Methodology of TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language)

Filología inglesa. Lengua. Enseñanza # Philology. Language. Education. Teacher training. Class

  • Enviado por: Oscar Fernandez
  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
  • 10 páginas
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METHODOLOGY OF TEFL

COURSE CONTENTS:

  • PHILOLOGY.......... METHODOLOGY OF TEFL.

    • Philology: the study of one language and its culture, literature.

    • Language: it is divided in practical and theoretical linguistics.

    • TEFL: teaching English as a foreign language.

    If we learn a language since we were 14 or more years, is a second language.

    • Acquired: a boy acquired the language without learning, this means that the boy learns the language in a natural way.

    • Language or linguistics:

    • Synchronic linguistics: the study of the language in a specific moment.

    • Diachronic linguistics: the study of the language all trough the history.

    • Applied linguistics: is writing, listening, reading, understanding, speaking, translation, teaching, computational linguistic; (different skills).

    • Methodology: is the way of teaching.

    • Foreign language: is when a child over 14 years learns a language, which is different from his own language.

  • DISCIPLINES INVOLVED IN TEFL.

    • Disciplines with have to do with applied linguistics:

    • Psycholinguistics: studies the brain or mind in relation to languages neurologist and psychologist study the brain and its circumstances. Neurology studies the brain in terms of blood, channels, etc. Psychology studies the behaviour of a person in relation to the brain; psychology is related with the language because one hemisphere has the language part and for this reason we acquired it.

    • Sociolinguistics: studies the language in relation to the society.

    • Geographic sociolinguistics: dialect. Formal or informal: slang, registers, etc. Everybody has his own dialect.

    • Neurolinguistics: studies the relation between the brain and the language.

  • LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    • Second language: is acquired a different language besides your mother tongue when you are a boy and you learn at the same time both of them; although the child is bilingual he has a mother tongue, now is called parents tongue. They learn the language unconsciously, that is the reason by which bilingual children always have a parents tongue and another one

    • The parent's language is used when a person is in a terrible situation, laughter, etc.

    • The parents tongue is the language that nobody teaches you because you acquire it in a natural way.

    • After 8 the child cannot acquire the language he just learn so that is very similar to study.

    • English teacher's imitate the real fact of the first language acquisition method, a learners is like a baby and has to acquire the language, for this reason the teacher must use the same procedure.

    • The baby is exposed to the language all surrounding: teachers, parents, friends, etc, but the second language is not all the time surround; may be is only in the school and perhaps a native babysitter, etc; so it is not equal situation.

    • In the school the children cannot learn the pure and real language because it's only based in books and grammar, etc.

    • The baby only hears somebody talks and he just unconscious use it, but in the school they need an explanation how to use it.

    • In a second language the baby is told about rules which are the basis and in the school the only hears the teacher and the irregular pronunciation of their classmates.

    • The modern methods try to imitate the parent's procedure to teach a language. Now the methods are very communicative than anything.

  • GLOBAL EDUCATION. OBJECTIVES.

    • The new aim is to use textbooks, which teach the children not only the language besides a global education such as antiracism, feminism, politics, etc.

    • The objective is to make people nearer to the other country for understanding better a new culture.

    • If you want to understand and accept those cultures the boy must learn the second language in the early ages (7-8) because they don't bother the new things, but if the boys are older is more difficult for them to understand a new way of making things; (ex: timetable of British people-a boy of 7 can understand and accept it well but a teenager can deject it.

    • The man objective is made the other culture nearer to us.

    • Three different kind of teachers:

    • Primary: they cannot teach adults and secondary school by law. They study psychology and pedagogic through the three years.

    • Secondary: They cannot teach a primary students because in their degree they don't study psychology and pedagogic.

    • Adults academy, etc.

    • The main objective from the ministry of education is teach the knowledge of the teachers so that this can make two cultures nearer

    • What do you think a teacher of foreign language should have in relation to global education?

    • To master the language (oral and written).

    • To be motivated.

    • The concept of Global education; to be able to accept others cultures and makes comparisons for benefits.

    • Study of the first article: “Los problemas para aprender a hablar son principalmente genéticos”. Scientific wanted to know if the twins have the same genes and the same skilfulness for languages; brothers and sisters don't have the same genes.

    • Second article: “La influencia de Chomsky y Gadamer”. Chomsky: “ language is a nature and innate capacity whose nature we still ignore”. Gadamer: educational capacity. Gadamer said that you can learn by habits. BEHAVIOURISM: the language you learn by habits not by a natural capacity, these habits consist in 3 steps: 1-stimolous, 2-response, 3- reinforcement; all together makes a habit.

    • Learning by habits means that the child need a person as a guide, little by little is like ride a bike because you learn little by little but you never forget it.

    • Drill repeating. Is the best way to learn a language; for instance: repeating words a hundred of times is a good way to achieve a good intonation. The old grammar method was settled upon rules and examples followed by rules. Upon method came two another ways of teaching of grammar, behaviourism, generativism.

    • At the end of 60´s in Estrasburgo a group of linguistics realised that the old method was not so good because students have been complained about it and teachers didn't know any kind of method so the linguistics decided to design which could fulfil all expectations.

    • They settled an important basis: why do we speak?

    • To communicate. From the year 1975 the method is communicative, it was peculiar because it didn't teach grammar at all, it was based in 3 levels:

    • Function of a language: tell directions, ask for permission, etc.

    • Things that we stated: (ex: my father is at home)

    • Situations: the different way of speaking depends on to whom (friends dean, etc.)

    • Nowadays the book are different, the lessons are called units, the grammar in order to reinforce this language.

    • Upon Chomsky the generative grammar is that there are exist one type of sentences (kernel sentences) and from those structures many others are developed and in this case are called non-kernel sentences.

    • Teachers don't use so much this generative grammar because Chomsky said that was for a mother tongue. Examples of generative grammar: relative sentences, passive, direct and indirect speech, put into interrogative, negative, question tags, answering question, etc.

    • Every person who teaches to another one is an educator; he is a teacher of English, Latin,..

    • Photocopy 1:

    • Supply learner's need in relation to grammar and the situation.

    • Textbook: they are a nightmare both for the students and teachers. If the teachers have not had a previous experience of some years they don't know which book to use. Partly, the teacher should be adapted to the students. But how can he be adapted to the students if he doesn't know the students? Another point is that a great amount of the book is longer and deeper than the needs of the students. The book are not prepared for the needs of the learners, some of them contain information that doesn't correspond to the age of the learners.

    • Habits and attitudes respecting the people around or the people from others countries. This is the main point of the experts.

    • Learner center teaching: 3rd paragraph. He is the center of the class.

    • Teachers should have knowledge about pedagogic. Don't further if we think that the teacher has not assimilated the matter. Positive aspects: repetition and tone.

    • External motivation/ internal motivation. You are forced to learn, something, even if you like it or not. Mimicry and memorisation (min-men); The movement of the hands and the gestures is very important to communicate. It's very important also imitate; if children can imitate gestures then can also imitate sounds. They use the same gestures both blind children and non-blind children. The movement and the voice are related. Independently the language you talk, we used the equal movements. The gestures are not culture convictions.

  • CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS.

    • We compare grammar between Spanish & English.

    • Plurals (to add an -s)

    • Similarities

    • Conjunctions in the same way

    • Differences: Conditionals.

    • Either equal.

    What you can find in textbooks?

    By linguistics point of view between English and Spanish:

    • Slightly different.

    • Linguistics is divided in 3 big branches: phonetics, grammatical, lexical.

    • Pragmatics: is the use of the language according to phonological, grammatical and lexical

    • Etymology: is induded in morphology and phonetics and lexicology.

    • What are linguistics components in relation to textbooks?

    • The important fact is if the textbooks have been written for Spaniard or not. The textbooks written for everyone who wants to learn English without any cultural boundary doesn't have the same point of view as the one written for Spaniard.

    • Why those books written for Spaniard are different from the others?

    • Because the translation may be induced and the textbooks are strictly written for an empty mind. The textbooks written for Spaniard are based in translation and comparison in the most different tips grammatical between English and Spanish.

    • The ones written for everyone use the English from the English.

  • TEACHER TRAINING. The preparation of a teacher.

    • We are a trainee.

    • When you have the degree in philology, you'll have theoretical and practical language, teacher training.

    • Practical linguistics can cope with methodology, translation, teaching, etc.

    • Applied linguistics is composed in three brunches: 1-teaching; 2-translation; 3-interpretation. Teachertraining is not only how well you speak and read the language but also what you know about education, instruction.

    • There is always a relation between teaching and education. What short of learners have we got?

    • The great division founded on age: children, teenagers, and adults. If you are going to teach children, you'll find some difficulties because you are prepared mainly for teenagers and adults.

    • Motivated

    • Division founded on motivation

    • Unmotivated

    • Photocopy:

    • Nos interesa como se enfoca la enseñanza-Learner´s center education: enseñanza centrada en el alumno.

    • Teacher´s center education: enseñanza centrada en el profesor.

    • Motivos que hacen que el alumnado adulto se matricule en una academia de idiomas:

    • Motivos de trabajo: puede ser por motivación exógena que viene de fuera, o por motivación endógena que viene por ti mismo

    • Muchos alumnos van a la EOI porque quieren la titulación y formarse. Están motivados exógenamente porque saben que pueden encontrar un mejor trabajo; y la vez endógena porque les gusta el idioma.

    • Todo lo que sobrepase los 12-15 alumnos por clase es mala cantidad.

    • Tiene que existir una interacción entre el alumno y el profesor, ya que el profesor juega un papel desmotivante o motivante. La figura del profesor es primordial a la hora de la motivación del alumno.

    • Classroom observation: ver la reacción del alumnado.

    • Observation research: el profesor busca métodos diferentes de observación. El profesor es clave principal de la calidad educativa

    • ¿En que estamentos podemos enseñar? Primaria

    • División por edad Secundaria.

    Adultos.

    • Si se utilizan diferentes métodos de enseñanza entre el profesor, tutor y el particular puede haber grandes problemas de entendimiento.

    • Los padres de los niños de primaria son los que apuntan a los hijos a clases particulares, bien porque van mal o porque tienen aptitudes: innate capacity, upon Chomsky.

    • Teacher training: un profesor tiene que saber dominar el lenguaje tanto en el aspecto practico como en el teórico. La mayoría de los profesores nativos dominan la lengua pero desconocen las estructuras de esta, con lo cual no produce buenos resultados, aunque pueden ser muy útiles en practicas de conversación. Un buen profesor a parte de dominar la lengua tiene que estar motivado, conocer y estar al tanto de la cultura del país y de toda la actualidad.

    • Work of investigation

    • Stern's: model for 2nd language teaching.

    • Linguistics related to methodology Yorio´s: classification of variables.

    • Krashen´s: input hypothesis.

    • Try to find one books, read it and make a summary of any of the three. With the summary prepare a paper.

    • 1.- Propose one book:

    • The teacher must be a master of the language both theoretical and practise, if the teacher isn't a master is the same that a native teacher who talks the language but has no methodology at all and doesn't know the grammar, etc. If he isn't a master people would wonder why that person is a teacher of a foreign language.

    • 2. -Summary focusing in the ideas mentioned: General or global motivation.

    • He must be motivated, the motivations sometimes are the aims through which he has become a teacher. If you are forced by the circumstances to teach and you are not motivated you cannot be a good teacher.

    • If a person finishes his studies but he thinks he is not well prepared for teaching in the public school by a promotion examination (oposiciones) he tends to teach English in private schools, as a particular teacher because he is not afraid of children but he's afraid of teenager and adults.

    • Another point to be motivated is the salary, private schools don't make fix contracts, so you are contrated in September and in June you have no work. Next September you are less motivated and your classes are worse. You think of prepare promotion examinations: you pass the exam but you have not a place

    • Your attitude towards teaching change.

    • Another point for changing your attitude: when you start teaching in private education your behaviour isn't expected on this school, you might asked to do things that you don't like. (Ex: exams every fortnight, to prepare and to correct them is part of your own time, not teaching time at school. In public school this don't happen.

    • You work harder in private education, if you are or not well paid it depends of the school.

    • The tittle of the university is no useful if you don't pass the exams of the private schools.

    • 3. -Optional paper: Aptitudes of the teacher:

    • Good ear: talent that you can or cannot have. Natural

    • Good pronunciation: which you can obtain. Learn.

    • You like teaching: you enjoy teaching. You have to like teaching in order to become in a good teacher, because students notice it and the attitude in class in class is different.

    • Photocopy:

    • Teacher training centres: there are two kinds in CCAA Madrid ESP (centros de profesorado): mainly related to primary education: mainly promote activities, design materials of classes to practical language. They are good teachers but not good at pronunciation, etc. So receive classes to be well prepared in the language and their classes on methodology.

    • The 2nd group of centres is: British or American Association: British Council, American House, CDL: (Colegio de Licenciados). The common point of these is that they assume that you are good form is the Faculties and you only need to improve and reinforce classes of methodology. These are very expensive and only teachers which good salaries can participate.

    • CAP: a course which you can do when you finish your studies, 1st license, 2nd you cannot access to teach if you don't pass the exam.

    • Photocopy:

    • A bad relationship with the students is bad for their motivation they can get against the language.

  • APPROACHES TO TELF.

    • The beginning of learning a 2nd language was oral, with communication. (Time passed). Later monks taught Latin and Greek: “lingua franca” because everybody could express in these two languages. The monks instructed certain people who became teaches of same languages. From middle ages to the XX century, in the ´30-´40, these languages who had learn linguistics from the monks thought whom was possible to instruct people better, with more possibilities and they divided two different things: 2 theories different:

    • 1. - Since child learns too small I have to teach our students in the same way: Krashen´s hypothesis. This idea is called “Krashen´s input hypothesis”, because input is introduce something in some order place: if babies listen and talk, we must use the same way with adults.

    • 2. - Behaviourism: and says: everything that the human being learns is by habit, is based on three steps: Stimulus, Respond (poner en practica lo que se ha dicho) and Reinforcement.

    • Summary: learning is based on habits.

    • Both theories have consequences. Even now our textbooks are based on both methods.

    • 1957: Chomsky published his book “Syntactic Structures” which for us has an important point of view:

    • Language is not learnt by habits, is something INNATE and everybody born with this capacity

    • Destruye a las dos vías anteriores porque niega que el aprendizaje de la lengua depende de cuanto le hables al niño por hábitos, porque es algo que se aprende de forma congénita.

    • INNATE: innate, inborn in natural capacity.

    • These two ways:

    • 2 approaches

    • 2 methods in order to learn a 2nd language or a foreign language

    • 2 positions

    • The difference between a foreign and 2nd language:

    • Foreign: the language you learn apart of your mother tongue. Work on it. In a foreign language you learn and work but not as deep as a second language.

    • 2nd:something you acquire little by little in a very deep context since you're a child. You acquire it unconsciously as your mother tongue. If you master the language and are very fluent, this is a second language too.

    • Chomsky created a Mentalistic method of transformational grammar.

  • THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE.

    • The direct method: Natural method

    • Languages must be learning orally.

    • No written language must be used in the class.

    • No translation and no grammar at all.

    • 1970's something very important happens:

    • Different groups of people proclaimed their worries because any method was good for people learning a foreign language, all the method failed. So Wilkins said that it was because of the grammar forms. They decided to create a different method to learn: the function of the language.

    • The group leaded by Wilkins said that the failure was in the grammar, so they proposed: “the functions of the language”. The designed a method: The Communicative Approach, and it's based on: functions, notions and situations.

    • The functions of the language:

    • Thanking: thanks, thank you, thank you so much, thanks indeed, etc.

    • To present oneself: I am, my name is, this is, etc.

    • Denying no, nothing at all, etc.

    • Asking for permission: can you tell me... may you... etc.

    • Giving orders: imperatives: do, make, go, etc.

    • Wilkins said that functions, notions and situations together people could learn a language.

    • Notions: are the ideas, topics, about which we speak: the weather, faculty, etc.

    • Situations: Conversations on the classroom, restaurant, supermarket, etc.

    • In this way Wilkins and his team prepared a long list of functions, notions and situations.

    • This is a fallacy, this is not considered possible:

    • There are thousand and thousand of notions, situations and functions.

    • The communicative method was successful at first because it opposed the rest of the methods, but this method is not the panacea.

    • Grammar.

    • From 75's until now there are two methods

    • Communicative approach.

    • These two methods must be learning in so in between: nearly all methods are a combination of all them.

    • Linguists, methodologists, designers, and teachers: the way a book is created chronological.

  • LEARNER'S NEEDS

    • How many groups of students can you find in relation to English language learning?

    • Secondary schools: Adults. Why they learn it?

    • Works motives.

    • Obligation to find a good or better job.

    • Travelling

    • ESP: English for Specific Purposes

  • LEARNER'S TYPOLOGY IN SPAIN IN THE 90'S.

    • Secondary school

    • Adults: van a la universidad porque tienen conocimiento. Los adultos también van después porque han estado trabajando.

    • Are the students of secondary school equal? They are different:

    • Motivation: sometimes it changes from positive to negative or from negative to positive. It depends on the teachers: if he's good they can change his motivation and encourage themselves. The method (textbooks) must be appropriated too. (Secondary students). If this failed the students are unmotivated.

    • Motivation in adults: The same clauses than in the secondary students can be applied. But the figure of aptitudes is stronger and it's an important rule to teach English, the reason: they had realised that they are not good at languages learning. So they came to the classroom with the clear idea that they're not good at English. Secondary students don't realise that they are good or bad at languages.

    • Inversion courses (Adults): are designed for adults, who have no time during the week, They go to classes on Saturday mornings. This is very typical in 90's. They have a lot of hours with small pauses. (This is only for adults). Textbooks are specials, are different, they are very carefully chosen for these classes. There are a variety of methods, so the beings are better disposed.

    • Wall Street Institute: near to behaviourism method: repetition.

    • It's very successful because you can go wherever you like; it's organised as an enterprise.

  • TEACHER'S TYPOLOGY IN SPAIN IN THE 90'S.

    • Teachers of English: 5 different kinds of teachers of English:

    • Kindergarten.

    • Primary school.

    • Secondary school.

    • University.

    • Institutes of languages.

    • In the secondary education teachers prepare mainly for grammar.

    • The teacher of private lessons (grammar, exercises).

    • The teachers who is requested to teach how to speak.

    • He has not linguistic problems.

    • Native teachers High % don't know his grammar.

    • High % is not entitled.

    • Teachers who have their post officially in institutes for: promotional examinations (oposiciones). They, mostly, are not motivated any longer.

    • University teachers: they are supposed to have a deep knowledge.

    • Teacher - centred instruction: profesores que teóricamente basan su enseñanza en la gramática.

    • Learner - centred instruction: método donde el alumno es el punto central, es lo mas importante.

  • PREPARATION OF A CLASS.

    • The most important fact in class is to have the class prepared.

    • Why is so important the preparation of a class?

    • You might forget something that you want to say it.

    • Organisation: form and context.

    • Plan the time.

    • In the presentation you can prepare an item, in the practice you can practice with different exercises.

    • Activities where the learner is going to be fluent.

    • The class is divided in didactic moments:

    • The warm up: (calentamiento antes de la presentación, puede ser un breve comentario sobre el tiempo, etc.)

    Grammatical methods: teacher gives the rules and

    examples, or voiceovers

    • Presentation Behaviourist methods: teacher gives a new structure

    • asking for repetition.

    Communicative approach: participation of the students

    with examples given.

    • Practise or exploitation.

    • Production: the learner doesn't make any mistake. Activity where the learner is going to be fluent.

    • Typical exercises: drills, grammatical exercises, questions and answers (both orally and written).

    • Level: yes or no.

    • There are several kinds of questions Answer but repeating

    • the question.

    • Alternative question: do

    you prefer Coffee or

    tea?

    • Question with Wh:

    • In production: is when the pupil feels fluent in writing or speaking. Is an active part.

    • Spring board: last part of the class, in order to catch the motivation of the children for the next class.

  • LANGUAGE THROUGH CULTURE AND CULTURE THROUGH LANGUAGE.

    • Everything, which turns new in the textbook, is different from Spain. For instance: the timetable, meals, education, main holidays, etc.

    • Is very important to teach to the pupil the correct pronunciation of a new word.

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