Morphosyntax and Semantics

English Gramatics. Determiners and pronouns. Articles. Demonstratives. Quantifiers. Relative pronouns # Inglés. Determinantes y pronombres. Artículos. Demostrativos. Pronombres de relativo

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  • Idioma: inglés
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  • Morphosyntax and Semantics.

  • WORK WITH THE PROGRAMME LANGUAGE POINTS.

    DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS.

    1.- Consult different grammar books to see the coverage of the language point you are going to work.

    The grammar books consulted to see the coverage of the determiners and pronouns are:

    • Allsop, J.: “Cassell´s Students´ . English Grammar”. Cassell Ltd (1983).

    • Bosch, M.; Lobera, M. : “Open Line - 2 (students´ book - 2)”. Alhambra (1989).

    • Thomson, A.J.; Martinet, A.V. : “A Practical English Grammar” .Oxford University Press (1982).

    2.- Draw an outline setting out the items which must be include.

    DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS.

  • The articles:

  • The indefinite article:

  • A.1. Form. and pronunciation.

    A.2. Use.

    A.3. Omission.

    B. The definite article:

    B.1. Use.

    B.2. Omission.

  • Demonstratives:

  • Form of the demonstratives.

  • A.1. Singular and plural forms.

    A.2. This + noun.

    A.3. This/that + one.

    A.4. This as pronoun.

    A.5. This + adjective + noun.

  • Meaning of the demonstratives.

  • B.1. Physical location.

    B.2. Sphere of interest.

  • Other uses of the demonstratives:

  • C.1. This = a (n).

    C.2. Referring forward and referring backward.

    C.3. That/those in comparative statements.

    C.4. Those who...

    C.5. This in time expressions.

    C.6. Emphatic use of that.

  • Quantifiers and distributives:

  • Quantity:

  • A.1. Quantifiers with mass and count nouns.

    A.2. Positive and negative ways of looking at things.

    A.3. Meaning of some.

    A.4. Some and any:

    A.4.1. In statements.

    A.4.2. In questions.

    A.4.3. In requests, invitations, etc.

    A.4.4. Any = it does not matter which one.

    A.5. Quantifiers as pronouns:

    A.5.1. Some.

    A.5.2. No and none.

    A.5.3. Other quantifiers.

    A.6. Compounds with -one, -body,-thing, and -where.

    A.7. Uses of much/many.

  • Distribution:

  • B.1. Words which describe distribution:

    B.1.1. All.

    B.1.2. Every.

    B.1.3. Each.

    B.2. All, every or each?

    B.3. Either and neither.

  • Pronouns:

    • Personal pronouns:

  • Summary of forms.

  • Meaning and use of personal pronouns.

  • Subjects pronouns:

  • C.1. Subject of verbs.

    C.2. It in impersonal expressions.

    C.3. Impersonal use of they, you and we.

    C.4. Order of the subject pronouns.

    D. Object pronouns:

    D.1. Use of object pronouns.

    D.2. Indirect object pronouns.

    D.3. Order of the object pronouns.

    D.4. Subject or object?

    E. Possessive pronouns.

    F. Reflexive emphatic pronouns.

    F.1. Reflexives.

    F.2. Emphatic use of...self/ves.

  • Interrogative, relative and indefinite pronouns:

  • Interrogatives: who?, what?, which?, whose?

  • Relatives: who(m), which, whose, that.

  • Indefinite pronouns (somebody, anybody, etc.).

  • C.1. With else.

    C.2. Possessive form.

    3.- Introduce theoretical aspects writing definitions, rule and exceptions.

    4.- Provide clear and meaningful examples.

    5.- Anticipate areas of confusion and potential mistakes.

    We are going to explain these three points together, because we consider that it can be more interesting.

  • THE ARTICLES:

  • The indefinite article:

  • A.1. Form and pronunciation:

    A, is pronounced [*] before words beginning with a consonant or a consonant sound. A becomes an, pronounced [ *n ] before words beginning with a vowel or a vowel sound.

    [* ]: a monkey, a new friend, a university.

    [*n ]: an orange, an old house, an hour (in a few words, the initial ´h´ is not pronounced).

    There is no plural form of the indefinite article. The plural of a dog is dogs, without an article

    A.2. Use:

    The indefinite article a or an is used:

    • When the object is not specified:

    I always like to have a book by my beside.

    • Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of things:

    A child needs love.

    • With a noun complement. This includes names of professions:

    She is a teacher.

    • In certain numerical expressions:

    A thousand.

    • In expressions of price, speed, ratio, etc.:

    5 p a kilo, sixty kilometres an hour.

    • With a few and little:

    A few = a small number, or what the speaker considers a small number.

    A little = a small amount, or what the speaker considers a small amount.

    • In exclamations before singular, countable nouns:

    What a hot day!

    • a can be placed before Mr./Mrs./Miss + surname:

    a Mr. Smith. (implies that he is a stranger to the speaker)

    A.3. Omission:

    The indefinite article is not used:

    • Before plural nouns.

    The indefinite article has no plural form.

    • Before uncountable nouns.

    The following nouns are singular and uncountable in English:

    Advice, information, news, baggage, luggage, furniture.

    • Before abstract nouns: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, death, etc.,

    Except when they are used in particular sense:

    He was pale with fear.

    Some children suffer from a fear of the dark.

    • Before names of meals, except when preceded by an adjective:

    We have breakfast at eight. He gave us a good breakfast.

  • The definite article.

  • B.1. Form and pronunciations:

    The, is pronounced [**]before words beginning with a consonant or a consonant sound, it is pronounced [*i] before words beginning with a vowel or a vowel sound.

    It is used with both singular and plural nouns.

    [**]: The school / the schools, the union / the unions.

    [*i]: The egg / the eggs, the hour / the hours.

    B.2. Use of the definite article.

    • Before nouns of which there is only one, or which are considered as one:

    The sea the sky the weather the North pole

    • Before a noun which has be come definite as a result of being mentioned a second time:

    His car struck a tree, you can still see the mark on the tree.

    • Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause:

    The boy that I met The place where I met him

    • Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one particular thing:

    Ann is in the garden ( the garden of his house)

    • Before superlatives and first, second, etc... and only, used as adjectives or pronouns:

    Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in Europe.

    Most people think that Monday is the worst day of the week

    • The + singular noun can represent a class of animal or thing:

    The whale is in danger of becoming extinct

    • The + singular noun as used above takes a singular verb. The pronoun is he, she or it:

    The first-class traveller pays more so he expects some comfort.

    • The + adjective represents a class of persons:

    The old = old people in general

    • The is used before certain proper names of seas, rivers, groups of island.

    The Atlantic

    • The is also used before names consisting of noun + of + noun:

    The Gulf of Mexico

    • The is used before names consisting of adjectives + noun.

    The Gold Coast

    • The is used before musical instruments:

    She learnt to play the flute.

    • The is used before the names of meals if these are qualified by clause:

    The dinners Peter used to give were really memorable.

    B.3. Omission of the definite article.

    The definite article is NOT used:

    • Before names of places except as shown above, or before names of people.

    Exceptions.

    The + plural surname can be used to mean “the Family”:

    The Smith = Mr. And Mrs. Smith and children.

    The + singular name can be used to distinguish one person from another of the same name:

    We have two Mr. Smith. Which one do you want?

    • Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense:

    Men fear death.

    • After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective:

    The boy's uncle = The uncle of the boy.

    • Before names of meals:

    The Scots have porridge for breakfast.

    • Before parts of the body and articles of clothing:

    Raise your right hand.

    He took off his coat.

    • The is never use in this way:

    Women are expected to like housework. (Women in general. If we put the before women, it would mean that we were referring to a particular group of women).

    • Nature, where it means the spirit creating and motivating the world of plants and animals:

    If you interfere with nature you will suffer for it.

    Omission of the before home and before church, market, school, hospital, etc.

    • When home is used alone:

    He went home.

    • Chapel, church, market, school, hospital, court, prison, work, sea, bed. These nouns are used without the when they are visited or used for their primary purpose:

    We go to church to pray.

    We go to school to study.

    2.- DEMONSTRATIVES.

    A. Form of the demonstratives:

    A.1. Singular and plural forms:

    Singular Plural

    This these

    That those

    A.2. This etc + noun:

    This house these houses

    A.3. This /that + one:

    Which piece do you want? I want this one.

    In plural we use these/those without ones.

    Which pieces do you want? These look nicer.

    A.4. This etc as pronoun.

    This can stand alone instead of or without an accompanying noun:

    What is the meaning of this?

    A.5. This etc + adjective + noun:

    This old house.

    When the adjective is a possessive the pattern changes to

    this etc + noun + of mine/yours/his/hers/ours/theirs:

    This country of ours.

    B. Meaning of the demonstratives:

    This identifies something near to speaker; it is associated with here.

    That identifies something farther from the speaker; it is associated with there.

    B.1. Physical location:

    B.2. Sphere of interest:

    This/these and that/those are often used to describe things which are physically located near or farther from the speaker, but to identify things which are inside or outside the speaker's personal universe or “sphere of interest”.

  • Other uses of the demonstratives.

  • C.1. This = a (n):

    People sometimes use this instead of a (n) in the sense of known but not yet specified, when they are telling you about an experience they have had:

    We met this man when we were in Bristol. He took us to this fantastic restaurant in this funny house...

    C.2. Referring forward and referring backward:

    This is used to refer to something which has already been said, or is about to be said:

    Forward The way to get justice is this: go and get a policeman.

    Backward The grey squirrel wanted to keep the coconut. The red squirrel thought this was not fair.

    That can only refer backward:

    Prove it! That's easy.

    C.3. That/those in comparative statements (...er than that/those...):

    We can use that/those in sentences of the pattern

    IS THAT

    THE X OF A ...ER THAN OF B

    ARE THOSE

    The feathers of owls are softer than those of other birds.

    C.4. Those who...

    The expression those who ... is used for those people who...:

    I don't agree with those who believe that we should..

    C.5. This in time expressions:

    This occurs in a number of time expressions:

    Parts of today Others

    This morning This Thursday

    This afternoon This week

    This evening This month

    This September

    This year

    C.6. Emphatic use of that:

    That can be used in an emphatic way, the stress falls heavily on the demonstrative:

    A Uncle George is coming to stay with us.

    B Which Uncle George?

    A You know, the one with the parrot.

    B Oh that Uncle George!

    That is also used emphatically in place of so in such sentences as:

    WIFE Do you realize we are without food.

    HUSBAND I Knew we were short of food, but I didn't realize we were that short!

  • QUANTIFIERS AND DISTRIBUTIVES:

  • quantity:

  • A.1. Quantifiers with mass and count nouns:

    There are expressions that can only go with mass nouns, they answer the question how much?. These expressions are: a little, a bit (of), a great deal (of), a large amount (of).

    A little snow.

    A bit of snow.

    A great of snow.

    There are expressions that can only go with count nouns in the plural, they answer the question how many?. These expressions are: a few, several, a great number (of), a large number (of).

    A few snowballs.

    Several snowballs.

    A great number of snowballs.

    There are a number of expressions that can be used with both mass and count nouns: no/none, not...any, some (any), a lot (of), plenty (of) lots (of), tons (of).

    No snow/no snowballs.

    Some snow/some snowballs.

    Plenty of snow/plenty of snowballs.

    Although the quantifier may be singular or plural, the verb agrees with the noun, i.e., use a singular verb with a mass noun, and a plural verb with a count noun:

    A lots of towns are celebrating the centenary. (towns are)

    Lots of time is wasted in teabreaks. (time is)

    A.2. Positive and negative ways of looking at things:

    Two persons can look at the same thing and see it quite differently:

    Other examples are:

    I have got a little money: it Should be enough to live on. ( = some)

    There little point in going on now: it is too late. (= hardly any)

    A.3. Meaning of some:

    The word some has two main uses.

  • When you are interested in quantity, especially in contrast with other words expressing quantity, you use some with pronunciation [sm].

  • E.g.: I have some good friends but not many.

  • The word some is also used as a sort of indefinite article. In the case, you are interested in the object itself rather than in the quantity. The pronunciation of some is unstressed [sm]:

  • E.g.: I have some cheese.

    Notes:

    Some, pronounced [sm], is also used to mean a particular one but I do not know which one, and is often said when you are impatient or have a poor opinion of some one or something. Notice particularly that some or some thing.

    Some man called this morning, but he refused to give his name.

    (= I do not know who he was, but I did not like the look of him!)

    There is a difference between sometimes, which means occasionally; and (at), some time, which means at an unspecified time:

    A.4. Some and any:

    The opposite of some is no or not ... any.

    A.4.1. In statements:

    The normal unemphatic way of talking about the absence of thing is to use the construction not ... any.

    e.g.: I bought some cigarettes, but I could not get any matches.

    Use any instead of some after other negative words like without, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely and never:

    e.g.: they never tell you anything.

    Notes:

    The different between not...any and no is largely one of emphasis:

    A.- I don't know anything about car mechanics.

    B.- I know nothing about car mechanics.

    Sentence A is a normal emphatic statement of a simple fact.

    Sentence B is more likely to be said emphatically or defensively.

    Beware of the double negative. The opposite of I can give you something is I cannot give you anything.

    A.4.2. In questions:

    Some changes to any in normal unemphatic questions, that is, in questions which you ask in order to find out if something exists.

    e.g.: Are there any good theatres in Birmingham?

    A.4.3. In requests, invitations, etc.:

    We often use the question form not to ask for information, but as a means of making a request, giving an invitation or encouraging. Because these are not true questions, we use some:

    A.- making a request: Could I have some more tea please?

    B.- inviting: Would you like some more toast?

    C.- encouraging: Why don't you do some revision for your exams?

    A.4.4. Any = it does not matter which one:

    Any means no in the negative constructions not...any, without...any, etc.

    It also has another meaning, one, but it does not matter which one, as in the sentence:

    Anybody who votes for the yellow party must be mad!

    A.5. Quantifiers as pronouns:

    A.5.1. Some:

    When some is used as an adjective, it is pronounced [sm] or [sm].

    When some is used as a pronoun, it is pronounced [sm].

    E.g.: [sm]

    I want some bread.

    E.g.: [sm]

    Please give me some.

    A.5.2. No and none:

    No is an adjective; none is a pronoun.

    E.g.:

    There is no bread left.

    There is none.

    A.5.3. Other quantifiers:

    All the other quantifiers can be used without a following noun.

    E.g.: They say there are a lot of deer around here, but I have never seen any.

    A.6. Compounds with -one, -body, -thing and -where:

    Useful words are formed by combining some, any, no and every with -one, -body, -thing and -where.

    Some

    Any

    No

    Every

    -one

    Someone

    Anyone

    No-one

    Everyone

    -body

    Somebody

    Anybody

    Nobody

    Everybody

    -thing

    Something

    Anything

    Nothing

    Everything

    -Where

    Somewhere

    Anywhere

    Nowhere

    Everywhere

    Notes

    1.- There is no difference in meaning between -one and -body words.

    2.- In those cases where some changes to any, the compounds with some- also change to any-.

    A.7. Uses of much/many:

    Much and many are mostly used in combination with other words. The commonest combinations are with:

    How to form the question

    Words how much and how many?

    Not to form the negatives not much and not many

    To to state how too much too many

    (not) so much/many so much so many

    (not) as as much as many

    They are also used before more and less to state how much more or less: much more, much less and many more.

    Much and many are only used alone in positive statements which are formal.

    E.g.: There is much to be said for your point of view.

    I know many who would not agree with you.

    Much as an adverb occurs only with words like, how, not, very, too and so.

    E.g.: I love you very much.

    He smokes too much.

  • distribution:

  • B.1. Words which describe distribution:

    These words are concerned with the group of things or people, and the individual members of the group. The words each, every and all describe the group but in different ways.

    The same number of individuals is involved, but the way of looking at them is different:

    All = the group seen as one thing.

    Every = the group seen as a series of X members.

    Each = the members of the group seen individually.

    E.g.:

    He worked hard and saved all his money.

    Every female rabbit in the place was in love with him.

    He always brought a different present for each child..

    B.1.1. All:

    A.- Meaning of all:

    The word all contrast with some and with no/none.

    B.- The word all occurs in these combinations:

    1.- all + mass noun.

    All passengers are requested to remain seated.

    2.- all + the + mass noun.

    Have you been all the time?

    3.- all + my + count noun in the plural.

    All my friends have gone away for Christmas.

    4.a.- all + this or that + mass noun.

    Who has made all this mess?

    4.b.- all + these or those + count noun in the plural.

    All these books belong to me.

    C.- all + of:

    You must use all of with a following pronoun: all of you..

    You can use all of instead of all when it is in contrast to some: I do all (of) the work and you get all (of) the credit.

    We advise you to use all of only when there is a following pronoun, and to use all in all other cases.

    D.- ALL + NOUN without the:

    Use ALL + NOUN when you want to make a general statement.

    E.g.: Not all snakes are poisonous.

    The can be left out in time expressions:

    All day, all afternoon, all week, etc.

    The exception is the expression all the time.

    E.- All or the whole?:

    We prefer to use the whole with count nouns in the singular:

    e.g.: I read the whole book in one evening.

    The whole can also be more emphatic than all.

    e.g.: I've spent the whole day washing and cleaning! (In this sentence, all day would not sound so dramatic).

    F.- All or everything?:

    We generally prefer not to use all on its own without a noun. Instead we used everything for things, and every body/everyone for people:

    e.g.: Every thing I've told you is true.

    Everybody in the office knows about them.

    Give everyone a copy.

    B.1.2. Every:

    A.- Meaning of every:

    Think of every as a word to describe a series consisting of three or more people or things.

    • The series may be a complete one:

    Every player in the team is a first-class footballer (in this case, every player compares with all the players).

    • Or the series may be an incomplete one:

    I go shopping every Saturday (in this case, you cannot use all).

    B.- The word every occurs in the following combinations:

    • Every + count noun in the singular.

    • Every + one (pronoun).

    This means that every is an adjective and must always be followed by a noun or the pronoun one.

    E.g.: I've read every book in this library.

    Have you checked all the invoices? Yes, I've checked every one.

    C.- Every in frequency expressions:

    We use every in expressions which describe the frequency with which something happens:

  • With plural nouns, as in every three days, every twenty minutes.

  • With the word other or with ordinals (identify points in a series): we go to the pictures every other Saturday.

  • D.- Every one of:

    When you are talking about a complete series, you can use the combination:

    Every one of +

    The

    These/Those + count noun in the plural

    My, etc...

    Us, you, them

    E.g.: I've read every one of the books in this library.

    I seem to have lost every one of my pens.

    B.1.3. Each:

    A.- Meaning of each:

    The word each is used to point to the individuals in a group of two or more, and to consider them one by one:

    e.g.: He kissed all the children, and then gave each child a little present.

    B.- Each is used in the following combinations:

    Examples:

    1.- He gave each child a present.

    2.- He picked up the letters and examined each one carefully.

    3.- See next section.

    C.- Each on its own:

    You can use each on its own without one, as in the sentence I like all of Mozart's symphonies: each has its special charm.

    In the following cases, you can only use each on its own:

    • Prices: How much are the apples? Sixty pence a kilo, or 15 p each.

    • With pronouns: He kissed the children and gave them each a present.

    • Plural noun + each: The children each received something different.

    • Reciprocal each other: They love each other very much.

    D.- Each of:

    Just as you can say every one of the books instead of every book you can say each (one) of the children instead of each child. The different in emphasis is not very big.

    You must use each of before a pronoun:

    • Each (one) of you.

    • Each (one) of them.

    B.2. All, every or each?:

    You choose the word which best describes the way you look at things.

    All and every seen collectively. Each seen individually.

    E.g.: They're all very good students and I'm proud of every one of them.

    Every student must take the written examination, and each one will be interviewed personally.

    B.3. Either and neither:

    We can describe distribution between two thing by using the word either or its negative form neither (=not either). These words, are used to describe alternatives:

    The difference between either and both is that either separates, whereas both combines:

    Examples

    A Both roads lead to the city centre. You can take either/either road/either one either of them.

    B There is a big one and a little one. You can have either (of them).

    Notes

    The same contrast that exists between the emphatic no ... and the unemphatic not ... any is true also for neither and not ... either.

    Either and neither express a singular idea, i.e. (not) this one and/ or (not) that one.

    4.- PRONOUNS.

    • Personal pronouns:

    A.- Summary of forms:

    Subject

    Object

    Separate

    Possessive

    Adjective

    Possessive

    Pronoun

    Reflexive

    emphatic

    I

    Me

    Me!

    My

    Mine

    Myself

    You*

    You

    You!

    Your

    Yours

    Yourself/ves

    We

    Us

    Us!

    Our

    Ours

    Ourselves

    He

    Him

    Him!

    His

    His

    Himself

    She

    Her

    Her!

    Her

    Hers

    Herself

    It

    It

    It!

    Its

    Its

    Itself

    They

    Them

    Them

    Their

    Theirs

    Themselves

    B.-Meaning and use of personal pronouns:

    Pronouns are used to replace a noun already referred to, that is, we use them instead of repeating the noun:

    E.g. The duck decided to go to the river. She took a lot of food with her.

    The pronoun it is used in some impersonal expressions.

    E.g. It was a beautiful summer's day.

    We distinguish three persons to which pronouns refer:

    • The person or people speaking: I and we (first person).

    • The person or people spoken to: you (second person).

    • The person or people spoken about: he/she and they (third person).

    • The thing or things spoken about: it and they (third person).

    The parts of the third person plural pronoun (them, their, theirs and themselves) are also used in the following cases:

    • After the indefinite pronouns everybody, somebody, etc.: everybody should have their books with them.

    • They etc., is used to mean he or she. For example, an advertisement might read: We are looking for someone to help in the shop. They must be smart and have their own car.

    The alternative, which is rather clumsy, is to say: ...in the shop. He or she must be smart and have his or her own car.

    C.-Subject pronoun:

    Singular

    Plural

    I

    We

    You

    You

    He

    She

    It

    They

    C.1. Subject of verbs:

    • The subject pronouns are used with verbs:

    E.g. I am very poor.

    • They cannot be left out except in very informal conversation:

    E.g. Looks like rain. for it looks like rain

    • In modern English, they are always followed by a verb. In the case of short answers, the verb is modal or auxiliary.

    Who wants a drink? I do.

    Here, you can use the separate forms, which are the same as the object pronouns (me, him, her, us, them):

    E.g. Who's there? Me for I am.

    C.2.The impersonal expressions:

    • The pronoun it is used in a wide range of expressions where there is no obvious subject.

    E.g. It's raining/ snowing / freezing, etc...

    Notes:

    • The word there is used in a similar way as a kind of “empty” subject. In such cases it is unstressed and usually takes the verb is or was, in the singular, regardless of what follows:

    E.g. There's someone to see you.

    • In sentence patterns like It is / adjective / to....

    It stands for the part of the sentence which follows the adjective.

    E.g. It is important to drive carefully in built-up areas.

    C.3. Impersonal use of they, you and we

    They

    They is used to refer to unknown people who have power authority or expertise which we do not have, At its simplest, they have knowledge or information:

    E.g. They say we're going to have a long, hot summer.

    You

    You is frequently used, often with a very weak stress ([j]), in statements and description when the speaker is not thinking of anyone in particular, when her she is generalizing:

    E.g. How to make an omelette. First you beat three eggs in a bowl, then you add a little salt and pepper.

    We

    We is used to mean all of us, the speaker, his listener(s) and other people in the same situation. It can be a simple observation, as in the sentence.

    Notes:

    There is a pronoun one - one - one's - oneself which is impersonal, but it is not often used except in formal speech.

    The passive is used in impersonal expressions such as English spoken instead of we speak English.

    C.4. Order of the subject pronouns:

    The accepted patterns are:

    X AND I

    You and I can go together.

    Anna and I are just good friends.

    HE/SHE/IT THEY/ AND X

    She and her husband never go out together.

    X AND YOU or YOU AND X

    Either pattern is possible, but you and X is more frequent in speaking.

    You and your friends are welcome to came any time.

    D.- Object pronouns:

    Singular

    Plural

    me

    us

    You

    You

    Him

    Her

    It

    Them

    D.1. Use of object pronouns:

    • Their commonest use is as the object of verbs and prepositions.

    After verbs

    I still love him

    Alter prepositions

    Look at me!

    • As we have seen, the object form the pronoun is used when we want to use the pronoun alone or after it's ... It is more emphatic than the form SUBJECT PRONOUN + AUXILIARY VERB.

    Emphatic Normal

    Who wants an ice-cream? Me! I do.

    Who broke the window? Not me! I didn't

    D.2. Indirect object pronouns:

    The same pronouns are used as indirect objects. The pattern is

    Verb

    Indirect Object

    Direct Object

    Give

    Tell

    Show

    Etc.

    Me, us

    Him, her

    them

    Something

    E.g. Can you tell me the time, please?

    Common verbs on this pattern are:

    Ask, bring, buy, fetch, give, hand, pass, send, show, teach, tell.

    A similar pattern occurs in the following cases:

    Get me a drink!

    Can you find us a table near the window, please?

    Note:

    There is a construction using the passive voice, with these verbs, where the indirect object becomes the subject pronoun:

    E.g.: They gave me a present.

    It is used especially when the subject they in the active sentence is impersonal, does not refer to anyone in particular.

    D.3.Order of the object pronouns:

    In general, the order is less important than it is for the subject pronouns, but we advise you to keep to the same order

    He spoke to my father and me.

    I visited them and their family in Chatham.

    Where there are two objects, one direct and one indirect, the possible patterns are.

    Verb

    Indirect object

    Direct object

    pass

    Me

    John

    (it)

    the salt

    Verb

    Direct object

    Indirect object

    pass

    It

    The salt

    To

    To John

    The combinations pass John it and pass me it are possible but unusual.

    D.4. Subject or object? The problem of ... more than him/more than he:

    The sentence John likes Anne more than Mary is ambiguous, it can have two meanings:

    • John likes Anne more than he likes Mary.

    • John likes Anne more than Mary likes Anne.

    E.- Possessive pronouns.

    The possessive pronouns are used when the noun is understood:

    e.g.: Is this john's book? No, it's mine. (=my book).

    They are also commonly used in the following situations:

    a.- Comparisons

    Our car is bigger than yours.

    b.- In the pattern A(N) x OF MINE

    A friend of mine has just bought a house.

    F.- Reflexive emphatic pronouns.

    Singular

    Plural

    My + self = my self

    Our + selves = ourselves

    Your + self = yourself

    Your + selves = Yourselves

    Her + self = herself

    Him + self = himself

    It + self = Itself

    Them + selves = themselves

    F.1.Reflexives:

    • There are a number of verbs where the subject and the object of the action are the same:

    Look at yourself in the mirror .

    We enjoyed ourselves very much in London.

    Have you hurt yourself?

    In each case, the stress is on the verb.

    VERB+...SELF/VES+OBJECT

    The reflexive pronoun is also used in sentences on the same pattern as Make me a sandwich:

    e.g.: I'll just get myself something to eat before we go out.

    • PREPOSITION+...SELF/SELVES

    There are a few cases where prepositions are followed by the reflexive pronoun instead of the ordinary object pronoun:

    • Where the preposition is part of a phrasal verb: look after yourself.

    • After for in such sentences as don't do it for him, let him do it for himself.

    • After by in the expression BY...SELF/VES meaning alone: She lives by herself. =alone.

    • Some people use myself instead of me in the pattern PREPOSITION+SOMEONE/AND ME/MYSELF:

    • They wrote to John and myself (for John and me)

    • Reflexive or reciprocal? Themselves or each other?:

    Note the difference between these two statements :

    They are old enough now to look after themselves.

    They are very close: they always look after each other.

    Sentence A means that he looks after himself, and she looks after herself. Sentence B means that he looks after her, and she looks after him.

    F.2. Emphatic use of...self/ves.

    The ... self / ves pronouns are used to emphasize that the person concerned and not someone else did something:

    What a pretty dress do you like it? I made it myself

    The usual position of the emphatic pronoun is at the end of the phrase, after the object or complement, but it can come immediately after the subject in more formal style:

    Most people prefer sunshine, but I myself prefer rain.

    The ...self/ves form is also used in the pattern NOUN + ... SELF/VES to contrast the different between two parts of something:

    They have a beautiful home. The house itself is quiet small, but the garden is enormous.

    5.- INTERROGATIVE, RELATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS:

    A.- Interrogatives: who?, what?, which?, whose?:

    Who?

    The pronoun who, can be subject or object.

    E.g. Who loves her? (Subject)

    Who does she love? (Object)

    Whose?

    Whose can be either an adjective or pronoun:

    Whose car is that? (adjective)

    Whose is the car? (Pronoun)

    There is no important difference of meaning between the two sentences.

    What? and Which?

    What is used when you wish to identify something:

    E.g. What's that? It's a screwdriver

    It can be used as an adjective or a pronoun with the meaning

    What kind of?

    E.g. What are you going to wear for the dance tonight?

    Which is used when you wish to identify one or more thing or people from a group of things people. It can be used as adjective or as a pronoun.

    E.g. She has four boyfriends. Which does she like best?

    The different between what? and which? Is sometimes very slight.

    B. Relatives: Who (m), which, whose, that.

    The relative pronoun are used to join ideas, often on the pattern NOUN + INFORMATION ABOUT THE NOUN

    E.g. John is a man John understands machines.

    John is a man who understand machines.

    C. Indefinite pronouns (somebody, anybody, etc.)

    Note: For the change from some- to any-, for the difference between not ... any- and no-.

    C.1 With else

    The indefinite pronouns, and also the adverbs with -where, can be followed by the word else. The meaning is similar to more another or different:

    I did no take the message. Some one else must have take it.

    C.2 Possessive form

    These pronouns form their possessive with -`s

    Somebody's anybody's nobody's everybody's someone's

    E.g. It's no body's guess how long the strike will last.

    6.- Make a list of activities (including games) dealing with the grammar item both at elementary and intermediate level.

    Elementary level:

    1.- Complete these sentences with a lot of, much, many, little, few, some or any:

    • He can buy a car, because he has money.

    • Are there any knives in the drawer' yes, there are .

    • There is very sugar and I like a lot of sugar in my tea.

    • We can't buy a house, because we haven't money.

    2.- Write in your notebook the correct sentence:

    • There is something in that drawer.

    Anything

    • No, there was nothing there.

    Something

    • There isn't something on that chair.

    Anything

    3.- Answer these questions using the indefinite pronouns:

    • Is there anything in your pockets?

    • Is there anybody in the library?

    • Is there anybody at the door?

    • Have you got anything in your hands?

    4.- Choose the correct word:

    I look at myself in the mirror.

    Yourself

    The girls praised yourselves.

    Themselves.

    Philip hurt himself.

    Itself.

    5- Complete these sentences in your notebook with the correct reflexive pronoun:

    • My father has cut

    • You have hurt

    • I have cut

    • The cat is washing

    6.- Complete these sentences with who or which:

    • The girl is coming is Betty.

    • This is the cat sleeps on the roof.

    • That is the woman came last week.

    • These are the men speak German.

    7.- Write the lost word: that, who or which.

    • The man sells fish is a fishmonger.

    • The biscuits I ate yesterday were very good.

    • The boy studies English is Jimmy.

    • The meat you see there is very cheap.

    8.- Write the article the when it is necessary:

    • dogs bark.

    • dogs that belong to that farmer bark at night.

    • girls play with dolls.

    • girls I know play with dolls.

    9.- Choose the correct form:

    The boys who study English are in that classroom.

    Boys

    I like the flowers.

    flowers.

    The milk is a complete food.

    Milk

    10.- Write the correct word: a, some or the.

    • dogs have four legs.

    • dog has four legs.

    • dogs bark at night. Other dogs bark in the morning.

    11.- Complete these sentences using the correct reflexives pronouns:

    • I've cut .

    • Peter, you have hurt .

    • My daddy has cut .

    • They're always praising .

    12.- Put a or an:

    • apple.

    • table.

    • orange.

    • chair.

    13.- Write the correct interrogative pronoun: who?, whose?, what? or which?

    • is he?

    • are these shoes?

    • is this?

    • is your car?

    14.- Put these words in the correct column: shirt, dress, trousers, skirt, pyjamas, sweater and shoes.

    This These

    Intermediate level:

    1.- Rewrite the story, putting in the, a or an if necessary.

    Elephant and Mouse

    elephant and mouse fell in love and decided to get married. When elephant told her father, he said “ Don't by silly, elephant cannot marry mouse.

    2.-Which of these place names are written with the?

    Brussels, West Indies, Philippines, Siberia, New Zealand, Isle of man, Sicily, Black Sea, Pacific.

    3.- Put the into these sentences if it is necessary.

    • Is this book you were telling me about?, yes, it is about life of Queen Victoria.

    • We always stay at Palace Court Hotel because it is only one with facilities for disabled.

    • I don't take sugar, thank you.

    • Do you think that I could ever learn to speak Japanese way Japanese speak it?.

    4.- Put all, each, every, several, a lot of, none or few in the spaces in this passage.

    There was once a very serious rabbit. He was not hand some or clever but he worked hard and saved his money. The beautiful lady rabbit who lived near him was a widow, and she had admirers, but he knew that of them was as rich as he was.

    The widow had children, so time he visited her, he brought a different present for child.

    One day, handsome stranger came to town. Soon, female rabbit was in love with him.

    5.- Substitute little, a little, few or a few for the words underlined in these sentences.

    There are several thing we have to talk about.

    A lot of food was prepared, but hardly any of it was eaten.

    Hardly any people managed to attend the concert.

    Would you like some more cake?

    I have practically no reason to be grateful to her.

    There are still some people who can be trusted.

    6.-Complete these sentences by adding some or any to form the compounds something/anything, somebody/anybody, somewhere/anywhere, or the adverbials some time/ any time.

    Where have you been? I haven't been where.

    Your face looks familiar. Haven't I seen you where before?.

    thing you can do, I can do better.

    I cannot see body today. I am far too busy.

    Perhaps we should meet again time.

    7.-Choose the correct alternative for each sentence.

    Are these [Either/ both] your children?

    I watched [all / the whole / the whole of] Gone with the Wind from start to finish.

    Tell [all / everyone] that Willy is here.

    I have told you [the whole / everything] I know.

    I have two daughters and a son. [All / Both] my children go to school, but [none / neither] of them likes it very much.

    8.- Rewrite this passage, putting in suitable pronouns and possessive adjectives.

    One summer's day, a duck decided to go to the river for a picnic. took a lot of food with and was really looking forward to eating . sat down on the river bank, and spread the food out in front of . `re not going to eat all that food are ? said a small voice. Looked up and saw frog sitting at the water's edge.

    Please give some of , pleaded the frog, wiping a tear from eyes.

    She gave a sandwich. To surprise, did not eat , but simply put on the ground beside .

    Won't give something else? After all, my need is greater than .

    9.-Complete these sentences using the impersonal pronoun it.

    E.g.: (snow), so we stayed in.

    Answer: It was snowing so we stayed in.

    (so cold) that the river froze over.

    (rain) When I left the house.

    If (rain) we will stay in.

    (warm) today -you do not need an overcoat.

    You cannot take good photographs when (cloudy).

    I do not like to go sailing when (too windy).

    10.- Replace the underlined noun with a pronoun, and make any other changes which are necessary.

    E.g.: Give John a present.

    Answer: Give it to John.

    Hand John his glasses.

    Hand John his glasses.

    Teach the children the alphabet.

    Teach the children the alphabet.

    Buy Mary the flowers.

    Buy Mary the flowers.

    11.- In these sentences, choose the alternative that fits.

    Don't tell me your problems. I've got enough problems of [me, mine, my own].

    Who is that man? Is he a friend of [you, your, yours]?

    Come and sit beside [me, myself, mine].

    It belongs to an old friend [of my father's, from my father, of my father].

    She prefers to live by [her own, herself, her].

    12.- In these sentences, choose the alternative that fits.

    Don't do everything for [him, himself], he must learn to do thing for [him, himself].

    Please [you, yourself]. It is entirely up to [you, yourself].

    I'll see you both next year. Look after [you, yourselves]

    They are very fond of [themselves, each other].

    He is very conceited. He had a very high opinion of [him, himself].

    7.- Make a list of suitable didactic resources.

    Didactic resources:

    • Flashcards

    • Games

    • Written activities

    • Oral activities

    • Cassettes

    • Video

    • transparencies

    8.- Create some visual materials for classroom use.

    Flashcards and transparency.

    We present some examples of the different flashcards that we can use to explain this topic to our pupils.

    We also present a transparency as an example of the different transparencies that we can make to show the diverse points of this topic.

    9.- Written dossier including full list of contents and bibliography.

    Bibliography.

    • Allsop , J.: “Cassell´s Students´ . English Grammar”. Cassell Ltd (1983).

    • Bosch, M.; Lobera, M. : “Open Line - 2 (students´ book - 2)”. Alhambra (1989).

    • Thomson, A.J.; Martinet, A.V. : “A Practical English Grammar” .Oxford University Press (1982).

    Written dossier.

    DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS.

    The articles:

    A. The indefinite article:

    A.1. Form. and pronunciation.

    A.2. Use.

    A.3. Omission.

    B. The definite article:

    B.1. Use.

    B.2. Omission.

    Demonstratives:

    A. Form of the demonstratives.

    A.1. Singular and plural forms.

    A.2. This + noun.

    A.3. This/that + one.

    A.4. This as pronoun.

    A.5. This + adjective + noun.

    B. Meaning of the demonstratives.

    B.1. Physical location.

    B.2. Sphere of interest.

    C. Other uses of the demonstratives:

    C.1. This = a (n).

    C.2. Referring forward and referring backward.

    C.3. That/those in comparative statements.

    C.4. Those who...

    C.5. This in time expressions.

    C.6. Emphatic use of that.

    Quantifiers and distributives:

    A. Quantity:

    A.1. Quantifiers with mass and count nouns.

    A.2. Positive and negative ways of looking at things.

    A.3. Meaning of some.

    A.4. Some and any:

    A.4.1. In statements.

    A.4.2. In questions.

    A.4.3. In requests, invitations, etc.

    A.4.4. Any = it does not matter which one.

    A.5. Quantifiers as pronouns:

    A.5.1. Some.

    A.5.2. No and none.

    A.5.3. Other quantifiers.

    A.6. Compounds with -one, -body,-thing, and -where.

    A.7. Uses of much/many.

    B. Distribution:

    B.1. Words which describe distribution:

    B.1.1. All.

    B.1.2. Every.

    B.1.3. Each.

    B.2. All, every or each?

    B.3. Either and neither.

    Pronouns:

    • Personal pronouns:

    A. Summary of forms.

    B. Meaning and use of personal pronouns.

    C. Subjects pronouns:

    C.1. Subject of verbs.

    C.2. It in impersonal expressions.

    C.3. Impersonal use of they, you and we.

    C.4. Order of the subject pronouns.

    D. Object pronouns:

    D.1. Use of object pronouns.

    D.2. Indirect object pronouns.

    D.3. Order of the object pronouns.

    D.4. Subject or object?

    E. Possessive pronouns.

    F. Reflexive emphatic pronouns.

    F.1. Reflexives.

    F.2. Emphatic use of...self/ves.

    Interrogative, relative and indefinite pronouns:

    A. Interrogatives: who?, what?, which?, whose?

    B. Relatives: who(m), which, whose, that.

    C. Indefinite pronouns (somebody, anybody, etc.).

    C.1. With else.

    C.2. Possessive form.

    21

    This Boom

    That Boom

    Here

    There

    'Morphosyntax and semantics'

    What is that object in the sky?

    'Morphosyntax and semantics'

    The bottle is half full

    The bottle is half empty

    Optimist

    Pessimist

    I have few friends'

    Each + 1 count noun in the singular

    + 2 one

    + 3 Ø

    There's some wine left.

    There isn't much wine left.

    I have a few friends'