accommodation)

Show around

Let me show you around the new building. (give a guided tour)

Take over

A German company took us over last year. (buy a company)

Take up

I've decided to take up tennis. (start a hobby)

Tear up

Wendy tore up Alan's letter. (tear into pieces)

Think over

Please think over our offer. (consider)

Try out

Have you tried out the new computer. (use for the first time)

Wear out

All this work has worn me out. (make tired)

Work out

This is a difficult problem. I can't work it out. (find a solution)

Verbs with one particle: intransitive

These phrasal verbs have no object.

Break down

The car broke down on the motorway. (stop working)

Break out

The war broke out unexpectedly. (begin suddenly)

Come out

Her new book came out last week. (be published)

Draw up

Suddenly an ambulance drew up outside. (come to a stop)

Fall out

Charles and Emily have fallen out again. (quarrel)

Get away

The bank robbers got away in a stolen van. (escape)

Give in

She pleaded with me, and I finally gave in. (stop fighting again)

Go off

Everyone panicked when the bomb went off. (explode)

Look out

Look out! There's a car coming! (beware)

Set in

I think the rain has set in for the day. (to arrive and stay)

Show off

You always show off at parties. (behave to attract attention)

Take off

Your plane takes off at 6.00. (leave the ground)

Turn up

Guess who turned up at our party? (arrive, often unexpectedly)

Wear off

When the drugs wears off you may feel pain. (become less strong or disappear)