Lengua inglesa

Trucos. Conectores. Ejemplos. Frases # Vocabulary. Reported speech. Spelling. Questions

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  • Idioma: inglés
  • País: España España
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MAKING YOUR WRITING INTERESTING.

1.- INTRODUCTIONS.

In stories, a good introduction will set the scene, use interesting vocabulary and introduce the people in the story. Above all, it will make the reader want to continue reading.

2.- VOCABULARY.

To keep the interesting of your reader, it is important to use a good range of vocabulary. For example, don't always use words like NICE and GOOD. Think of more interesting adjectives and adverbs, e. g. DELICIOUS, MARVELLOUSLY, etc. that describe exactly what you mean.

3.- VARIED SENTENCES.

Try to write longer sentense. Join the parts of the sentences with linking expressions, e.g. because, so, although, etc.

4.- REPORTED SPEECH.

You can include the words of other people in your writing. This adds interest and variety. When you do this, you are using REPORTED SPEECH, e.g. The policeman said that they needed to get the man to hospital.

(Note: In Indirect speech there are various changes of verb forms, pronouns, etc)

He said: “I want to arrange …” ! (Reported Speech) “He said that he wanted…”

Un paso atras en el tiempo.

PLANING YOUR WRITING.

1.- BRAINSTORM.

One of the biggest problems when writing is having enough ideas. Brainstorming means writing down as many ideas, words or phrases connected with a task or topic as you can think of. (You don't have to write complete sentences when you do this).

2.- SELECT AND PRIORITISE.

Choose the best ideas and tick them. Remember that in an exam you will only be able to write a certain number of words.

3.- WRITE A PLAN.

Plan how many paragraphs you will have and the main subject of each of your paragraphs. Organise your ideas into separate paragraphs. This will help you to write a good letter, story, etc. and avoid having to make lots of changes.

WORDS THAT YOU SHOULD AVOID IN YOUR COMPOSITION

(& SOME SYNONYMS)

TO BE (as lexical vb.)

TO SAY: to utter (= decir; to utter something), speak, report, explain, describe, define, inform, agree, …

To give your personal opinion: to remark, to stand out, to junpoint, mention.

IMPORTANT

Positive Meaning ! Significant, serious, remarkable, outstanding, main, basic,

fundamental.

Negative Meaning ! Unimportant, minor, insignificant, trivial, trifling.

GOOD

General Morally Behaviour

pleasant innocent well-behaved

decent pure obedient

favourable noble reliable

lovely moral (digno de confianza)

fine

splendid

superd

magnificent

brilliant

perfect

BAD

General Morally Behaviour

unpleasant wicked /Id/ (malvado) badly-behaved

unsatisfactory evil naughty

horrible guiltly mischivious

nasty disobedient

dreadful

appalling

awful

terrible

ghastly (que asusta)

frightful (que asusta)

foul

vile

** Terrific: false french significa estupendo/a, fantastico/a, todo lo contrario.

“Conectores”

To express a personal opinion.

First of all, I don't agree with your opinion

In my opinion, in my view

Personally

As for as I am concerned…

From my point of view…

To begin with, I'd say…

Firstly …

Secondary…

To express a different opinion.

On the one hand…

On the other hand…

However, never the less ! Contrasta una idea

Anyway, anyhow ! de cualquier manera

In spite of ! a pesar de… (delante de nombre o gerundio)

Despite + Noun ! A pesar de (solo nombre)

Although...

Reason, result, purpouse (causa).

That's way ! es por lo que

Therefor,... ! por lo tanto

as a result of ...

consequently

As ! as it was raining, I didn't go out.

So ! asi pues

Whereas ! mientras que. ! I like reading whereas he likes listening to music.

So … that ! It was so beautiful that… (adj.)

Such a … that ! It was a such a beautiful view that … (nominal group)

To add information.

And

Also

Not only … but also ! Not only are you fanny but also you are pretty.

As if, as though ! The house looked as if nobody lived there (apreciacion

personal).

You look as if you had seen a ghost (imposible, apreciacion).

It smell as though someone has been smoking here

(deduccion, posible)

Apart from … ! A parte de esto

in addition, besides ! Ademas

furthermore

for example

in the same way ! de igual modo

SPELLING.

1.- adding syllables.

a.- doubling the final consonant.

We often double the final consonant in one-syllable words if they end in a vowel

followed by a consonant, e.g.: big _ bigger, stop _ stopping, plan _ planned.

b.- words ending in -e, -ee and -ie.

We usually drop the final -e in words when an ending with a vowel (e.g. -ing, -ous, etc.) is added, e.g.: make _ making, love _ loving.

The final -e is not dropped from words ending in -ee, e.g.: see _ seeing,

agree _ agreement. We change -ie to -y before I, e.g.: try _ trying.

2.- plurals

We often make the plural of nouns by adding -s, e.g.: cat _ cats.

However, we add -es after words which end in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch and -x, e.g.:

bus _ busses, match _ matches

Here are some irregular plurals:

A child ! children A knife ! Knives

A tooth ! teeth A mouse ! mice

A woman ! women A baby ! babies

A person ! people A sheep ! sheep

3.- spelling and pronunciation.

a.- homophones.

These are words which are pronounced the same but spelled differently.

MAIL ! MALE /mel/ BREAK ! BRAKE /brek/

Correo Macho/masculino Romper Freno

POUR ! POOR /pu/ CEREAL ! SERIAL /si:rl/

Verter Pobre Cereal Serie/ telenovela

derramar un liquido

HEEL ! HEAL /hi:l/ PEACE ! PIECE /pi:s/

Tacon Curar Paz Pedazo/Trozo

TOE ! TOW /ta/ MINOR ! MINER /man/

Dedos Remolque, remolcar Menor Minero

de los pies arrastrar (vb. reg.)

STATIONARY ! STATIONERY /ste"nr/

Estacionario “Material Escolar”

b.- silent letters.

Here are some common words where the letters in brackets are not pronounced:

Choc(o)late, bus(i)ness, diff(e)rent, rest(au)rant, ev(e)ning, comf(o)rtable, int(e)resting, veg(e)table, secret(a)ry, temp(e)rature, cu(p)board, I(s)land, (p)sychology, We(d)nesday, (k)nife, forei(g)n, san(d)wich

LIE ! Tumbarse

LAY LYING

LAIN

LAY LAID LAID ! Poner, colocar. Poner la mesa.

LIE LIED LIED ! Mentir (vb. regular)

PRESENT SIMPLE

A.- Form.

  • Positive Statements ! I/you/we/they live in New York.

  • Negative Statements ! I/you/we/they don't live in New York.

He/she/it doesn't live in New Yor.

  • Questions ! Do I/you/we/they live in New York?

Does He/she/it live in New York?

  • Short answer ! Yes, I/you/we/they do. No, I/you/we/they don't.

Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it doesn't.

B.- Use.

We use the present simple:

1.- With routine or regular repeated actions (often with adverbs of frequency, e.g. Always, Sometimes- see 2.3.) “He doesn't eat meat”.

2.- When we are talking about permanent situations. “Do you come Brazil?”

3.- With state verbs which are not normally used in continuous forms:

be, have, depend, know, think, understand, disagree, like, want, hear, love, see, smell, taste. “I don't understand.”

4.- In spoken instructions, systems and processes.

“First, you turn it on, then put the disk in.”

PRESENT SIMPLE

USE:

! Facts that we always true (scientific facts)

“The light from the sun takes 8 min. 20 seconds to reach the Earth.”

! Habitual actions

“I usually take the bus to work”

FRECUENCY ADVERBS before vbs. and after vb. TO BE:

ALWAYS ALMOST ALWAYS

USUALLY SOMETIMES

RARELY HARDLY EVER

NEVER

! Plot summaries, historical facts.

“George Washington becomes the 1st President of USA”

“I'm wearing a blue T-shirt” (en ingles es diferente al castellano)

WATCH OUT! State verbs.

Which of these sentense is not correct?Why?

1. a) I don't understand what you mean.

b) I'm not understanding what you mean.

2. a) She loves her new computer.

b)She's loving her new computer.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS. ( -ING )

! Actions in progress or development.

“His hair is getting grey.”

! To talk about actions that are happening at the moment or “around” the

moment.

“I'm playing tennis now.”

! Habits over a period of time.

“At the moment we are sending all the parcels.”

“I'm someking a lot these days.”

! A repeated temporary event.

“Whenever I see Tom, he's smoking.”

! An annoying habit.

“You're always interrupting me.”

! Future arrangaments.

“The plane is leaving at 5.”

! VERBS not usually in present continuous:

BE DEPEND KNOW SUPPOSE UNDERSTAND

BELIEVE HAVE MATTER TASTE

COST HEAR SMELL THINK

EXAMPLE:

Tim is being rather difficult at the moment. (be have)

I'm having breakfast. (eat)

I'm thinking of buying a new car. (consider)

What is Paula tonight? She's doing her homework.

ANNOYING ! Molesto

Present perfect simple (for unfinished past)

  • We use the present perfect simple to describe situations that have continued from some time in the past until now. We use FOR when we are talking about how long something has lasted. We use SINCE when we are talking about when something started.

My cousins have lived on a boat for fifteen years.

I haven't seen Carlos since April.

How long have you known Bea?

TYPICAL MISTAKES!!!!

We live in Rome since 1987.

HAVE LIVED

I am knowing Carlos for ten years.

HAVE KNOWN

PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST (I HAVE DONE AND I DID)

  • Present perfect: Noticias, cosas que han ocurrido.

  • Just (siempre) Have + Just + Pr. Perfect.

The present perfect is a present tense. It always tells us something about now. `Tom has lost his key' = he doesn't have his key now.

The past simple tells us only about the past. If somebody says `Tom lost his key', we don't know whether he has it now or not. We only know that he lost it at some time in the past.

Two more examples:

  • Jack grew a beard but now he has shaved it off. (so he doesn't have a beard now).

  • They went out after lunch and they've just come back. (so they are back now).

Do not use the present perfect if there is no connection with the present (for example, things that happened a long time ago):

  • The Chinese invented printing. (not `have invented').

  • How many plays did Shakespeare write? (not `has Sakespeare written').

  • Beethoven was a great composer. (not `has been').

Compare:

  • Shakespeare wrote many plays.

  • My sister is a writer. She has written many books. (she still writes books)

We use the present perfect to give new information. But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple:

  • A: Ow! I've burnt myself (Me he quemado)

B: How did you do that? (not `have you done')

A: I picked up a hot dish. (not `have picked') (Cogi un plato caliente)

  • A: Look! Somebody has spilt milk on the carpet.

B: Well, it wasn't me. I didn't do it. (not `hasn't been … haven't done')

A: I wonder who it was then. (not `who it has been')

(Me pregunto quien sera entonces).

WILL AND GOING TO.

%We use will + infinitive to talk about decisions made at the moment of speaking (sudden decisions). We cannot use going to + infinitive in this case.

I think I'll have an apple. I'm really hungry.

%We use going to + infinitive to talk about decisions made before the moment of speaking (plans and intentions). We cannot use will + inifinitive in this case.

A: Are you going to visit your friends in France again this

summer?

B: No, I'm going to do a computer course. I've already paid for it.

%We use will + infinitive for predicting something that we know or believe something about.

I think Valencia will beat Real Madrid. They're a much better team.

%We use going to + infinitive for predicting something that we can see, feel or hear some evidence about now. We cannot use present continuous in this case.

Look at those clouds. It's going to rain.

TYPICAL MISTAKES.

We're going to meet you outside the cinema at 6.15. OK?

will meet

She will study architecture at university next year.

is going to study

Give me a tissue. I will sneeze.

am going to sneeze

MUST AND HAVE TO.

We use must and have to to say that it is necessary to do something. Sometimes it doesn't matter which you use:

Oh, it's later than I thought. I must go, or I have to go.

But there is a difference between must and have to and sometimes this is important:

Must is personal. We use must when we give our personal feelings (DEBER).

“You must do something = I (the speaker) say it is necessary”:

  • She's really nice person. You must meet her. (= I say this is necessary).

  • I haven't phoned ANN for ages. I must phone her tonight.

(No puede llevar ningun auxiliar)

Compare: (lo decides tu)

  • I must get up early tomorrow. There are a lot of things I want to do.

Have to is impersonal. We use have to for facts, not for our personal feelings. (TENER QUE)

“You have to do something” because of a rule or the situation:

  • You can't turn right here. You have to turn left. (because of the traffic system)

  • My eyesight isn't very good. I have to wear glasses for reading.

  • George can't come out with us this evening. He has to work. (decidido por alguien)

  • I have to get up early tomorrow. I'm going away and my train leaves at 7.30.

If you are not sure which to use, it is usually safer to use have to.

You can use must to talk about the present or future, but not the past (didn't have to):

  • We must go now.

  • We must go tomorrow. (but not `We must go yesterday').

You can use have to in all forms. For example:

  • I had to go to hospital. (past)

  • Have you ever had to go to hospital? (present perfect)

  • I might have to go to hospital. (infinitive after might)

In questions and negative sentences with have to, we normally use do/does/did:

  • What do I have to do to get a driving licence? (not `What have I to do?')

  • Why did you have to go to hospital?

  • Karen doesn't have to work on Saturdays.

Mustn't and don't have to are completely different:

You mustn't do something = it is necessary that you do not do it (so, don't do it) (PROHIBICION):

  • You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anyone. (= don't tell anyone).

  • I promised I would be on time. I mustn't be late (= I must be on time).

You don't have to do something = you don't need to do it (buy you can if you want) (NO ES OBLIGATORIO):

  • You can tell me if you want but you don't have to tell me. (= you don't need to tell me).

  • I'm not working tomorrow, so I didn't have to get up early.

IF I KNEW ... I WISH I KNEW …

(Ojala supiera…)

When you imagine a situation like this, you use if + past (if I kewn/if you were/if we didn't etc.). But the meaning is present, not past:

  • Tom would read more if he had more time. (but he doesn't have much time).

  • If I didn't want to go to the party, I wouldn't go (but I want to go).

  • We wouldn't have any money if we didn't work (but we work)

  • If you were in my position, what would you do?

  • It's a pity you can't drive. It would be useful if you could.

We use the past in the same way after wish (I wish I knew/ I wish you were, etc). We use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it to be:

  • I wish I knew Paul's phone number. (= I don't know it and I regret this)

  • Do you ever wish you could fly? (you can't fly)

  • It rains a lot here. I wish it didn't rain so often.

  • It's very crowded here. I wish there weren't so many people (but there are a lot of people)

  • I wish I didn't have to work (but I have to work).

After if and wish, you can use were instead of was (if I were/ I wish it were etc.). So you can say:

  • If I were you, I wouldn't buy that coat. Or If I was you….

  • I'd go out if it weren't raining. Or … if it wasn't raining

  • I wish it were possible. Or I wish it was possible.

We do not normally use would in the if - part of the sentence or after wish:

  • If I were rich, I would have a yacht (not `if I would be rich').

  • I wish I had something to read. (not `I wish I would have')

Sometimes wish … would is possible (`I wish you would listen').

Note that could sometimes means `would be able to' and sometimes `was/were able to':

  • You could get a job more easily (you could get = you would be able to get)

If you could speak a foreign language. (you could speak= you were able to

speak).

INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM.

To Decide

Future! Vb. + To Persuade + To + Inf.

To Promise

Pasado ! NO

Verbos que se refieren al:

! Futuro o indican finalidad:

Inf. + To + -Ing

Vb. + Gerund (-Ing)

! Pasado:

Ashamed Of + Gerund ! Pasado

Ashamed To + Infinitive ! Futuro

Remember / Forget

! Recuerdo / Pasado / Antes: Gerundio (-Ing)

! Futuro / Despues: Infinitivo

! Remember To + Inf.: Avisos

! Remember + -Ing: Recuerdos (del pasado)

Like Like

Love Would + To + Inf.

+ -Ing Love

Hate

Need

Infinitivo que hace de objeto sin “To”.

Would Better + Inf. (sin To) ! Mas vale que …

Would Rather + Inf. (sin To) + Something + That ! Preferiria …

To be about ! Estar a punto de …

Afraid To ! Tener miedo de hacer algo

Afraid Of ! Me temo que …

Sorry + To +Inf. ! De algo que pasara

Sorry about + -Ing Form ! De algo que ya has hecho.

MAKE, LET, HELP, seguidos de infinitivo sin “TO” :

MAKE/LET/HELP + objeto + verbo en infinitivo sin “TO”

Object + To + Gerund (doing) + Something ! Negarse a hacer algo

Object + To Waiting/Standing + To + Gerund (-Ing)


Look Forward + TO + Gerund (-Ing)

Admit + To+ Gerund (-Ing)

Expected + To + Inf.

Offered + To + Inf.

Refused + To + Inf.

Managed + To + Inf.

Decided + To + Inf.

Come + To + Inf.

Hope + To + Inf.


GERUNDS

GERUNDS AFTER PREPOSITIONS

! Verb immediately after a preposition.

I'm looking forward to hearing from you.

She's afraid of speaking in public.

I'm looking forward to going to the party.

He's using it for keeping old newspaper in.

GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS

! An action or activity in gerund way.

Using a computer a lot is bad for your eyes.

Lying on the beach is really relaxing.

Being afraid of flying means…

Living with other people is often quite difficult.

VERBS FOLLOWED BY A GERUND


Avoid

Can't stand

Consider

Dislike

Enjoy

Finish

Give up

Imagine

Involve

Mind

Practise

Suggest

Understand



VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE


Afford

Agree

Appear

Arrange

Ask

Choose

Decide

Expect

Hesitase

Hope

Learn

Manage

Offer

Plan

Promise

Refuse

Want


GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES.

A.- The verbs enjoy and imagine are always followed by the GERUND.

Other verbs that follow this rule are: avoid; consider; finish; involve; suggest.

B.- The verbs decide and plan are always followed by the INFINITIVE.

Other verbs that follow this rule are: agree; arrange; hope; manage; offer.

Ella estaba esperando a que él la llamará.

him to phone her.”

“She was waiting for his calling telephone calling.”

I want you to go ! Quiero que te vayas.

! Los subjuntivos en ingles se solucionan con un objeto o pronombre mas un verbo en infinitivo.

To realize ! Darse cuenta Touch ! Tocar; contacto

To look at oneself in a mirror ! Mirarse en el espejo.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

A.- USE.

Adverbs of frequency say how often something happens. We can use one word or a phrase. Examples:

Always , Usually, Often, Sometimes, Occasionally, Never, Every, Sunday, Once a week, Every Morning.

B.- form.

1.- Generally, adverbs of frequency come:

! After auxiliary verbs: I don't usually have breakfast.

! After the verb to be: He is always so kind.

! Before other verbs: She sometimes arrives late.

2.- Other positions of adverbs of frequency in a sentence:

! Usually, often, sometimes and occasionally can come at the beginning or at the end of a clause: I walk to school sometimes.

! Always and Never don't come at the beginning or at the end of a clause:

Always I play football on Sunday. He phones me never.

! Longer phrases must come at the beginning or at the end of a clause.

I visit my grandmother once a week.

On Sunday Morning I get up really late.

ADVERBS OF MANNER, MEANS & INSTRUMENT.

  • POSITION: Usually at the end.

  • FORM: Adj. + ly

nervous-ly

beautigul-ly

end -i +ly

  • Irregular

Adj. Adv.

Hard Hard

Good Well

ADJECTIVES WHICH DESCRIBE PERSONALITY


Reserved

Confident

Efficient

Hard-working

Strong

Assertive

Aggressive

Successful

Energetic

Cheerful

Mean

Brave

Though

Stubborn

Tough

Greedy

Big-headed

Sympathetic

Clumsy

Grateful

Moody

Bad-tempered

Selfish

Witty

Absent-minded

Crafty

Dul



WORD INFORMATION.


VERB NOUN

! improve improvement

! excite excitement

! enjoy enjoyment

ADJECTIVE NOUN

! weak weakness

! lazy laziness

! secure security


  • QUESTION WORDS AND DIRECT QUESTIONS.

  • There are three main types of questions:

    1.- YES/NO Questions “Are you Spanish? Yes, I'm.”

    2.- Wh- Questions (Who?Whose?Where?Why?What?Which?When?How?)

    “What did you say?/Whose bag is that?/When does the film start?”

    3.- Alternative Questions (the expected answer is one of two options)

    “Do you want to phone him now or later?”

    “Which do you prefer, the theatre or the cinema?”

    1.1.A. YES/NO QUESTIONS.

    FORM. With he, have (got) and modal verbs like may, can, could, would and

    should, we form the question by changing the order of the subject

    and the verb.

    “Has he got a new computer?/ Are you going out now?/

    Should I go to the dentist?/ Did he see you?”

    With other verbs we use DO/DOES/DID + SUBJECT +INFINITIVE

    “Do you like coffee?/ Does he live in Greece?/ Did they go to pub?”

    1.1.B. WH- QUESTIONS.

    A.- FORM.

    Wh- question word + auxiliary + subject + main verb

    “Where are they going?/What did you do?/Why was she here?”

    B.- QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SUBJECT.

    We don't use the auxiliary and we don't change the order of the subject

    and verb. The word order is the same as it is for statements.

    CONTRAST:

    “Who saw that film last night?” (Question about the subject)

    “What makes you frightened?” (Question about the subject)

    WITH:

    “Who did he go to the party with?” (Question about the object)

    “What do you have for breakfast?” (Question about the object)

    1.1.C. Alternative Questions.

    There are two types of alternative questions. In one type the word order is like a Yes/No question and in the other the word order is like a Wh- question.

    “Would you like pasta or pizza?”

    “Where shall we go on holiday, to Spain or Greece?”

    INDIRECT QUESTIONS.

    A.- USE.

    Indirect questions are more polite than direct questions.

    DIRECT: How old are you? (neutral)

    INDIRECT: Could you tell me how old you are? (more polite)

    b.- form.

    ! For all indirect questions, we don't use the auxiliary and we don't change the order of the subject and verb. The word order is the same as it is for statements.

    ! For indirect Yes/No questions, we use IF or WHETHER.

    ! Two common ways of starting indirect questions are:

    Could you tell me (if/whether) …

    I'd like to know (if/whether) …

    Could you tell me how old are you? (How old are you?)

    I'd like to know where you are from. (Where are you from?)

    Could you tell me if/whether you like swimming? (Do you like swimming?)

    IF: Conditional; WHETHER: 2 options Yes/No (Answer)

    I'd like to know if/whether you arrived on time this morning.

    (Did you arrive on time this morning?)

    RELATIVE CLAUSES

    Defining Relative Clauses.

    He was whistling to a man who was going to de market.

    Subj.

    Did you get the message (which) I sent you yesterday.

    Obj. se puede omitir

    RELATIVE PRONOMS.

    Who ! People

    That ! People & Things

    Which ! Things

    Where ! Place

    Reported Speech

    DIRECT SPEECH. INDIRECT SPEECH

    He said: ”I want some water, please” ! He said that he wanted some water.

    Always in past cambio hacia atras en el tiempo

    (backshift in the tenses)

    Without tense changes

    ! Statement are often repeated immediately, and the

    reporting verb is in a present tense. In this case, there are no tense

    changes.

    Tenses changes after a past tense reporting verb.

    ! Reported with a past tense verb and an optinal that.

    Present simple to past simple

    I need some help. She said (that) she needed some help.

    Present continuous to past continuous

    We are having our lunch. She said that they were having their lunch.

    Present perfect to past perfect

    I have lost my keys. He said (that) he had lost his keys.

    Will to would

    I will be home at 6.00. She said that she would be home at 6.00.

    Past simple to past perfect

    I wrote two letters to her.

    He said (that) he had written two letters to her.

    Be going to, to was/were going to

    They are going to come back.

    She said (that) they were going to come back.

    Must

    I must finish this before I go.

    He said he must finish it before he went.

    Note that must does not change.

    He said he had to finish it before he went.

    ! Note: direct speech (inverted commas), indirect or reported speech does not use.

    ! Note: past perfect in reported speech can be a report of either past simple or present perfect.

    “I've lost my keys” said Joe. Joe said he had lost his keys.

    “I lost them yesterday” he said. He said he had lost them the day before.

    No changes after a past tense reporting verb.

    ! Something is always true, it may not be necessary to backshift.

    (Si es algo que siempre es verdad se puede quedar igual)

    “I like apples more than I like oranges”.

    She said that she likes apples more than she likes oranges.

    Speakers in reported speech.

    ! Direct speech

    He/Jack said, “We're going to miss the train”

    “We're going to miss the train”, said Jack/him.

    ! Reported speech

    Jack said (that) they were going to miss the train.

    Other changes.

    “I'll see you here tomorrow”, said Sue.

    Sue said she would see me there the next day/following day.

    “I bought this book yesterday,” said Martin.

    Martin said he had bought the book the day before.

    Summarizing instead of verbatim reports.

    “Look, actually, tell him I'll give him a call next week, OK?”

    She said she'd call you next week.

    ! No se dicen exactamente todas las palabras (se hace un resumen).

    Verb easily confused: say, tell, speak.

    ! Speak, describe el hecho de hablar (Hablar).

    Simon spoke to me in the supermarket yesterday.

    ! Say, describe las palabras que se usan. El verbo va seguido opcionalmente de THAT.

    “It's warm today”, she said. She said (that) it was warm.

    ! Tell, needs an object.

    “You've won first prize,” she said.

    She told me (that) I had won first prize.

    say

    tell + object (obligatorio) + (that) __________

    She said/ she said to me… She told me that …

    Direct speech Reported Speech

    Verb tenses

    present simple past simple

    past simple past perfect

    will would

    can could

    Time phrases

    last year year before

    next month the following month

    “Told” siempre con el objeto y a quien se lo cuentas/dices; “Said” puede llevar objeto o no, pero si lo lleva se pone el “TO”.

    Tomorrow ! The following day. by eight ! sobre las ocho.

    Reporting Verbs.

    Los vbs. SAY y TELL, se pueden cambiar por los siguientes según contexto:

    ADVISE (Aconsejar) + To + inf.

    I advised Janos not to buy the car.

    AGREE (estar de acuerdo) + With

    Mike agreed with Jill.

    APOLOGIZE (Disculparse de algo) + For

    Maria apologized for being late.

    ASK (pedir) + To

    I asked Sue to help me.

    CONGRATULATE (Felicitar por algo) + On

    I congratulated Tina on passing her exam.

    DECIDE + To + inf.

    Helen decided to become a doctor.

    INVITE (Would you like…)

    “Would you like to come to the cinema on Saturday,Pam?”

    I invited Pam to the cinema on Saturday

    OFFER (Shall…) + To

    “Shall I carry your case, Dawn” said Peter

    Peter offered to carry Dawn's case.

    PROMISE (Puede tener objeto o no) + To

    Ann promised to be home by eight.

    REFUSE (Negarse a algo) + To + inf.

    Carol refused to open the door.

    REMIND (Recordar a alguien)

    I reminded Joe to send his mother a birthday. (recordar algo en el futuro)

    I remind going to the park with my father. (recordar algo en el pasado)

    ** Remind y remember, pueden ir con to + infinitivo o gerundio. Si se refieren a recordar algo en el futuro iran con TO + INF. y si recuerdan algo en el pasado iran

    seguidos de un Gerundio.

    SUGGEST (sugerir) + -ing

    Carlos suffested spending the day at the beach.

    PAST PERFECT

    Past perfect, form
    The Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past tense of the verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb.

    Subject

    had

    past participle

    We

    had

    decided...

    Affirmative

    She

    had

    given.

    Negative

     

     

    We

    hadn't

    asked.

    Interrogative

     

     

    Had

    they

    arrived?

    Interrogative negative

    Hadn't

    you

    finished?

    Example: to decide, Past perfect

    Affirmative

    Negative

    Interrogative

    I had decided

    I hadn't decided

    Had I decided?

    You had decided

    You hadn't decided

    Had you decided?

    He, she, it had decided

    He hadn't decided

    Had she decided?

    We had decided

    We hadn't decided

    Had we decided?

    You had decided

    You hadn't decided

    Had you decided?

    They had decided

    They hadn't decided

    Had they decided?

    Past perfect, function
    The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one happened first.

    In these examples, Event A is the first or earliest event, Event B is the second or latest event:

    a.

    John had gone out

    when I arrived in the office.

    Event A

    Event B

    b.

    I had saved my document

    before the computer crashed.

    Event A

    Event B

    c.

    When they arrived

    we had already started cooking

    Event B

    Event A

    d.

    He was very tired

    because he hadn't slept well.

    Event B

    Event A

    Past perfect + just
    'Just'
    is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e.g.

    a. The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
    b. She had just left the room when the police arrived.
    c. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.

    ADVERBS OF MANNER

    Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object.

    Examples:

    • He swims well, (after the main verb)

    • He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly..

    • She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively..

    • James coughed loudly to attract her attention.

    • He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)

    • He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

    BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and the object:

    • He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect]

    • He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct]

    If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can place the adverb either before the preposition or after the object.

    Example:

    • The child ran happily towards his mother.

    • The child ran towards his mother happily.

    Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to add emphasis:

    • He gently woke the sleeping woman.

    Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence to catch our attention and make us curious:

    • Slowly she picked up the knife.

    (We want to know what happened slowly, who did it slowly, why they did it slowly)

    However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbs which have no object).

    Example:

    • The town grew quickly

    • He waited patiently

    Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb:

    • well

    • badly

    • hard

    • fast

    The position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb in a sentence. If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the whole action described by the clause.

    Notice the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences:

    • She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick)

    • She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick)

    • He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet)

    • He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet)

    13

    ! inform information ! flexible flexibility

    ! impress impression

    ! reduce reduction

    ASK + somebody (objeto: pronombre/nombre propio) + TO DO (inf.)+ something

    You can use `have got to' instead of `have to'. So you can say: (Solo en presente)

    - I' ve got to work tomorrow or - I have to work tomorrow.

    - When has Ann got to go? or - When does Ann have to go?